Surface and Natural Products | Early Settlement | Events and Items|
War Record | County Organization | County Roster|
Court House and Jail | Railroads | Ferry and Transfer Companies|
Otoe County Fair Association | Otoe County Medical Society
The Old Settlers' Association | Assessments for Taxation
Nebraska City: Early Settlement | Selling Town Lots | A Judicial Joke|
An Incident of the Panic | An Era of Speculation
Nebraska City (cont.): Transportation and Telegraphs | Incorporation|
Official Roster | Criminal | Education
Nebraska City (cont.): Religion|
Nebraska City (cont.): The Press | Government Offices|
Fire Department | Fires | Societies | Wyuka Cemetery
Nebraska City (cont.): Public Buildings | Hotels | Banks|
Board of Trade | Elevators | Nebraska City Gaslight Company
9 - 14:
** Nebraska City Biographical Sketches **|
| ADLE~DILLON | DRAKE~KEES | KINNEY | KOHN~NEILSON |
| NORTHCUTT~SCHMITZ | SEYMOUR~ZIMMERS |
Syracuse: Education | Religion | Societies | Railroad Interests|
The Press | Biographical Sketches
Syracuse (cont.): Biographical Sketches (cont.)|
Palmyra: Education | Societies | Religion | Business|
Dunbar: Events and Items | Education | Religion | Societies|
Railroad Interests | Delaware Precinct (biographical sketches)
Unadilla: Religion | Societies | The Press | Events and Items|
Wyoming | Camp Creek | Other Towns|
Biographical Sketches: North Branch Precinct | Hendricks Precinct
Osage Precinct | McWilliams Precinct | Berlin Precinct | Minersville
List of Illustrations in Otoe County Chapter
J. B. NORTHCUTT, dealer in groceries, etc., business established in 1866 by Mr. Northcutt. He was born in Millersburg, Bourbon Co., Ky., January 11, 1835. His parents moved to Missouri about 1839 or 1840, and he was educated in Lexington, Mo., in Masonic College, where he resided from 1843 to 1866. In the latter year he settled in Nebraska City, Neb. Mr. Northcutt was married in St. Joseph, Mo., March 1, 1865, to Miss Toole, a daughter of W. C. Toole, of that city. They have five children, Ebbie, Harry, Jessie, Wilbur and James Oliver. There are three children dead, a girl four years and four months old, named Lulla; a boy, William, one year old, and Rubbie, eleven months old. Mr. Northcutt is a member of the Christian Church, and is a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, and has held all the Chairs in the Lodge. He is also P. M., of Nebraska City No 12.
HEATH NUCKOLLS, farming, was born in Grayson County, Va., December, 1830, and remained in that section until coming to Nebraska City, in 1854. He left shortly afterward for Richardson County, this State, and resided there up to 1860, at which time he returned to Nebraska City, engaging in the mercantile business and continued until 1875, when he adopted his present occupation. He was Alderman from the Second Ward in 1867. He was married in Nemaha County, July, 1859. They have four children living, John E., Della, Annie and Lulu.
JAMES PALEY, proprietor marble works, was born at Leeds, England, in August 1840; came to this country at the age of eleven, first locating at Baltimore, where he staid one year, then went to Virginia; from there to Boone County, Mo.; then to St. Louis, where Mr. P. learned his trade--that of a stone cutter. From there he went to Atchison County, Mo., and remained until 1863, when he went to the mountains, and from there came to Nebraska City in September, 1865; engaged at stone cutting for two years, after which time he went to Lincoln, and returned to this city again about six months afterwards, and worked at the same business until the fall of 1869, when he went into the marble business with Joseph Butzerin, and continued four years, and two years of the time had a branch shop at Hamburg, Iowa. In January, 1874, Mr. P. bought Mr. B.'s interest, and has carried the business on alone ever since. It is the only works of this description in the city. Was married in Nebraska City, July 18, 1872, to Nancy M. Anderson.
JAMES W. PARKER, M. D., physician and surgeon, came to Nebraska City in September, 1863, and has practiced here since. He was born in Fayette County, Ky., near Lexington, and was educated at the Transylvania University, in the academical and medical departments, graduating from the latter in 1846. he commenced practice in Boone County, Mo., and went from there to Texas, where he remained a year in the Government military hospital in Gen. Worth's Division of the U. S. Army. He returned to Missouri in 1849 and went to California in 1850, returning to Missouri in 1851. In April 1853, he was married in Bullitt County, Ky., to Miss Lizzie Burdett, a native of that county. He then settled in Westport, Jackson Co., Mo., and practiced there until he came to Nebraska. In 1862 had charge of the hospital at Westport, in which he served over a year. In 1866 and 1867 he was engaged in the drug business with Burd Price. He has been examiner for many insurance companies. He is president and treasurer of the Nebraska City Manufacturing Co. For three years he was a member of the School Board. The Doctor is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and has been an elder therein for twenty years. He has three children: John William, Peyton Burdett, and Mary Elizabeth. The two boys are at the Westminister College, Fulton, Mo.
J. B. PARMELEE, Superintendent of the State Institution for the Blind, was born in Geauga County, Ohio, March 18, 1845. His parents settled in Dodge County, Wis., about 1850. He received his preliminary education at home, and finished at the State Normal School, at Plattville, Wis., from which he graduated in 1869. He engaged in teaching until 1875, in which year he became connected with the Iowa College for the Blind. In 1877 he removed to Nebraska to take his present position. He was married in Iowa Falls, Iowa, in September, 1873, to Miss Nora K. Moseley, of Iowa Falls. They have two children, Kate and Frances. Mr. P. is a member of the Congregational Church, and of the Royal Arcanum and K. of H. Mrs. P. is the matron of the institution. She is the eldest daughter of Henry and Sarah Moseley, of Iowa Falls, Iowa, and was born in Dodge County, Wis. She was educated at the Carlinville High School, at Carlinville, Ill. After graduating, she taught in the school for about one year, then took charge of the graded school at Alden, Iowa; a position she retained until her marriage.
MAJ. J. W. PEARMAN, a native of Hardin County, Ky., came to Nebraska City, May 16, 1854, where he has resided ever since. He was employed as a day-laborer until elected County Treasurer, in 1856, which position he held until October 15, 1862, when he resigned and enlisted as a private in Company F, Second Nebraska Cavalry. On completion of the regiment he was appointed and commissioned Junior Major, doing service on the Northwestern frontier until mustered out at the expiration of term of service; after which he was commissioned Captain and Assistant Quartermaster U. S. A., and assigned to duty with the First Brigade, First Division, Second Army Corps, Army of Potomac. He was present at the fall of Richmond and Petersburg, Va., and witnessed the surrender of Lee at Appomattox Court House. After the Army of the Potomac was disbanded, Captain Pearman was sent to Davenport, Iowa, where he had charge of the Department of that State until 1877, when he was mustered out as an officer of the army, but retained as Quartermaster's agent until 1870. Since 1876 he has been engaged in horticultural and agricultural pursuits and somewhat mixed up in the politics of the State. He was married February 24, 1856, to Mary A. Swift, of Atchison County, Mo., who was a native of Morgan County, Ill. They have had eleven children, nine of whom are now living: Annie N., Alice Lulu, Pinkie Isabelle, Mary Frances, Frederick Lincoln, Horace Stanton, Hugh C., Prudence, Guy Rutledge, Katie and Maggie--twins. The Major is a member of the Odd Fellows, and a stalwart worker in the temperance cause. He was born March 16, 1831, and is now fifty-one years old, and weighs 240 pounds.
WILLIAM PHIFER, wholesale and retail dealer in and manufacturer of cigars and tobacco, was born in Arkansas in 1833, raised in St. Louis, and located in Lexington in the same State in 1852, where he remained one year; then went to California three years, and then returned to Lexington, where he carried on the tobacco business for nine years. Mr. Phifer is a member of the A., F. & A. M. In 1858 he joined (in Lexington) Lafayette Lodge, No. 32, A., F. & A. M. He was married in Plattsburg, Mo., to Miss L. A. B. Willis, August 30, 1859. They have six children living. The first three were born in Lexington, Mo., namely, W. L., Mary R. and O. L. Phifer. The following named, I. N., F. A. and E. W., were born in Nebraska City, Neb. Mr. Phifer came to Nebraska City in January, 1865; bought property and removed here the following May, at which time he started his present business. The family resided from October, 1880, until March, 1882, in Little Rock, Ark., where they lost their beloved son, G. W. Phifer, aged ten years and two days , who died in Little Rock, March 2, 1882, and was buried in Wyuka Cemetery, Nebraska City, Neb., March 7, 1882.
C. W. PHILLIPS, photographer. Business taken charge of by Mr. Phillips in 1877. He has the leading gallery in the city, and does both portrait and landscape work. He was born in Bridgeport, Conn., March 2, 1852; received his schooling there, and commenced the study of his profession in 1870 in New York City. In 1874 he settled in Nebraska City, after spending some time in looking up a location. Mr. P. is a prominent member of several secret societies, also State vice-president of the Photographer's Association of America.
A. S. POTTER, U. S. Assistant-Engineer, in charge of Missouri River improvement here. Came to Nebraska City in September, 1878. Took charge August, 1880. He is a native of Jefferson County, N. Y., and was educated at the Troy Polytechnic Institute, graduating in 1876. He was engaged in engineering work in Michigan prior to the date of his coming here.
PHILIP POTTER & CO., jobbers of china, crockery and glassware, organized for business March 1, 1881. The original business was established by Buxton & Brown in 1867, and in 1869 Mr. Potter became interested in the business, continuing it until 1875, when he took charge of it alone. Their sales are principally in Nebraska and Iowa.
PHILIP POTTER came to Nebraska City in April, 1869, and has been engaged in his present business ever since. He has been a member of the Board of Education, and is senior warden of St. Mary's Episcopal Church. He was born at Baltimore, Md., February 14, 1845. Lived there eight years and moved to Vermont, where he was reared, being most of the time at Brattleboro. He was educated at the Cheshire (Connecticut) Episcopalian Academy and at Brown University. Prior to coming to Nebraska he was in mercantile business. He was married in Fort Calhoun, Neb., September 29, 1874, to Fanny M. Clark, a native of La Porte, Ind. They have two children, Abrey and Faith.
J. STILLSON POTTER was born in Baltimore, Md., October 20, 1848. When four hears old his parents moved to Philadelphia, where he lived two years. Then he went to Brattleboro, Vt., and stayed until he was fourteen, when he entered the Episcopal Academy of Connecticut at Cheshire, and remained a year. Went to Yates' Institute, Lancaster, Pa., for a year, and then accepted a place as agent for the Star Union Freight Line at Boston. After two years he resigned and came to Chicago, where he was employed as resident salesman for Hunt, Barbour & Hale, jobbers of dry goods. From there he went back to Philadelphia and became manifest clerk on the P. W. & B. R. R. for four and a half years. After that he was private clerk to the Commissioner of Customs at Washington for a short time, and then spent two years on a plantation near New Orleans. In September, 1874, he came to Nebraska City, and on March 1, 1875 took editorial charge of the Nebraska City News, issuing a daily edition thereof. He continued his editorial charge for six years.
["BOSCOBEL."--RESIDENCE OF R. M. ROLFE.]
R. M. ROLFE, wholesale and retail grocer, came to Nebraska City, October 15, 1860, and engaged in the present business, being the first man in Nebraska south of Platte to engage in jobbing. In 1867 he sold out, and was engaged in banking from 1868 to 1871; then until 1875 he was employed in improving his lands. In 1875 he and Mr. E. W. Terry again entered the grocery trade, the firm being Rolfe & Terry up to 1879. Since then Mr. Rolfe has been alone, under the name of R. M. Rolfe & Co. He has been largely interested in Otoe County lands ever since he came, and has done considerable farming. He was a member of the syndicate which bought largely of Lincoln property at the time of the location of the capital, and of another for the purchase of lands in Gage County; he is also interested in mining in New Mexico; he was Alderman for one term. Mr. Rolfe was born near Bath, Steuben Co., N. Y., October 12, 1830 and lived there until 1857, when he came to Keokuk, Iowa; then he went to Memphis for a year, and then to St. Louis, coming thence to Nebraska City. He has a beautiful residence here called Boscobel. Was married at Springfield, Erie Co., N. Y., June 28, 1859, to Harriet C. Emmons, a native of that place. They have three children, Emmons, Harry and Charles. Mrs. Rolfe is a daughter of Hon. Carlos Emmons, one of the most prominent citizens of Western New York. Mr. Rolfe is a member of the Episcopal Church. He aided in opening the first wagon road to Fort Kearney, and was one of the original corporators and the first secretary of the Midland Pacific Railroad.
CHARLES L. POTTS, of Lorton & Potts, wholesale grocers came to Nebraska City in the spring of 1865; spent a few months in Colorado, and returned here that fall. He was employed as a clerk and in other capacities, and in August, 1873, he engaged in the manufacture of plows and scrapers until his shops were burned, March 6, 1876. from March, 1869 to July, 1873, he was cashier of the Transfer Co. In 1878 he was Deputy County Treasurer, resigning January 1, 1879. September 6, 1879, the present firm was formed. Mr. Potts was born at St. Louis, Mo., December 7, 1848, and was reared in Howard County, Mo. He was married at Nebraska City, February 19, 1873, to Elfreda C. Russell, a native of Lansingville, N. Y. They have one child, Mary Ellen. Mr. Potts is a member of the A., F. & A. M., and of the K. of H.
L. A. PRUE, of the firm of Driscoll, Prue & Co., brick manufacturers, contractors and builders, was born in Toledo, Ohio, September 7, 1853. When he was quite small his parents removed to Illinois and from there to Nebraska City, in 1858. He commenced to learn the trade of brick laying in 1869 and worked as a journeyman until three years ago, at which time he started his present business. He was married in Nebraska City, December 23, 1875. They have three children, Charles Edward, Nellie May and Myrtle Florence.
FRANK T. RANSOM, attorney, came to Nebraska City in May 1877, and has been in partnership with George W. Covell ever since. They do a law, real estate and abstract business. He was born at St. Joseph, Mo., August 13, 1851, and lived there until he came to Nebraska City. He was educated at the St. Joseph High School and at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H. In 1873 he commenced reading law at St. Joseph and was admitted to the bar about two years later. He was married at Nebraska City, September 13, 1877, to Anna Hewitt, a native of Maysville, DeKalb Co., Mo. Mr. Ransom is a member of the present Legislature and of the Knights of Honor.
RECTOR, WILHELMY & CO., wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, have been established since September, 1871. The original firm was H. Larson and John F. Wilhelmy. They continued until 1876, when the present firm was formed, Mr. Rector purchasing Mr. Larson's interest. In January 1882, Frank B. Hochstetter was admitted to membership. The first year's business of the old firm amounted to $16,000 a year. They are now doing $50,000 a year. They give employment to six men, including the partners.
[ROTTMANN BLOCK.--F. W. ROTTMANN, PROPRIETOR.]
F. W. ROTTMANN, grocer, came to Nebraska City, April 10, 1858, and engaged in farming for a month. Then he came into town and served as clerk for five years. After that he engaged in mercantile business and has continued at it ever since. He has also been extensively employed in building operations. He has erected six business houses between Ninth and Tenth on Main and has five stores on the opposite side of the same street. He also owns the Grand Central livery stable, and seven dwellings, beside the Third Ward engine house. Mr. Rottman was for three years Alderman for the Third Ward, and for several years a director in the Fair Association. He was born in Westphalia, Prussia, June 3, 1834, and came to America in November, 1857. Prior to coming here he lived at St. Louis. He was married at Nebraska City, October 15, 1865, to Maggie Arends, a native of Hanover, Germany. They have one son, Fred W., born December 3, 1872. Mr. R. is a member of the Lutheran Church and is one of the most enterprising citizens of Nebraska City.
WILLIAM S. RECTOR, came to Nebraska City in November, 1876, and engaged in the hardware business. He built the Excelsior Flouring Mill in 1879-80, and is one of the stockholders of the Nebraska City National Bank and of the Nebraska City Manufacturing Company. He also has a two-thirds interest in the Noelting & Rector Hardware establishment. Mr. Rector was born near Circleville, Pickaway Co., Ohio, November 1, 1818, and lived there until he came to Nebraska. He was married at Circleville, Ohio, to Emeline Yates, who died in Ohio, leaving two children, Josie, now Mrs. James Reed, of Nebraska City, Druzilla, now Mrs. S. J. Faris. His present wife was Martha Allen, whom he married at Circleville, O. They have two children, Allen T. and William S., Jr. Mr. Rector served one term as Alderman from the Second Ward.
MICHAEL REED, of the firm of James Reed & Bro., wholesale and retail druggists, was born in Birmingham, England, July 26, 1845, and came to this city in 1858. In 1864 he engaged in the drug business and in which he still continues. He was married at Belvidere, Neb., October 4, 1881, to Miss Sallie Hole, a native of Havana, Ill.
JAMES REED, wholesale and retail druggist, came to Nebraska City in September, 1858. He was employed as a clerk in the drug store of D. Whitinger and afterward with Reed, Whitinger & Co., then in the spring of 1867 the firm of Reed Bros., was organized and continued until 1872. On December 1, of that year the firm of James Reed & Bros., was formed and still continues. They are rapidly increasing their trade, having recently doubled their business capacity. Mr. Reed was born in Birmingham, England, July 26, 1845, and came to Nebraska City with his mother and family. He has been in the drug business since his youth. He was married in Circleville, Ohio, March 30, 1871, to Josephine P. Rector, a native of Pickaway County, Ohio. They have two children. Norris Humphey and Dwight James. Mr. Reed is a member of the A., F. & A. M., K. of H., and Royal Arcanum.
F. RENNER, M. D., physician and surgeon, came to Nebraska City about the middle of May, 1856, and engaged in practice until 1861; then he published a German paper, the Nebraska Staats Zeitung. In 1870 he removed the paper to Lincoln, and ran it until 1874, when he returned to Nebraska City. In the fall of 1876 he sold the paper, and since then has been engaged in the practice of his profession. The Doctor was Alderman for three terms. In 1864 he was elected to the Legislature and to the First Constitutional Convention. In 1867 he was appointed Assessor of Internal Revenue for Nebraska, and served until 1870. In 1875 he was appointed Revenue Agent for Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Indian Territory and Colorado, with headquarters at St. Louis. One year later he resigned and returned to Nebraska City. Since January 28, 1879, he has been U. S. Storekeeper for the Nebraska City Distillery. He was born on the Rhine, Germany, June 16, 1830, and was educated at Wertzburg, Munich and Paris; came to America in 1855, and after spending some time at Boston, Chicago, and other places, came to Nebraska City. He was married at Nebraska City, January 17, 1859, to Christina Melchoir, a native of Germany. She died in November, 1860, leaving one son, Alfred, now in the employ of the Omaha Republican. He was married again in 1861, to Victoria Heilig, a native of Virginia, and daughter of Rev. Daniel Heilig, now of Tecumseh, Neb. She died at Nebraska City, July 21, 1879, leaving seven children, Albert B., now a student at Omaha with his uncle; Lulu and Lily, twins; Percival, Horace, Friel and Daisy. He was again married, at St. Louis, in September, 1879 to Mrs. Louisa Groscurth a native of Germany. The Doctor is a member of I. O. O. F. He was the first vice-president of the Nebraska State Medical Society, and belongs to the American and Otoe County Medical Associations. He is Past Supreme Representative of the K. of P., being a Representative to the Supreme Lodge at Philadelphia in 1876. He delivered a lecture at Nebraska City on Nebraska City and Nebraska in 1866, and by request it was repeated three times.
DE FOREST P. ROLFE, lumber dealer, came to Nebraska City, April 14, 1861, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits from the time of his arrival until 1868, when he went to Chicago, Ill., where he remained two years, and returned to Nebraska City to engage in the lumber business, in which he continued until the fall of 1874, when he became interested in the Reed Plow Manufacturing Company for one year. He was then appointed general agent for D. M. Osborne & Co., manufacturers of harvesting machinery, in which business he remained until the fall of 1879, when he again embarked in the lumber trade under the firm name of D. P. Rolfe & Co., doing business at several places in Nebraska and Western Iowa. He was born at Cooper's Plains, Steuben Co., N. Y., July 20, 1839, and lived in that county until 1859, when he went to St. Louis, Mo., coming from thence to Nebraska City. He was married at Bath, N. Y., to Miss Sue Gilmore, a native of that town, November 6, 1866. They have one child, Mary S. Mr. Rolfe was County Treasurer in 1863. He was elected a member of the last Territorial Legislature, of the first State Legislature, and has been Secretary of the Board of Trade at Nebraska City since its organization, in February, 1882. He assisted in recruiting the Second Nebraska Cavalry for frontier service. He belongs to Western Star Lodge, A., F. & A. M., and to Keystone Chapter, in both of which organizations he has held various official positions, and has been foremost in many enterprises tending toward the advancement of the business interests of Nebraska City.
CHARLES H. ROSELIUS, brickmaker, layer, and contractor, residence Nebraska City. Also inventor and pantentee of Roselius brick drying sheds, patented February 18, 1879, which has been fully tested and proved to be of inestimable value. Mr. R. erected a set of sheds, the first in use in Nebraska City, in 1879, and has nearly completed a set in the town of Syracuse to supply the demand of that town and surrounding country, which he intends running himself. Still intend increasing and erecting sheds wherever there may be an opening. Any information concerning advantages claimed by the patent may be obtained by applying personally or by letter to box 39, Nebraska City.
D. A. SARGENT, proprietor of the Missouri Valley Soap Works. Business under present management since 1880. He employs three men and manufactures both laundry and toilet soaps. Their leading brands in laundry are the Missouri Valley and the White Prussian. D. A. Sargent was born in Cambridgeport, Mass., December 22, 1848. His parents moved to New Hampshire. From there to Indiana and finally settled in Rockford, Ill., in 1853, where he was brought up and lived until he came to Nebraska in 1870. He was married in Rockford, Ill., September 28, 1871, to Miss Mary Scoville of that city. Mr. S. is a member of the Presbyterian Church.
H. K. SCHMIDT, of the firm of Driscoll, Prue & Co., contractors, builders, and brick manufacturers, was born in Germany, February 22, 1838. Came to America in 1854, first locating in New York City, remaining there about five years. Then went to Pennsylvania and remained about the same length of time, working at brick making in both States. From here he came to St. Joseph, Mo., following his trade while there, and in May, 1879, removed to Nebraska City. He engaged in making bricks up to a year ago, when he formed a partnership with Messrs. Driscoll & Prue. Was married in Missouri in 1863. They have three children, Henry, Carrie and Willie.
PAUL SCHMINKE, Postmaster, came to Nebraska City May 1, 1865, and engaged in plastering until the spring of 1874. He then built the Star Flouring Mills and is still interested in the milling business. He was Alderman from the Third Ward in 1872. In 1873 he was elected to the Legislature. In 1875 he was appointed one of the committe to locate and build the Blind Asylum. In 1876 he was again elected to the Legislature, and in 1878 became Postmaster; being reappointed in January, 1882. He was born in Prussia, August 16, 1836; coming to America May 10, 1852. He located first in Pennsylvania, and in 1853 went to Ohio, living in Washington County until he came here. He was married in Washington County, Ohio, December 9, 1859, to Anna Kohlmann, a native of Hanover, Germany. They have eight children; William D., Dora A., Augusta, Emma M., Louisa Paulina, Josephina, Kate and Charles. They lost a son, Paul, who died at the age of three. Mr. Schminke is a member of the I. O. O. F., and the K. of P.
HENRY SCHMITZ, saddle and harness manufacturer, was born in Rhine, Province of Prussia, Germany, June 16, 1839. Came to America with his father at the age of fourteen, first locating in New York City. From there they went to Maryland, and shortly afterward to Lancaster, Pa., staying there one year. While there he commenced his trade. The father had an anxiety to return to the old country and wanted Henry to go also, but this he refused to do, the father being obliged to go alone. Shortly after his arrival in Germany he was urged by his wife to move the whole family to America, which he did in a very short time; Henry meeting them unexpectedly while on a visit to New York. They all came West and settled at Peru. Finished his trade there. He left for Lacon, Ill., following his business. When the war broke out he went to Chicago and worked for the Government, making cavalry equipments; also worked at Quincy, Ill., in the same capacity. From there he went to St. Joe, and after remaining a short time came to Nebraska City in March, 1865, with a full intention of going to California, but things turned out much better than they expected, and they stayed right here. He worked as a journeyman for about four years, when he formed a partnership with E. McCallum, which lasted nearly eight years, after which time he went into business alone and has continued ever since. Was married in Nebraska City, October 28, 1868, to Miss Mary Stebbins. They have one child, Annie R.--three being dead. He buried his wife and three children in a very short time. Mr. Schmitz is a member of the K. of P. and I. O. O. F. lodges.