1. THE Southern, or Slave States, believed that the election of a Republican
President would endanger states' rights and the existence of negro slavery. They had other complaints against the North, and, now that Abraham Lincoln had been elected, they resolved to secede from the Union.
2. You must remember that the South believed in the doctrine of states' rights: that is, they looked upon the Union as only a league or partnership of the states, from which any member could withdraw whenever its citizens chose to do so.
190 Eclectic Primary History.3. South Carolina was the leader in the secession movement. A convention voted in favor of secession, and the legislature, December 20, 1860, passed an ordinance declaring the Union dissolved.
4. Major Robert Anderson at that time was in command of the government troops in Charleston harbor. He had only eighty men, and was short of supplies. President
Buchanan sent a steamer to his relief in January, 1861, but she was fired upon by the South Carolina troops, and compelled to return.
5. In the month of January, Kansas was admitted into the Union, and Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana seceded. Texas followed, February I. Three days later, delegates from six of the states met in Montgomery, Alabama, and organized the " Confederate
192 Eclectic Primary History.States of America." Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was chosen President, and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-president.
6. Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated President of the United States, March 4, 1861, while one third of the country was arrayed against him. If you will look on the map, you will see how
extensive was the territory in rebellion. It numbered among its citizens some of the most skillful soldiers and statesmen of the age.
7. The Confederates in Charleston demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter, but Major Anderson refused, and fire was opened upon him. He defended the fort as long as possible, but was forced at last to surrender, April 13. The news was flashed over the country, and caused an excitement beyond description. Both the North and the South were roused to the highest point of enthusiasm.
8. Presidents Lincoln and Davis called for volunteers, and they crowded forward by thousands. Virginia, Arkansas, and North Carolina speedily joined the Confederacy, of which Richmond was then made the capital. The Southern troops hurried thither, where the Confederate Congress was called to meet in July.
Events of 1860-1861. 193
9. "On to Richmond!" was the cry raised in the North, and as fast as the soldiers could be equipped they were hurried to Washington. An army of nearly thirty thousand men, under General Irwin McDowell, marched against the Confederate general, Beauregard (bõ'ra-gard), who had about the same number of troops, at Manassas Junction.
10. This battle, known as that of Bull Run, was favorable at first to the Union forces, but the Confederates, being re-enforced, defeated the Unionists, July 21, 1861, who fled in wild disorder to the intrenchments (sic) of Washington. The Union loss was three thousand in killed and wounded, while that of the Confederates was about half as great.
11. This crushing defeat helped the North and harmed the South. It showed the Unionists the great work before them, and gave too great confidence to the Confederates.
E. P. H.--13.
194 Eclectic Primary History.Many of the latter believed the war was over, and went home.
12. General George B. McClellan drew attention by good service in western Virginia. He was made commander of the Army of the Potomac, and, when the aged General Scott retired, McClellan was placed at the head of the army of the United States.
QUESTIONS.1. What was the belief of the Southern States? What did they determine to do? --2. What else did they believe? What is meant by the doctrine of states' rights? --3. What is said of South Caroline? When did her legislature pass the ordinance of secession? -- 4. Who was in command of the government troops in Charleston harbor? What is said of him? What did President Buchanan attempt to do, and with what result? --5. What state was admitted in January, 1861? What states seceded? Under what circumstances were the "Confederate States of America" organized? Who were chosen President and Vice-president? --6. When was President Lincoln inaugurated? What part of the country was in rebellion?
7. Describe the capture of Fort Sumter. What was the effect north and south? --8. What was done by Presidents Lincoln and Davis? What other states joined the Confederacy? What city was made the capital? When were the Confederate, Congress to meet there? --9. What was the cry of the North? What of General Irwin McDowell? --10.. Give an account of the battle of Bull Run. --11. Explain how the defeat helped the North and harmed the South. --12. What of General McClellan?
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