tical enough to make it unnecessary. I am confident a right start has been made in industrial training and this together with eighth grade graduation, will bring and keep more boys and girls in school with better results than will any compulsory law.
The spirit of educational progress is abroad in Johnson county; better facilities, better teachers, better pay is the slogan. Several new school houses have been built within the last two years and improved methods of heating and ventilating have been adopted. The teachers as a whole are meeting the demand for more thorough preparation. They are handicapped in their work, however, in many instances, by the seven and eight months' term of school, which does not allow sufficient time for a satisfactory completion of the work as outlined in the course of study. The majority of the schools in the county have only an eight months' term.
The coming school year will find quite a number of the normal training students from the Tecumseh and Sterling high schools in the school room as teachers, and there is little doubt but that the majority of them will be successful.
When conditions of weather, roads and train service permit the attendance at the sessions of the county association is good and the interest well sustained.
Many of the schools have libraries and others are planning to fall into line this fall.
The consolidation microbe has not yet made a very serious attack on the county though at two different points there is a possibility of consolidating from two to three districts.
The free high school law, while being taken advantage of quite generally, evokes more or less comment, both favorable and unfavorable. Some patrons approve it very enthusiastically, others disapprove it with equal enthusiasm, saying that they feel it an imposition to be compelled to contribute to the higher education of other peoples' children. Nor are they the only objectors. Some of the high schools complain that the amount of tuition money received does not balance the expense entailed, expense in the matter of extra teachers, more room, more seats, more text books, etc.
In the eighth grade examinations held in the spring the greater ,number of failures were in reading, spelling and mental arithmetic and therefore, since they are the core of the essentials, those are the subjects upon which special emphasis will be laid in the coming school year.
If the law granting transfers for school privileges contained a provision whereby some members of the school board were required to notify the county superintendent of the removal of the party who had been transferred, irritating complications would be avoided. Fre-
quently the taxes on land that has at some time been transferred are paid into the wrong district for a number of years.
The county institute will be held this year as it has been held the past two or three years, in conjunction with the chautauqua. By this method the teachers have the benefit of a more extended lecture course than could be provided otherwise.
In reply to your request for a report of educational progress I only wish to touch upon three and possibly four subjects. The past decade has witnessed some advanced legislation for the school interests of Nebraska. Among the good laws passed the certification law, the free high school law and normal training in high school, indicate the interest our state is taking for the betterment of her educational system.
The free high school law has certainly proved a success in Kearney county. The first year this law was in operation sixty-two boys and girls in the county applied for free high school tuition; the second year ninety-one, and this year eighty-one, making a total of 234 boys and girls who have taken advantage of the law since it went into operation. The apparent falling off in applications this year is explained by the fact that two of the village schools that never had attempted to do more than work up to the eighth grade last year did ninth grade work and did it so successfully that the boys and girls living in the districts do not need to go elsewhere for the ninth grade work. Then a number this year who have had the required two years high school work have decided to gel to one of the normal schools and prepare themselves for teachers. Of course, it would be better if these young people would finish the high school before going to a normal school, but it is certainly much better that they get the two years' high schooling before entering the normal than under the old law allowing them to enter from the eighth grade, a policy that would be necessary to continue if we did not have the free high school law, in order to supply our schools with teachers. One of the beneficial effects of the law has been that it compels our schools to strengthen their eighth grade work and eventually all the school work. It brings out the weak points in pupils eighth grade work which in turn must be accounted for by poor or not balanced work below the eighth grade. I for one am glad that the state department is making an effort to make the work uniform and require a given standard. I believe as fast as time will permit the standard should be made higher. Then another good effect the law has had is to force the smaller high schools to do better work if they are to have their share of the nonresident pupils. It also acts as an incentive to these schools to give just as much of an education as they can in order to keep their young people at home.
I know that there is or has been considerable objection to the law, but it is growing less as the people understand it better and find that it does not work nearly so much of a hardship on school districts as they imagined it would. At least I do not hear so many objections now and many who talked hardest against the law at first are now taking advantage of it. I believe that the law will be strengthened instead of any effort made to repeal it as far as the great majority of the people of this county are concerned.
Another very good law is the one providing for normal training in high schools. I am sure that it has been a success in Kearney county. While I have been superintendent we have never had such a good lot of beginners in the schools as this year. Every one has made a success and some very marked success. Much of this is due to the normal training in the high school and the very good work of Superintendent Lyne along this line. I am a thorough believer in normal training in our high schools and believe it one of the best laws ever passed in our state to improve the teaching of beginners in our schools.
In my opinion the coming legislature ought to increase the appropriation for that purpose and amend the law so that each county could add to the amount expended for normal training in that county. It is the county in which the money is expended that receives the greater benefit and why should it not help to prepare its own teachers. Along with this I would like to see one of the requirements for receiving this aid to be that any high school offering such work through or by the aid of money appropriated must employ a teacher to give the work especially fitted for such work.
One of the things that I have emphasized the past year and intend to continue the campaign is better sanitary school environment. Last year special effort was made at our institute to get teachers to see the need of this, and the same thing will be done again this year. In connection with this phase of the work Dr. A. E. Thomas of Red Cloud will give an illustrated lecture on the condition of the teeth as affecting school work and Dr. Abbott of Minden will lecture on the eye from the same standpoint. These lectures will be given at one of the regular lecture periods of the institute and the public will be urged to come out and hear the lectures.
Last year I started out on a campaign to drive out the open water pail from every school in the county. I am sorry to say that quite a number remain, but they will be given no rest on this subject until every one is out. My reason for this campaign is too self-evident to need stating. The past year has witnessed another step in progress in the introduction of a better heating and ventilating system. Two schools in the county put in the Waterbury-Waterman heating and ventilating plant. Three more districts are going to install plants this year.
I am pleased that the reading circle board had the good sense to make Allen's "Civics and Health" one of the reading circle books
for the coming year. I think it ought to have been made "The Book" for the year. I look for the coming legislature, through the demands of the educational people of the state, to place upon our statutes some good, wholesome, progressive laws that will place Nebraska in the front ranks in educational advancement, where we rightfully belong.
It may be of interest to note the changes in school conditions in Keith county during the past four years. The school census in 1905 was 672, forty-three teachers were employed and thirty-nine districts were in operation.
In 1910 sixty-three teachers will be needed, fifty districts will be at work. The school population is 1154.
The increased interest among school officers is worthy of mention; as teachers wages have advanced school boards and parents have been more liberal in furnishing supplies and necessary equipment. That we have not better equipment is due largely to the fact that we have not been sufficiently educated to the need of it. By bringing the idea of more sanitary conditions before the people we hope to accomplish much for the health and comfort of our schools.
Our teachers have not been present at State Associations in such numbers as we desire; the long distance accounts for this in a large measure.
District Associations are fairly well attended though we wish more teachers would be there for the good things of the program. A county meeting brings practically all of the teachers out; possibly this is because we attempt only one or two in a year.
We have better success with county meetings when we do not emphasize the Reading Work too strongly in them; our teachers prefer the note book plan for their Reading Circle Work and those who have earned "credit" or honor certificates are careful to do the work required. We do not insist on the beginning teacher taking all of the Reading Circle Work as they are often unable to get real help from the books of the year. For these we encourage the use of White's School Management; we feel that any teacher who is qualified for school work will be benefited by using this book.
Teachers have not always known in the past years just what work should be required of the pupils who wish to complete the eighth grade.
We have had pupils who were not able to do more than good sixth grade work come in and take eighth grade examination. Often they and their parents would be disappointed because they did not pass. When we can get the New Course of Study and the quarterly test and review questions faithfully followed and used in every school we will
not have 60 or 70 percent of failures among those who take the eighth grade examination.
We believe too that when we get systematic work done in the schools the question of Compulsory School Law will be settled to a great extent,
In this county more than one-half of the pupils who have graduated from the eighth grade in the past four years are now in school and colleges.
This is due largely to the "Free High School Law" which has worked altogether for good.
A serious defect in the law is that it does not help all of the worthy pupils, many are barred because they live in poor districts which are exempt under the law. These very pupils who by energy and perseverance have completed the common school course in spite of short terms and poorly paid teachers, are the very best material for a higher education. One of the grandest things our next legislature could do would be to provide Free High School for these pupils either by state aid or by a county fund levied for their support.
The question might be raised here, why not consolidate and have stronger districts; when it is known that the smallest districts in this county has nine sections of land, the other districts ranging from that to sixty-three sections, it will not seem strange that "Consolidation and Transportation" have not received much attention. We have on the average twenty-four sections of land to the district. About one-third of the districts are not able to maintain nine months of school.
State Aid to Weak Districts has proved a blessing to some districts in the last two years; we cannot conceive of money being put to a wiser use.
We will need more for this year, and for a few years to come, because of the sand-hill country being filled with settlers. One instance will illustrate. One district containing seventy-eight sections of land, had for years, ten, or a less number of scholars so situated as to be in reach of one school. From three to six months of school was all this district could afford with the maximum levy of 25 mills. There are now sixty pupils scattered over this territory; the district has been made into three and were it not for State Aid each district could have only two or three months of school. When the homesteaders make final proof and the land is subject to taxation conditions will be improved somewhat.
Normal Training in High School will help greatly in solving the question of better teachers for our rural school. We had two of these teachers last year, their work, compared with that of others, who had had two or three years of experience, without normal training, was altogether in favor of the high school girls without previous experience and with normal training; we hope to get several of this class of teachers for this year.
While the standard for teachers has been raised and while, as a class our teachers are better qualified, we have found it possible to supply all of our schools, each year, with teachers, only by a more liberal use of the Emergency Certificate than was desirable, but when it was "no school" or an Emergency Certificate there was no hesitancy in making the grant.
In the passing of this certificate as decreed by the state department, we are encouraged, as we see by that act, that Nebraska has an adequate supply of qualified teachers. In order to provide plenty of teachers for future years, we believe that Normal Training in all four year and even in three year high schools is absolutely necessary.
Practically all of our districts will have school libraries. Even the districts which are exempt under the law are buying a few books.
With the aid of these libraries we hope to arouse an interest in the "Pupils Reading Circle" which we are pleased to see has been revived.
Four corn contests have been held in the county; considerable interest has been aroused and we hope some good accomplished.
This year we shall not call it a Corn Contest as there promises to be little corn to exhibit. Greater attention will be given to exhibits of school work and wood carving along with sewing and cooking. We hope the time is near when we will have domestic science, manual training, and agriculture as a part of the work in-schools. This, we believe, will be training our boys and girls for greater service and happier homes.
(MRS.) GENEVIEVE RICHMOND,
As a general thing school officers do not give enough attention to their duty of overseeing the schools, and the result is that board and teacher do not harmonize. The teachers of this county are very willing to attend teachers meetings, but as we are handicapped for lack of railroad we cannot attend state meetings.
Great interest is taken in the Reading Circle Work. It is too far for most of them to go to the central reading circles so they complete their note book.
State aid has done more good to the western counties than any one thing along the school line. Districts that could afford to have but two or three months of school now can have five.
The course of study has saved one-third of the time of those teachers that follow it closely. Unless teachers have a daily program before them they will slight some subjects and put more time on those subjects that they like best.
The teachers of Keya Paha county have not the normal training qualifications that they should have. We are so far from any normal that it is impossible for some to go away to school.
Free High School tuition in this county is not looked on as an aid
to education. In some schools two or three high school students can cause the district at home to have less school.
The new buildings are small, but very well arranged, as to heating and ventilation.
At present the especial aim of the county superintendent of this county is to urge enough of the young people to prepare themselves to teach so that there will be teachers enough. Also to consolidate as many districts as possible.
Since assuming the duties of the office of county superintendent of Kimball county I have had one County Association. This meeting was held in the new County High School Building, Feb. 12, 1910. Out of the 30 teachers in Kimball county, at that time, there were 15 present. The day was extremely bad, and under these conditions, I considered the attendance very good. The program consisted of Musical Selections, and papers on the following subjects: "To What Extent May We Use the Course of Study," "What Books Shall We Select for our Rural School Libraries," "The Value of the Teacher's Reading Circle Work," "What Shall We Expect of our Eighth Grade Graduates," and "Language Below the Sixth Grade." Besides these papers we had a very interesting talk on the subject of "Seed Potato Raising," by one of Kimball county's worthy patrons, also Mr. Thos. Darnell of Lincoln, Neb., gave us a very excellent address on "Lincoln," as it was Lincoln's birthday.
In regard to the District Association which was held at Bridgeport, Neb., March 25th and 26th there were 13 of the Kimball County teachers present and the interest shown was excellent.
As to the National Association, will say, I believe there were about six teachers present.
The Reading Circle Work of this County has not been satisfactory to me but the conditions as to distance to attend is such that it makes it impossible to have meetings other than the Kimball teachers, the result being that the work is done individually.
At the present date, I have every district in the county, with the exception of three, supplied with library books for the amounts due for the past three years, up to July, 1910. I feel confident the remaining three districts will have their money paid in and invested before school begins this fall. The Library Law had never been enforced in this county until this year. As I compelled the districts to pay in for the past three years it gives most of the districts quite a nice start on a Library.
During the past year there were only two districts in the county entitled to State Aid. I wish it were possible to get more means, in some way or other, so that all districts could have, at least eight
months school. If the districts could be so arranged as to have more districts receive the benefit of the Railroad Tax, the question of poorly paid teachers and short terms of school in Kimball county would be solved.
In regard to the Normal Training Course of the Kimball County High School, will say, that as yet we have received no benefits as to providing rural teachers as the graduates of 1910 do not intend to teach. We hope to have some next year who will enter the teaching profession.
I am urging and insisting upon strict classification and a following of the State Course of Study. I find the best work is accomplished where the work is well systematized, the daily program followed, and a strict adherence to the Course of Study is the rule of the teacher.
Several of the special days were observed by teachers throughout the county, but to my knowledge, there was no special requirement, that being left with the teacher in charge.
Of the teachers who were employed in Kimball county during the past year, there were six holding Professional Life Certificates, two First Grade, two State Elementary, sixteen Second Grade and five Third Grade. There were five Emergency Certificates granted but all teachers held grades for second grade certificates or higher in other state, or some other similar condition caused the issuance of the emergency; however, the Second Grades were secured very shortly.
At the present time, nearly all of the districts are too large to enable the pupils to get to school without driving, however, we have one district which does not maintain school in the district but provides transportation and pays tuition in another district. This is much more satisfactory to both the district and pupils as the pupils receive nine months of schooling where, if they had school in their own districts, they would probably only receive five months.
We conducted two of the regular Eighth Grade examinations, besides a special examination on July 21st. We have a County High School, thus there is no tuition for any pupil of the county for the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth grades.
Have been endeavoring to enforce this law to the letter and believe it is a splendid thing. Only wish there was a means of compelling these large districts, where they are perfectly able, to furnish schooling for the pupils when they live too far even to drive.
There have been three new buildings put up during the past year, but they are small and not planning for other than stoves to heat them. Most of the districts are rather poor and are glad to have school privileges. After the land valuation changes next year and a number of the farmers make their final proof, which will greatly increase the taxes, I believe, the districts will then be smaller, the buildings better and all equipment better.
Our District No. 3 has within its borders the new county high school, very nicely equipped and a building to be proud of. Mrs. Hansen, my predecessor, deserves a great deal of credit for the effort put forth to obtain this county high school. Prof. Kreizinger should also receive an unlimited amount of credit for the excellent work done in behalf of this school.
During the coming year I hope to arouse interest sufficient to secure a dormitory for the pupils attending the county high school in order that they may receive the schooling that has been provided for them.
I am endeavoring to create a greater desire for better literature.
A stronger reading circle throughout the county.
A recommended list of text books which I hope to result in uniformity throughout the county.
Special work in penmanship and drawing with a tendency to get the patrons more interested in the school work of their district.
Shall collect considerable exhibit work during the coming year.
NELLIE M. CRANDALL,
The Lancaster County Teachers' Association is a vital factor in the activity and efficiency of the teachers. It is a comparatively old organization, honored by the members, and each year the work is entered into with enthusiasm. Reading circle work is conducted along lines adopted by the association, using the recommendations made by the reading circle board as a basis. Usually four local and four general meetings are held during the year. At the latter programs of special music and addresses are arranged besides the regular reading circle work. These meetings bind the teachers together in their interests and efforts, and develop their individual powers by interchange of ideas, renewing of enthusiasm and gleaning of knowledge from the experiences of those older in the work. The social feature of such gatherings is found to be valuable.
Much emphasis is laid upon free use of the Nebraska course of study. Copies are furnished to the teachers in the summer in order that they may become familiar with it before beginning school work
in the fall. When institute is held early in the summer the course has been introduced with profit into institute classes.
Both a Boys' and a Girls' club have been organized and work in agriculture and domestic science and household arts encouraged. It is hoped to make this department stronger and more productive of good. The county aids in this by furnishing prizes for contests.
In the eighth grade work approximately 460 pupils were examined last spring. Of these probably 190 or 200 wrote only a part of the examinations, anywhere from one to all but one of the subjects. One hundred and sixty-six diplomas were earned. Free high school tuition was allowed by the districts for 160 students. Scarcely any opposition to the free high school tuition law has been encountered; even in the districts where there are several students and the tuition becomes heavy, it seems to be accepted as the right kind of provision for a very great need.
In area Lincoln county is one of the large counties of the state, being forty-eight by fifty-four miles, or 2,592 square miles. Many parts of the county are sparsely settled, and because of this, some of the school districts are large and children have to go a long way to school. The largest district in the county contains sixty-two sections. Another district, containing eighteen sections, has only three pupils and there are only three legal voters in this district, and there have not been more since its organization. The nearest school outside of this district is twelve miles away. We mention these things to show how lonely some of these places are and how uninviting it is for the teacher.
The thing that this county needs more than anything else is more normal trained teachers. North Platte is the only high school in the county that does normal training, and the few teachers that come from this school each year are soon hired for the highest wages and to the most desirable schools in the county. As a rule they are the best teachers that we can get. Many of them have come from the rural school and are acquainted with the rural surroundings before they go out as teachers, and for this reason they can grasp the situation sooner and accomplish better results.
The North Platte junior normal has done very much in equipping teachers for our schools. This is a very great benefit to other counties, the surrounding counties, as well. Were it not for this school it would be impossible to supply teachers for our western schools. The junior normal idea has been one of the best that has come to our legislature in the educational legislation. Too much cannot be said for this plan of taking the school right to the home of the teacher to be educated, and taking it at a time when the teacher can best attend school and at the least possible expense. The time will come when this will not be necessary, we hope, but that time has not come yet.
The Nebraska course of study which has been given to us is not all that we may wish it to be, but it is very good. As compared with others we think it is the best. We have put it in every school in the county and insist on the teachers working up to it and measuring the progress of the school by it, and we find it to be a great help to the teacher and an excellent guide for both the teacher and pupil.
Because of the great distances and the lack of cross railroads in the county, it is a difficult thing to hold any kind of a general county meeting. About the most successful meeting that we have had has been that of the Boys' and Girls' Club. These young people have shown wonderful courage and determination to do things, and to do them whether the elements are favorable or not. We verily believe that through these clubs it is possible to create an interest in the farm life that has been lacking heretofore.. Already these boys and girls are beginning to think better of their homes and are proud of the fact that they are the children of farmers.
We have spoken of the sparsely settled parts of the county and of the large school districts. Of course, where there is so little property to be assessed there can be but little school tax and not much money with which to keep school. There were many children in this part of the state that were not getting more than two months of schooling in a year and some of them not that. The legislature being apprised of this fact, very wisely made a special appropriation for the purpose of aiding these weak districts, and in our county alone twenty-four districts received aid last year and were enabled to hold a five months' school instead of two. These conditions are not yet relieved and we hope that the legislature will continue this at least for one more biennium.
The greatest drawback to more successful and aggressive supervision of the schools of the county by the superintendent is in these large counties, the lack of help in the office. County boards do not want to increase the taxes and they do not appreciate the fact that the work in the office has been more than doubled during the last few years. The county superintendent is doing too cheap labor when he is doing office work, but these farmers or politicians do not think so and will not believe it when you show them the truth. We need some legislation along this line.
Effect of State Aid to Weak Districts.
The districts which received aid in this county last year are a part of which five years ago was an open range country, and which is now fast becoming the homes of a prosperous class of farmers.
The great obstacle in getting a thrifty class of people to locate here in the past has been the school question, which has been largely
overcome by this aid received from the state, and which will be long remembered by the early settlers of this country as a source of a great deal of good to them and their children.
Loup county is working hard for better school advantages for its children. The school buildings are being improved and some are trying to divide the districts so as to shorten the distance from the homes to the school house.
There are only a few who took the eighth grade examination as the terms of school are so short, they are unable to complete eighth grade work.
Several teachers realizing their need of higher qualifications have attended summer schools. Others have been studying at home. Their efforts will be appreciated by the school boards who are looking for better qualified teachers and are willing to pay accordingly,
Most school boards see the need of library books for the school and willingly set aside the required amount.
I am ready to attempt to prove not only that the schools of today in McPherson county are as good as they were three years ago, but that they are much better; i. e., that the schools of today do more for the pupils, for the homes, for the commercial and industrial life and more for the life of the community than they did previously. The school officers are becoming more interested' in school affairs each year, and we have more and better schools without a doubt.
I believe the new certification law to be excellent. Our teachers are better qualified and by their interesting methods the children are becoming more interested in the work, and therefore we have more regular attendance. By the use of the course of study and daily program each school is more closely graded and better results are secured.
I regret to say that this county has been very slow in maintaining full membership in reading, also the school districts are too poor to be compelled to provide for school libraries. I expect this year to lay a special stress on the above named subjects, and to do my best in gaining better schools and teachers in and for McPherson county, until the close of my term of office,
There are eighty school districts in Madison county and 149 teachers are needed to supply the teaching force in the public schools of the county. The enrollment from Madison county at the north Nebraska Teachers' association last April was 103. School officials and teachers realize the importance of these associations and are endeavoring to receive the greatest amount of benefit therefrom. One hundred and forty-two teachers carried the reading circle work in a creditable manner during the past year. Twenty-three of those who did reading circle work hold life certificates; $1,097.96 was expended for school libraries under the free library law during the past year. Every district in the county has a school library and every school district complied with the school library law this year. Nearly every district in the county furnishes free text books. Within the past year $4,467.27 was expended for this purpose.
The high school normal training course has been established in four high schools of this county; namely, Norfolk, Madison, Tilden and Newman Grove. Since the establishment of normal training in our high schools, ninety-one pupils have enrolled in this course, fifty-one of whom have completed the normal training course. These teachers who have had high school normal training are rendering excellent service.
Each school is provided with a copy of the Nebraska course of study.
There are 131 members of the Boys' and Girls' Club.
District No. 72 of Madison county was discontinued about two years ago, since which time the pupils of this district have been furnished transportation to the Meadow Grove school district of this county. The plan is working fine. Patrons of the district who were strongly opposed to the plan at the start are now very enthusiastic in its favor.
Pupils who complete the eighth grade examinations and enter the high schools do excellent work. We endeavor to encourage in every way possible the completion of eighth grade work by pupils of the rural schools.
The compulsory education law is being strictly enforced and is giving good results.
Two visits to each school district in the county are made by the county superintendent each year.
Although Merrick county has had a successful year along many lines of school work, yet we are conscious that there is still room for improvement. Much interest was taken in the reading circle work and some of our teachers were able to make use of many practical suggestions in the different books.
Note books were faithfully kept and returned to the county superintendent for inspection. Every district in the county has a library.
The normal training course in our Central City high school has proven very helpful to those preparing to teach.
The membership in our Boys' and Girls' Clubs is small, but great interest has been shown in the work. We believe it pays to have these boys and girls earnestly trying to learn the best way of doing the everyday things of life.
Special attention has been given to the subjects of primary reading, drawing and agriculture.
After a most interesting and profitable week's work in institute we are going to our school rooms with higher ideals, more determined to develop character in our boys and girls, though it cost much of time and effort and self-effacement.
The school officers of Morrill county have thoroughout the year manifested great pride and interest in the schools over which they respectively have had jurisdiction. They have seemed to be in sympathy with the work of the teacher and are showing their appreciation of this most excellent work, in a very material way by increasing the salaries in their districts. There has been an average of at least a $5 per month advance in wages in the county this year. And it is well that the school officers realize that good work is being done in our schools, for the schools of Morrill county are supplied with excellent teachers. It may occur to some that because we are out in the western part of the state, so far away from our state institutions of normal training and the state educational gatherings that our teachers lack professional training, but this is not true, for we have teachers who are progressive and anxious to grasp every opportunity to get help in their work; so you will find them taking advantage of the benefits of the summer schools and sparing a year from work now and then to spend the time in normal, and many who find it impossible to do any of these things take a normal training course in a good correspondence school. We have also many teachers who have completed a normal course.
While perhaps not so many of our teachers hold life and first grade certificates as in some counties, we have very few third grade certificates. The certification qualifications of our present teachers are as follows:
Three county teachers' associations have been held during the
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