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Janine M. Bork
A special thanks to Marjorie
Rundall Campbell for allowing these books to
be transcribed. Please send her a big thanks for lending me the books.
History Of The Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington
Original Copyright 1889
Compiled and Published by the
North Pacific History Company
of Portland, Oregon
Contents of Volume I
(Page 1 - 10)
To Discover a Sea-path from Europe to India, the Incentive of Pacific Coast Exploration - Voyages, whether Eastward or Westward from Europe, alike and necessarily Precursors of the Discovery of Northwest America - Reputed Discoveries by the Cabots and Cortereal - The Strait of Anian Myth - Fictitious Narratives of Pretended Voyages of Maldonado, de Fuca and de Foute Stimulated North Pacific Exploration.
(1513 - 1543.)
Page 11 - 15
Balboa Crosses the Continent and Discovers the Pacific Ocean - Pioneer Explorations on the West Coast of North America. Adjacent to the Isthmus and Working Northward - Magellan Passes Through the Strait which Bears his Name, Enters and Nominates the Pacific Ocean - Cortez Discovers and Subjugates Mexico - Voyages of Mendoza, Grijalva, Becarra, Ulloa, Alarcon, Cabrillo, and Ferrelo on the West Coast of America - The Pacific Coast Examined from Panama Northward to Cape Mendocino.
(1556 - 1603.)
Page 16 - 19
Spain Conquers the Philippine Islands - Unlaneta's Return Voyages Eastward from Manilla to Acapulco - Commercial Voyages Between Manilla and Mexico - Voyages of Francisco de Gaili - Cruise of Sir Francis Drake - Takes Possession, Calling the Coast New Albion - Voyages of Thomas Cavendish - Voyages of Vizcaino - Cruise of Martin De Aguilar - Change of Maritime Policy of Spain.
(1613 - 1779.)
Page 20 - 26
Cape Horn Discovered by the Dutch - Theories for Effecting Direct Communication Between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, or Between Western Europe and the East Indies - Russian and Siberian Voyages in the North Pacific, and Discoveries on the Northwest Coast of America.
(1683 - 1770.)
Page 27 - 30
Spanish Settlements on the Coast of California - Jesuit Missionary Conquest of Lower California - Expulsion of the Jesuits by Charles III. - The Franciscans Establish Missions in Upper California - Inland Discovery and Settlement of San Diego, San Francisco and Monterey - California's Department of Spain, its Northern Boundary Undefined.
(1774 - 1779.)
Page 31 - 33
Renewal of Spanish Exploration on the North Pacific - Voyages of Perez, Heceta, Bodega and Arteaga
(1776 - 1779.)
Page 34 - 38
Great Britain Turns Attention to Discoveries on the Northwest Coast of America - Voyages of Captain James Cook - British Assertion of Claim to Discovery by Sir Francis Drake of New Albion - Captain Cook Denies Existence of Strait of Fuca - Murder of Captain Cook, Succeeded in Command by Captain Clerke - Death of Captain Clerke - Lieutenant Gore, a Native of Virginia, in Command - Sails to China with Collection of Furs - Growing Importance of Fur and East India Trade.
(1785 - 1796.)
Page 39 - 48
The Nootka Treaty Between Spain and Great Britain, and the Events Culminating Therein - Nootka Sound the Resort for Vessels Engaging in the Fur Trade - The King George's Sound Company - Voyages of Portlock and Dixon - The Latter Discovers the Channel Separating Queen Charlotte's Island from the Continent - Meares and Tipping on Northwest Coast Under License of East India Company - Voyages of Meares Under Portuguese Flag - Makes Settlement at Nootka, and Builds Schooner Northwest America - Arrival at Nootka of American Vessels Washington and Columbia - Martinez Seizes Iphigenia and Northwest America - Arrival of Princess Royal and Argonaut - Martinez Seizes Them - Difficulties Between Spain and Great Britain - The Nootka Treaty, or Convention of the Escurial - Arrival at Nootka Sound of Captain Vancouver, British Commissioner, to Receive Restitution of Property of British Subjects - Unsuccessful Negotiations Between Señor Quadra and Vancouver - Final Restitution to British Subjects of Seized Property - Spain and Great Britain Abandon Nootka Sound.
(1787 - 1792. )
Page 49 - 56
Strait of Juan de Fuca Discovered - Examinations of Strait by Meares, Gray, Kendrick and Spanish Navigators - Vancouver's Survey of Strait, Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound and Gulf of Georgia - Discovery of Columbia River - Trade of North Pacific Coast Exclusively Enjoyed by American Vessels - Tragic Fate of Crew of Ship Boston - National Character Ascribed to Several Portions of North Pacific Coast - Termination of Coastwise Voyages of Discovery - Coast Between Forty-three and Fifty-five Degrees Latitude Claimed by Spain, Great Britain and United States.
(1766 - 1793.)
Page 57 - 66
First Rumors as to Existence of Rocky Mountains and Great River Beyond Flowing Westward to South Sea - Fabulous Stories of Hennepin, La Hontan and Others Stimulate Interior Exploration - The Verendryes, First White Men to Explore Rocky Mountains - Story of a Yazoo Indian, the First to Traverse Continent Between the Two Oceans, as Detailed to La Page - Origin of the Name Oregon - Journal of Captain Jonathan Carver - Indian Idea of Interior of North America - Indian Knowledge of Great Rivers Rising in Interior of North America - Their Stories About the Great River of the West - That the Word Oregon is of Spanish Origin, Inconsistent with Carver's Use of It, nor is It an Indian Name - Overland Exploration Inaugurated in Prosecution of Inland Fur Trade - North West Company - Two Expeditions of Alexander McKenzie - First Party of White Men Cross Rocky Mountains and Reach the Pacific Ocean.
(1792 - 1810.)
Page 67 - 75
Western Limits of the United States of America - Purchase of Louisiana - Abortive Projects for Northwestern Exploration - Expedition of Lewis and Clark to the Mouth of the Columbia River - The North West Company Establishes a Trading Post West of the Rocky Mountains - The Missouri Fur Company - Commercial Enterprises of Citizens of the United States in Northwest America - Captain Winship, in the Albatross, Attempts an Establishment at Oak Point, on the Columbia River.
(1810 - 1818.)
Page 76 - 88
John Jacob Astor Organizes the Pacific Fur Company - Intriguing Policy of the North West Company - Treacherous Conduct of Mr. Astor's Partners - Parties Sent by Sea and Overland to the Mouth of the Columbia River - Founding of Astoria - Loss of the Ship Tonquin - Launch of the Schooner Dolly, the First United States Vessel Built on the Pacific Coast - Pacific Fur Company Dissolved by British Partners - Transfer of Astor's Stock and Establishment to North West Company - The British Sloop-of-War Raccoon Captures Astoria - Name Changed to Fort George - End of Pacific Fur Company - American Employés Leave the Country - British Enter North West Company's Service - Restoration of Astoria Under Treaty of Ghent.
(1814 - 1824.)
Page 89 - 94
The North West Company Exclusive Occupants of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains - Antecedent History and Policy of Said Company - Rivalry and Open Hostility Between the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies - Adjustment of the Differences by a Partnership in Fur Trade Prosecuted Under Charter of Hudson's Bay Company - License of Exclusive Trade Extending to the Pacific Ocean Granted by the British Government - The Hudson's Bay Company Succeed to All Rights Under Said License - The North West Company Merged Into the Hudson's Bay Company.
(1824 - 1846.)
Page 95 - 98
The Hudson's Bay Company the Exclusive Occupants of Oregon - Charter of the Company - License of Trade - Internal Organization - Employés and Their Distribution.
Page 99 - 102
The Hudson's Bay Company Secures a New License of Trade, May 31, 1838 - Its System of Trade.
(1838 - 1846.)
Page 103 - 110
Political Mission of Hudson's Bay Company in Oregon, to Strengthen British Claim - Their Establishments - Gradual Abandonment of Posts, and Contraction of Operations - The Puget Sound Agricultural Company - Its Objects and Plan of Operations.
(1823 - 1836)
Page 111 - 119
American Trade Enterprises in the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains - Expedition of William H. Ashley - Jackson, Sublette and Smith Form the Rocky Mountain Fur Company - American Trading Vessels in the Columbia River - Wagons Brought to the Rocky Mountains - South Pass - Pilcher's Expeditions - First Overland Expedition, Captain Wyeth, to Columbia River - First School West of the Rocky Mountains - Captain Bonneville's Expedition - Captain Wyeth's Second Enterprise - He Establishes Fort Hall and Williams.
(1807 - 1827.)
Page 120 - 133
Conflicting Claims to Northwestern Coast of America - Abortive Efforts to Settle the Boundary of Respective Possessions - Capture and Surrender of Astoria - Convention of 1818 - United States Acquires the Spanish Claim by Florida Treaty - Russia Limited to Making Settlements Northward of Fifty-four Degrees, Forty Minutes by Conventions with Great Britain and United States - That Parallel Becomes the Northern Boundary of the Oregon Territory - Great Britain and the United States the Only Claimants of Oregon - Treaty of 1827.
(1820 - 1829.)
Page 134 - 139
Proceedings in Congress Relative to Sole Occupancy of Oregon and Extension Over It of Federal Jurisdiction - Efforts to Establish a Territorial Government.
(1831 - 1844.)
Page 140 - 148
Negotiations Resumed Between Great Britain and the United States - Résumé of Status of Claimants - Presidential Election, 1844.
(1835 - 1846)
Page 149 - 169
Congressional and Executive Actions - The Oregon Question an Element of American Politics - Presidential Election, 1844 - The Treaty of Limits, June 15, 1846.
Page 170 - 173
Settlement of Oregon - Internal Condition of the Territory - Its Elements of Colonization - Native Population, Number, Distribution, Characteristics, Disposition, or Relation to the Several White Races Present.
(1821 - 1846.)
Page 174 - 181
Hudson's Bay Company Officers, Employés and Retired Servants - Biographic Sketches of Dr. John McLoughlin, Peter Skeen Ogden, James Douglas and William Fraser Tolmie, Chief Factors of Hudson's Bay Company - Notices of Alex C. Anderson, George B. Roberts and Archibald McKinley - Early Settlers of French Prairie - First Settlement at Oregon City.
Page 182 - 185
American Settlements - Personnel of Independent Residents of Oregon - First Expedition of Captain N.J. Wyeth - First School West of Rocky Mountains - Second Expedition of Captain Wyeth - Ewing Young and Hall J. Kelley - Immigrants of 1835.
(1834 - 1844.)
Page 186 - 192
The Oregon Methodist Mission - Visit of Flathead Indians to St. Louis, Asking Missionaries - Formation of Oregon Methodist-Episcopal Mission - Rev. Jason Lee and Associates Journey to Oregon, 1834 - Establishment of Mission in Willamette Valley - Schools Established at Willamette and Fort Vancouver - Missionary Efforts to Christianize Indians - Arrival of Dr. Elijah White, Rev. David Leslie and Others - Status of the Mission - It Abandons the Indian Work - The Oregon Institute Founded - Prominent in Every Popular Enterprise - Rev. Jason Lee Succeeded by Rev. George Gary - Character of the Mission Changed - Effects of Presence of Methodist Mission in Oregon.
(1835 - 1848.)
Page 193 - 207
Establishment of the Oregon Mission Under the Auspices of the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions.
(1838 - 1848.)
Page 208 - 213
The Roman Catholic Mission.
(1836 - 1840.)
Page 214 - 222
Young and Carmichael Abandon Erection of Distillery - Formation of the California Cattle Company - Visit to Willamette by Purser Slacum, U.S. Navy, Special Agent - First Petition to Congress of J.L. Whitcom and Others - Farnham, Holman and Others Leave Peoria, Illinois, for Oregon - Sir Edward Belcher's Surveying Expedition in Columbia River - Arrival of Rev. J.S. Griffin - Missionary Party of Clark, Smith and Littlejohn - Dr. Robert Newell Brings Wagons to Fort Walla Walla - Population of Territory at Close of 1840.
Page 223 - 230
Abortive Effort to Form a Provisional Government - The United States Exploring Expedition - Captain Wilkes, United States Navy - First Fourth of July on Puget Sound - The Red River Colony to Puget Sound.
Page 231 - 235
Appointment of Dr. White as Sub Indian Agent - Frémont's First Expedition to the South Pass - Immigration of 1842 - Efforts Renewed to Form a Provisional Government - White's Importance as a Public Functionary - Citizens of Tualitan Plains Combine to Protect Themselves Against Evil-doers - White's Administration of Indian Affairs in the Interior - His Reports to the War Department.
Page 236 - 241
Agitation of the Question of Formation of Government - The "Wolf Meeting" - Committee of Twelve to Report a Plan for Protection of the Settlement - The Formation of a Government and Election of Officers - First Legislative Committee - Its Reports of an Organic Law - Division of the Territory into Districts - The People Approve the Organic Law - Boundaries of Territory.
Page 242 - 261
Sad Accident Near Willamette Falls - Departure of Immigrants of '42 for California - The "Petition of 1843," Its Authorship and Contents - Dr. John McLoughlin's Answer to Its Charges - Cattle Policy of the Hudson's Bay Company - Dr. John McLoughlin's Statement as to Formation of California Cattle Company - Rev. Daniel Lee's Statement as to Said Company - Oregon City Claim - Rev. George Gary, Superintendent of Oregon Methodist Mission, Sells Its Property to Dr. McLoughlin - Section Eleven of Donation Law of September 27, 1850 - The Immigration of 1843 - The Cattle Contract - Frémont's Second Expedition.
Page 262 - 276
Oregon Under the Provisional Government - Indian depredations at Willamette Falls - Death of George W. Le Breton - Arming of Citizens for Defense - Amendment to Organic Law, 1844 - Prohibitory Liquor Law - First American Settlement North of the Columbia River - Oregon City Incorporated, the First Municipality West of the Rocky Mountains - Incorporation of Oregon Institute - George Aberneth Elected Governor, 1845 - Petition of Provisional Government to Congress - Visit and Report of Lieutenant Neil M. Howison, U.S. Navy - Wreck of the U.S. Schooner Shark - Lieutenant Howison Presents Her Colors to the Provisional Government - Reception of the News of the Treaty of June 15, 1846.
(1847 - 1848.)
Page 277 - 288
Governer Abernethy's Message - Resolutions to Raise a Company of Mounted Riflemen for Immediate Service at Dalles - Citizen's Meeting - First Company Enrolled - Legislature Authorizes Raising a Regiment - Gilliam Elected Colonel; Other Officers - Efforts to Procure a Loan - Joel Palmer Appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs - Peace Commission Appointed - Arrival of the Rescued Captives - Whitman Massacre - Skirmish with Hostiles Near Dalles - Advance of Colonel Gilliam with Troops - Fight at the Steve Meek Cut-off - Gilliam Marches for Waiilatpu - His Campaign on the Touchet - Victory Over the Palouses - Death of Colonel Gilliam - Maxon in Command - Appeal for Provisions and Reinforcements - Lee Appointed Colonel by the Governor, and Also Superintendent of Indian Affairs - Lee Generously Gives Place to Lieutenant-Colonel Waters, Who is Promoted to Colonelcy - Lee Accepts Commission as Lieutenant-Colonel - March Into Nez Perce Country - Close of Campaign - Battle of the Abiqua.
(1846 - 1848.)
Page 289 - 299
Oregon's Struggle in Congress to Become a Territorial Government.
(1848 - 1849.)
Page 300 - 304
The Last Days of the Provisional Government - The Discovery of Gold in California - Exodus to the New Gold Fields - Coinage of Beaver Money - Last Session of the Legislature of the Provisional Government - Progress of American Settlements on Puget Sound - Return of Delegates Thornton and Meek - Appointees to the Territorial Offices - The Provisional Government Superseded by Governor Lane's Proclamation Announcing Organization of Territory.
(1849 - 1851.)
Page 305 - 313
Census - Superintendent Lane Visits Columbia River Tribes - Attack by Snoqualmies on Fort Nisqually - Murder of Leander C. Wallace - Hostile Attitude of Snoqualmies - White Settlers Build Blockhouses - Governor Lane Arrives at Tumwater - Judicial Districts Declared, and Judges Assigned - Sub Indian Agents Thornton and Newell - Election of Samuel R. Thurston, Delegate to Congress - Meeting of Legislature - Names of Counties Changed - Towns in Oregon - Sub-Agent Thornton Visits Puget Sound - Reward for Wallace's Murderers - Action Disapproved by Governor Lane - Thornton Resigns - Trial and Execution of the Murderers - Arrival of Mounted Rifle Regiment - Deserters to California Gold Fields - Surrender, Trial and Execution of Murderers of the Whitmans - Major John P. Gaines Appointed Governor - Governor Lane Resigns, to Take Effect June 18th, and Leaves for California Mines - Arrival of the United States Steamer Massachusetts - General Adair, Collector of Customs, Astoria - Seizure of the British Ship Albion at New Dungeness - Survey of Columbia River - Lieutenant McArthur - The Ship Albion Condemned as a Forfeiture - Seizure and Release of the Schooner Cadboro - Progress of Settlements on Puget Sound - Oysters Discovered at Shoalwater Bay - United States Census, 1850.
(1850 - 1853.)
Page 314 - 332
President Taylor's Appointments of Territorial Officers - Their Arrival in the Territory - Mail Service and Steamers Between San Francisco and Portland - Passage of Donation Law - Titles to Private Land Claims - Publication of Western Star, Oregonian and Oregon Statesman - Session of Legislature, 1850-51 - Building of Steamer Lot Whitcomb - New Counties Organized - Remodeling Judicial Districts- Location of Public Buildings - Death of Samuel R. Thurston - Arrival of Chief Justice Nelson - The Oregon Party - Election of General Lane as Delegate to Congress - Seat of Government Controversy - Quorum Supreme Court Meets at Oregon City, and Decides It to be the Seat of Government - Judge Pratt Holds Supreme Court at Salem - In a Letter Dissents from Justices Nelson and Strong - Quorum of Legislative Assembly Meets at Salem - Session of 1851-52 - Minority at Oregon City - Thurston County Organized - President Filmore's Official Message on Capital Controversy - Congress Intervenes, Declares Salem the Seat of Government, and Ratifies Laws Passed Thereat, Session 1851-52 - Extra Session of Legislature - Renewed Personal Rancor Growing Out of Decision as to Iowa Laws in Force by Legislation of Provisional Government - Judge Deady's Historic Notice of "Steamboat Code" and the "Blue Books" - Progress of Settlements North of Columbia River - Legislation of 1852-53 - Creation of New Counties - Judicial Districts Reconstructed - Division of the Territory.
(1850 - 1853.)
Page 333 - 349
Exclusive Reference to Historic Acts North of the Columbia River Explained - Legislative Representation - United States Census, 1850 - Status of Settlement North of the Columbia at That Date - Historic View of Progress of Settlements Upon the Banks of the Columbia - Incubus to Settlement of Vancouver - Conflicting Claims to Site - Settlements North of River, and North of Olympia - Edmund A. Starling, Indian Agent, Puget Sound District - The Collection District of Puget Sound Established - Arrival of Revenue Officers - Disastrous Expedition of Gold Hunters to Queen Charlotte's Island in Sloop Georgianna - Wreck of Sloop - Passengers Taken Captive by Hydah Indians - Ransom of Captives - Seizure of Steamer Beaver and Brig Mary Dare at Olympia - First Term of District Court at Olympia - First Commemoration of Independence Day at Olympia - Division of Territory - Monticello Convention - Congress Establishes the Territory of Washington.
(1853 - 1859.)
Page 350 - 367
Appointments of Territorial Officers by President Pierce - Reconstruction of Judicial Districts - The Election of General Lane to Congress - Arrival of Governor John W. Davis - Session of Legislature, 1853-54 - First Attempt to Call a Constitutional Convention - George L. Curry Succeeds Governor Davis - Session of Legislature, 1854 - Multnomah County Established - Legislative and Congressional Proceedings as to the Admission of Oregon as a State - Ex-Governor Gaines Nominated by Whigs for Delgateship - Election of June, 1855 - General Lane Re-elected - The Constitutional convention Defeated - Re-agitation of Location of Capital - Session of Legislature, 1855-56 - Counties of Curry and Josephine Organized - Organization of the Republican Party in Oregon - General Lane Renominated by Democrats - The Opposition Supports George W. Lawson, Independent Free-Soil Democrat - Election of June, 1857 - General Lane Re-elected - Large Majority for Constitutional Convention - Session of Legislature, 1857 - Election of 1858 - L.F. Grover Elected to Congress - State Organization - General Lane and Delazon Smith Elected United States Senators - Session of Legislature, 1858 - Oregon Admitted as a State, February 14, 1859.
(1827 - 1847.)
Page 368 - 374
Southern Oregon - Natural Divisions - Topographical Features - Early Immigration - First Settlement - Introduction of Cattle - Emigrant Wagon Road - Heroic Corporation - Pioneer Road Builders - Frémont's Old Camp - Exploring Southeastern Oregon - First Immigrant Train Through Southern Oregon.
(1848 - 1850.)
Page 375 - 380
Early Argonauts - First American Settlements South of
the Calapooias - A Friend of the Whites - United States Regulars in Southern
Oregon - Half a Regiment Deserts - Fighting Their Way to the Gold Fields
- Relief for the Deserters - A Soldier for Dinner - Dogs for Supper
- First Cattle in Oregon - Forcing a Treaty of Peace - First Civilized
Vessel to Enter the Umpqua River - Trying to Boom the Country - Founding
of Umpqua City, Gardiner, Scottsburg and Winchester - Organization of Umpqua
(1850 - 1851)
Page 381 - 388
Gold in Southern Oregon - Ambushed by Savages - General Phil Kearney - The Settlers' Appeal - Gallantly Answered - The Military Worsted - Heroic Conduct - Death of Captain Stewart - Reinforcements by Volunteers - General Jo Lane at the Front - The Indians Beaten - A Bad Appointment.
Page 389 - 396
Settlement and Organization of Umpqua County - First County Election - First Postoffices and Postmasters - Pioneer Merchants - United States Collector of Customs - Shipping - Discovery and Settlement of Port Orford - Desperate Fight with Savages - Indians Become Acquainted with Cannon - Disastrous Ending of First Settlement - Second Attempt to Settle Port Orford - Disastrous Explorations - Humane Indian Boy - Inhuman Massacre - Savage Butchery and Cremation - The First Indian Mission - A Disgraceful Failure - Military Expedition - Settlement of Rogue River Valley - Discovery of Gold - Saw-mills and Grist-mills.
Page 397 - 407
Douglas and Jackson Counties Created - First Election - First Court in the Southern District - Early Merchants - Pioneer Lawyers and Doctors - Pony Expresses and Territorial Roads - U.S. Mail Route - Gold Discovered at Rogue River - Gaines' Futile Treaty - Marauding Indians - Volunteers Called Out - War with the Savages - Settlers Favor a Treaty - Captain Lamerick Banqueted - Heroism of the Pioneers - The Government's Neglect of Settlers and Volunteers - Protecting and Relieving Immigrants - Indian Ambuscades and Savage Murders - White Women and Children Butchered - The Settlers to the Rescue - Captain Ben Wright Wreaks Revenge - Disaster at Port Orford - Prosperity on the Umpqua - A Hard Winter.
Page 408 - 426
Judge Deady's First Term - The Trial of Joseph Knott - Murderous Savages - Settlers and Miners Assassinated and Robbed - Securing Arms - Direful Fate of White Victims - Volunteers Called For to Protect the Settlements - Heroic Response - The First Skirmish - Jackson County Appeals to the Governor of the Territory - General Lane Besought to Help His Fellow Citizens - His Prompt Response - Nesmith and Grover Volunteer - Indians Captured - Perfidy of Surrendered Savages - Combination of Indian Tribes to Exterminate the Whites - Fortified at Table Rock - Pursuing the Savage Warriors - Fatal Conflicts - General Lane in the Field Ahead of His Commission - Energetic and Successful Prosecution of the War - A Pitched Battle - Colonel Alden and General Lane Wounded - Surrender of the Indians - Flags of Honor - General Smith's Heroic March - Treating for Peace - General Lane and Ten Unarmed Negotiators Threatened with Base Murder - Conclusion and Terms of the Treaty - Retaliatory Depredations - Protecting the Immigrant Trains - Fighting on the Overland Trail - Conduct of the Treaty Indians - Ill Treatment of the Volunteers by the National government - Pony Expresses - Mines and Mining - Other Industries - First Courts in Jackson and Douglas Counties - Murderers Hanged - More Indians Punished - Many Settlers Assassinated by the Savages - Discovery of Gold - The Coos Bay Company and Settlement.
Page 427 - 430
Mild Weather and Prosperous Times - A New Territory Projected. - Conventions Held - The Oregon Legislature - How Roseburg Became the County Seat - Milling Industries - Gold on the Seashore - The First Coal from Coos Bay - Disastrous Navigation - First Newspaper in Southern Oregon - First Term of Court at Empire City - Protection of Immigrants - Captain Walker's Volunteer Company - Serious Engagement with the Indians - Repulsed by the Savages - Patriotism of the Volunteers.
Page 431 - 444
Promised Prosperity Brings Indian Wars to Southern Oregon - New Land District - Hon. L.F. Mosher Appointed Register; George W. Lawson, Receiver - Indian Depredations - The Savages Pursued; They Retreat to the Reservation - Other Savage Murders - Volunteers Organize and Take the Field - Successful Operations - Conduct of the Whites - A Dark and Memorable Day - The Savages Inaugurate a General War to Exterminate the Pioneers of the Pacific Northwest - Numerous Murders - Volunteers to the Rescue - United States Troops Take the Field - Organization of Settlers for Defense and Protection - Inhuman and Savage Butchery of Men, Women and Children, Murdered by the Indians - General Curry Calls for Volunteers - Desperate Conflicts - The Savages Victorious - Reorganization for the War - Plan of Campaign - The Closing Events of the Year.
Page 445 - 458
The Indian War in Southern Oregon Continued - New Year's Day Finds the Savages Committing Depredations - Conduct of the Military and Volunteers - Major Bruce in the Field - Another Fight with the Savages - Pursuing the Indians - The Volunteers Ambushed - Reorganization of the Militia - John Kelsay, Colonel, and W.W. Chapman, Lieutenant-Colonel, of the New Regiment - A Flag of Truce Protects the Murderous Savages - Renewal of the Campaign Against the Indians - Captain Poland's Company of volunteers Surprised and Butchered - Depredations by the Indians, and Efforts at Self-Protection by the Settlers - Treachery of Enos - The Big Bend of Rogue River - A Great Battle at That Point - Valor of the Volunteers Saves the Regulars from Annihilation - Surrender of the Indians - Close of the War.
(1853 - 1859.)
459 - 479
480 - 500
501 - 524
Political and Local History of Washington as a Separate Territorial Government Until Admission of Oregon as a State, Excluding Detailed Narrative of Indian Wars - Area of the Territory - General Features of Organic Act - President Pierce's Appointments of Federal Officials - Census Taken by Marshal Anderson - Northern Pacific Railroad Exploration - Governor Stevens' Arrival - His First Proclamation - Organization of the Territorial Government - Judicial Districts Defined by Governor - Apportionment of Territory for Legislative Representation - First election - Columbia Lancaster Elected Delegate to Congress - Session of First Legislative Assembly - New Counties Organized - Secretary Mason Becomes Acting Governor - Indian Disturbances on Puget Sound - Collectors of Customs of Fort Victoria and Puget Sound Both Claim Revenue Jurisdiction over San Juan Island - Congressional Legislation for Territory - Session of Legislature, 1854-55 - Treaties with Indian Tribes - Indian Council at Walla Walla - Discovery of Gold at Fort Colvile - Murder of Miners and Indian Agent Bolon - Governor Stevens at Council with Blackfoot Nation - Session of Legislature, 1855-56 - The People in Blockhouses - General Stagnation of Business - The Campaigns Against Indians Ended - Session of Legislature, 1856-57 - Organization of Republican Party in Territory - Election of 1857 - Governor Isaac I. Stevens Elected Delegate to Congress - Fayette McMullin Appointed Governor - The Fraser River Excitement - Session of Legislature, 1858-59 - Oregon Admitted Into the Union - Enlargement of Territorial Area by Annexation of Residue of Oregon.
Page 525 - 539
The Oregon-Washington Indian Wars - Causes, Immediate and Remote - Race Conflict for Supremacy - Agency of the Treaties - Condition of the Territories as to Defense - Neglect of the Government to Station Sufficient Troops - The "Ward Massacre," 1854 - Indian Outrages Precipitate the War - Murder of Bolon, Indian Agent - Haller's Expedition to the Yakima Country - Official Knowledge of the Hostile Intentions of the Indians - Requisition of Major Rains on the Governors of Oregon and Washington for Volunteers - Response Thereto - Governor curry's Proclamation Calling for Eight Companies - Officers and Men, First Regiment Oregon Mounted Volunteers - Refusal of Major Rains, U.S. Army, to Furnish to Them Arms, Ammunition and Equipments - James W. Nesmith Elected Colonel - Governor Mason Appoints Major Rains Brigadier General of Washington Territory.
(1855 - 1856.)
Page 540 - 549
Condition of Washington Territory at the Time of the Outbreak - Company A, Washington Territory Volunteers, Reports to Captain Maloney, U.S. Army, Fort Steilacoom - Captain Maloney's Expedition Towards the Yakima Country - Killing of Moses and Miles - Company B, Captain William Strong, Reports to Major Rains - Uprising of Indians on the Sound - Captain Eaton's Command Besieged - Massacre of Families on White River - War Policy Established - Hostile Ground Defined - Battle with Hostiles on White River, November 3d - Killing of John Edgar - Disposition of Forces by Captain Maloney, U.S. Army - Night Attack by Hostiles - Killing of Lieutenant William A. Slaughter, U.S. Army, and Two Corporals by Kanaskut - The Steamer Active Cruises near Steilacoom - Return of Governor Stevens from Blackfoot Council - Hostility of General Wool to the People and Authorities of Oregon and Washington.
Page 550 - 571
Operations on the Columbia River, and in the Yakima and Walla Walla Country - Force of Troops and Volunteers at Forts Vancouver and Steilacoom - Estimate of Number of Hostiles - Major Rains and Colonel Nesmith Moves into the Yakima Country - Battle of the "Two Buttes - Colonel Nesmith's Requisition on General Wool for Arms, etc., to Reinforce Major Chinn - Lieutenant-Colonel Kelly's March to Walla Walla - Battle With the Walla Wallas - Death of Peu-peu-mox-mox - Colonel Nesmith Resigns - Thomas R. Cornelius Elected his Successor - The Oregon Volunteers go into Winter Quarters at Walla Walla - Campaign in the Yakima Country - Disbanding of the Regiment of Oregon Mounted Volunteers.
Page 572 - 589
Oregon and Washington Indian War - Governor Stevens' Operations - His Return from the Blackfoot Council - He Addresses the Legislative Assembly - Call for volunteers - Indian Attack Upon the Town of Seattle - Arrival of the Ninth Infantry - Governor Mason Goes to Washington City - Governor James Douglas - Patkanim Has a Battle with Leschi's Band - Murder of Northcraft and White - Battle of Connell's Prairie - Indians Becoming Demoralized - Major Hays Resigns His Command - Raid of Maxon's and Achilles' Companies Up the Nisqually - Arrest of Wren, McLeod and Others - Habeas Corpus Proceedings - Martial Law in Pierce and Thurston Counties - Trials by Military Commission - Discharge of Wren, McLeod and Others - Trial of Lieutenant-Colonel Shaw and Governor Stevens for Contempt of Court - Campaign of Lieutenant-Colonel Shaw East of the Cascade Mountains.
Page 590 - 595
Campaign of the Regulars West of the Cascade Mountains - Conditions of Puget Sound, December, 1855 - Pacific Department Reinforced by the Ninth Infantry Regiment - Two Companies Ordered to Fort Steilacoom - Lieutenant-Colonel Casey in Command of Puget Sound District - Six Companies Ordered to Columbia River - Colonel George Wright in Command of Columbia District - Lieutenant-Colonel Casey Establishes a Blockhouse at Muckleshoot Prairie - Killing of Kanaskat, the Hostile Chief - Fight with Indians at the Crossing of White River - Requisition of Lieutenant-Colonel Casey on the Governor of Washington Territory for Two Companies of Volunteer Infantry - Governor Stevens Declines - Expeditions to Stuck Prairie, Boise Creek and D'Wamish Lake - Expedition Under Captains Dent, Pickett and Fletcher to the Green and Cedar River Country - Major Garnett's Command of Two Companies Ordered to Join Colonel Wright East of the Cascades.
Page 596 - 620
Campaign of Regulars East of Cascade Mountains - General Wool's Instructions to Colonel Wright - Attack on the Cascades - Massacre of Whites - Siege of the Bradford Store at Upper Cascades - Gallant Defense of Middle Blockhouse by Sergeant Kelly and Eight Men - Attack on Lower Cascades - Lieutenant Phil Sheridan to the Rescue - Trial and Execution of Indians Engaged in Cascade Massacre - Inhuman Massacre by Whites of the Spencer Family - Kamiakin's Design in Stimulating the Uprising of Cascade Indians, and the Raid Upon the Cascade Settlements - Peaceable Excursion of Colonel Wright Into the Yakima Country - The Indians Avoid Him - Efforts of the Washington Territory Volunteers to Co-operate with Colonel Wright - Peace in the Yakima Country Announced - Governor Stevens' attempt to Hold a Council with the Hostile Tribes - Terms of the Treaty - Volunteers Attacked by the Hostiles - Steptoe Asks Governor Stevens and Volunteers to Return and Escort Him to the Umatilla - Colonel Wright Ordered by General Wool to March Into the Walla Walla Country - He Delivers Leschi, Quiemuth, Kitsap, Nelson and Stehi to Governor Stevens for Trial - Treaty of Peace with the Hostiles - General Wool Announces the War at an end in Oregon and Washington.
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Campaign of General Clarke and Colonel Wright, in the Country East of the Columbia River and North of Walla Walla - The Peace of 1856 Abortive - Kamiakin Still Inaugurating Hostile Movements - Combination of Hostile Eastern Tribes, and Motives of Hostility - Indian Depredations in Walla Walla Region - Expedition of Lieutenant-Colonel Steptoe, and His Disastrous Defeat - Colonel Wright's Views of the Campaign Necessary - Treaty with the Nez Perces - Colonel Wright Sets Out on Northern expedition- Battle of Four Lakes - Battle of Spokane Plains - The Spokanes submit - The Coeur d'Alenes Submit - Death of Owhi and Qualchen - Submission of the Palouses - The War Ended.
(1856 - 1873.)
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Southern Oregon - Counties of Josephine and Curry - Straggling Savages Murder and Rob Umpqua Lighthouse - Trial and Execution of enos - Chief John Sent to San Francisco - Desperate and Almost Successful Attempt of Himself and Son to Capture the Steamship - Military Wagon Road - Discovery of Gold in the Umpqua Valley - Exploration of the Klamath Lake Country - First Mail Between Sacramento and Portland - More Indian Depredations - Bailey's Brave Stand Against a Hundred Savages - S.D. Evans Shot Dead with an Arrow - The Great Deluge in Southern Oregon - Effects of the Southern Rebellion - Oregon Volunteers Again in the Field - Indian Council at Klamath Lake - Causes and Details of the Modoc Indian War - The Assassination of General Canby - Punishment of the Traitorous Savages.