NEGenWeb Project
Kansas Collection Books

Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska

Nebraska as a State
Produced by Ted and Carole Miller.

Part 1:

Nebraska as a State | First State Officers
Congressional Representation
Legislative | Political | Removal of the Capital

Part 2:

Impeachment of Gov. Butler:   Article I | Article II | Article III
Article IV | Article V | Article VI | Article VII | Article VIII | Article IX
Article X | Article XI

Part 3:
Impeachment of Gov. Butler (cont.):   Answer
Part 4:
Constitution of 1871 | The James Regime | Proclamation
Part 5:
The James Regime(cont.) | Supplementary Resolutions
Part 6:

Constitution of 1875:
Preamble | Article I--Bill of Rights | Article II--Distribution of Powers
Article III--Legislative | Article IV--Legislative Apportionment

Part 7:

Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article V--Executive Department | Article VI--The Judicial Department
Article VII--Rights of Suffrage | Article VIII--Education
Article IX--Revenue and Finance | Article X--Counties
Article XI--Corporations:   Railroad Corporations
Municipal Corporations | Miscellaneous Corporations
Article XII--State, County and Municipal Indebtedness
Article XIII--Militia | Article XIV--Miscellaneous Provisions

Part 8:

Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article XV--Amendments | Article XVI--Schedule
Propositions Separately Submitted | Legislative and Political

Part 9:

Legislative and Political (cont.) | Popular Votes | State Roster
State Judiciary

Part 10:

Senatorial Succession | The Political Status of Nebraska
County Boundaries

Part 11:

The Population of Counties | Omaha in 1858
Per Cent of Increase in Population | Prof. Wilber's Address

Part 12:
Hon. J. M. Woolworth's Address | Public Lands
Part 13:
Educational Lands in Nebraska | Educational
Part 14:
Slavery in Nebraska
Part 15:

The Woman Suffrage Question

Nebraska as a State Names Index

Part 1

THE boundaries of the State when admitted were: "Commencing a a point formed by the intersection of the western boundary of the State of Missouri with the 40° of North Latitude, extending thence due west along said 40° of North Latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the 25° of longitude, west from Washington, thence along said 25° of longitude, to a point formed by its intersection with the 41° of North Latitude; thence west along said 41° of North Latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the 27° of longitude west from Washington; thence north along the said 27° of West Longitude to a point formed by its intersection with the 43° of North Latitude; thence east along said 43° of North Latitude to the Reya Paha River; thence down the middle of the channel of said river with its meanderings to its junction with the Niobrara River; thence down the middle of the channel of the said Niobrara River, and following the meanderings thereof to its junction with the Missouri River; thence down the middle of the channel of said Missouri, and following the meanderings thereof to the place of beginning."

   From figures on file in the office of the Secretary of State, the present area of Nebraska, by counties, is ascertained to be as follows:



Red Willow




   The constitution provided that Senators and Representatives in the State Legislature should be elected biennially, on the second Tuesday in October, at which time the State officers were also to be chosen. This, however, did not apply to the first set of officers designated under the constitution--those named under what may be termed, for distinction here, the provisional officers. That first election was ordered, by the constitution, to take place June 2, 1866.

   Under this provision, Hon. T. M. Marquette was elected Representative in Congress, over J. Sterling Morton, by a vote of 4,821 to 4,105. The vote for Treasurer (which may be taken as a fair estimate of the party lines) was 4,756 for the Republican candidate, to 4,161 for the Democratic.

   In accordance with the requirements of the constitution--although the Territory was still out of the Union as a State--the first regular election was held on the second Tuesday in October. Then it was that Hon. John Taffe was elected to Congress, by a vote of 4,820 to 4,072, for Hon. Algernon S. Paddock, and 30 for the brilliant but eccentric George Francis Train.

   The new State began its existence under the official guidance of David Butler, Governor; Thomas P. Kennard, Secretary of State; John Gillespie, Auditor; Augustus Kountze, Treasurer; Thomas P. Kennard, Librarian; Champion S. Chase, Attorney General.


   At Washington, Hon. T. M. Marquette, who was elected to represent the State in the House, presented his credentials March 2, the day following President Johnson's proclamation of the admission of Nebraska, and thereby limited his own term to the short period of two days, as, under the rule of the House, it was held that he had been chosen to the Thirty-eighth Congress, whose session expired on the 4th. The State had no representation in the Senate during that term of Congress, the Senators-elect preferring to postpone presenting their credentials until the beginning of the next session, dating from March 4, 1867. The terms of Senators Thomas W. Tipton and John M. Thayer began then. Hon. John Taffe had, pending the decision of Congress on the question of admission, been chosen Representative in that body, at the election held in 1866, over Hon. Algernon S. Paddock and George Francis Train, and entered upon his duties March 4, 1867.

   Thus it was, after great troubles and tribulations, in season and out of season; after many "perils to the State," as argued by the contending political factions; after many bitter personal conflicts, which left wounds still unhealed; and after a most vexatious probationary period imposed by a reluctant President, Nebraska became invested with the full rights and privileges of a State.

   If Senator Gere shrank from the task of relating, the story of the birth of the commonwealth, because of the rankling memories which might be made to throb anew, how much more sensitive should we feel who approach closer to the present in the narrative of events. If what is said hereafter proves not to be "balm for hurt minds," it should be understood that we have set down naught in malice. From official records is compiled what we believe to be an impartial summary of public acts which cannot be ignored.


   The so-called third session of the State Legislature (but in reality the first session, as explained in preceding pages of this work) met at Omaha under proclamation of Gov. Butler, May 16, 1867. The State comprised eleven Senatorial Districts, represented by the following-named Senators: First, Harlan Baird; Second, J. T. Davis; Third, Isaac S. Hascall and J. N. H. Patrick; Fourth. E. H. Rogers; Fifth, F. K. Freeman; Sixth, Lawson Sheldon; Seventh, J. E. Doom; Eighth, W. W. Wardell and Mills S. Reeves; Ninth, Thomas J. Majors; Tenth, William A. Presson; Eleventh, Oscar Holden. Hon. E. H. Rogers, of Dodge County, was elected President; L. L. Holbrook, Secretary; Seth Robinson, Assistant Secretary; D. W. McKimmon, Sergeant at Arms; E. K. Caldwell, Doorkeeper.

   The House consisted of: Richardson, J. T. Hoile, G. Duerfeldt, J. M. Deweese, T. J. Collins; Pawnee, J. R. Butler; Nemaha, William Daily, George Crowe, Louis Waldter, C. F. Hagood; Otoe, A. F. Harvey, W. H. Hicklin, John B. Bennet, George W. Sroat, D. M. Anderson; Cass, W. F. Chapin, D. Cole, A. B. Fuller, Isaac Wiles; Clay, Lancaster, Seward and Saunders, E. L. Clark; Saline, Benton, Lincoln and Kearney, William Baker; Sarpy, A. W. Trumble, George N. Crawford; Douglas, G. W. Frost, J. M. Woolworth, Martin Dunham, Joel T. Griffin; Platte, John E. Kelley; Washington, D. C. Slader, John A. Unthank; Burt and Cuming, Austin Rockwell; Dodge, Henry Beebe; Dakota, James Preston; Johnson, George P. Tucker; Dakota, Dixon, Cedar and L'eau qui Court, Henry Morton; Gage and Jones, Oliver Townsend; Lancaster, John Cadman. Hon. W. F. Capin, of Cass County, was elected Speaker; J. S. Bowen, Chief Clerk; W. B. Smith, Assistant Clerk; D. Labor, Sergeant-at-Arms; E. L. Clark, Doorkeeper.

   The specific purposes for which this extraordinary session were called was the enactment of laws, and the amendment of existing statutes to harmonize with the new order of government.


   On November 3, 1868, the first national election since Nebraska became a State agitated the people from one extreme of the commonwealth to the other. Each party asserted its ability to conserve the interests of the nation, and each charged the other with villainous intents against the welfare of the people. The bitterness which still lingered in the hearts of local leaders was re-enkindled into active flames, and the scenes incident to a powerful party contest, on which the supremacy of the dominant and the restoration of the opposing faction rested, were enacted in Nebraska.

   The Republican party met at Nebraska City, April 29, and nominated a ticket consisting of: Electors of President and Vice President, T. M. Marquette, Lewis Allgewahr and J. F. Warner; Congressmen, John Taffe; Governor, David Butler; Secretary of State, T. P. Kennard; Auditor, John Gillespie; Treasurer, James Sweet; Delegates to the Chicago National Republican Convention, S. A. Strickland, Alvin Saunders, L. Gerard, T. B. Stevenson, R. W. Furnas and S. Maxwell.

   The State convention suggested as a national ticket, U. S. Grant and B. F. Wade, for President and Vice President, and also adopted the following declaration of principles:

   Resolved. That we point with pride and satisfaction to the history and record of the great National Republican party of the United States, and ask for it the confidence and unfaltering support of our fellow-citizens--

   First. Because it has saved the Republic front overthrow by putting down the most wanton and wicked rebellion, urged in the interest of slavery and oppression, ever known in the history of the world.

   Second. Because it has stood like a "wall of fire" between the oppressed and their relentless and unrepentant oppressors, and demanded, as it still demands, that in the reconstruction of the rebel States loyal men only shall control.

   Third. Because it has given to the country a Homestead Law, thus providing free homes for free men, and providing lands for the landless, without money and without price.

   Fourth. Because it has chartered and endowed the great Pacific Railroad, thus uniting with iron bands the Atlantic and Pacific, and bringing through the State the commerce of China and India, in exchange for the commodities and products of American labor, skill and enterprise.

   Fifth. Because it is the vivifying power which imparts to the efforts of the struggling friends of freedom throughout the world their light, their heart and their highest value.

   Resolved, That we heartily approve of and accept as just the doctrine of universal amnesty and impartial suffrage, believing that in its application will be found a just rule for a permanent settlement of the great question of reconstruction.

   Resolved, That recognizing the doctrine that allegiance is alienable, our National Government should protect American citizens abroad, whether native or foreign born; and any outrage committed on the person of an American citizen by a foreign government should be resisted at every cost, at all hazards.

   Resolved, That the nation is deeply indebted to the soldiers and sailors who gallantly defended it in the late war of the rebellion, and that the memory of those who perished in the conflict should and will be held in grateful remembrance; that their widows and children should be tenderly cared for by the nation; that those who returned and are in our midst, we congratulate, and tender them the assurance of our honor and regard; and trust they will aid in perpetuating the liberties of the Constitution of the country they periled their lives to save.

   Resolved, That the Republican party was organized for the preservation of the life of our nation and for the purpose of establishing equality to all before the law; and that while as a party we favor all movements tending to promote public morality, yet we are opposed to all prohibitory laws and statutes interfering with the national customs of any portion of our citizens, as subversive of sound morality, and as unnecessary abridgments of the liberties of the person guaranteed the people by all Republican Constitutions.

   This convention was presided over by Samuel Maxwell, of Cass County, and chose John M. Howard, of Douglas, Secretary.

   After the business of the convention, so far as nominations was concerned, was completed, "the Chairman called attention to the last resolution of the platform, because he supposed it had been passed unwittingly by the convention." The resolution was, therefore, recommitted, and subsequently reported as disapproved of by a majority of the committee on resolutions, through Hon. R. R. Livingston, of Cass. So the resolution was expunged.

   The National Republican Convention at Chicago, May 1, 1868, nominated Gen. U. S. Giant for President, and Hon. Schuyler Colfax for Vice President.

   The Democratic party met this array of theoretical and practical forces by placing a strong, ticket in the field; and marshaled its friends and allies under a banner bearing the enunciation of its faith.

   The Democratic platform of 1868 read thus:

   Be it Resolved by the Democracy of Nebraska in Convention Assembled, That we fully and most cordially indorse the platform of principles enunciated by the Democratic Convention held for the Democracy of all the thirty-seven States of our Union, at New York City, on the 4th day of July, 1868, as eminently wise, conservative and statesmanlike, and as affording to the people of the States the only sure and enduring bond of union between them.

   Resolved, That we most heartily indorse the nominations of the National Democratic Convention assembled at New York City on the 4th day of July, 1868, and pledge the undivided support of the Democratic party of Nebraska for the election of Horatio Seymour, of New York, as President, and Frank P. Blair, of Missouri, as Vice President.

   WHEREAS, The Democratic party deem, and always have deemed this a white man's government, created and established by white men for themselves and their posterity, and that the people of this State in their Constitution define the qualifications of electors, and solemnly declare that the right of suffrage should be intrusted only to the white race, through which alone civilization and enlightenment have come to us, and in whose hands alone the welfare of this State should repose; and that a radical Congress, in violation of our rights as a people, ignored our wishes as expressed in the Constitution, and did, in an illiberal and overbearing manner, impose upon our free people the doctrine of negro suffrage:

   WHEREAS, a radical Legislature of this State, elected by white people to represent them, did, in violation of the trust reposed in them, and in violation of the expressed will of the people as set forth in the Constitution, wherein they declared against negro suffrage, ratify and adopt the wrong and oppressive conditions so imposed by Congress; therefore

   Resolved. That they did so without authority, and in gross violation of the trust reposed in them, and that their action therein does not meet with the approval of right-thinking and honest citizens of the State Of Nebraska.

   Resolved. That whilst as a party we favor all movements tending to promote public morality, yet we are opposed to all prohibitory laws and statutes interfering with the national customs of any portion of our citizens, as subversive of sound morality, and as an unnecessary abridgment of those liberties of the person which are guaranteed by all free governments.

   Resolved. That we are opposed to the registry law now in force, and demand its repeal, for the following reasons among others: 1st. The old election law was sufficient to protect the purity of the ballot box; all objections arose from not enforcing its provisions. 2d. The present law ignores the right of the people to choose the persons who administer the law. 3d. The Registrars are partisans appointed by a partisan for partisan purposes, and are responsible to a party, not to the people. If the law is not for partisan purposes, why is the Board always so composed as to be in the hands of a party ? 4th. It is unnecessarily troublesome to voters, being a hindrance to a free exercise of the right of suffrage, especially in those portions of the State sparsely settled, and is an unnecessary tax and burden upon the people of the State. 5th. It is liable to, is and has been abused and perverted. 6th. Greater frauds have been and can be consummated under it than under the old law.

   The State election was held October 13, 1868, with the following result:

For Congress--Taffe, 8,496; Poppleton, 6,119; Taffe's majority, 2,377.
For Governor--Butler, 8,514; Porter, 6,070; Butler's majority, 2,444.
For Secretary--Kennard, 8,484; Vifquain, 5,859; Kennard's majority, 2,625.
For Treasurer--Sweet, 8,500; Ware, 6,113; Sweet's majority, 2,387.
For Auditor--Gillespie, 8,226; Lett, 6,106; Gillespie's majority, 2,120.
For Chief Justice of the Supreme Court--Mason, 8,476; Croxton, 6,044; Mason's majority, 2,432.

   The vote for President is tabulated and given at the end of this chapter. The aggregate vote this year was: Grant, 9,772; Seymour, 5,519. This election, of course, was not held until November 8, of that year.

   The fourth session of the Legislature was called for the purpose of making such provision as was essential, under the constitution of the United States, for the election of electors of President and Vice President; this important duty having been unprovided for in previous sessions. The Legislature met, in Omaha, October 27 and 28, 1868, and, on the last-named day, passed a bill, which was approved by Gov. Butler, defining the method of choosing electors. Senator Majors, by consent, presented the following resolution:

   Resolved by the Senate, the House of Representatives concurring. That we respectfully but earnestly urge upon the next President of the United States, Gen. U. S. Grant, the appointment of Hon. J. M. Thayer in his Cabinet, who will, by his long residence on the frontier and his acquaintance with the resources and development of the West and with the necessities and wishes of the people, be enabled to advance the interests and prosperity of this great and growing country.

   Senator Freeman moved to amend by striking out the words "Gen. U. S. Grant" and inserting in lieu thereof the words "Horatio Seymour." This motion was lost, by a vote of 4 ayes to 6 nays. The resolution was adopted by the Senate, on a vote of 7 to 3. The journal of House proceedings of this session as not printed; hence, the vote on this resolution, as upon the elector's bill, cannot be stated.


   The most important event in the history of the State at this period as the removal of the capital from Omaha to Lincoln. The long contest, beginning in the first year of Territorial existence, reached an issue in 1868. The record of the founding of Lincoln in the midst of an almost unbroken prairie, and the location of the capital by Gov. Butler, Auditor Gillespie and Secretary Kennard, is reserved for insertion in the history of Lancaster County; for the story of the "Magic City of the Prairies" deserves to be told where also is described the incidents of the settlement of the region immediately effected.

   It will be noticed that the establishment of State institutions, the University, the penitentiary and the Insane Hospital at or near Lincoln, the Deaf and Dumb Institute of Omaha, the Institute for the Blind at Nebraska City and the State Normal School at Peru, form topics of local interest in the several county histories. To that division of the work the reader is referred for information relative to the subjects named.

   The years of Gov. Butler's administration were marked by a growth of the State, marvelous in its immensity and stable in its character. To the wisdom of those in places of power must be attributed a large share of the prosperity of State. The capital sprang into being as though touched by the hands of the fabled genii, and that condition of general improvement so confidently foretold by the Republican candidates on the stump, seemed to prevail. From less than 29,000 population, in 1860, the State had grown to nearly 123,000 souls, in 1870, and still the tide of emigration was flowing on. Lands were in quick demand. Towns were starting up where but a few months before the prairie sod was dense with the matted growth of centuries. Along the trails, the endless caravan of emigrants moved with a patient hopefulness. As far as the eye could send its power of vision, came winding slowly on the grandest march that human mind can comprehend--a people, free, intelligent and brave, not following the Star of Empire, but carrying it along with them, to serve as a pillar of fire by night, emblem of hope by day. Founders of an empire--creators of States that yet were in the hidden mysteries of time, these pilgrims plodded onward, wearing the soil to dust beneath their feet; laying the deep foundations of a structure which destiny was soon to dedicate to the use of freedmen, in the name of liberty.

   The fifth session of the Legislature (which is incorrectly called the "first regular session," on the title-page of the journal) was the first to meet at Lincoln, after the removal of the capital to that place, it was also the first session by operation of constitutional law, under the supreme ordinance of 1866; the preceding sessions, since the passage of the constitution having been either practically Territorial Legislatures, or called sessions of the State body. Hence. the designation as "first regular session."

   The Legislature met January 7, 1869. The members of the Senate were, by districts, as follows: First--Richardson, E. E. Cunningham; Second--Nemaha, Charles J. Majors; Third--Nemaha, Richardson, Johnson, Isham Reavis; Fourth--Pawnee, Gage, Jefferson, Saline, Lancaster, C. H. Gere; Fifth--Otoe, T. Ashton and T. B. Stevenson; Sixth--Cass, H. D. Hathway; Seventh--Cass, Sarpy, Saunders, Butler, Seward, W. F. Chapin; Eighth--Douglas, E. B. Taylor and G. W. Frost; Ninth--Washington, Butler, William F. Goodwill; Tenth--Platte, Merrick, Hall, Buffalo, Kearney, Lincoln, Guy C. Barnum.

   The Senate chose Hon. E. B. Taylor, of Douglas County, President; S. M. Chapman, Secretary; J. R. Patrick, Assistant Secretary; W. H. Miller, Engrossing Clerk; George Vandeventer, Enrolling Clerk; W. A. Pollock, Sergeant-at-Arms; John Bradshaw, Doorkeeper.

   The House was composed: Richardson, O. C. Jones, Delos A. Tisdel, J. F. Gardner, J. T. Hoile; Pawnee, A. S. Stewart; Gage and Jefferson. Nathan Blakeley; Johnson, Hinman Rhodes; Nemaha, J. S. Church, H. Steinman, George Crowe, G. R. Shook; Otoe, James Fitchie, W. McLennan, A. F. McCartney, J. W. Talbot, A. Zimmerer; Lancaster, Ezra Tullis; Cass, David McCaig, J. McF. Hagood. G. L. Seybolt, Joseph McKinnon; Saunders, Seward and Butler, Marcus Brush; Saline, Lincoln and Kearney, J. S. Hunt; Sarpy, J. N. Case and J. D. Smith; Douglas, S. C. Brewster, Joseph Fox, J. B. Furay; J. T. Griffin, D. S. Parmalee and Edwin Loveland; Dodge, E. H. Bernard; Platte, C. A. Speice; Hall, Buffalo and Merrick, Wells Brewer; Washington, Christian Rathman and W. H. B. Stout; Burt and Cuming, Watson Parrish; Dakota, John Naffziger; Dixon, Cedar and L'eau qui Court, C. B. Evans.

   The officers were: Hon. William McLennan, of Otoe County, Speaker; John S. Bowen, Chief Clerk; C. H. Walker, Assistant Clerk; E. L. Clark, Sergeant at Arms; H. J. Mumford, Doorkeeper; Jesse Turner, Engrossing Clerk; Abram Deyo, Enrolling Clerk.

   The sixth session of the Legislature was an extraordinary convention, for twenty specific purposes, first among which was the ratification of the proposed fifteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States. The measure of greatest State interest was the erection of a penitentiary, and the remaining objects of the session varied in importance, from the incorporation of cities to the payment of legislators.

   The Legislature met at Lincoln February 17, 1870. The new Representatives were: Samuel Carter and Leander W. Pattison, from Richardson; Hiram O. Minick, from Nemaha; Fordyce Roper, from Gage and Jefferson, and C. A. Leary, from Douglas. Speaker McLennan presided. Vacancies have occurred. C. H. Walker was elected Chief Clerk; L. L. Holbrook, Assistant Clerk; Luther Drake, Engrossing Clerk, and William Jacobs, Doorkeeper.

   The new members of the Senate were: Second District, William Daily, Sr., Third District, Samuel A. Fulton and Eugene L. Reed.

   Immediately after the close of the sixth session, the seventh session assembled, at 8:30 P. M. March 4, 1870, on the order of Gov. Butler, whose proclamation was issued during that day. The session was, in fact, but a continuance of the preceding session. The objects enumerated in the Executive message were the necessity of the passage of a herd law; the ratification of a contract made by the Governor for the conveyance of certain lands to Isaac Cahn and John M. Evans; to aid in the development of the saline interests of the State, and some local measures. The result of the session was not favorable to the desire of Gov. Butler, relative to his action in the saline land contract. The biennial contest at the polls was fought this year.

   The State Republican Convention was hold at Lincoln, August 10, 1870. Hon. G. W. Ambrose was chosen Chairman and J. B. Park and A. Deyo, Secretaries. The following declaration of principles was made:

   Resolved. That we re-affirm the principles enunciated in the National Republican Platform of 1868, and that, in the judgment of this convention, a firm adherence to those principles will advance the best interests of the people, and establish their prosperity on an enduring basis.

   Resolved, That we heartily indorse the administration of President Grant, and commend it to the approval of the people of the State and the Nation, for its rigid economy displayed in every department of the Government; its honest and faithful collection and disbursement of the public revenues; and, above all, for its consistent and unfaltering adherence to the principles of freedom and equality.

   Resolved, That in the struggle now in progress in Europe we heartily sympathize with the people of Germany in their heroic efforts to preserve intact the territory which rightfully belongs to them, and that we cherish the hope that its termination will witness the defeat of the French, who, in the sacred name of Liberty, are endeavoring to extend the dominion of a hateful despotism over the soil of unoffending people.

   Resolved, That we heartily approve the action of the present Congress, in providing for a reduction of the burdens of taxation upon the people as the results of the late rebellion, and that we favor a still further reduction, so soon as it can be effected consistently with the preservation of the public faith and credit.

   The ticket nominated by this convention was: For Congressman, John Taffe; for Congressman, J. E. La Master, as a contingent, Mr. Taffe being ill at that time, and the convention being disposed to take time by the forelock and provide against the necessity of a second convention; this precaution was observed in succeeding years; for Governor, David Butler; for Secretary of State, W. H. James; for Treasurer, Henry Koenig; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, J. M. McKenzie; for Attorney General, George H. Roberts; for prison inspector, C. H. Gould. The convention was a stormy one.

   The State Democratic Convention was held in Plattsmouth, September 7, 1870. Hon. T. H. Robertson, of Sarpy County, presided, and J. M. Hinchman and R. T. Beal, Secretaries. The following platform was indorsed:

   Resolved, That the Democracy of Nebraska accept the adoption of all amendments to the fundamental law of the land as a formal settlement of the questions disposed of thereby;

   Resolved, That we are in favor of the lowest measure of taxation, State and National, consistent with the safe administration of the government and the preservation of the public credit; of honesty and economy in public affairs; a careful husbanding of the public resources; rigid accountability to the people by all public servants; that we especially oppose and denounce the dishonesty and corruption of the present Governor of this State in his manipulation of the school and other State lands and property, and call upon all good citizens to rescue if from destruction by expelling from power the men who have squandered.

   Resolved, That all taxation, to be just, must be for a public purpose, equal and uniform; That the National Government has no right to levy a tax upon one individual to advance or promote the interests of another: Therefore, a protective tariff, being nothing more nor less than a forced contribution of one private interest to another, we oppose and denounce it as in conflict with the fundamental doctrine of equality and uniformity in taxation, and wholly repugnant to the true principles of Democratic Government; unjust, impolitic and detrimental to the common interest of the people;

   Resolved, That upon this declaration of principles and policy we invite every elector within the limits of the state, without regard to former party precedents and affiliations, to join with us at the coming election in elevating to the several State offices, honest, capable and sober men.

   The ticket named was as follows: For Governor, John H. Croxton; Secretary of State, Paren England; Treasurer, Jacob Vallery, Sr.; Superintendent of Public Instruction, A. T. Conkling; Prison Inspector, Richard Brown; Attorney General, W. H. Munger; Congressman, G. B. Lake.

   The convention pronounced in favor of a constitutional convention, to revise the fundamental law of the State.

   The popular vote cast at this and succeeding elections is tabulated and appears at the end of this chapter. It need but be stated here that the Republican candidates were successful. The total vote for Governor was 19,774; for Congressman, 20,342.

   The eighth session of the Legislature began January 5, 1871. The Senate consisted of: First--Richardson, E. E. Cunningham; Second--Nemaha, E. W. Thomas; Third, Nemaha, Richardson, Johnson, George P. Tucker; Fourth--Pawnee, Gage, Jefferson, Saline, Lancaster, A. J. Cropsey; Fifth--Otoe, David Brown and Robert Hawke; Sixth--Cass, Lawson Sheldon; Seventh--Cass, Sarpy, Saunders, Seward, Butler, Willett, Potinger, contested successfully by A. W. Kennedy, who sat during the latter part of the session: Eighth--Douglas, Frederick Metz and I. S. Hascall: Ninth--Washington, Burt, B. F. Hilton; Tenth--Dodge, Stanton, Cuming, Cedar, Dixon, L'eau qui Court, A. W. Tennant (contested unsuccessfully by J. D. Neighley) Eleventh,--Merrick, Hall, Buffalo, Kearney, Lincoln, Leander Gerrard. Hon. E. E. Cunningham was elected President; C. H. Walker, Secretary; C. M. Blaker, Assistant Secretary; A. T. McCarthy, Engrossing Clerk (Miss Cornelia Frost received five votes for this office, two less than Mr. McCarthy, the first instance of a woman being nominated for office in the Nebraska Legislature); G. G. Beecher, Enrolling Clerk; L. L. Kline, Sergeant at Arms; C. E. Hines, Doorkeeper.

   The House contained: Richardson, H. W. Sommerlad, James Wickham, Henry Schock, Ruel Nims; Nemaha, William Daily, S. P. Majors, G. R. Shook, De Forest Porter; Pawnee, G. W. Collins; Gage and Jefferson, D. C. Jenkins; Johnson, Hinman Rhodes; Otoe, W. E. Dillon, J. E. Doom, Eugene Munn, John Oberton, J. W. Conger; Lancaster, S. B. Galey; Cass, F. M. Wolcott, J. K. Cannon, J. M. Patterson, John Rouse; Saunders, Seward and Butler, A. Roberts; Saline, Lincoln and Kearney, Isaac Goodin: Sarpy, E. N. Grinnell, Charles Duby; Douglas, John Ahmanson, T. F. Wall, J. C. Myers, E. Rosewater, W. M. Ryan, L. S. Reed; Dodge, A. C. Briggs; Platte and Colfax, A. J. Hudson; Hall, Buffalo and Merrick, Enos Beall; Washington, Elam Clark, H. C. Riordan. Burt and Cuming, Frank Kipp; Dakota, James Clark; Dixon, Cedar and L'eau qui Court, D. J. Quimby. Officers: Hon. George W. Collins, Speaker; Louis E. Cropsey, Chief Clerk; J. R. Webster, Assistant Clerk; D. L. Snyder, Engrossing Clerk; Charles Culbertson, Sergeant at Arms; E. L. Clark, Doorkeeper. By in irregularity in the journals, the election of Miss Cornelia Frost is not recorded, but that lady qualified as Enrolling Clerk, and so served.

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