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brought their teacher samples of their cooking. We are also doing the home experiment club work and think it is a most excellent thing.

M. EDITH WALFORD,          
County Superintendent.     


     There are two normal training high schools in the county which send forth teachers who are much better able to cope with the problems; confronting the rural teacher than those who have not had this training.

     Normal training has raised the standard of teachers, hence salaries are increasing.

     This past year there were fourteen teachers holding professional life certificates, four with elementary state, twelve holding first grade, fifty with second grade, three with third grade and six who taught for a short time on emergency certificate.

     The emergency certificate is a thing of the past in Nance county, since there will be none issued this coming year.

     By use of the course of study the work is as uniform as a varied list of text books can make it.

     The questions which are based on the course of study will be used this next year and by a judicious use of them it is hoped that the work will be brought up to a much higher standard.

     Every district in Nance county has complied with the library law, school buildings and grounds are well kept up, two new school houses were built last year and two more are to be built this year.

     Reading circle work is to be made compulsory for each teacher, before, only about one-seventh actually did the work.

     The observance of special days is general throughout the county, programs being prepared or lessons given which are suitable to the occasion.

     The eighth grade examinations and free high school attendance have made a great difference in the attitude of both parents and school officers toward schools and every effort is made to obtain the advantage of free high school education for their children.

      Another great factor in the advancement of our schools is the interest which is shown toward district and state associations.

     Some school boards allow the teachers full time, feeling that they are more than repaid for doing this on account of the enthusiasm and fresh interest that is put into the work.

     On the whole Nance county is rapidly advancing and we bespeak for it an era of excellent schools, excellent teachers and the co-operation. of school officers and patrons for the best interest of their children.

County Superintendent.     




     The County Teachers' Associations of Nemaha county are held at local places over the county. We find it more convenient for our teachers, to hold our meetings, near the places where the teachers are teaching. School officers often attend these meetings and take an active part.

     We found the reading circle work of last year very helpful to the teachers and as a rule each teacher was eager to do the work for the benefit the individual received and not because it was required professional work. Many of our teachers placed their "Picture Study" and "Plays and Games" on their desks for daily reference. We believe we shall enjoy our reading circle work of the coming year more than that of last year as the civics and health and the psychology lead us to understand human nature better. By studying these books we shall realize that as we study human nature in our little boys and girls, we are receiving many valuable lessons in psychology, not in the text books, but we need just what we have for the coming year to awaken and enlighten us that we may know that the children with which we are dealing are not pieces of machinery, but individuals and must be studied individually.

     About 50 per cent of the schools of Nemaha county have good school libraries and practically all of these districts add to their libraries annually more books than the law requires per capita, showing that they are increasing their libraries because they appreciate it and not because they are forced to add to what they have.

     The pupils' reading circle work is conducted by the teachers in their respective districts and after the pupils read a book the teacher requires a book review of one page to be written, giving the title, author, nature of the story leading thoughts, etc. After a pupil has made six book reviews, the teacher signs up with the pupil and certifies the six reviews to the county superintendent, who will issue a small but very neat diploma as a reward for the work.

     All told we have an estimate of 6,000 volumes in our eighty-one school districts. By the use of good libraries we cultivate in the child an appetite for good literature.

     Several of the schools of our county are not graded according to the course of study, but the principal cause is the fact that in these districts we have but six months of school. Our course of study enables us to reach a higher standard in the grading of our schools and by constant use and persistent efforts we will be greatly benefitted.

     It is quite difficult to find material that will aid us in illustrating our industries in our geography work and the superintendent has purchased and collected a number of educational exhibits as salt, flour, cotton, leather, oil, corn, silk, minerals, etc., and has arranged to use them as a traveling library. Many of these exhibits can not be secured by the rural teacher, but by this arrangement the rural children have the same opportunity as the city child in this work. Another aid in



teaching geography that we are introducing in some of our schools is the stereoptican views and the scopes.

     We are very proud that we were able to reduce the third grade and emergency certificates about 70 per cent over that of last year. This has been accomplished by giving due warning that special certificates would not be issued as long as it was possible to secure qualified teachers. We find that the teacher will put forth greater effort to qualify when the demand is made. We are confident that it will not be necessary to issue any special certificates this year.

     The Boys' and Girls' Club work of our county has crested greater interest than has been manifested along this line of work for some time. We will increase our enrollment 100 per cent by the number of applicants that have already applied for membership. In talking with many of the buys and girls about the work they express themselves by stating that the work as a whole has been a source of great pleasure and time profitably spent.

L. NEMAHA CLARKE,          
County Superintendent.     


     While we have no special phases of work in which to report progress, we feel that we have been steadily improving along these lines. Nuckolls county schools have had courses of study with quarterly examinations for many years, so that they are as a rule well graded. Through the county school paper, "The School Messenger," the superintendents have been able to reach every teacher and each member of every school board in the county for eleven years, during every school month. It has been an invaluable clearing house for rulings, explanations and the like and has helped materially in bringing our schools to their present status.

      Our school buildings are being well cared for and the grounds improved. New school houses are being planned on up-to-date lines. Every school has a library, several of them of many volumes. Attention is being paid to proper seating, lighting and sanitary conditions generally.

     Our teachers have always been noted for their earnestness and application and this year is, no exception. Their interest in their schools and efforts for their own and the school's improvement is all that could be asked.

     By improving the work from the foundation up, eliminating third grade and emergency certificates and laying special stress on our weak points we hope to keep raising the standard of our common schools and their graduates.

County Superintendent,     




     A School Officers' Association was organized in this county in 1903 with Hon. J. H. Arends of Syracuse and Mr. William Dunn as president and secretary. Several very enthusiastic meetings have been held.

     Four teachers' association meetings have been held in the county each year for the past eight years. These meetings are held at Nebraska City, Dunbar, Syracuse and Palmyra. While teachers are required to attend but three of these meetings it is nothing unusual to have from 100 to 130 teachers present at a meeting.

     Formerly we held six meetings of the reading circle but for the past few years we have used the reading circle note book and the teachers have written up their work and handed it in at the close of the term.

     All but four districts in this county complied with the school library law during the past year and they will comply with it as soon after school commences in the fall as possible. Every district in the county has some kind of a library started ranging from a few volumes to several hundred.

     We have no districts in this county that require state aid.

     The Syracuse schools in this county are the only schools that offer normal training. In some respects the normal training work is all right, but in others I think it could be improved. A teacher in order to teach a normal training class effectively, should have taught in the country also, have a higher education and it would help materially if they had some experience as a county superintendent.

     We insist on the use of the daily program and the course of study and have noticed that the teacher who is careful to follow the suggestions in the course of study and the daily program makes the best teacher and her pupils make the best grades on the examinations.

     A party of twenty-one people from this county will leave for Boston Tuesday evening, June 28, to attend the National Educational Association.

     Each teacher in the county is furnished with a special day program and most of the schools observe some of the special days during the year.

     Our teachers are constantly working for higher certificates. When they succeed in securing a credit certificate they immediately work for the "With Honor" and then a great many of them work for their state certificate.

     A Boys' and Girls' Club was organized in this county this spring and so far as I am able to learn is doing very good work. Last year we held our first industrial exhibit and expect to hold another next January in connection with the Farmers' Institute.

     Districts Nos. 14, 15 and 16 have consolidated with the Nebraska City school district and are furnishing transportation. District No. 9 contracts with Syracuse school district and furnishes transportation.



     We also have several country districts that contract with districts nearer to them and in this way combine two schools.

     We have held two eighth grade graduating exercises in the Overland theater in Nebraska City and at both have had the theater filled to overflow.

     Very few instances in this county during the last few years have been called to our attention that come under the compulsory attendance law. When we know of a case, all we have to do is to notify the parent and the child is placed in school or they give a sufficient reason why they are not in school.

     During the past year I have placed special stress on industrial work and at the same time have kept the other work up to the mark so as not to slight anything.

R. C. KING,               
County Superintendent     


     Pawnee county comprised seventy-eight school districts, five of which are fractional districts. Of the seventy-five school houses in the county sixty-nine are frame buildings, four brick and two stone. Several new school houses have been built within the past few years, and several districts are planning to put up new buildings in the near future.

     Eight heating plants have been installed in our schools recently, four being rural schools, and so far they have proved very satisfactory.

     The majority of our schools have wells on the school grounds. One district has a cistern with a pump and sink in the corner of the school room. The water is pumped out a little while before school begins and used to clean the building, and a fresh supply of water is ready for use by the time school opens. Of course the water is filtered, and this year the teacher has promised to see to it that all pupils use individual cups for drinking.

      An effort is being made to secure individual drinking cups throughout the county, and where there is no well on the school grounds to have school boards install covered water tanks with faucet.

     Twelve years ago, under County Superintendent Utterback an effort was made to establish school libraries in all the schools in the county. These libraries have been added to year by year, until now there are but two schools in the county without excellent libraries. Later an effort was made to secure good framed pictures for the school rooms. The schools themselves secured these by means of socials, and nearly every school has some good pictures.

     There are two schools in this county that do not furnish text books and only four that are not well supplied with maps, charts and that these four are the schools that hire the cheapest teachers procurable.

     The actual number of teachers required in the county is 108, and nearly all the schools are in session eight or nine months of the year.



     The normal training courses in our high schools are affording some excellent teachers, and this together with a steadily increasing effort on the part of the teachers to conduct their work as outlined by the Nebraska course of study is giving us gratifying results. Especially is this noticeable in the rural schools. Our eighth grade class this year numbered 142 members, being 70 per cent of these writing upon the examination. Of this number 50 per cent were from the rural schools.

     Special work is given at the Teachers' Institute on the course of study. Arrangements have been made this year to supply all schools with the quarterly test questions, and special efforts will be made to systematize all school work. A large percentage of those completing the eighth grade work in the rural schools attend the high school. This year there were 147 applications for free high school privileges. Special programs are furnished to teachers and the majority of our schools observe Washington's birthday, Lincoln's birthday and Arbor day. Many of them hold the appropriate programs for the Christmas season and Thanksgiving.

     A great deal of interest has been manifested in this county for the past five years in the industrial work. Pawnee county was a pioneer in organizing the County Boys' and Girls' Club. At present 184 of our boys and girls are enrolled in the state correspondence course of agriculture and domestic science. This year the county superintendent furnished seed corn to 150 boys. Both white and yellow corn was furnished, and in each instance enough to plant one acre. Owing to the unfavorable season the results will hardly measure up to the boys expectations.

     An effort is now being made to place the Pawnee County Boys' and Girls' club upon a self-supporting basis. To this end each boy is required to furnish the county superintendent with one bushel of corn harvested from the seed furnished from the superintendent's office. This corn is to be sold for seed and the money thus accruing to be used for premium money. As a further inducement every boy and girl who makes an exhibit will receive a premium in recognition of his effort.

     The Pawnee County Girls' Club has a special "Pawnee County Girls' Club Cook Book," issued by the county superintendent, and containing prize winning recipes collected from cooking contests throughout Nebraska.

      Arrangements have been made to hold the 1910 contest during the holiday week in connection with the Farmers' Institute short course. At this time a special course of one week's duration will be given for the boys and girls. The holiday, week was chosen for the contest that our teachers might take advantage of the short course in order to better enable them to present this work in their schools. We find teachers generally are very much interested, but they do not know what to teach nor how to teach it.



     An effort will be made this year to organize a county teachers' association. Pawnee county has never had such an organization, but we feel that it will do much to arouse interest and enthusiasm, and better systematize all lines of school work. All schools are furnished with the Nebraska course of study, and all teachers are required to do the reading circle work.

     The majority of our teachers attend the Nebraska State Teachers' Association, but very few have attended any of the National Educational Associations.

LULU S. WOLFORD.          
County Superintendent.     


     During the past two years Phelps county has held five teachers' associations. These have all been well attended and a great deal of interest has been manifested.

     The reading circle work has been kept up by many of the teachers and many are putting into practice in their school work the suggestions which they have gotten from the reading circle books.

     Nearly all of the schools in Phelps county have a library. Some districts have more than 300 volumes. The teachers who step into. our rural schools from the normal training course in the Holdrege high school do very good work. Eight of the inexperienced teachers in our county last year were graduates from the high school normal training course and without an exception they all proved to be successful teachers.

     We are following the state course of study as closely as possible. Find it an excellent help in directing the work for the successor, as called for in our reports. The course of study is bringing our rural schools under a uniform graded system.

      We have no boys' and girls' organized industrial clubs. However, a great deal of interest has been shown along agricultural lines, as seed testing, etc., Last year there were eighty graduates from our rural schools and this year forty-five. The greater number of these graduates are attending some high school in the state. This year 106 high school attendance certificates have been issued.

     The Phelps county rural school is instilling the right educational spirit which leads the boys and girls to strive for a higher education.

County Superintendent.     


     Pierce county has eighty-two rural school houses, which makes a school house to every seven sections of land. One hundred and ten teachers are required for the schools, and of this number, we find it necessary to secure about seventy from other counties each year.

     The school census shows less than 3,700 persons of school age residing in the county, and of this number we find only about 2,800



enrolled in the public schools. The average enrollment is about twenty-five pupils per teacher.

     The district averages eight months' school to the year.

     Very few districts pay less than $45 per month to teachers. Most of them pay $45, while about fifteen rural schools pay $50 and two pay $60 per month. In the town schools Pierce leads in salary. It pays no teacher less than $60 per month.

     Most teachers have second grade county certificates. Less than ten are teaching on third grades. No emergency certificates are issued and none have been since 1907. The passing grade for third grade certificates in this county is 65 per cent, the same as for second grades.

     Plainview has one of the very best and most modern school buildings in the state. This school does the normal training work and receives annually the $350 from the state. Last year this district received $465 from rural students who were admitted under the free high school act, and in addition to this amount the district received $121 from students who paid their own tuition. Near Plainview are two small Lutheran schools.

     Pierce has ten teachers The attendance in the high school is not large, but the grades are crowded. Pierce has a large Catholic school, two Lutheran schools in the city, and one having an enrollment of at least forty about three miles out.

     Osmond is just completing a modern school building. Six teachers are employed. The attendance throughout the various rooms is uniform. The district receives considerable tuition from rural pupils who attend under the free high school act. Osmond has a large Catholic school and a Lutheran school.

     Foster is building a four-room school building.

     Hadar has a one-room public school, and also a Lutheran school which has enrolled as high as seventy pupils in a single year.

     McLean has a two-room school building. The attendance is good, and the school sends a number of graduates to enter the Randolph and Osmond schools each year.

     A school boards' association was organized in 1904. A set of rules was published and same are obeyed quite generally. The association is not very active.

     The Teachers' Association meetings have been held under the direct supervision of the county superintendent. He presides at all meetings, and some local teacher acts as secretary.

     Over 80 per cent of the teachers attend the meeting of the North Nebraska Teachers' Association at Norfolk each spring. About 10 per cent attend the meeting of the State Association.

     All teachers do the reading circle work. The state rules on this are carried out.

     Every school district in the county has complied with the library law.



     No district receives or is entitled to a share of the state aid.

     The state course of study is used in every school in the county, rural schools, high schools and parochial schools.

     Eighth grade examinations have been conducted each spring during the past six years. A class composed of from thirty to forty rural students finish the eighth grade each year and receive high school admission certificates.

     I have conducted four county spelling contests. These contests did much to interest the people in our schools.

     Our average tax levy for school purposes (this average includes the levy for city schools) in this county has been about 11 mills each year for several years.

FRANK PILGER,          
County Superintendent.     


     Platte county has 6,708 children of school age, 125 well qualified teachers and 352 school officers who, as a whole, are wide awake as to instruction and equipment of the various schools in their charge.

     The professional spirit of the teaching force of the county is of the best; making the county association work and the annual institute large in attendance and results derived. Three county associations are held each year in which papers on timely school topics are read and discussed with enthusiasm. The exchange of ideas and pleasant social relations derived from the association work is doing much for the teachers and pupils of this county.

     According to a long established custom the annual institute is held during the third week of June in the assembly room of the Columbus high school. Four instructors are usually employed, who are requested to present only those things in their work which have been thoroughly tested and found worthy in every respect. The Platte county institutes are always well attended. It is only necessary to make the announcement in order to assure that all teachers will be present.

      The professional interest grade in this county is earned, not given. Each teacher receiving a per cent credit for each day of institute, county or state association attended.

     The reading circle work of the county is quite satisfactory. Noticeable results are obtained by those teachers who give ample time and attention to the subject.

     All schools of the county are now equipped with good libraries; many having sets of encyclopedias and other books of reference. Good results have been obtained by co-operating with the teachers and school boards as to the purchase of these books only, which will cultivate a desire for the best of literature. No serious trouble has been encountered in enforcing the library law. The majority of districts having yearly purchased library books previous to the passing of the law.

     The new course of study is producing the best of results in the



rural schools of the county. It has given the young teacher a better idea of what is expected of her in her work and is a worthy guide to the more experienced teacher. Our schools are in much better condition as to grades and uniformity of work throughout the county. Special instruction was given along this line during the institute of 1910.

     Eighth grade examinations are conducted by the different high school principals of the six towns of the county; thus making it quite convenient for all pupils wishing to take the examinations. All papers are graded by the county superintendent and only those who are worthy in every respect are permitted to pass.

     The school affairs of the county as a whole are quite satisfactory. The co-operation of teacher, patron and school board make the work along all lines quite pleasant and profitable.

FRED S. LECRON.           
County Superintendent.     


      Polk county has a teachers' association. We have from five to six general meetings each year. The attendance is good, but we do not expect teachers in outlying districts to come.

     The reading circle work is done by means of note books.

     Every school district in the county has a library.

     The normal training course in high schools in providing effectual rural teachers is a success. Beginners who would otherwise go into the school room without a conception of what a rural school is like and with only a hazy remembrance of having studied the common branches some four years ago, now go into the rural school with a fresh knowledge of the subjects to be taught, but with an humble attitude, because they realize the immensity of the work.

     In most schools the daily program is put up where all can see it.

     The course of study was not used as much last year as we hope to use it during this year.

     The standards fixed by the state are the requirements of Polk county for teachers.

     The work of the Boys' and Girls' Clubs is growing.

     Three eighth-grade examination dates were used this year, but no pupil was allowed more than two trials. Seventy-one passed. Two-thirds of these will go to high school.

LILLIE M. COLE,          
County Superintendent.     


     The Red Willow County Teachers' Association has held at least two meetings each year, taking the towns in the county in turn. The officers for 1909-1910 were: President, A. B. Gibbs, Lebanon; Vice president, W. A. Cockle, Bartley; secretary-treasurer, Lottie M. Watkins, Danbury. The meeting held in Danbury in March, 1910, had on its program the boys' and girls' spelling contest, in which Guy Grissel won the honors for Bartley.



     The Southwestern Nebraska Educational Association held its annual meeting in McCook in April, 1909. It was an enthusiastic gathering, with Dean Fordyce as a power on its program. The 1910 session of this association was held at Alma, with Superintendent C. W. Taylor as president. It was the largest meeting of the kind ever held in this part of the state, the enrollment reaching 451. Red Willow county sent forty-five. The program was an inspiration and caused many teachers to decide that these meetings are to be counted in their future plans.

     The reading circle work or its equivalent is being done by the greater number of our teachers. However, we feel that, as yet, it is not reaching just the ones who need it most, nor it is accomplishing all it should for the ones who take it. Our plans for the coming year hope to make the work of more value to those teachers who are out from towns and are unable to attend the meetings regularly.

     Nearly all our schools have libraries of some worth, a number of them excellent ones, and most of the boards have complied very cheerfully with the library law. A more careful selection of books and a more unified course of reading is to be desired.

     Only two districts in this county received state aid last year, and both of them are working to be on a better basis soon.

     Many of our teachers are well qualified, yet there have been some who have been unable to reach the required standard and have been obliged to drop out of the ranks. The normal training in the high school Is doing much for the beginners. Their work la more definite than the one who takes up the teacher's work without that training particularly in primary grades are they excelling. In their daily programs all teachers have been following as closely as possible the state course of study.

      One hundred and six pupils took the eighth grade examination last spring, thirty-six of them taking it only in part. Forty-two of this number received a diploma. These pupils with but one or two exceptions expect to enter the high school this fall.

     Many of the country boys and girls are taking the advantages offered them by the free high school tuition law. It is to be regretted, however, that la some cases worthy pupils are not allowed this tuition because their district is exempt from the free high school tax.

     Much is yet to be done in the matter of compelling the attendance of pupils at school. In most cases it is the parents who are to blame. The very severe winter helped in making a poor record, but since January 5, 1910, there were issued in this county 185 attendance certificates besides a fair number of diplomas end seals.

     My predecessors in office organized and carried out very successfully the industrial work leading up to the corn show and the Boys' and Girls' Clubs. The press makes the following comments on the 1908 contest:



     The Farmers' Institute and boys' corn growing and girls' cooking and sewing contests held in McCook last Saturday drew to the city a surprisingly large attendance of boys and girls, together with the parents and other interested parties from all over the county. Over 400 children made exhibits, and every child received for the effort, if not a premium or prize, at least the sum of 25 cents in cash.

     The whole affair, not only attendance and interest, but the quality of the exhibits and the variety and quality of corn, as well as the manner of display, was a distinct and large success."

     Of the 1909 corn show the following is given:

     "The Tribune takes pleasure in recording the conspicuous success of the Farmers' Institute, the boys' corn and potato growing and the girls' cooking and sewing contests, and the educational exhibit of last Saturday.

     The attendance was large and the interest of these present from all over Red Willow county was manifestly enthusiastic. The afternoon session in the Temple theater was largely attended and the program greatly enjoyed. The evening session drew a crowd of 500 or more.

     The Tribune wants to congratulate Miss Hatcher, Steve Boles and William Hiersekorn for their part in this affair. Next year we hope to add to the laurels already gathered. It is the biggest thing in sight in Rod Willow county."

     That is now our hope, "To add to the laurels already gathered," and to this end we are working. This year we have organized boys' and girls' clubs with more ready to enter as members as soon as there is room for them. Our further plans include better work in reading with contests which will lead to the district declamatory contest, sonic form of industrial work in every school, the better enforcement of the compulsory education law, and to help in unifying all the work, an organization of school officers of the county.

County Superintendent.     


     The county of Richardson is divided into three sections. The teachers in each section meet once a year. Each section invites the teachers of the county to meet with them. There is also held one general session of the association each year. Every teacher in the county is expected to attend two of these meetings.

     The school officers of the county have an organization. They meet once a year and discuss practical matters concerning the schools. Such questions as the consolidation of rural schools, sanitation of the school, courses of study, etc.

     Most of the county teachers do the reading circle work. The rural teachers cannot well meet in a reading circle, but they do the work individually and make notes, which are handed in to the county superintendent.



     Practically every district in the county has a library. The books in these libraries are usually not the best for the children to read.

     There has been no call for state aid in this county.

     At the beginning there was much doubt about the normal training in high schools. In this county the course of normal training was started at Humboldt and Falls City. It has proven to be a good thing. Among my best teachers are those trained under this system. Most of them have done their work so well that they were re-employed to continue in the same school at an increase of wages. The system should be continued and if possible more aid should be given.

     Each school in the county has been supplied with the state course of study. Last year the teachers followed the course as nearly as practicable. It will prove to be of great value, especially to the beginning teachers. Special days are observed in this county by many of the schools with appropriate exercises.

     The teachers of this county are usually quite well qualified. They have graduated from the high schools. A few of them from ten grades, but most of them from the eleven and twelve grade schools. The beginning teachers usually attend the summer school at Peru.

     The industrial work has not been successful in this county. Several attempts have been made, but only to arouse opposition. An effort will be made again this year. The prospects seem to be favorable.

     The eighth grade examinations arouse considerable interest. It is a great stimulus to the rural schools. Many pupils are anxious to complete the rural school that they may enter the high school. A large per cent of these who receive the eighth grade diploma enter the ninth grade in one of our eight high schools in the county. There is much opposition to the free high school law, but parents who have children make the application and the districts pay the tuition.

      Our compulsory attendance law is defective. The law needs to be amended. Children between the ages of 7 and 15 years should be compelled to attend school all the time until they have completed the eighth grade. If they are required to attend but two-thirds of the time the law ought to be amended so that it constitutes a misdemeanor if at the end of the school year the parent has not kept his child in school the required time, the teacher's record to be the principal evidence in the case. The school buildings in this county were built years ago, and with no special reference to heating, lighting and ventilating. The grounds are usually good and kept in fair condition. The schools are well supplied with text books. Many of them have globes, charts and wall maps. They are all supplied with a dictionary, and many of them have a school encyclopedia. My predecessor, Mr, George Crocker, did an excellent work in this county. He tried hard to raise the standard of the teaching force of the county. He was fairly successful in this. County superintendents know it is a hard and difficult



work. I have tried to keep up this work and to see that the teachers did good work in carrying out the course of study.

T. J. OLIVER.               
County Superintendent.     


     As a supplementary statement to my annual report to the state superintendent, I wish to mention some of the lines of work pursued during my official incumbency. In the administration of the duties of the office I have not attempted to give especial prominence to any one line of school work more than to another. I have endeavored to carry out all the lines of the work imposed upon me as implied in the school laws and as found in the rules in the bulletins furnished by the state superintendent. Visitations upon schools is one of the important duties of the superintendent. This duty, though arduous is both pleasant and profitable as it brings the superintendent to a knowledge of each teacher's work and gives an opportunity to apply correction when needed.

     Owing to the location of the towns in this county, I find the reading circle work the most difficult to accomplish. Many of the teachers of the county are from ten to fifteen miles from any town where a reading circle is organized. To such as have no way of reaching the towns the privilege of carrying out the work by the use of the note book has been granted. Long distances to towns, bad reads and bad weather, I believe, justify such a course. These note books are, at stated periods, sent to the office for inspection and correction.

     The school census each year indicates a decrease of the school population to such an extent in some of the rural districts as to make the consolidation of the districts desirable. I have advised districts adjoining towns to consolidate with the town districts that they may have the benefit of graded schools with less expenditure of money than by carrying on their individual country schools. So far we have not been able to do very much toward consolidation, though many districts are considering the advisability of uniting with the town districts.

     In two instances where the districts adjoined the towns, consolidation has been effected to the benefit of the districts concerned. To the Swanton district, having a ten-grade school and an old building, has been united an adjacent district, enabling the district thus formed to construct a modern school building, costing $14,000, and to place an additional grade in the school. In like manner the Tobias district became the beneficiary of a vacated district. In my judgment consolidation will be the only salvation of the small rural school.

D. G. HOPKINS.             
County Superintendent.     

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