1860 to 1900
At Molalla, the Sawtell family harvested their first crop of teasel. The family's farm was the only producer of teasel (an essential for processing wool) west of New York. The last crop of Oregon teasel was harvested in 1899 (by this time metal nappers had replaced teasel burrs in wool processing).
The city of Wilsonville, formerly in Yamhill County, became a part of Clackamas County.
The town of Glad Tidings received a US post office in 1860 (in 1867 changed to Butte Creek) .
Linn City boasted a population of over 200 this year. After the disasters of the next year, only two houses and a single warehouse remained standing at Linn.
Gold strikes at the Powder, John Day, and Burnt rivers and a general goldrush to Idaho began this year. With more strikes in Idaho and Montana, the rush continued through 1869. Like the previous Rogue River goldrush (and the later Alaskan Klondike rush), the influx of goldminers and opportunists brought an improved economy to suppliers and traders in Oregon.
The first Oregon State Fair opened near the future site of Gladstone. The entrance was next to the old Pow Wow maple on the Rinearson property and the parade ground was the former Indian racetrack nearby.
The Spencer Hill (Episcopal) Church added a girls' boarding school at Milwaukie.
By this time, regular stagecoach stops with stage houses had been established at Oregon City, Canby, and Aurora Colony in Clackamas County. There was also an Oregon City to Molalla line by 1861. On the Oregon Trail, there were stage stops every 10 to 20 miles. This certain source of supplies finally allowed emigrants to bring mules and horses rather than limit themselves to oxen and cattle.
A wooden strap-track (mule-pulled carts on rails) provided portage around the Willamette Falls on the east bank. A.L. Lovejoy, D.P. Thompson, and the Dement brothers constructed the track which was called the Portage Rail Road. The Road's route went from Canemah, down Basin Road, along Main and Water streets, to a warehouse on 8th in Oregon City.
The winter brought a severe freeze followed by a sudden thaw and floods. The high water of the 1861-62 flattened the drop at the Willamette Falls enough to tempt a ship's captain who wanted to switch from upper-river to lower-river trade. Captain S.R. Smith and Engineer Alonzo Vickers deliberately sailed the St. Claire over the Falls. The stunt went off without a hitch until the tiller rope broke in the swift waters. The St. Claire sailed into a house near the Oregon City Catholic Church but was later eased back into the channel.
This severe flood virtually washed away Linn, Canemah, Clackamas, and Multnomah cities. Most of the county's bridges and ferries were also destroyed in the flood.
Just before the flood, a fire destroyed the Moore family's steam ship the James Clinton, their warves, warehouses, and mill above Willamette Falls at Linn City. Arson by east bank business rivals was suspected in the $100,000 loss.
This flood swept away George Abernethy's store, mill, and house--some of the first structures built in Oregon City. Abernethy managed to find a buyer for his soggy property and moved to Portland.
The flood that washed away Canemah's boat-works and warehouses also fortuitously enlarged the breakwater and riverside docking area.
The Homestead Act of 1862 opened all public lands in the west for settlement. Each citizen could claim 160 acres and had five years to "prove up" (occupy and improve) the claim to earn full ownership. The Civil War interrupted travel to Oregon but this Homestead Act attracted many to the West after the war years.
By this year there were 39 school districts in Oregon.
Oregon began to export raw wool this year and the Civil War increased demand. By 1869, Oregon was shipping a million pounds of wool a year and successful wool mills were established at the Willamette Falls.
Litigation over Dr. John McLoughlin's land claim at Oregon City was finally settled five years after his death. His heirs-- daughter Eloise McLoughlin Harvey and (second) husband Daniel Harvey-- sold the rights to water power at the east side of the Willamette Falls to George LeRoque who operated the Imperial Flour Mill on the east shore. The next year, the rights were sold to new owners: John M. Moore, George Marshall, Samuel L. Stevens, and Joseph Sweiter.
Eventually, the Methodists obtained three blocks, 8 lots, and a $500 payment for their claim in Oregon City in a settlement reached by the U.S. Congress.
A.K. Olds, an associate of Matthew Patton, worked the furnace at Moore's establishment on the Tualatin River. Olds smelted iron ore from the Oswego (Sucker Lake) area and made tools.
The Klamath Reservation opened for Klamath, Modoc, and Paiute people driven from their homelands by white settlement.
A Catholic mission opened to serve settlers in the Milwaukie area of Clackamas County.
A woolen mill, the second in the State of Oregon, opened at Willamette Falls (owned by the Oregon City Manufacturing Company). Within two years the mill employed 80 workers and produced 20,000 yards within a single year.
The Cascade Road and Bridge Company took over Barlow Road and made improvements such as a bridge and log cordoroys on marshes and steep hills.
The People's Transportation Company purchased and improved the old wooden Portage Rail Road between Canemah and Oregon City.
William Quinn of Canemah began to grow tobacco in the county in 1865. Around this time Augustus J. Fanno was known as the "Onion King" for his extensive farm on Fanno Creek in Oswego. William Johnston operated another large onion enterprise at Clackamas. George H. Brown of New Era, the "Potato King," required two warehouses and a dock to process his potatoes, grown in rotation with clover and wheat to protect the soil's fertillity.
During this year, Joseph and Edward Kellogg (of the Portland Transportation Company) operated the steamer Yamhill along the Tualatin River from above the Willamette Falls to Hillsboro City. A connection from the Tualatin River to Sucker (Oswego) Lake and then a mere half-mile overland would shorten the journey and bypass the Falls.
This year or soon after the Kelloggs incorporated the "Sucker Lake and Tualatin River Rail Road" and constructed a wooden rail line. On this road, horses pulled carts along rails from Depot (later Colfax) landing on the Tualatin River to an arm of Sucker Lake. Steamers then took goods and passengers across the Lake to a landing on the west side. From here, a short road and ramp delivered cargo to steamships on the lower Willamette River.
The first paper mill in Oregon opened at Oregon City; paper was manufactured from rags, ropes, and old sails. William W. Buck's company (with partner Henry Pittock) on the east bank of the Willamette Falls was called the Pioneer Paper Manufacturing Company and the Oregon City Manufacturing Company (which also operated the west bank wool mill). A second mill was opened two years later. (Pittock eventually bought these mills and renamed the company Clackamas Paper Mills, 1870, and Clackamas Paper Company, 1879).
A bridge spanned the Molalla River at the site of the Harrison Wright Ferry.
D.C. Ireland (publisher of Portland's Morning Oregonian) founded the Oregon City Enterprise. This newspaper, later renamed the Morning Enterprise, became the leading newspaper of Clackamas County.
In 1866, the 27 families who held claims in the area decided to name their town Damascus.
Joseph C. Trullinger filed a new plat for the town of Oswego. Joseph and his brother Gabriel had recently returned from a highly successful stint in the California goldfields and were able to purchase part of Durham's Oswego property, Durham's mill, and all 74 acres owned by the Trinity School for their proposed town. Trullinger knew that the Oswego Iron Company (incorporated 1865 by W.S. Ladd, G.D. Wilbur, H.C. Leonard, and others) planned a new iron smelter for the site.
The Oswego Iron Company smelted ore in their new furnace for the first time in August 1867.
In Oregon City, the McLoughlin house--now surrounded by the industrial area around the mills--was sold and reopened as the Phoenix Hotel. (The Hawley Paper Company purchased its lot in 1909 and the historic home was moved to the top of Singer Hill).
After selling his land at Fish Eddy, Walter Fish bought William Barlow's grocery store in Oregon City. His wife roasted and prepared the 100 lb. -sack of green coffee imported for the store. Later, the Fishes added a hardware store and operated the only telegraph office in Oregon.
Captain Fellows, a ship builder and engineer, built an elegant home at Canemah this year. (The Gothic Revival style Fellows House has been preserved as an art gallery and restaurant).
A US post office opened at Eagle Creek.
Paiute Indians were removed to the Warm Springs Indian Reservation (partially within Clackamas County).
The Oregon City Manufacturing Company opened a second paper mill on the east bank of the Willamette Falls. Half of the workforce was Chinese.
In September 1868, the Willamette Falls Company began work on locks at the west side of the Falls (at this time, Linn City was gone--washed away in the 1861 flood). The company built a house for the lock keeper on Moore's abandoned claim. Lock construction did not begin in earnest until the project received funding from the State legislature in 1870.
Powered by Beaver and Parrott creeks, the New Era Roller Mill began producing Full Roller Home Pride brand flour.
The great Oregon railroad race began this year. A winner take all (right of way, land rights, and franchise) competition pitted Portland against East Portland in a race to construct a railroad between Canemah and the Portland stockyards. In Oregon's miniature version of the transcontinental railroad race, the westsiders' Portland Transportation Company raced with the eastsiders' Oregon Central Railroad Company.
Ben Holladay threw $1 million behind the eastside's Central Railroad. Holladay--a premier Oregon entrepreneur--had operated the Pony Express and monopolized the St. Louis to Sacramento stageline along with other lines to Salt Lake, Boise, Montana, Walla Walla, and Portland. He sold his assets to invest in the railroad scheme and organized a work force of Chinese emigrants from Portland and San Francisco. Railroad ties came from Holladay's mill in Milwaukie.
Holladay's eastsiders began by blasting hardrock to make a route along the bluff from Canemah to Oregon City.
By November, the westsiders appeared to be winning the race as the eastsider's 380-foot bridge span across the Clackamas River washed away in a flood.
Oregon's railroad race ended on Christmas Eve 1869, with the eastside company (Holladay's Portland Central) beating the westside Portland Transportation Company by two days. The route went 20 miles south from Portland's Brooklyn stockyards to Canemah. By the time the eastsiders had extended the rails south to New Era, the company's capital was gone and they sold to a German concern. Portland Central, however, had won the lucrative land grants awarded to the winner of the race.
The Golden Spike--hammered into a wooden tie at Promentory, Utah--united the eastern and western legs of the cross-continental railroad on May 10, 1869. While many still traveled the Oregon Trail by wagon or stagecoach, railroads became an easier, safer road to the Northwest. In the 1870's the rails led from Kansas City to Oakland, California, where emigrants could embark by steamer or stage to Oregon.
Without locks, the Willamette Falls were still a formidable barrier to shipping between the upper and lower Willamette River. There was, however, another way around the Falls: In 1869, the steamship Senator brought goods and passengers up the Willamette River to a landing at Oswego. After a short overland trek, passengers or cargo loaded onto the Minnehaha, steamed across Sucker Lake, and took the horse-pulled railroad to Colfax landing on the Tualatin River. At Colfax, they could board Kellog's side-wheeler, the Onward, and make way up the Tualatin to Hillsboro or down the Tualatin to the upper Willamette River.
In March 1869, the Tualatin River Navigation and Manufacturing Company bought Trullinger's Oswego townsite. The Company planned a canal for the railroad route from Colfax landing on the Tualatin River to Sucker Lake. Also planned was a Sucker Lake to Willamette River canal.
Due to a dispute over water rights, Oswego iron smelting company closed until 1874.
Another small pox epidemic swept through Oregon. At this time, small pox inoculations were readily available (at least in the eastern United States) but were not customary in the West.
The first official census of the Indian population of Oregon gave a total of 31, 705 people--a total now estimated at less than a tenth of the number living in the region before the invasion of Europeans and Americans. Of the survivors, 22,871 resided on reservations and 6500 lived as nomads. (The remainder were presumably homesteaders or mission residents.)
A new steam-powered ferry was launched by Chester (or Florian?) Harlow between Milwaukie (at the foot of Jefferson Street) and the south end of Macadam Ave.
By 1870, Holladay's Oregon & Central (later Oregon & California) Railroad extended from East Portland, through Oregon City, to Albany and Salem. By the next year it extended to Harrisburg and Eugene.
This same year, 1870, Ben Holladay filed a 24-block plat for Canby. He named the town for his friend, General Edward R.S. Canby. Canby, the US Army's Columbia Department commander, was killed in the Indian War in 1873 before he ever moved into the house Holladay built for him.
Work began in earnest on locks at the Willamette Falls after the legislature granted $200,000 in funding. Lower locks were cut into the rock wall and upper locks constructed of wood. The 40 foot wide and 210 foot long structure took two years to complete.
By 1871, the Canby community included stores, warehouses, and a post office (which replaced the earlier post offices at New Era, Butteville, and Champoeg). Albert H. Lee was the town's first railroad agent.
William Knight operated Knight's Merchantile at the northeast corner of First and Grant St. Knight had come West with the Aurora Colony and moved to Canby in 1868; he also served as Canby's first postmaster and opened its first hotel.
At Harrisburg, the first bridge spanned the Willamette River.
The rights to water power at the east side of the Willamette Falls, a claim once held by Oregon pioneer John McLoughlin, were deeded to entrepreneur Ben Holladay who had purchased the Willamette Transporation Company.
Holladay also had organized the Portland Street Railway Company by 1871.
Ben Holladay hired Chinese labor to build a canal between Colfax landing on the Tualatin River and Sucker (Oswego) Lake. The canal was completed in 1871, but the water in both the Tualatin and the canal was too low this year to allow the passage of steamships. In 1873, the first steamer, the sternwheeler Onward, sailed the Oswego Canal route from Sucker Lake to the Tualatin River. (The Willamette Falls locks made this canal route unnecessary.)
Another flood, reminiscent of the great flood of 1861, washed away buildings, bridges, roads, and ferries in Clackamas County.
Fendal Cason's covered bridge across the Clackamas River at Park Place was lost in this flood.
Fire rather than flood destroyed the highly successful woolen mill at Oregon City. Due to resentment over the mill's mostly Chinese work force, arson was suspected. The mill recovered from the 1872 fire, another fire in 1875, and a flood in 1890 but closed during the Depression.
By the end of 1872, four locks had been constructed on the west side of the Willamette Falls to raise or lower ships a total of 40 feet. A 1000-foot long basin was created at the top of the Willamette Falls. The first steamship navigated the locks on New Years Day, 1873.
Freight rates on the Willamette to Portland river route fell fifty per cent due to the new system of locks. Some 25,000 tons of freight moved past the Falls in the first year at the rate of 50 cents per ton and 10 cents per passenger.
The Modoc Indian War began this year.
Grange was organized in Oregon City, just 5 years after the national movement
Iron mining and smelting resumed at Oswego with the company under new owners.
William Knight built a school on Baker Prairie (North Holly Street) for the children of the Canby area.
Gabriel Trullinger (son of Daniel) opened Union Mill just east of Liberal.
Traffic could cross Knights [covered] Bridge over the Molalla River near Canby this year.
The Indian Allotment Act entitled each Indian adult to 40 irrigatable acres (or 80 dry acres).
The war against the Nez Perce began this year.
A new cherry variety, the Bing, was developed at the Luelling Farm. Its namesake was the six-foot-tall Chinese nursery foreman at the farm, Bing Ah.
A fish hatchery opened on the Clackamas River near Clear Creek--the first hatchery in Oregon and only the second in all of the United States. The town of Stone grew around the hatchery (near the landmark Baker cabin) and took its name from Livingstone, the hatchery's first superintendent.
Over the previous decade, 1870-1880, some 83,000 more people had come to live in Oregon. The next decade would triple the number of emigrants. Farming, however, would only double. During the 1880's and 1890's, Oregon changed from an agricultural pioneer society to an urban-industrial economy linked to the rest of the United States by railroads and commerce.
The Troutdale area had attracted an especially large number of emigrants from Germany. The town featured a post office this year and, in 1901, a Lutheran Church.
William Singer, who had been employed as a mill operator in the 1840's by John McLoughlin, started his own mill in Oregon City. His flourmill stood at the top of the cliff above the 7th Street steps and the mill used the power of nearby Singer Creek. (This creek used to form a waterfall as it flowed off the cliff to splash down near 8th Street; it is now mostly channeled or piped with an artificially created falls near the top).
The winter of 1880-81 was unusually severe. Strong winds downed trees and closed roads. The Willamette River froze solidly enough to be crossed by wagon.
Severe flooding wiped away a large number of bridges and ferries in Clackamas County.
The first public park opened in Clackamas County. Canemah Park--on the level area at the top of the bluffs above the Willamette Falls--was obliterated by the Hawley Paper Company's woodlot, then by the Roake Iron Works, and finally by the highway.
By this year, Wilhoit Springs featured a road, post office, and hotel. The two springs (one sulfur, one soda) on John Wilhoit's old Donation Land Claim had been developed into a popular resort by Frank W. McLeran.
As punishment for defeat in the Bannock War of 1878, the Bannock's reservation at Malheur was dissolved and the Bannocks sent to the Yakima Reservation.
This year, operation of the Barlow Road transfered to the Mt.Hood & Barlow Road Company. By this time, however, a railroad ran the length of the Columbia River providing a much more convenient route; the old road at the end of the Oregon Trail deteriorated until 1915 and the beginning of Oregon's automobile age.
Between this year and 1888, three railroads were constructed in Oregon. Trade and a population boom followed the routes. By this time, all of the most fertile land in the Willamette Valley was occupied. New emigrants took farms on more marginal lands to the east or contributed to urban populations and industrialization.
A new bridge spanned the Clackamas River in northern Oregon City.
The Benedictine Sisters opened a grade school in Oregon City in 1883. St. John's Parochial School eventually (by 1902) included a high school renamed the McLoughlin Institute (1907).
A post office opened in Willburgh (later spelled Willburg) named for a pioneer family of 1848. At this time, the area near Sellwood was a part of Multnomah County but it was later incorporated into Clackamas as Milwaukie City.
A new Clackamas County Courthouse was erected at 8th and Main.
At this time Oregon City was lit by kerosene street lamps, but the era of electricity had begun. The Portland Electric Power Company operated steam-powered electric dynamos for industry but none for homes or public streets. In 1884 the company's chief, Henry Villard, commissioned Swiss engineer P. Meisher to survey the hydro-electric power potential of the Willamette Falls.
The Methodist Episcopal Church opened at Second and Elm in Canby. Later moved a block away, it was renamed the Canby Pioneer Chapel.
Bryn Seion [Mt. Zion] Welsh Church opened at Beaver Creek in January 1884.
Work on the Willamette Falls's first fish ladder was completed in 1885. The Oregon legislature had appropriated funds for this project (on the west side of the Falls) in 1882; by this time breakwaters at the top of the Falls and blasting for mill-races had increased the height of the Falls beyond the leaping ability of migrating salmon.
By this year, regular passenger trains connected Portland with Oswego, paralleling Macadam road.
A new narrow-gauge railway replaced the canal and wooden track between Colfax on the Tualatin River and Sucker Lake. Just eight years later, 1895, government engineers declared the Tualatin River "unnavigatable" and the town of Colfax was no more.
E.L. Eastham (an entrepreneur with experience at the Niagra Falls hydro-electric project) and local businessmen (M.A. Stratton, T.L. Charman, and F.O. McGowan) incorporated the Oregon City Electric Company in May 1888. By September, the city council had authorized them to wire the city and, in October, nineteen electric lamps illuminated Main Street. More lights were strung at Oregon City's two railroad crossings.
By November 1888, an Edison Electric Dynamo powered the shoddy and excelsior mill on the west bank of the Falls.
A new suspension bridge was built on the lower (below the Falls) Willamette River at Oregon City. This bridge--a 470 foot span--was not replaced until 1921.
In Canby, school district 86 was organized to provide public education.
The first long-distance transmission of electricity in the United States occurred as a generator in West Linn delivered power for the streetlights of Portland in June 1889. The 13 mile transfer of power went from the Willamette Falls Electric Company's Station A on Black Point Island, along Old River Road to Oswego, and then on to Portland. Soon electric cars ran in Portland from the Fulton Station on Macadam to Albina on the east side.
The Willamette Falls Pulp and Paper Company opened at Oregon City. Early paper manufacture relied on old cloth and rope and eventually added cottonwood. By the mid-1880's new technology incorporated sawmill waste and eventually wood was ground by paper mills expressly for use as pulp.
In this year, the Springwater Presbyterian Church opened.
Crown Mill opened at West Linn. The Hawley Paper Company (which operated the Imperial Mill) bought the Crown Mill two years later.
A flood at Willamette Falls put the electricity-powered shoddy/excelsior mill out of commission for three months. Otherwise, Oregon City was modernizing with an expansion of its electric street railroad and a franchise for Oregon Telephone and Telegraph.
The Portland-Oregon City Interurban Line, an electric transport financed by George Steel, brought passengers to Portland from Oregon City for the first time this year.
Sacred Heart Catholic Church opened in Oswego, Clackamas County.
Oswego's iron industry enjoyed a brief boom after Oregon Iron & Steel took over operations and built a new plant.
After the flood of 1890, the Bendictine Sisters (founders of St. John's Parochial) opened a school for orphans and wayward girls at a site in Park Place just south of the Clackamas River (the former Hiram Straight Donation Land Claim).
Seth Luelling and William S. U'Ren, both of Clackamas County, were leaders in the State's new Populism movement which called for the institution of referendum and recall, a direct primary, a single tax, and the popular election of Senators.
A new electric car line reached Willamette, just south of Linn City proper. On this previously-settled land claim (James Moore in 1847), the Willamette Falls Electric Company established a town. During the steamer era Willamette had a landing and more recently had provided wood for Willamette Pulp and Paper Company.
Electric lights were added to Oregon City's suspension bridge over the lower Willamette River.
The Three Sisters newspaper began publication in Canby this year (and lasted through 1894); the paper took its name from the "ABC Towns" of Aurora, Barlow, and Canby. This year a new school was built on Northwest Fourth, and Carleton & Rosecrans Department store opened its doors to customers in Canby.
Canby's Depot was built this year. (This station stayed open until 1976. The Depot and its 1891 warehouse were moved and preserved as a museum in 1983).
The Bolton School (West Linn) opened in Mr. Cramer's store. Sunset school began two years before and Stafford School opened around this time.
By this time the old breakwater above the Falls on the east bank was deteriorating and the west side boat canal was threatened. Engineer Thomas W. Sullivan of the Portland General Electric Company designed a way to divert the drift of river debris into the center of the Willamette by constructing two enormous concrete columns on either side of the Falls. The engineer's design never worked well however, and the concrete pillars were dubbed "Sullivan's Folly." Sullivan's wooden cribbing, designed to raise the water level in the area just above the Falls had worked well in 1889 and he would return to design more modifications for the Falls in 1904. This work, a concrete rim to replace the wooden cribbing, was completed in 1907 and raised the water level to 52 feet above sea level.
Dams now extended the full width of the Willamette Falls and the passage of migrating salmon had been drastically reduced. A new, 600 foot-long channel for a fish ladder was blasted into the face of the Falls, preserving a small fraction of the migration. With improvements in 1896 and 1904, this same ladder served the Falls until 1966.
Work was completed this year on an extension of the eastside electric line from Sellwood to Oregon City. (The line was extended to Canemah in 1901). The westside also had an electric line: the Willamette Falls Electric Line (also called the Tualatin & Willamette) began in 1891 with a line from the Willamette Falls Pulp and Paper Mill to a large stand of trees. By the early 1890's, this line connected the area that would later become West Linn City including Bolton (at the north), West Oregon City (or Sunset, in the middle), and Willamette (formerly Hardscrabble, at the south). This line was later extended to the Stafford area.
The 200 residents of Canby incorporated their town this year. Also in 1893, the German Evangelical Church opened on Southeast Township Road, Canby. At this time, the site of the future (and present day) Canby Ferry was called Shanks Landing. Steamboats on the Willamette River regularly stopped to collect milk from George and Mary (McEwan) Shanks's farm.
Oregon, which had been in an economic depression, recovered after gold was discovered in the Klondike and out of state commerce revived.
Iron mining and smelting operations at Oswego shut down permanently.
Newly incorporated Canby established a jail in the spring of 1894. In part, the town had organized to combat drunken lawlessness.
A Clackamas County landmark--Wanker's Corner--had its beginning this year. Frederick and Liza Wanker held a claim near the juncture of the Tualatin River and Oswego Canal. Frederick's brother John and his wife Dora Wanker were nearby with a home on Stafford (about one-fourth mile south of present day Borland Road and 1-and- one-half miles from Stafford School). The Wanker family cut cordwood to provide cork for the iron furnace at Oswego. In 1895, they purchased the Athey's original Donation Land Claim, at the site of the northwest corner of Borland and Stafford roads. John and Dora's son later built the familiar grocery at Wanker's Corner. Eventually a saloon was added.
At Logan, settlers established the [Old] German Methodist Church. The building was later (1967) moved to Carver near the Baker Cabin for display.
A school opened for students in Willamette (south West Linn).
The Oregon Legislature took two parcels of a Sellwood tract from Multnomah County and annexed them to Clackamas County.
An Oregon contingent left for the Spanish American War.
In Canby, the Christain Church opened on the corner of Northwest Fourth and Holly.
Spanish American War veterans were welcomed back to Oregon with a celebration at Canemah in August, 1899.
The first automobile manufactured in Oregon was assembled at Frank Zollinger's garage shop in Canby. Completed on the 4th of July, the car's engine was modified from a gasoline-powered wood saw.
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