History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 226 - 246

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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farm, and quit the milling business entirely, working occasionally at contracting and building.

     In 1878 he sold out his possessions in Happy valley, as the place was called where he was located, and in July of that year purchased the place known as the Commercial Mills Farm (the mills were destroyed by fire May 9, 1878) at McMinnville, to which place he removed September 20th of the same year, and devoted most of his time to the improvement of the same. In 1884 he erected one of the finest residences in Yamhill county, in which he and his wife with two grand-daughters now reside, surrounded by all that makes life pleasant. All his property was procured by honest industry and frugality, the result of push and energy, which has made all his undertakings successful.

     He was an old time Whig, and took an active part in the log-cabin and hard-cider campaign of Harrison and Tyler, being banner bearer in the glee club of which he was a member, and casting his first presidential vote for Henry Clay in 1844. He continued to act with that party until its demise, and then joined the American party, which was short lived in Oregon, it being too proscriptive to suit those of a liberal turn of mind. Many of the records and papers of that party are still in his possession. He was one of the first to advocate the formation of the Republican party in the state, and to-day is a straight-out Republican-Prohibitionist. Having no desire for official preferment, he has refused all offers for the same; yet he is an active worker for his party, but strictly from the idea of principle. A strong believer in liberty and justice, he has ever been opposed to slavery and oppression in all its forms. In early youth he became a freethinker, believing that, in relieving the wants of suffering humanity and thereby promoting human happiness, we best accomplish the greatest good of human existence.

     He is an active member of the I.O.O.F., belonging to Occidental Lodge, No. 30, of McMinnville. He has been a representative to and an officer in the grand lodge of Oregon, and was foremost in erecting the Odd Fellows Hall, a building of which the citizens of the place feel proud. His wife, ever with him in all good works, is an efficient worker in and member of Friendship Rebekah Degree Lodge, No. 12, I.O.O.F., of the same place.

     Three children were born to them, two girls and a boy. Both the girls were married. The elder daughter and her husband are deceased. They left two children, who reside with their grandparents. Being interested in schools, he was instrumental in forming district number forty-one where he formerly resided, and in building a commodious schoolhouse on land given by him for that purpose. He also gave five hundred dollars towards the erection of McMinnville College when it was first built, besides aiding most of the public enterprises of the times. He can point with pride to the many buildings erected by him in the town and surrounding country. He served as councilman for a term of one year, 1882, retiring satisfied with official life. He was appointed deputy marshal, and took the census of Yamhill county in 1870, completing the work and being the first to report to the census bureau of that year. In the fall of 1881, he with his wife, returned to the East and spent the winter among their early friends, returning in the spring fully satisfied with Oregon and its surroundings. He still oversees his farm and town property, taking life easily in his declining years.

     Many incidents in his life might be given to show that perseverance was a marked trait in his character, and that strict honesty was a governing principle. The greatest losses of his means have been through those to whom he has with his usual liberality granted favors, as he could never say no when help was solicited. When wronged or defrauded, he never sought a legal remedy, but would remark, "I would rather it would be them than me," and then dismiss it from his mind.

     He was ever in favor of internal improvements. He subscribed to the fund for a preliminary railroad survey from California to Oregon, and canvassed his county in aid of the West Side Road with good success. He conceived the idea of bring the water of the South Yamhill river into town for milling and manufacturing purposes, filed the water claim and took the right-of-way from above the town of Sheridan to McMinnville. A company was organized, and the work of construction commenced; but its consummation was defeated through political chicanery, each party using its construction as the means of holding fraudulent votes to aid in carrying the elections in the county, a course which in nowise met with his approval.

     His elder daughter, Elnora, married Elias B. Miller. The younger daughter, Inezi8lla, married Charles A. Berry, both of whom are living three miles west of town. They have no children living, having lost their only daughter at the age of two years. E. Cooper Brooks, his son, the third one of the family, is unmarried.

     BENJAMIN BROWN. - Mr. Brown was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1831, and remained at his native place until 1857, receiving a common-school education. In this year he emigrated to American and settled in Michigan, remaining until March, 1858, when he came to California by way of New York and the Isthmus. From San Francisco he found his way to the Siskiyou mines, and operated until July of 1868, and thence came to the Frazer river mines. In the autumn of that year, he brought his journeyings to a close at Steilacoom, where he remained a year. Being favorably impressed with the Pacific coast country, he now returned East for his family, bringing them to the agency on the Umatilla reservation, where he was employed until the next spring. After a time spent in freighting to Walla Walla, he removed to the Grande Ronde valley, and helped in the building of a stockade some six miles north of the present site of La Grande.

     He has remained in the vale ever since, and has been closely identified with the history of the country. In 1852 he was married to Miss Francis Kirk; and a family of five girls are growing up around him. The only trouble they had with the Indians was in 1862, the time that they placed a pole, as a line north of which the Whites should take no land, claiming that it belonged to them-

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themselves. Captain George B. Curry of a volunteer company went to meet them, and found it necessary to kill two of the Indians.

     Mr. Brown wishes to record here the names of those who wintered in the Grande Ronde valley, and who were the first Whites to make a residence there. They were as follows; S.M. Black, Richard Marks, William Marks, William Chaffin, William McConley, E.C. Crain, Robert Alexander, Joab Knight and Mr. Abbot brought some stock into the valley the same fall that this party came over the mountains, and wintered them here, and on account of the deep snow were compelled to remain until late in the spring. Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Leary wintered here in 1861, and in the same winter George Coffin and George Shriver came in to attend to the erection of the sawmill that Mr. Stephen Coffin of Portland was preparing to build in the spring, together with Mr. Charles Fox, who actually built the mill and operated it for several years, and then returned to Portland. Mr. Thomas Cottle built in 1863 the first livery stable, and did an extensive business, often selling oats at twenty cents per pound, and charging a dollar a night for hay per animal. S.M. Black started the first store; while Mr. Cottle opened the first butcher shop in 1862.

     HUGH L. BROWN. - There is usually something distinctive and characteristic about one who leaves the impress of his name upon any region or locality. This we find to be the case with reference to the pioneer whose name appears above, and for whom was named the well-known city of Brownsville.

     Hugh Leeper Brown was born in Knox county, Tennessee, January 24, 1810. He lived in Knox county until 1838, when with his little family, then consisting of his wife and three children, he emigrated to Missouri, settling in Platte county. He remained there until the spring of 1846, when falling in with that stream of pioneers who had turned their faces towards the settling sun, he again pulled up stakes, and taking the loved ones started forth with an ox-team and crossed the plains, reaching the then territory of Oregon in the autumn, having occupied six months in the journey.

     It was by the Barlow Road that he entered the Willamette valley. From Oregon City he set out with Alexander Kirk, now deceased, and James Blakely, who still lives at Brownsville, in search of a location for a home. The best of the land was before them; and they examined it carefully, but were not fully satisfied, until passing the Calapooia, upon the majestic plain of the Upper Willamette, they found all that the heart could wish, and immediately took claims, that of Mr. Brown being about a mile east of the town named for him. Here he lived till the day of his death, raising his family, building up the community, supporting the schools and churches, and serving the county in many public capacities. He was for several years in the mercantile business at Brownsville, being at one time a partner with the late Dr. E.R. Geary, of Eugene, and was one of the founders of the woolen mills, whose operations have been of such value to our state.

     As a business man he stood at the head of the list in point of honor and integrity, his name being good in Portland for any amount he saw fit to indorse. He filled many places of honor and trust, and was three times a member of the Oregon legislature, once before statehood, and was also a member of the board of commissioners of Linn county. He was a soldier in the Cayuse war, and a miner in California. He was an exceptionally kind husband and father; and it was the aim of his life to make his children happy. In 1878 he celebrated his golden wedding. For sixty years he lived a life of remarkable felicity with his wife Clarissa, daughter of James Browning, of Knox county, Tennessee. She still survives him, a noble and beautiful woman of seventy-nine years. During the later years of his life, he was totally blind, but bore this affliction with patience. He died in 1888 at the old home. There are eight children living: John, Evaline, Elizabeth D., Felix, Missouri, Amanda, Louisa and Hugh L.

     HON. J.J. BROWNE. - The broad-minded citizenship which looks to personal advantage only through the general prosperity, and makes the public weal and growth occupy the first place, is the best guarantee of a great future. This Spokane Falls enjoys. None of her citizens is more fully impressed with this theory of metropolitan attainments than he whose name appears above.

     Mr. Browne was born at Greenville, Ohio, in 1843, and was educated for the law at the Michigan University. Coming to this coast, he remained four years at Portland, practicing law. He also served as superintendent of public schools. In1878 he came to Spokane Falls, buying a half interest in the townsite, and practicing his profession six years. His chief interest has been in working up large schemes for the benefit and growth of his city. In this capacity he has made many trips East, once successfully pushing a bill for the annexation of the Idaho Panhandle to Washington Territory through Congress, to have it killed in the hands of the President. Still more recently he was at New York buying iron and rolling stock for the street railway which has been in operation more than a year.

     He is president of the Spokane Mills Company, a corporation whose object is the establishment of all kinds of mills and manufactories. This company has saw and grist mills, and sash and door factories. The last trip of its president was in the interest of the Linseed Oil Mill, an enterprise which has been in successful operation for about a year. The flax of this country is a prolific crop, producing a berry of such large size as to require extra mesh sieves. This is a most promising point for such a manufactory; and it would also invite linen twine works. The company is organized with a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Another important industry of which Mr. Browne is at the head is the Cracker Factory, occupying a two-story brick. The Browne Block, on Riverside avenue, a number of buildings throughout the place, and a residence second to none in Eastern Washington,

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swell the aggregate of Mr. Browne's numerous holdings. Mr. Browne is one of the members of the constitutional convention of Washington.

     MAJOR JAMES BRUCE. - Major Bruce is one of our citizens who needs no introduction to the people of the Northwest; since he is known personally, not only to all the old pioneers, but to most of the second generation of the toilers of Oregon. He was born November 3, 1827, in Harrison county, Indiana, and at the age of ten moved with his parents to Quincy, Illinois. At twenty he began a border career, going to Texas, making many excursions in that then unsettled region, and at Cross Timbers joined Major Johnson's rangers. He accompanied these troopers upon their expeditions to punish marauders, or to recover the stock which were perpetually stampeded and run off by the Indians. In one of these ventures he was engaged with his company in a fight with three hundred of the savages, whose rapid movements, impetuous charges, and ability to suddenly concentrate, or to miraculously disappear and reappear, seemed to multiply their number to about one thousand. Here the Major first saw their maneuvers and astonishing feats, such as riding concealed on one side of their horses.

     In 1849 he returned to his home in Illinois, and in the spring of 1850 was ready to go to the mines of California, - a trip even more eventful than that to Texas. He performed the long journey in the summer, using ox-teams as the means of travel, and having as his companion George Collins. Making but a short stoppage in the old mines of California, he urged his way to the northern part of that state to the Shasta or Redding diggings, where he mined with the best of them for a year, numbering among his companions Honorable John Kelly, Thomas Brown and John Milligan. With these as company he went to the famous Scott's bar, furnishing his ox-team for the enterprise, but being much distressed with ague was obliged to accept many favors and kindly offices from the "boys." Arriving at the bar, he found that provisions were less plentiful than gold, and sought to supply the demand by going back and driving in a band of cattle, which he sold for beef at fifty-five cents a pound. With Doctor Robertson he established there the Lone Star ranch. In 1852 he disposed of his interests in this ephemeral field, and going with a party of some fifteen sought a location on the coast for a seaport, establishing the present Crescent City. He also in those times conducted a party across the mountains to Port Orford, meeting with various hindrances from the Indians, who were now becoming fractious and restive, among things delaying them in crossing the Rogue river.

     As the war of 1853 was coming on, he offered his services to Captain Goodall, and bore his part in the marching, skirmishing, hungering and hardships of that desultory campaign. At the close of hostilities, he discovered the peril of entering with but one companion into an armed and excited Indian camp. He performed this intrepid feat at the request of General Lane, who had given the Indians a three days' armistice to come in and conclude a peace, but was annoyed and even perplexed by their failure to do so, and indeed by their entire disappearance. Bruce and R.B. Metcalf were directed to scout the mountains for the camp of Chief Joseph. After three days' investigation they found him with all his tribe encamped as if for war in a natural fortress. To enter this stronghold and deliver their errand to bring in the Indians was a matter of great delicacy. But descrying the tent of Chief Joseph, which was distinguished by a blue cloth, the spies determined to go to his lodge, relying for safety upon his well-known desire for peace. Before attracting his attention, however, they were seen by the young braves, who assembled in great numbers, running and hooting, and manifestly bent upon spilling the blood of the intruders. Bruce and Metcalf saw in a moment that their death was imminent; and the Major believes that they must have been slaughtered had not an Indian boy named Sambo suddenly appeared, shouting and averring at the top of his voice that this white man was not to be killed, - that he had saved his life and must now be saved. Major Bruce was only too glad to recognize in this youth his Sambo, the Indian formerly the rider of the bell-horse on his pack train, whom he had actually saved sometime before at Jacksonville from the hands of the infuriated miners, who were indiscriminately hanging the Indian bell-boys then in town. By the shouts and exertions of this faithful Sambo, a diversion was created; and Joseph appeared, by whom the scouts were severely censured for their temerity. Nevertheless they gained time and explained their mission, and at length accomplished their purpose, bringing the chief to General Lane. The Major, however, always thinks with tenderness of the boy Sambo, whose fidelity saved him from a dreadful death.

     After the war he located his Donation claim near Table Rick, and in 1854 purchased of the Indians the privilege of cutting hay on the reservation in Sam's valley, having a contract to supply the government post, Fort Lane. Desiring to please his old friend Joseph, he gave this chief a horse, but soon learned that he had thereby excited the jealousy of the war chief Zach, who assembled the tribe and in council after the war dance advocated the killing of the offensive horse, the burning of the hay, and the expulsion of the white men. Bruce was immediately sought by the friendly Indians, and against his first inclination was prevailed upon to visit and to placate Zach, who was still sitting in the council. Reaching the scene of deliberations, which was in the midst of a thicket, Bruce seated himself in the circle of the council, and listened to the speeches of Joseph and Sam, who urged the tribe to desist from all thought of war, as there was no occasion, and as there would be none to help them. After these harangues he was expected to make a reply; and almost spontaneously, without premeditation, and indeed thinking of no argument to advance spoke out what are at bottom very much the natural sentiments of the cultivated white man.  He said, "I have come to talk to you because I love you." Tis statement fell upon the Indians, producing a sort of astonishment; and a dozen voices cried out, "What! why do you love us?" The Major,

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still following the promptings of his white man's nature, and remembering the civilized theory of life, replied that it was because they all had one father, and explained the theory of human brotherhood as taught in Genesis. In a short time he had them listening with all eagerness, and heard them here and there in the assembly uttering grunts of approval. To their curious questionings why, if all men had one father, some were red, others black, and still others white, he entertained them with many equally curious replies, telling how one of the sons of this man went off into the woods and lived in the open air, dispensing with all superfluous clothing, thereby, acquiring a dark complexion; while another built houses and acquired cattle and horses, and constructed great edifices and ships, and retained his fair skin; but, nevertheless, he held their minds to the thought of the natural love between human beings which he himself exercised. Their minds were so much softened thereby, that they were ready at the close of the speech to accept an invitation to return with him to his camp and have a feast; and Zach and all his tribe with the greatest amity sat down to a barbecue of roast beef thus provided. By this kindly and reasonable method of dealing, he saved all difficulty to himself, was left to harvest his hay, and postponed the war for at least one year.

     When, however, in 1855, the outbreak actually occurred, and Fields and Cunningham were killed on the Siskiyou Mountains, Major Bruce went with the rest to punish the murderers, and with Captain Williams, Chiles, Wells, Patrick Dunn, Major Lupton, John F. Miller and others closed upon the hostiles. He was present but declined to enter the willows where Lupton was riddled with arrows a few moments afterwards, - knowing the danger of the place. After this first brush he raised a company of his own and was elected captain of Company B, and afterwards major of the Southern Battalion.

     Since these early disturbances, in which the land was conquered from the savages, the major has been engaged in developing the state, in showing what Oregon land can be made to produce, and in improving the herds of the valley by importation of fine cattle. His place near Corvallis is one of the most productive and valuable in the Northwest, and as handsome as an English baronial estate. In public life he has taken an active part, having served both Washington and Benton counties in the state legislature. He was elector on the Douglas ticket in 1860. He was one of the judges in agricultural implements at the Centennial in Philadelphia, and has been an active and prominent member of the Oregon grange.

     He was married in1857 to Miss Margaret, the daughter of colonel Kinney of Benton county. She died in 1884; and he was married secondly in 1886 to Miss Elizabeth Mark, with whom he shares his elegant home.

ROBERT BRUCE. - Mr. Bruce was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, August 10, 1828, where he remained until 1844, receiving a common-school education, and learning the trade of gold-beating. In 1844 he went to England, remaining about a year, and moved thence to Canada, locating near Montreal. After remaining there four years, he crossed the plains to California in 1849 on the hunt for gold. The first year as spent in traveling from one mining camp to another until, in 1850, he located at Hangtown, where he engaged in placer mining for seven years. From this point he went to Yreka Flat and mined until 1859. Crossing the mountains to Williamsburg, Oregon, he mined a few months, and thence repaired to Elliott Creek, which was so named in honor of Monterey Jack, an old Mexican soldier and successful miner.

     Mr. Bruce remained there until the war of 1861, when his Scotch patriotism caused him to cross the mountains, which were covered with over three feet of snow, to the place of rendezvous at Jacksonville, where he enlisted in Company A, First Oregon Cavalry. In this company he served as first duty sergeant until 1864, when he re-enlisted in Company D, First Oregon Infantry, and remained in service until his discharge in 1866. After his discontinuance n the army, he was employed as guard at the penitentiary at Salem for a number of years. In 1870 he removed to Pendleton, and has made this city his residence, with the exception of the eight years from 1881 to 1889. Upon his return from the Sound, whither he had gone, he was surprised and pleased to find a thriving city where he left only a small village.

     Although now old, and feeling himself somewhat broken down after his long and eventful frontier life, in which he prepared the way for the coming generation, which is sometimes prone to look upon the old pioneers as slow going, and to wonder why more of them did not keep the fortunes that were so easily made in old times, forgetful that the really hardy frontiersman could save their money only by shutting up their big honest hearts to their fellowmen, - Mr. Bruce still finds it in his heart to thank God that he is living yet in this magnificent country, and that he can still trust that God whom he was taught to worship in "auld Scotland."

     JOSEPH BUCHTEL. - The peculiar composition and make-up of this man is that of only one in a million. He is noted for his daring deeds of adventure, if they may be so called; and his whole life is made up of daily events in rescuing others from their perilous positions; indeed, so much so that he is known far and wide as the "Oregon Life Saver." Hundreds, if we may not say thousands, who are living to-day directly owe their lives to him. The natural daily routine of circumstances seems to have brought him upon the scene just in time to act; and, being possessed of that warrantable cool-headedness , that while others were so ungovernably excited and frantic with fright, he, of all men, and at all times, maintained that perfect equilibrium to act instantly, effectively and in each instance and under all circumstances and upon all occasions with the merited success of saving the life of someone, and sometimes a dozen or more.

     In times of imminent danger or immediate peril, Mr. Buchtel seems not to have given the first thought to his own personal safety; but instead,

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taking his life in his own hands, he went forth to the rescue. With perfect confidence in his own ability, and assured correctness of his own judgment, on the very brink of some perilous occasion, where the lives of two or more are lightly weighing in the balance, we see Mr. Buchtel, not only taking the position of some great general or eminent commander, but likewise filling the more humble positions of the private in the rear ranks of the great momentary battle of life; for while he issues his orders to those around and about him in such commanding tones as to yield prompt obedience, he himself is also hard at work, and doing the most daring work of all. Thousands have stood and excitedly witnessed his daring achievements on many occasions, and have applauded him, one and all, when the danger was over; while hundreds of thousands on the other hand have read in cold type, o'er and o'er, as fervently as meager imagination could portray, of the many venturesome feats performed by Mr. Buchtel; for the press of Oregon have not been sparing in recounting his hair-breadth ventures and noble deeds of valor.

     Up to the time he was twenty-one years of age, his life did not differ materially from those of many others. It was about his twenty-first year that he came to Portland to cast his destinies with the future of the Pacific coast. Mr. Buchtel was born in Union Town, Stark county, Ohio, November 22, 1830. At the tender age of four, he trudged to school and whiled his time away in the old log schoolhouse; and while he was very young then, still the picture of that old log schoolhouse lingers in his memory. The scenes to-day appear like a dream, as the visions of bygone days revive them by some incident or picture in after life; for the early impressions time never effaces.

     Seven years later his parents moved to Urbana, Champaign county, Illinois. Illinois at that time was a new state; and its greatest possession was thousands and thousands of tenantless acres of prairie, carpeted with nature's green. From twenty to one hundred miles separated neighbors; and division-fence quarrels were few and far between. Urbana people then did their trading at Chicago, a hundred and fifty miles north, or on the Wabash, fifty miles east. One was as handy as the other; for the rough and almost impassable road to Wabash fully made up for the additional one hundred miles to Chicago. In the spring of the year, for convenience, Chicago was really the nearest.

     Mr. Buchtel's father followed shingle manufacturing at Urbana, making lap shingles and running the sawmill, until his death, which occurred two years after removing to Illinois. The bereaved family then consisted of himself, brother, sister and mother. His mother resides with him at the ripe old age of eighty-two, with a life well spent in usefulness. His brother Samuel also resides in Portland, being a printer and painter. In Illinois, young Buchtel also went to school, and graced another log house with his daily presence. The demise of his father ended his school days; for he had to go to work, which he did, for five years, at the tailor's trade. The trade was not to his liking; and he would have rather taken a thrashing everyday than to have gone to work, the calling was so distasteful to him. But circumstances altered his case; and it was the best opportunity that the then present afforded. To assist and aid his widowed mother was uppermost in his mind; and, while the calling was repulsive, yet he would endure it for the pittance it yielded to the family.

     His next occupation was farming. To this he took kindly; but the changes of time placed him as clerk in a store, and afterwards removed him to a brickyard, where he toiled early and late. Later on he purchased a daguerreotype outfit, making the old style pictures, which, by the way, Mr. Buchtel contends are the best ever produced by any process, not excepting any. Afterwards he was appointed deputy sheriff of Champaign county by Sheriff E. Ater. While acting in that capacity, he first met that great and noble man, Abraham Lincoln. Urbana was on his circuit, as it was that of Hon. O.L. Davis, Mr. Gridley, Ward S. Lemon, S.A. Douglas and John Wentworth.

     He started for Oregon on April 23, 1852, in company with the late I.R. Moores, of Salem. Their train was large and late getting in; and when they arrived at Fort Boise the food was getting very low. Colonel Moores called for volunteers to go ahead to save "grub;" and seven of them, including Mr. Buchtel, took a small amount of food and started on. Two days before they reached The Dalles they were entirely without food, with no possible chance to get a mouthful. Worn out and almost starved, three out of the seven reached the Dalles on the 3rd of September, the four others being left on the road with other camps not able to travel. At Warm Springs Mr. Buchtel gave his every cent and about all his crackers and bacon to his comrade, Nate Therman, who had given out and was sick, and left him, expecting never to see him again. However, after resting a week, he succeeded in finishing the journey. Now Mr. Buchtel went on his journey literally empty handed, as he says, trusting to luck.

     They arrived in Portland September 5, 1852, utterly without money. One Hall of the party had two dollars which he had saved; and of course they purchased some bread, on which they lived a day or two; and Mr. Buchtel rustled for a job. Colonel Backenstos took pity upon him, and employed him to cut five acres of oats, for which he paid him twenty-five dollars, though the job was worth only about five dollars. He then helped to load the Charles Devens with lumber, and went to Oregon City and took a job to cut wood for John Campbell. While there, he recognized one Robert White, because of the family resemblance to his brother, whom Mr. Buchtel had known in Illinois. Mr. White went with him to Canemah and introduced him to Captain L. White, who gave him a position on the steamer Shoalwater. He continued running on the river for five years during the winters, and in summers took daguerreotypes, as he had purchased the outfit of L.H. Wakefield in 1853. He then started in business in the old Canton House, now the American exchange; and there for thirty-five years he followed the business in Portland as the pioneer artist in every style of picture except the

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daguerreotype, and was one of the three pioneers in that, the others being D.H. Hendee and L.H. Wakefield.

     In 1865 Mr. Buchtel was elected chief engineer of the fire department, and again re-elected in 1866. In 1874 he was grand representative of the I.O.O.F., and met with them in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1880 he was elected sheriff of Multnomah county, Oregon, and served for two years.
He was the first builder of street railroads in East Portland. After disposing of his gallery, he entered the real estate business, and established himself at the corner of L and Water streets, East Portland. He is the inventor of the telegraph fire hose, which was patented in1872, and also invented a coupling for the same in1883. He also lets his inventive genius crop out in the hand fire extinguishers, and the patent wire-fence post, on which he is now applying for a patent.

     He was the champion baseball player for fifteen years, being pitcher and captain of the Pioneer Baseball Club for twenty years. He was also a champion foot racer, and was barred for years against competing for prizes, as no one would enter against him after he won the silver trumpet so easily over all competitors. We will add a few instances of his bravery and life risks in saving others from peril, thou in so condensed a space it is impossible to do justice to one-half his heroic acts.

     While on the plains, the Indians often manifested a warlike disposition. At one time an attack was expected, such being looked for during the night. On the arrival of darkness, instead of camping, Mr. Buchtel persuaded the train to continue on, and said that he would remain behind and engage the attention of the savages. This was done; and our hero prepared a smoke fire, which the Indians thought to be a camp. They halted, expecting to make an attack in the morning. After a few hours had passed, and believing the wagons far ahead, he left his perilous position and set out to join the teams ahead, which he did late the following morning.

     A son of Honorable W. Cary Johnson was crossing First street in Portland, Oregon, with his mother, just in front of a street car. Mr. Buchtel was in the act of dropping his nickel in the fare-box, and saw that the child had left his mother, ran back, and was fairly under the horse. The driver was looking back into the car, and did not see the boy. This was an occasion when there was no time for words or ceremony; and our subject at once grasped the lines from the driver with his left hand, and the brake of the car with his right, and jerked the horse back against the car. The drier, whom he had pushed from the platform in his effort to get at the lines and brake, grasped the child; and he was not as much hurt as frightened. This boy, a few weeks ago, on reaching his eighteenth birthday, presented Mr. Buchtel with a gold-headed cane as a token of his parents' and his own esteem for saving his life.

     He also had a thrilling experience on board the Canema in a whirlwind above Rock Island, in which his cool-headed bravery no doubt saved all on board. Again, Mr. Wilmer's team came tearing along on Washington street between First and Front; and of course Mr. Buchtel was on hand just in time to catch them and prevent them from plunging with the three men in the vehicle into the river. In speaking of this episode, Mr. Buchtel said; "I always put implicit confidence in my feet; and they never went back on me." Engine number two was going up front street at full speed; and, as he was foreman, he was running along the side of the engine, which is built too close to the ground to pass over a man without crushing him to a jelly. All at once Mr. Fishel was thrown directly in front of the engine about sixty feet ahead. Mr. Buchtel's unrivaled speed enabled him to reach the man in time to drag him out of the way, only one foot being touched; and that was so protected by the boot that he was lame only a short time.

     As the steamer Willamettewas drawing near the landing at Independence, she only partially slacked up, as there was only one passenger to land, and they wished to save time. The landing at this place is entirely a clay bank, and, as the passenger sprang out on the slippery bank, he kept slipping back and down, and would undoubtedly have been caught by the guard of the large steamer and crushed to death, had not Mr. Buchtel, quick as thought, caught the man by the shoulders and thrown him under the guard into the river. Captain George Jerome threw him a rope; and he was pulled out alive and well instead of a corpse, as he would have been but for Mr. Buchtel's timely aid. At a theater on Stark street, when he was chief engineer, the scenery caught fire; and a general stampeded started. With his usual quickness of thought, our "Joe" yelled out; "Sit down, that is part of the play. All is well!" And the play went on.

     On one occasion, he was on board a steamer which had been chartered to take out a picnic party. The crowd was immense for so small a craft; and they were only comfortably started when Captain Pease called him to the pilot-house, and with a face as white as chalk said; "Joe this top load must go into the river. She is overloaded and everybody will drown." Mr. Buchtel at once went into the main cabin and said; "Gentlemen, this boat has been tendered by the company to this picnic party free of charge; and I want every man to come down and sign a paper in which we accept and thank them for the generous act. Come, every man." They did go and the upper deck was safe. Two stout deckhands were placed at the stairways; and they allowed no one to go up to the cabin. Captain Pease appreciated his quick wit, and thanked him sincerely; but the crowd never knew how near they were to an awful calamity. The steamer was taken to the sawmill and thoroughly braced before the return of the party.

     The steamer Shoalwater was on the Upper Willamette, and was backing away from John Cruse's landing, when her boiler exploded. She was twenty feet from shore; and the explosion threw fifteen of the passengers into the river. Mr. Buchtel was on board; and, with a run across the deck, he made the jump of twenty feet, landing on the shore. He then procured a pole, and by almost a miracle succeeded in saving all the lives. He states that the hero of the accident was General M.M.

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McCarver, who was one of those thrown into the water. Mr. Buchtel extended the pole to him first; but the old gentleman cried out; "Never mind me, Joe, Save the others first."

     Afterwards a similar accident happened on the Gazelle; and Mr. Buchtel recovered the body of Mr. White, whom he had saved in the accident on the Shoalwater. But this time he was too late, as Mr. White was dead, and his body mutilated. In a building on Washington street formerly used as a city hall, a mass meeting of Republicans was being held. Atwood's saloon was situated underneath; and, as Mr. Buchtel entered, he noticed the ceiling swaying down and giving way under the immense weight above. He quickly went up the stairs; and as he went, he wondered how he could get the crowd out by degrees, as he knew that, if they all rose to come out at once, the floor would go down. He crowded to the center of the room, where Governor Gibbs was speaking, and said" Pardon me a moment, Governor, but we have just secured an orator to speak from the balcony, and desire one-half the audience to come out and listen, as this room is uncomfortably packed." So part of the large audience filed out; and Mr. Buchtel himself delivered an address from the balcony.

     He was married in Oregon City, in 1855, to Miss Josephine L. Latourette. There have been born to them seven children, - Albert, Joe, Lilly, Addie, Frank, Archie and Fred. Albert died at the age of twenty-three, and Joe at the age of seven. Lilly is the wife of N.L. Curry, son of the late Governor George L. Curry. Addie is the wife of W.G. Kerns, of The Dalles. The three boys are still at home, Fred, the youngest, being aged twelve.

     Mr. Buchtel is now fifty-nine years of age, and enjoys splendid health, being still engaged in all his outdoors sports, such as racing, jumping, baseball, fishing, hunting, and everything that requires strength and endurance. He is a man of powerful physique, and is as tough as a white-oak knot. He was never sick but once in his life, and that was when he was a boy, when he had chills. Mr. Buchtel never has used tobacco in any form, and is otherwise, both socially and morally, one of the best citizens in the state.

     WALTER A. BULL.- In the gentleman whose name heads this brief memoir, we find one of the most substantial farmers of the Kittitass valley, and the owner of the beautiful ranch, a view of which finds a place in this work. He is a native of Albany, New York, and was born June 20, 1838, being the son of John and Sarah (Fish) Bull. When our subject was ten years of age, he with his parents moved to Racine, Wisconsin, where his father engaged in the shipping business on the lakes, and where Walter attended school and resided until twenty years of age. He then went to New York City, residing there until the breaking out of the war, when he was employed by the government in different capacities until the close of hostilities. He then came west and became a contractor on the Union Pacific Railroad, until its completion at Ogden in 1869. In that year he came on a tour of inspection to Washington Territory, and on passing through the Kittitas valley was so favorably impressed with its possibilities that he concluded to remain.

     He took up one hundred and sixty acres of land five miles southeast of Ellensburgh, to which he has since added by purchase, until now he has a grand farm of over seventeen hundred acres, all in one body in the heart of the beautiful Kittitass valley, and in a high state of cultivation. Besides general farming, Mr. Bull a few years ago engaged in fine stock-raising, introducing some of the best strains of stock to be had, an enterprise in which he is eminently successful, and which has proved a great benefit to the entire community in which he resides. Mr. Bull, during all the Indian war troubles, never deserted his home, but with the assistance of his employees stood the Indians off. he is a gentleman of high standing, and at one time held the office of probate judge of Kittitass county.

     In 1872 he married Miss M.J. Olmstead. The fruits of this union were five children, John, Lewis, Cora, Charles and Grant. In 1885 death invaded the household, the grim warrior's victim being the faithful wife and loving mother. In 1889 Mr. Bull was again united in marriage, the bride being Mrs. Rebecca N. Frisbee.

HON. B.F. BURCH. - B.F. Burch was born on the second day of May, 1825, in Chariton county, Missouri, where he lived during the first twenty years of his life, and received what was then considered a good, common-school education. It was complete enough to secure him the position of teacher for the families of Honorable Jesse Applegate and neighbors the first winter after his arrival here, - 1845-46. He also taught the first school in what is now known Polk county.

     In 1846, in company with Jesse Applegate, Lindsey Applegate, David Goff, William J.G. Parker, William Spotsman, John Jones, John Owens, William Wilson, Robert Smith, "Black" Harris, John Bogus, F.H. Goodhue, Levi Scott, John M. Scott and Bennett Osborne, he viewed out and located what is known as the Southern Oregon wagon road, and conducted a large number of immigrants over the new route to Oregon City, cutting the road and piloting the newcomers through the famous Umpqua cañon. In 1847 he started to return to Missouri, but met his father and family on Bear river and came back with them over the new road.

     When the Oregon Volunteers were organized under Colonels Gilliam and Watters, he was adjutant of the first regiment, and served through the Cayuse war of 1847-48, participating in all the battles, and was with Colonel Gilliam when the latter was killed, taking charge of his body and sending it to his family. After the colonel's death, Mr. Burch took charge of the command until it returned to the main body at Walla Walla.

     He was in the Yakima war of 1855-56, and took command of a company. At the close of that war he returned to his farm in Polk county, and was elected a member of the constitutional convention that framed the constitution, and in the committees of that body was a member of the military committee and chairman of the finance committee. He was afterwards elected a member of the first legisla-

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ture under the new constitution, and took an active part in framing some of the most important laws of the first session. He was elected state senator in 1868; and that body honored him with the position of president of the senate, a place which he filled with becoming dignity and to the satisfaction of all.

     The legislature of 1870 appointed him one of the committee to examine the books and papers of the various state officers; and he was made chairman of the committee. He was appointed superintendent of the penitentiary by Governor S.F. Chadwick, and served during that official's administration. The committee that was appointed by the legislature to examine his accounts and the management of the prison was so well pleased that it unanimously recommended his continuance in the office; and both branches unanimously adopted the report and recommendation. In 1887 President Cleveland appointed him receiver of the United States land office at Oregon City, in which capacity he is now serving.

     Mr. Burch was married in September, 1848, to Mrs. Eliza A. Davidson, who was born in Kentucky, but with her parents settled in Illinois, emigrating from there to Oregon in 1847. Seven children have been born to them, only one of which, B.F., Jr. now survives. Mr. Burch's occupation is that of a farmer; and his residence is in Polk county, near Independence, where he has made his home during the whole of his married life.

     HON. JAMES D. BURNETT. - Mr. Burnett, one of the best farmers of Douglas county, and a gentleman of eminent abilities in public affairs, was born in Blunt county, Tennessee, March 12, 1822. In 1850 he came to Oregon, settling first at Salem. Two years later he removed to Douglas county, taking a claim upon which he has lived to the present time, and which he has increased by purchase to the baronial dimensions of twelve hundred acres. He has ever been active publicly in establishing those institutions which reflect credit upon the community and advance society. He is a gentleman highly respected by the entire circle of his friends and acquaintances, and has fittingly born public honors. He was married in Tennessee to Miss Margaret Love; and they have reared a family of seven children, Martha, Francis, Mary, Lydia, Thomas B. and Virginia C. (deceased).

     HON. A.R. BURBANK. - Mr. Burbank, a founder of society and business upon the Pacific coast, was born April 15, 1817, near Cincinnati, Ohio. He is the son of Major Daniel Burbank, an American officer in the war of 1812, who came with his family in an open boat down the Alleghany and Ohio rivers as early as 1814, and made a home on its northern shore near the present metropolis. The Major was from Williamstown, Massachusetts. His wife, Margeret Pinchen, was from Atica, New York. In 1818 a further move was made in the family boat down the Ohio to Shanetown, Illinois, thence to McLanesburgh, and in 1825 to Exeter, Morgan county, in the same state. Here, at the age of nine, A.R. Burbank, the subject of this sketch, who was the youngest of a family of six sons and five daughters, met with the loss of his mother by death, and six years later was called upon to bid his father the last farewell, and follow his body to its resting place in the grave.

     Having received very careful religions and moral training from his parents, and having acquired habits of thrift and industry, he began while still a boy to make a career and carve out for himself a fortune. As a clerk in a store he acquired an insight into and a grasp upon business affairs. At the age of twenty-six he rose to the position of partner in the firm of Hollandbush & Burbank, which did a heavy business in the town of Naples, Illinois. At the age of twenty-eight, on May 1, 1845, he was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Eckles, in the town of Jacksonville, and made his home in Naples. In 1849 he was led by reports from the Pacific coast to make an excursion hither, and, in the company of Reverend Isaac Owens of Indiana, performed the long and eventful journey. He acted as quartermaster on the first stages of the journey, and later as captain. Johnson's ranch in the Sacramento valley was reached September 21, 1849, after a journey of four months and fourteen days. After a visit to the gold mines he spent the winter at Sacramento City, and subsequently engaged in merchandising and mining at Nevada City. In 1851 he made the return trip via Panama to Illinois, and once more took up business in that state at the town of Bloomington.

     The Pacific coast, however, still had a fascination for his mind; and in 1853 he set out with his family for Oregon, making the journey via New Orleans and Nicaragua, and arriving at Portland May 30th of the same year. He soon went to Lafayette, and engaged in merchandising with W.S. Hussey. While at this point he was elected to the House of Representatives, and served during the session of 1855-56. While a member of the legislature, he moved the adoption of a bill for cutting a ditch from the Santiam to Mill creek, thereby giving Salem a permanent water-power. The plan was put into execution; and this was the beginning of the manufacture of woolen fabrics and of flour for which Salem has become so well known. Mr. Burbank was for a time a member of the woolen mills company. In October of 1857 he moved to Portland, and in July of the next year went north to Victoria and engaged in the mercantile business, but returned in the autumn to Portland by Puget Sound. The next autumn he opened a hotel at Monticello, in Cowlitz county, Washington Territory. In June, 1859, he was elected a member of the territorial council from that county, and served three years, acting as president of that body during the last session. In August, 1867, he returned to the place of his first choice at Lafayette, Oregon, and resumed his occupation as merchant. His popularity increasing, he was again elected, in 1872, as member of the House in the Oregon legislature.

     In 1885, Mr. Burbank, having been relieved of the necessity of active business, and having property interests requiring his attention, retired from his store and has since made his residence upon a small farm adjoining Lafayette. He has ever been fully identified with religious interests, having

234                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

formerly been a member of the Methodist and latterly of the Episcopal denomination. In politics he began as a Democrat, but, in anticipation of the danger of the dissolution of the Union, became a Republican, and was an organizer and the chairman of the first meeting held on the Pacific coast to organize this party, at Monticello, Washington territory. Besides the offices mentioned here as held by Mr. Burbank, he has held many minor government and state positions.

     With his great natural force and high moral training, Mr. Burbank has been a prominent and necessary figure in the development of the Pacific coast in the three great states, California, Oregon and Washington.  He is extensively known throughout the Pacific Northwest as a public man, and a staunch, good citizen and firm partisan. He is still a healthy, active man, although now approaching advanced age, and enjoys life at his beautiful home. Of his children but one grew to adult life. Miss Eva L. Burbank, who was drowned while bathing on the north beach at Seaview, Washington Territory. Her death was noted with great sorrow by the whole state, and was deeply mourned by her parents.

     MRS. MARY E. BURBANK. - The wife of  Honorable A.R. Burbank was born near Milford, Delaware, January 14, 1827, and is the daughter of Jesse E. and Ellen Eckles. While but a child of sixteen months, she was bereft of her mother by death, and was intrusted to the care of her sable nurse until three years old. At this date she moved with her father and his family of three daughters and two sons to the far West, crossing the Alleghany Mountains in wagons, and settling at Clarkesburgh, Ohio, in the fall of 1830, residing there five years. As the Eden of their expectations had not been reached, this place was left for amore distant seat in Illinois; and a settlement was made upon a farm near Naples. Here she was afflicted by the death of her father, which occurred June 17, 1837; and she was left to the care of her sisters. At the age of seventeen she was united in marriage to Augustus r. Burbank, the ceremony being celebrated May 1, 1845, at the town of Jacksonville, by the Reverend Chancey Hoberts, at the house of Hicholas and Ann Milburn, - parents of Reverend W.M. Milburn, "the blind man eloquent," and so often chaplain in Congress. She resided six years of her married life in Naples, and spent two years at Bloomington, Illinois. With her husband she came via the Isthmus of Nicaragua to Oregon, arriving in Portland May 30,1853. The first home was made at Lafayette, but in 1857 a removal was made to Portland. Mrs. Burbank is still remembered as the first church organist in the Methodist-Episcopal church of that city. In October, 1858, a removal was made to Monticello, Washington Territory, where she was landlady of the Monticello House for nine years; and this pretty place near the mouth of the Cowlitz became the birthplace of her daughter Eva. In 1867 a return to Lafayette, Oregon, was effected. In 1870 the mother and her daughter enjoyed a visit by state to California, and thence by the newly opened Central and Union Pacific Railroads across the continent, visiting the old scenes and friends in Illinois and Delaware. On returning to San Francisco, they enjoyed a tour through Southern California, making the return trip to Portland, Oregon, by water. The loss of this daughter on the North Beach despoiled her home of much of its light and joy; nevertheless this great sorrow of her life has been brightened by the christian hope of a heavenly reunion. the intelligent mind of this daughter and her acquirements in music and literary culture fitted her for extensive usefulness in life, and were the basis of many hopes as to her future. Mrs. Burbank has been for many years superintendent of  and a teacher in the Sunday school, and has presided at the organ and conducted the musical services, in the old church at Lafayette. She joined the Methodist church, - her mother's church. She enjoys fair health, and carries her age well.  She has a lovely and beautiful home, adorned with flowers, shrubbery and grounds, and a small farm adjoining on the east of Lafayette, Oregon.

     MISS EVA L. BURBANK. - Miss Burbank, the only child of Honorable A.R. and Mary E. Burbank, whose memory is still cherished with regretful interest by the people of our state, was born in Monticello, Washington Territory, January 22, 1861, where her parents were at that time keeping the Monticello House. At the age of five and a half months she was christened (as an offering) in the Taylor Street Methodist Church, of Portland, by the Reverend T.H. Pearn. At the age of five years she began attendance upon school, and developed unusual quickness and ability of mind. In August, 1867, her home was transferred to Lafayette by the removal thither of her parents; and she received at this place still further educational advantages. In her tenth year she visited the Eastern states in company with her mother, and upon her return the following year entered the St. Helen's Hall of Portland, Oregon, for the still further improvement of her natural ability, where she remained some three years. She was furnished all advantages for a thorough musical education; and her talent proved to be of such high character as to merit the encomium of her last musical instructor, Professor Hugh Gunn of California, that hers was the finest in Oregon.

     Her bright and hopeful career was, however, cut short by the accident in August, 1880, which threw a gloom over the whole state. On the second day of that month she left her home for Portland, Oregon, to join an excursion party from East Portland to spend a few weeks' recreation at Long Beach. she became the life of the company, and, upon their delightful trip down to Ilwaco and over on the weather shore, was constantly enlarging the circle of her friends.  On August 15th, in the afternoon, a large company from this camp, together with others from Astoria, were enjoying bathing in the surf. She, in company with Mr. F.A. Graves of Astoria, was noticed to be one of the most enthusiastic of all the bathers. They were both, however, carried far out by a strong undertow; and the gen-

                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                 235

tleman made the greatest exertions to keep her up and gain the beach, as she was unable to swim. Their loud calls for help were drowned by the roar of the breakers; but soon Mr. Joseph t. Chambreau, of Vancouver, Washington Territory, saw their perilous situation, and went to their rescue. He reached them as they were upon the point of drowning, and taking Miss Eva by the arm, was preparing to swim to the beach, but was almost immediately overpowered by an immense breaker that passed over and bore them under upon its return. All were overcome and separated; and it was only by the greatest efforts that the gentlemen reached shore. Miss Burbank was never seen again; and her body was never recovered although the beach was searched for months throughout its whole length. She was nineteen years, six months, and twenty-three days of age.

     Moe than twenty pieces of beautiful poetry have been written and published with reference to her sad death. The following, from the pen of her music teacher, Miss M.P. Sedlak, merits a place here.

Gone in her youthful beauty,
Gone from our earth away,
Called from earth's scenes of duty
On a beautiful Sabbath day.

Fair was the flower that blossomed
Amid our pilgrim band.
And prized the beauteous lily
Culled by the Savior's hand.

Sad is the home that once was.
Lit by her sweet smile's glow;
And hushed are the gentle accents
That soothed her loved one's woe.

Yet, oh, beloved parents
And friends most fond and dear!
Remember in your sorrow,
Thy darling is still near.

And though she's gone to heaven
To smooth your rugged way,
She, from her starry mansion,
Will watch o'er you for aye.

     HON. JOHN BURNETT. - Among the prominent self-made men of Oregon is the subject of this sketch. He was born in Pike county, Missouri, on the 4th of July, 1831. He lost his father at the age of fifteen, and was turned out in the world to fight his way as best he might. He first engaged as an errand boy in a store, but, becoming tired of the confinement, at the end of a year hired out to work on a flat-boat on the Mississippi, boating wood to St. Louis. His early education was obtained in the common schools of the country; and, though his opportunities were limited, he laid the foundation upon which he, in after life, built a sound practical education.

     In the spring of 1849, there being great excitement about the gold discoveries in California and a general rush to the mines, he accepted an outfit form a relative, and though under eighteen years old started "the plains across" to seek his fortune in the new El Dorado. He arrived in Sacramento on the 10th of September with just one five-franc piece in his pocket. During the greater part of the time from that date on he was engaged in mining and dealing in cattle, until the spring of 1858, when he came to Oregon and settled in Benton county, where he has resided since.

     The year after his arrival in Oregon he was married to Miss Martha Hinton, daughter of Honorable R.B. Hinton of Monroe. This happy union has been blessed with a family of seven children of which three girls and two boys are now living. Soon after his marriage he commenced reading law with colonel Kelsey of Corvallis, and in 1861 obtained a license form Judge Stratton to practice in the second judicial district. From that time his life has been a very active one, and much of the time engaged in public affairs.

     In 1862 he ran for state senator, but was defeated, though by only twenty-five votes. In 1864 he took an active part in raising the first company in the regiment called for in Oregon during the Rebellion. In 1868 he was elected presidential elector on the Democratic ticket with James H. Slater and S.F. Chadwick, having canvassed Western Oregon against Doctor W. Bowlby of Washington county. In 1870 he was elected county judge of Benton county, and administered the affairs of the county to the satisfaction of the people for four years. In 1872 he ran for Congress against the late Joseph G. Wilson, and was defeated by a small majority.

     In 1874 he was chosen associate justice of the supreme court of the state as an Independent Democrat, contesting with his former tutor, Colonel Kelsey, on the Republican ticket, and Honorable L.F. Mosher of Roseburg as the regular Democratic nominee. His term as judge expired in September, 1876. Two years later he was elected state senator from Benton county, and was appointed chairman of the judiciary committee of the senate, the arduous duties of which office he filled to the entire satisfaction of his colleagues. In 1882 he was appointed by Governor Thayer judge of the second judicial district, to serve a portion of the unexpired term of Judge Watson. Since the expiration of this term of office, he has devoted his time mainly to the practice of law, and by industry and economy has accumulated a handsome property, and is now in easy circumstances.

     When Judge Burnett first arrived in Corvallis he was without money and without friends, a stranger in a strange land; but he went to work as a day-laborer, doing whatever kind of work he could get to do, and instead of waiting for "something to turn up," turned things up generally. He has in consequence made money and made friends; and his life has been a complete success. His services on the bench and in the legislature, and his efforts at the Bar and on the hustings, have made his name familiar throughout the state. He has been engaged in a great number of murder trials for the defense; and his success as a criminal lawyer has been equal to that of any man in the state.

     It is an advocate that he has made some of his most effective speeches. His friends claim that his efforts in behalf of L.D. Miller, James McCabe, Charles Williams, Frank Reid, Mr. Wheeler, A.J. Burneson, William Skelton, Harry Abrams and Captain Saunders, in their several trials for murder, as well as his pleas for others in other notable cases, have never been surpassed. His style of eloquence is bold, manly, and full of deep feeling; and there are hundreds of men who can testify to the power of his impassioned appeals to a jury.

     He is regarded by his fellow townsmen as a liberal,

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enterprising, public-spirited citizen, aiding and contributing liberally to every laudable public enterprise. He has contributed largely of his means to the building of the State Agricultural College and is the senior counsel of the state in its litigation with the Methodist-Episcopal Church South for the control of the college board. He is an upright, honorable man, plain and unassuming in his manners, earnest, patient, faithful and painstaking in all his enterprises. Real merit alone is his test. He has ever been the friend of the poor and deserving. No appeal to him for help has ever been denied. His sympathies with the unfortunate are easily touched; and none are turned away empty-handed.

     There is perhaps no better example of what can be accomplished by honest endeavor under our free institutions, where all have an equal chance in the race of life, than is shown in the career of this notable man. What a lesson his well-rounded character is to the young men of Oregon. Integrity and honesty are indeed the only sure foundations of a lasting reputation. There are no short and dishonest cuts to enduring fame. Those men only live in the annals of a free people who are superior to temptation and circumstances.

     MRS. MARTHA BURNETT.- The subject of this biography was born September 28, 1838, in Franklin county, Missouri, and is the fourth child and oldest daughter of Roland and Elizabeth Hinton. Her parents emigrated to Oregon in 1846, and located their Donation claim in the southern part of Benton county, near Monroe. In her twenty-first year, 1859, she was married, on June 12th, to Honorable John Burnett. They took up their residence in Corvallis, where Judge Burnett entered into the practice of law, and prospered in the practice of his profession.

     There is a vast difference in the Oregon of 1846 and the Oregon of 1889; and Mrs. Burnett has experienced all the rigors of pioneer life from the time she was a child of tender age until the march of civilization westward took its way. She is now in her fifty-first year, and is surrounded by her family of fine children, and all the comforts which a beautiful home with peace and prosperity can give. She has reached the palm trees and wells of sweet water after a brave and uncomplaining journey through the arid sands of the desert. She has been blessed with seven children, five of whom are living. They are Alice, Ida, Mattie, Brady and Bruce.

     ASAHEL BUCH. - The subject of this memoir, Asahel Bush, of Salem, is no ordinary man. His strong personality, quick and clear perception, energy and persistence of purpose, together with his strong common sense, would have made him distinguished in almost any walk of life.

     Mr. Bush was born at Westfield, Massachusetts, on June 4, 1824. His father, whose name he bears, was a person of prominence in the community, being frequently chosen to fill its public offices. His mother's name was Sally Noble; and both his father's and mother's families were among the oldest of the town, having settled there in the early part of the seventeenth century. the homestead on which he was born has been in his father's family, in a direct line, for a century and a half, and is now owned and occupied by one of his descendants. Asahel attended the common school of the neighborhood, and then the academy of the village, until his father's death, which occurred when he was but fifteen. Soon after this he quit school and went to Saratoga Springs, New York, where he spent upwards of three years learning and working at the art of printing. Then he worked a few months at Albany, on the state printing, where he doubtless got some idea of the art of politics as well as printing. From there he went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he remained about a year.

     As a striking contrast to the present means of locomotion, it may be mentioned that he made the trip from Schenectady to Buffalo in a "line boat" of the Erie Canal, occupying about a week on the voyage." Cleveland was then but a small place, and farther up the lakes were Racine and Sheboygan, hopeful rivals of Chicago, then an aspiring young town, more noted for its adhesive mud than anything else. From Cleveland he returned to his native village, where he read law and edited the country Democratic paper. He also held the ancient office of town clerk, which he resigned on leaving for Oregon in July, 1850. In may of the same year, he was admitted to the bar of the superior court, sitting at Springfield.

     Mr. Bush arrived in Oregon via the Isthmus of Panama in September, 1850. On the meeting of the legislature at Oregon City, in the December following, he was chosen chief clerk of the House of Representatives. There the writer first met him; and a handsomer, quicker witted man, with a keener or truer scent for a fellow mortal's foibles, he thinks he never knew.  They roomed together that busy but happy winter, where was laid, "when life was young," the foundation of a friendship that has survived the mutations of nearly forty years. It was understood at the time that he had the material on the way from "the States" for the publication of a Democratic newspaper. he soon won recognition as a leader among the Democratic members of the legislature. During the session, an act was passed creating the office of territorial printer. This office he continued to hold, by successive annual elections, until the state was admitted to the union. At the general election in June, 1858, he was elected state printer on the Democratic ticket, and held the office until the general election in 1864, when he was succeeded by Henry L. Pittock.

     In March, 1851, he commenced the publication of the first distinctively Democratic paper in Oregon, and conducted the same with marked professional and pecuniary success for the next ten years, - during which time the government of Oregon was carried on by the Statesman and its friends, - sometimes called the "Salem Clique." This autocracy was not always as kind to and considerate of the dissatisfied and refractory among its subjects as it might have been, and sometimes administered justice to them untempered with mercy. But it had one supreme virtue. It generally kept shams and knaves out of

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office, and never permitted or winked at any peculation of public funds.

     During his editorial career, Mr. Bush performed a great deal of labor. He started with empty pockets, but with willing hands and an active brain. Often he might be seen at the case setting up his saucy, trenchant, sinewy editorials, and spicy, pungent paragraphs, without copy. Industrious, temperate and economical beyond the average of men, he gained on the world from the first issue of the Statesman. But, though provident and thrifty in a marked degree, no taint of dishonesty or meanness in business has ever touched his name. He also maintained a constant correspondence with the captains over tens and fifties and more, all over the territory, and by this means, in conjunction with the columns of the Statesman, maintained an almost autocratic control over public affairs.

     In the division of the Democratic party in the presidential election of 1860, he adhered to the Douglas wing, and actively supported Stephen A. Douglas for President. At the outbreak of the war he supported the Union cause, and in 1862 was a member of the convention of that year which put a Union state ticket in the field. In that body he successfully opposed the appointment of a state central committee, as looking to a permanent organization, which he did not favor. At the succeeding presidential election in 1864 he supported McClellan. Though a party man, and ready to give a reason for the faith that is in him, he is in the habit of reading his ticket, and not disposed to vote for a fool or a rogue merely because his name is on the ticket.

     In 1861 Mr. Bush was a member of the board of visitors at the military academy at West Point. With him was David Davis, afterwards a justice of the supreme court and a United States senator, and also James G. Blaine, then editor of the Kennebec Journal, but not otherwise known to fame. In the early sixties he was a silent partner for four years in the mercantile firm of Lucien Heath & Co., at Salem; and in 1868 he engaged in banking at the same place in company with William S. Ladd. After some time, he took the business into his own hands; and now it is practically carried on under the old firm name of Ladd & Bush, by his son and namesake, Asahel N. Bush, Jr. He has also been interested in milling at Salem, Oregon City and Albina.

     It is said that when he first commenced banking, if a person applied to have a note discounted, he did not consider the security of the indorser, but applied the test which had worked so well in politics, and said "yes" or "no," as he happened to like or dislike the cut of the applicant's "jib," - the cast of his countenance. However, he soon "caught on," and "Bush's Bank" is one of the well-known and reliable moneyed institutions of the county.

     In 1878 he accepted the appointment of superintendent of the penitentiary, under the belief that the institution was costing the state much more than it should. He held the place for four years, without taking any salary for the first two. He managed it as he would his own business, without reference "to the good of the party," and the result was that the expenses were reduced from one-fourth to one-half what they had been in former years. At the Democratic convention in 1888, he was chosen chairman of the state central committee. In this position he disgusted some of the "crumb-picking" newspaper people by not subsidizing them for the campaign. One of these came to him and said, seriously, as if the issue of the campaign depended on it, "Mr. Bush, unless my paper is supplied with money, I am afraid it will die;" to which he replied, "I think then it had better die;" and sure enough it did.

     In 1854 Mr. Bush married Miss Eugenia Zieber, the daughter of John S. Zieber. Mr. Zieber was born in Maryland. He removed to Pennsylvania, and from thence to Oregon in 1851, where he was subsequently appointed surveyor general of the territory. Mrs. Bush was a very attractive, winning woman, a faithful wife and a devoted mother. She died early in life, in the year 1863, leaving a family of four young children, three girls and a boy, to whose training and comfort their father has devoted himself ever since. The eldest, Estelle, was married some years since to Claude Thayer, and resides on the Tillamook.

     Mr. Bush has a picturesque, suburban place and farm just south of Salem, where he resides and occupies himself with the charities of the neighborhood, his books, meadows, poultry, and kine. The residence, built under his direction, is large and roomy, on a commanding site, amid a widely scattered group of grand old Oregon oaks. There he is spending the evening of his busy life peacefully and pleasantly. When his race is run, few person, if any, in Oregon, will be more missed or longer remembered. Mis Sally and Eugenia, his two single daughters, bright, pleasant women, live with him, and help to lighten the shadows of increasing age. They materially aid him in entertaining his friends, and in dispensing a hospitality that suggests the home, habits and tastes of an old-fashioned country gentleman.

     HON. HILORY BUTLER. - Mr. Butler is the son of Roland and Luc Emery Butler. He was born in Culpepper county, Virginia, on March 31, 1819. He resided on his father's farm, where he was born, until he was twenty-one years of age, when he came to Lexington, Missouri, with a neighbor's family, and followed farming until 1852. In April of that year he started across the plains in company with his wife, with the train known as the Hays and Cowan train, and arrived in Portland in September of the same year. After spending the first winter in Portland, in the spring of 1853, he went to Olympia, and a month later to Alki Point, where he remained for three months. He then took up his residence in Seattle, and at that time purchased two lots on the corner of Second and James streets for one hundred and twenty-five dollars, which he has seen been offered one hundred thousand for.

     He took part in the war of 1855-56. In 1854 he was elected sheriff of King county, which position he held for three years. In 1861 he was appointed Indian agent of the Duwamish and Muckelshute Indians, being relieved in 1862. A short time afterwards he was appointed deputy provost marshal for Washington Territory, which position he held until his time expired, or on the completion of the work.

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 He also held the post of sergeant-at-arms of the legislature.

     Mr. Butler has given all his time to working at different enterprises in Seattle, having built on his present property the first frame house in that city, and is now building, the fine Butler Block, He is now living in Seattle, and is without a family, his wife, to whom he was married in Lexington, Missouri, in 1848, having died in Olympia, January 3, 1870. She was Miss Catherine Hickman, a native of Hickman county, Kentucky.

     IRA F.M. BUTLER. - The honesty and wholeheartedness of a certain, and indeed, predominating, class of our early settlers is nowhere better exemplified than in Mr. Butler. Seventy-seven years of age, but still vigorous and kindly, adhering firmly to the temperance principles which have prevented the dissipation of his native course, and while well-to-do, indeed wealthy, spending much of his means in benevolent works, he is a striking example of the noble old gentleman.

     He was born in Barren county, Kentucky, in 1812, and was the son of Major Peter Butler, distinguished in the war of 182. In 1829 the family moved to Illinois. Young Butler grew up on  a farm in the region since designated as Warren county, remaining with his father until the outbreak of the Black Hawk war. He heard the call raised at that time to save the early settlements, and enlisting served until the Indians were quieted. The experience thus obtained served to open for him the position of deputy sheriff. In 1835 he was married to Miss Mary A. Davidson, who for more than fifty years was his devoted wife, and bore him eight children. Soon afterwards he was elected sheriff, and four years later was appointed by Stephen A. Douglas as clerk of the circuit court, filling that office seven years.

     In 1853 he sold his farm and closed out all his business, with the intention of crossing the plains, and became captain of a train bound for Oregon. By August 9th his company had passed all the mountains, and had gained the limits of Polk county. On the lovely plain about Monmouth, Mr. Butler chose his square mile, and has made this his home to the present day, owning also a few acres and a handsome residence in Monmouth, - one of those beautiful towns of the Willamette valley where nearly every house has its large lot and garden and orchard, where the streets are shady, and where there are church spires and school buildings.

     Mr. Butler was early sought to occupy public offices, being elected in 1854 and again in1858 to serve in the legislature. He acted as speaker of the latter session, and was returned again in1860. In 1878 he was elected judge of Polk county, and in 1882 was honored with the position of recorder of the town of Monmouth, which office he holds to the present time. He has performed the duties of justice of the peace almost continuously, except as otherwise officially occupied. As a public officer, and particularly as legislator, he has been the friend of the people, and solicitous to expend their public moneys wisely.  Lobbyists, ringsters and corruptionists have found him a hard man to manage.

     His wife is now deceased; and, of his children, two died in infancy, a grown daughter passed away in Oregon, and a son in California. Of the four living, N.H. Butler is a druggist of Monmouth; Professor Asa Douglas Butler resides at Napa, California; and the two daughters, Maggie and Alice, live with their father, making his home happy, although it is not without its pathetic memories of times past.

     It was but as a boy that Mr. Butler resolved, as he says, that "ardent spirits should never destroy what sense he had;" and bravely has he stuck to his principles. He has also been rigidly scrupulous to pay his just debts. As president of the board of trustees of Monmouth College, and in other ways, he has done much for education, and, besides his own children, has helped four other young people to an education, - seeing one young lady through the entire course.

     HENRY BUXTON. - As we trace out, one by one, the variety of sources from which our pioneers are derived, and see the commingling of all lines of nationality and all kinds of business in our cosmopolitan population, we are more than ever impressed with the great problem which we, as a people, are working out, and the great destiny which we have.

     The subject of this sketch, of whom an excellent portrait appears herewith, is a representative of the Hudson's bay Company régime in Oregon, and is one of the now few living members of the company by which the great fur monopoly sought, though in vain, to meet the incoming tide of American immigration with its own weapons. On this account, as well as his well-known high qualities of mind and character, Mr. Buxton occupies a unique and interesting place among the pioneers of Washington county. Mr. Buxton's father was born in Derbyshire, England, in 1792. In 1821 he went to Manitoba, and became an employe' of the Hudson's bay Fur Company. He was there married to Frances Thomas, the daughter of one of the factors of the Hudson's Bay Company. From this union, the subject of our sketch was born on the 8th of October, 1829.

     In the year 1841, the astute officials of the fur company, foreseeing the inevitable collapse of their power from the encroachments of American settlers, determined to head off the danger by founding a settlement of their own. The Red River Colony of 1841 was the result. Mr. Buxton was a member of that colony. The first design was to go to Puget Sound. In 1842, however Mr. Buxton, Sr., moved to Tualatin Plains, bringing his son Henry, then thirteen years of age, with him. The first place taken up was on the East Plain near the present town of West Union. At that time there were living on the plains, Colonel Jo Meek, Doctor Robert T. Newell, Doctor William Geiger, Rev. J.S. Griffin, Reverend Harvey Clark, A.T. Smith, Joseph Gale, C. Walker, W.M. Doty, G.W. Ebbert and Caleb Wilkens.

     In 1850 the Buxton family moved to the beautiful farm near Forest Grove, now known as Spring Brook Farm, one of the ideal farming places of the county. The father died in1870. The son has resided on his farm, with the exception of a period

                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                            239

of almost fourteen years, between 1873 and 1887, in which the family residence was at Forest Grove.

     Mr. Buxton was married in 1846 to Rosanna Wooley, who was a member of a pioneer family of 1845. The children of the family are Rebecca Kimzey (deceased), Edward, Thurston, James T., Mary E. Stevenson (deceased), William T., Charles E., Jacob S., Carrie Harrison, Nellie Griffin (deceased), Austin T. and Rosa M. (deceased).

     During his long residence here, Mr. Buxton has become identified with almost every interest of this county, having been county commissioner two terms, 1876-78 and 1880-82, a town trustee of  Forest Grove three years, and a member of either the school board of Forest Grove or his present home district during almost the entire thirty-eight years of his residence. In politics he has been a Republican. After a long and active life, Mr. Buxton is now spending his later years in the well earned enjoyment of his large property, and in the pleasure of experimenting in stock, fruit and other features of an intelligent farmer's life. His place is one of almost unsurpassed natural beauty; and he designs to add to it the embellishments of art. Besides his home place, Mr. Buxton owns a large ranch north of Forest Grove, known as the East View Farm. Mr. Buxton's sons have followed in his footsteps, and have become known as men of rare energy and usefulness.

     Many interesting reminiscences could be gathered from Mr. Buxton. Among other things, he was one who worked on the first wagon road form Tualatin Plains to Portland, in June, 1846, and in November of that year. On that road he hauled the first load of produce ever brought to Portland on wheels, the wagon being drawn by three yoke of oxen, and containing nine slaughtered hogs and twenty-three bushels of beans.

     HON. CHARLES N. BYLES. - This is one of the town builders of the west. Out of his farm on Mound Prairie he has made Montesano a place of twelve hundred people. His father was a Presbyterian minister of Madisonville, Kentucky. Charles was born in 1844. In 1853 the family crossed the plains, and upon reaching Wallula struck out northwestward to the Sound, crossing the mountains via the Nahchess Pass. Moving down on Mound Prairie, they located a place fourteen miles south of Olympia. Here on these healthful fields the boy grew up to manhood, and, becoming of age, took a course in the Portland Commercial College.

     This opened the way to an extensive contract of government surveying, lasting four years, which was performed with the assistance of a brother. With the avails of this work he bought the present site of Montesano, originally owned by a Mr. King. In 1883 he laid out the present city, and used all means to build up the town, making it remarkably prosperous and flourishing for a place in a region already well settled. In six years it has gained over one thousand inhabitants. In June, 1887, the bank was established, I.W. case of Astoria being one of the incorporators, and Mr. Byles the manager. In the political field he has been a conspicuous Republican, serving as county auditor form 1872 to 1876 and from 1876 to 1884 as county treasurer. He was married in 1870 to Miss Elizabeth J. Medcalf at Montesano. His domestic life has been as happy as his public career has been successful; and his home has been blessed by six children; four of whom are living.

     EDWARD P. CADWELL. - This substantial capitalist of Washington, and leading member of the legal profession of Tacoma, was born in Independence, Iowa, December 23, 1855, and was the son of Carlos C. and Emily E. (Ross) Cadwell, his mother having been a sister of Chief Justice Ross of Vermont. He resided in his native town, where he attended a public school, and in his seventeenth year entered the Iowa State Agricultural College, graduating as civil engineer in 1875. Returning home, he became principal for one year of the grammar department of the high school at Independence. Upon the completion of this task, he entered Simpson's Law College of Des Moines, Iowa, form which he graduated in1877. On receiving his degree, he located in Logan, Iowa, and began the practice of his profession. Two years later he removed to Council Bluffs, where he built up a large business. Learning of the possibilities of the greater West, he came in 1885 to Washington, locating at Tacoma, where he opened an office and invested largely in real estate, from which he has reaped a golden harvest.

     In 1887 Mr. Cadwell for a time made Ellensburgh his home, and while there purchased a large amount of valuable real estate, among which was the well-known Johnson Hotel, a large three-story frame building. In 1888 he built as an addition a beautiful three-story brick, eighty-six by ninety feet, costing $30,000.00, and changed the name to the Ashler Hotel, a view of which is placed in this work. In the same year, in partnership with John A. Shoudy, he built the magnificent Shoudy and Cadwell block, sixty by one hundred and twenty feet and two stories in height, a view of which also appears in this work. He also erected the present Ellensburgh National Bank building, but upon its completion sold it, and, in connection with David Murray of Ellensburgh, purchased three hundred and twenty acres adjoining that city.

     Although a young man, Mr. Cadwell has secured for himself a competency, but, being of an energetic and active disposition, still follows the practice of his chosen profession with Judge Galusha Parsons, formerly of Des Moines. The partnership thus constituted and known by the designation, "Parsons & Cadwell," is one of the leading law firms in the City of Destiny.

     GEORGE B. CALHOUN,M.D. - There are but few men better known or more highly respected in the medical profession on Puget Sound than Doctor Calhoun, an excellent portrait of whom appears in this history. He is a native of New Brunswick, and was born October 19, 1837, his parents being John and Mary (Brewster) Calhoun. When he was but a small boy, he moved with his parents to the sunny South, locating in Maryland. His father, being a shipowner and seafaring man,

240                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

was stricken, while on a voyage to the Bermudas, with yellow fever, from which he died. Our subject, with his widowed mother, then moved to East Boston, and a few years alter was placed in the excellent Horton Academy, Nova Scotia, where he remained until 1857. He was then sent to the university at Glasgow, Scotland, and after five years' constant application was awarded his degree, standing near the head of his class.

     In 1862 he returned to America. After traveling two years for pleasure, he entered the United States army as assistant surgeon, remaining in that capacity until June,1865. In August of the latter year, he came via the Nicaragua route to the Pacific coast, and in June, 1866, took charge of the marine hospital at Port Angles. But, Congress designating Port Townsend as the port of entry, Doctor Calhoun took up his residence in the latter place, and established the present marine hospital of that city, acting as physician until 1876, when he began the practice of his profession in Seattle. In 1870 he was elected on the Republican ticket to represent Jefferson and Clallam counties in the territorial council. While residing in Seattle, he was appointed by Governor Ferry as one of the regents of the Territorial University, and for four years was the president of the board.

     In 1880 he moved to La Conner, where he invested largely in real estate, and built himself a beautiful home, where he now resides, enjoying to the fullest extent all the domestic comforts and all the satisfaction to be derived from the practice of his chosen profession. It is no flattery to state that Doctor Calhoun is one of the best educated men in Washington; and, possessing manners suave, and with a disposition to please, he is a gentleman whom it is a pleasure to meet.

     He was married in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Miss Ellen Mein, a young lady whose acquaintance he formed while attending college in Glasgow. By this union they have a family of nine children.

     A.C. CAMPBELL. - The respect Mr. Campbell commands in his community as a man of honesty and integrity, and as one who has acquired a very enviable competency by hard knocks and straighforward dealings, reminds one of Longfellow's famous blacksmith; but, although Mr. Campbell has for years upon years listened to the "measured beat and slow' of his hammer on the anvil, he no longer appears with leathern apron and bare, brown arms, because he is now settled down in a comfortable home, and in the midst of his loving family living happily by other and less arduous pursuits than blacksmithing. He an contemplate with pleasure the means which he has accomplished by industry and determination. He is one of the pioneers of the county, and as such should not be passed over with a mere casual mention. If there is any one class of men more than another entitled to the admiration of everyone, it is that known as the "early pioneers." They were men possessed of more character, hardihoood and genuine bravery than any other class of men living, and possessed a versatility which seemed to fit them particularly for the life of a pioneer, - to subdue and have dominion. It by no means follows that all men who came to the coast in "early days" were pioneers of this stamp. "Those were the times that tried men's souls;" and only the ones possessed of an adaminatine spirit were successful and prosperous. Every man's nerve was put to the test, - his honor tried, his spirit of determination proved and only the ones who came through the ordeal with character unscathed are now successful and happy. It is the pioneers of the country, the men with hearts of oak, who hewed out the way for the advancement of a later civilization and made possible the settlement of the now prosperous country, to whom we owe our deepest debt of gratitude.  They were a set of grand adventurers who led the dangerous way for us to follow. If the trials they endured, the hardships they encountered, and the triumphs they attained, were connected with a country's cause or in a war against an enemy, it would have served to hand their names down to succeeding generations as heroes. No man on the coast better illustrates this type of the early pioneers than the subject of this sketch.

     Mr. Alexander Colin Campbell, of Puyallup, Washington, has been for a number of years a successful hop-grower in Puyallup valley; and in following him through his peregrinations we cannot but be struck by such a remarkable career of intermingled success and failure, and the happy denouement which is sure to follow the efforts of a man possessed of such a caliber to either "find a way or make one" as is Mr. Campbell. he was born in Pertha, Ontario, May 26, 1833, and was the son of Donald and Mary McCoy Campbell, both of Scotland. He spent most of his early life in Ottawa, where he learned the blacksmith trade, which in following years was destined to be his best friend, and in many cases his only standby. He went to California at the age of twenty-one years, being possessed of a spirit of adventure which to an extent marked his whole career through life. After living for a short time in California, he returned to his home in Canada, and after marrying an estimable lady who has ever since been the partner of his joys and sorrows, bought a farm of 600 acres at a place called Lochaber.

     The arduous labor and slow remuneration attendant upon farm life did not exactly suit the tastes of young Campbell; and he embarked in the square-timber business, in which he remained for about three years, when he opened a wholesale and retail merchandising establishment in Ottawa, and in connection with it a grist-mill on Ottawa river, which he carried on quite successfully for four years. Again the roving and adventurous spirit of young Campbell predominated; and in 1862 he wound up his business and started for British Columbia. This was at the time of the great Cariboo gold excitement. Arriving at that place, he started to work at his trade, and in the first year, by hard work and sobriety, saved $10,000. Eastern readers will perhaps marvel at this; but they most recollect that in those days tradesmen were scarce in such locations, and that gold was plenty; hence almost any price asked for a job of work could be obtained. With this money he bought a claim the following year for

241                                                                                    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

$16,000, called the "Welch" claim, having borrowed $6,000 to make good the amount. For two years he toiled in this mine, and had for his trouble the pleasure (?) of seeing his expected fortune pass away as though in a mist before his eyes. In addition to the purchasing of the claim, it cost him $3,000 to work it; and he sold out the whole thing, improvements and all, for the miserable sum of $500. Such was the life of a miner in those times.

     With characteristic pluck, Mr. Campbell again took to his trade to acquire a fresh start, which he did, and once more located a claim on Grouse creek, - this time with more success; for in less than a year and a half he took $18,000 in gold coin out of his venture; after which he returned to Canada and brought out his family to Victoria, buying a fine residence. He once more made for the Cariboo country with $15,000 worth of hardware. Here another stroke of ill-fortune overtook him. The town in which he had commenced a thriving business burned down, and with it all of Campbell's worldly stock; and he was once more thrown upon the world a poor man. Again he took to his old standby, the blacksmith trade; and after a year and a half of hard work and little pay he became disgusted with the country, and, as the phrase is "pulled out" coming to Puget Sound with $250 in his pocket and a wife and four children to support. He worked four years at his trade with a partner named Peter Rinquest, at Steilacoom, after which he removed to Old Tacoma. This was about the year 1873. He bought out a shop and started a blacksmithing business, together with a wagon shop and livery stable. The failure of A. Cook & co., bad debts and other things, combined to make this enterprise also unsuccessful; and he was obliged to close up and borrow $25 to go to Seattle, where he once more started up a business with a partner named Hunt, he having a good friend in Seattle who indorsed for him the amount of $250, in order that he might buy an interest in this business. Neither was he successful in this venture; and he left Seattle and went east of the mountains to Dayton, and after a year there came to Puyallup, where he commenced his first continuous streak of fortune. He took the blacksmith shop connected with the stave factory, and successfully worked it on shares, finally buying it out entirely. This business he carried on uninterrupted by the vagaries of fickle Fortune for three years, when he, with $2,000 cash, bought 242 acres of a farm. Mr. Campbell has since sold part of it, and at the present time owns 183 acres of as fine hop or any other kind of land as lies out-of-doors. The first year he put out 43 acres of hopes (57,000 poles), which he has since increased; and his hop crop alone brought him last year $19,909.

     Of  Mr. Campbell's later life it may be said that he has been very successful, and has also been highly honored. He is an incorporator, stockholder and director of the National Bank of Commerce, of Tacoma, of which his son Colin is now the bookkeeper. He is president of the Farmers' Bank of Puyallup, which has a capital stock of $50,000. He is also the present mayor of Puyallup, proprietor of the Hop Exchange, and a large buyer of hops. The cities of Steilacoom, Tacoma and Puyallup successively honored him with a seat in their first municipal councils. One of the enterprises of this pioneer is the large mercantile establishment of Campbell & Sons, dealers in general merchandise and farming implements. The "sons" are Albert D. and Henry James, two young men of sterling integrity.

     Mr. Campbell has raised eight children, four boys and four girls, two daughters of whom are married. He was careful to give them a good education; and they are all a credit to their proud parent, but fortunately or unfortunately, as the case may be, are not (like their father was) disposed to rove, but are contented and happy in their home in one of the loveliest valleys on which the sun shines. Mr. Campbell is now only fifty-three years of age, although he looks younger. Mr. Campbell's house is a substantial built frame structure on Church street. It is surrounded by trees and lawn, and looks in all respects exactly what it is, - the home of a happy, well-to-do and God-fearing family.

     MRS. F.A. CAMPBELL. - Fannie A., the daughter of L. and E. Dodson, was born in Illinois in 1838, and received her education in the seminary at Oskaloosa, Iowa. She was married in that state to James M. Campbell, of Ohio. In 1864 her husband closed out his real estate business, and with his wife came across the plains. A number of fine horses constituted a part of their effects. Happy cañon, in Umatilla county, a place beautiful for a home, and desirable as a stock ranch, was chosen, and western life begun. Their efforts were attended with prosperity, until the irreparable loss of the husband and father in 1873, who fell a victim to consumption. Notwithstanding this affliction, by which not only her life companion but a sterling and honest man was taken away, Mrs. Cambell continued the management of her farm, and has showed in this relation a marked capacity. Her household has been invaded by disease, three of her sons having died; while Elmer E., the eldest was murdered by the Bannacks in the summer of 1878 at Camas Prairie, whither he had gone to render assistance to a younger brother on a sheep range. But, notwithstanding these sorrows, Mrs. Campbell is still living faithfully and indeed happily as well as prosperously, at her home with her two daughters and three sons.

     DR. F.C. CAMPBELL. - Literary ability is not so common on this coast as to be a drug in the market. It is agreeable to find it in professional men. Doctor Campbell is one of these persons. He was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, in the year 1854. He received a good common-school education in the Rock Creek graded school, and commenced the study of dentistry in the office of Doctor N.S. Burns, of Ashtabula, in 1872, completing his dental education in Monroe, Michigan, in 1875, since which time he has practiced in nearly every state and territory in the union.

     The Doctor has traveled extensively, and has stored a fund of information which, for so young a

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man, is remarkable. Ambitious for a literary reputation, he has preserved copious notes of whatever of interest has come under his observation; and, quick to grasp the salient points, the productions of his pen have made him no small factor in the literary world in which he moves. Many good things from his pen have been either destroyed or filed away, owing to his diffidence in submitting his manuscripts. We predict a brilliant future for him, and hope soon to see all nom de plumes replaced by his own name. The Doctor is now practicing dentistry at Pendleton, where he has made many friends.

     HON. A.M. CANNON. - Mr. Cannon, like so many of our prominent men and large capitalists, began life on a farm, where his energies were devoted until he was twenty-one years old. His father was a farmer and a man of fine qualities, but had very limited means to devote to the education of his son. In 1858 he left Illinois, and started with two yoke of oxen for Pike's Peak. At St. Joseph he was elected captain of a company of emigrants consisting of fifty-two souls, and succeeded in leading them safely across the plains through a dangerous Indian country, a large portion of which was desolate and waterless. When they reached the present site of Denver, half the townsite was offered to him for the sum of one thousand dollars, and that upon credit in the bargain.

     The Pike's Peak excitement soon subsided; and Mr. Cannon returned to Chicago and ventured in the grain commission business. There he remained for thirteen years, making and losing several fortunes, as he was a daring operator. He was one of the first members of the board of trade of Chicago, which is now one of the grandest palaces of commerce in the world, though at that time an almost insignificant beginning, but was constituted of men of pluck, - the kind who made Spokane Falls. While still a resident of Chicago, Mr. Cannon in 1867 built a flouring mill in Kansas City, which operated extensively in wheat and flour, being the largest mill west of the Mississippi river. But this proved too tame a life for his restless and adventurous spirit; and he sold the mill and again crossed the plains and Rocky Mountains, this time to San Francisco. About this time the White Pine mining excitement took place in Nevada; and young Canon was soon induced to go to the mining camp, where he experienced all the vicissitudes of mining life, which were particularly marked at that place.

     After another trip to Chicago in 1870, and a return to San Francisco a year later, he went to Portland, Oregon, and carried on a successful business until 1878. His health becoming greatly impaired, he resolved to go on a prospecting tour east of the Cascades, and started on the journey in a buggy. His explorations continued into Washington Territory; and, upon viewing the present site of the city of Spokane Falls, he determined, on account of its beautiful landscape and vast water-power, to make it his future home. With his indomitable energy, he accomplished a task which had before been deemed impossible, - that of bringing into service the swift waters of Spokane river as a means of transporting logs to the falls from lake Coeur d' Alene, and building up a lumbering business and consequently enabling the starting of a town. The business has now assumed very large proportions, and has been incorporated under the title of the Spokane Mill Company, being one of the largest lumbering and manufacturing plants on the Pacific coast, and representing a capital of nearly $1,000,000. Mr. Cannon and his partner, E.J. Birdsell, practically own and control the great business.

     The Bank of Spokane Falls, of which he is president and sole owner, is perhaps the largest of the eight banks now in that city. Among other large enterprises, the new Grand Opera House block deserves mention. it is a magnificent pressed brick and granite building 150 by 270 feet, fronting on Post street, and is five stories high. Its interior arrangement is patterned after the Broadway Theater in New York, the same architect having prepared the plans. Mr. Cannon has also in course of construction a massive and handsome bank building, 112 by 142 feet, situated on the corner of Riverside avenue and Mill street, the most valuable corner in the city. This building is to be exclusively of granite and iron, and will be six stories high, with a hydraulic elevator and all modern conveniences. The new and splendid Hotel Spokane just commenced, one of the most complete modern hotels in the United States, is largely a creation of Mr. Cannon's enterprise and magnificence, being built by himself and associates. The Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway, now running its trains out of Spokane, is also largely indebted to Mr. Cannon's supervision.

     He is in a word the moving spirit of enterprise in Spokane, as the above numerous and grand improvements suggest; but while these are the largest they are by no means the only ventures of the restless genius of our subject. He is president of the Bank of Palouse City, vice-president of the Washington national Bank, vice-president of the Spokane Savings, Loan and Trust Company, and is connected with many other enterprises. He recently declined the United States senatorship on account of ill health. The entire state spoke as a unit in the demand that he should accept this important post; and it was the grateful and graceful acknowledgment of the many benefits the territory had reaped from his generous, open-handed spirit of enterprise, coupled with the conviction that no man could bring more knowledge of the needs of the new state, more intelligence as tot he appreciation thereof, and that, in rounding out a useful life filled with many deeds of generosity to his people, this would be a proper and fitting tribute. By honorable industry, Mr. Cannon has made a colossal fortune running into the millions. In the position of senator he would be one of the few men who could devote his entire time to the interest of the people without regard to his own; who could dispense the courtesy and preserve the dignity of his high office on a par with his colleagues without counting the cost. In closing this biography, there is expressed regret that the desire of the people cannot be fulfilled. Mr. Cannon was born near  Monmouth, Warren county, Illinois, in 1837, and is now fifty-two years of age.

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     CHARLES H. CAREY. - Among the younger generation of men of enterprise and push who have come to Oregon to develop with the rapid progress of the state, Charles H. Carey, of Portland, is a notable figure. He was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, October 27, 1857, and lived there with his parents until he came to Oregon in 1883. he had the advantages of thorough schooling in the public schools of his native city, and entered the sophomore year at Denison University, Granville, Ohio, in September, 1878. He graduated in June, 1881, with the degree of Ph. B. Having in the meantime determined upon the practice of law as his avocation in life, he at once began a course of study to fit himself for its exacting requirements. He matriculated at the law school of the Cincinnati College in the fall of 1881, and was appointed librarian. Having under his charge the large and well-selected law library of that college, he had peculiar facilities for indulging his taste for study and original investigation, a privilege which he by no means neglected. He contributed a number of articles to law magazines, and wrote extensively on various subjects for current newspapers and periodicals. He completed his course at the law school in 1883, receiving the degree of LL. B., and was also admitted to the bar of the supreme court of the state of Ohio.

     Having determined to locate in the West, Mr. Carey spent several months visiting different Western cities; and on arriving at Portland in September, 1883, he at once determined to remain there, being impressed with the advantages and prospects as one of the great cities of the future. He connected himself with the then firm of Thayer & Williams, and subsequently entered a partnership with Honorable A.H. Tanner, under the firm name of Tanner & Carey.

     At this period Mr. Carey began the compilation of his "Digest of Oregon and Washington Reports," which was published in1888 by The Bancroft-Whitney Co., Law Publishers, San Francisco, California. It is a large volume of 656 pages, and was well and favorably received by the legal profession, and fills a place in every law office in the Northwest. Dissolving partnership in the spring of 1887, he returned East for a period, but, after a brief absence, again returned and resumed his practice at Portland, where he is highly esteemed by his many friends, and is recognized as one of the most able of the younger men at the bar.

     In 1884 Mr. Carey married Miss May N. Bidwell of Springfield, Ohio. They have one daughter.

     CHARLES CARPENTER. - Mr. Carpenter was born in Chattendon county, Vermont, February 1, 1838. He was the third son in a family of eight. Orrin and Jane (Basut) Carpenter were his parents. When thirteen years old he went with his parents to Franklin county, New York, and there received his education. In 1859 he came in company with his brothers J.W. and Henry, to California. They came via the Isthmus of Panama, and on the Pacific side took passage in the older steamer John L. Stevens for San Francisco. While in California Mr. Carpenter was engaged in various occupations, according to necessity or opportunity. Much of his time was spent in the schoolroom.

     The year 1864 found him in British Columbia, spending the winter in Victoria. In the spring of 1865 he joined his brother George, who was overseeing the construction of a railroad to the Cariboo mines. Here he engaged in driving and teaming, making as much as fourteen hundred dollars per month. Upon the completion of the road he went into the mines, and occupied himself for a few months. He then decided to make a change in his work and proceeded to embark in the stock business. He accordingly went to Eastern Washington in 1868, and located on his present ranch of one hundred and sixty acres, four miles west of North Yakima. This continues to be his home, though he has another quarter section in the county. He has of late years engaged in hop-culture, in which he has been very successful.

     Mr. Carpenter is a substantial farmer, and a good representative of the fertile and progressive country in which his influence has been felt. He was married in Portland to Miss Lena Webber, and has five children, George W., Chester, Emma J., Lillie M. and Edward J.

     JOHN CARSON. - Few, indeed, combine so many of those characteristics of frontier life, have undergone those experiences, successfully passed through those vicissitudes, which, aggregated and embodied in the life of one man, constitute him in the true sense a "pioneer," as he whose name heads this sketch. It but feebly represents his real worth and genuine manhood. The picture is incomplete which fails to show those struggles and hardships and sacrifices to which he and his little family were subjected in their journey to this country, in their labor to make a dwelling-place in the wilderness, and to open the way by which American men, and women and children might appropriate these regions and dedicate them as homes.

     The busy, thoughtless throng which later followed, and converted solitude into society, have pushed into the background the early settlers, - those who had transformed the wilderness into garden spots, thereby inducing the masses to come to the Pacific slope and cast their lot in Oregon and Washington. They who dedicated the wilderness as appropriate residences for the myriads who have followed will yet live in history; those who pushed back the savage to give place to our race, who made Washington Territory a practicable and peaceable abiding place for women and children, will be recognized as the true commonwealth-builders, the avant-couriers and establishers of our Pacific civilization. Such, in every sense of the word, was John Carson, who lives, at a green old age and full of activity, at Puyallup, Pierce county, Washington.

     He was born January 25, 1828, in butler county, Pennsylvania. His father was a farmer; and the son lived at home, engaged as farm-boys usually are, and with but limited means to acquire an education. At the age of fifteen, the parents migrated to Perry county, Indiana. John resided there until the spring of 1853, when he left for Puget Sound, in the then new territory of Washington, it having

244                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

been created by the act of Congress of March 2, 1853. The usual incidents of a journey across the plains were safely encountered. On arriving at old Fort Walla Walla (the site of the present town of Wallula), Mr. Carson and his family remained with the party that branched off at that point, crossed the Columbia river and traveled northwesterly through the Yakima valley and through the Nahchess Pass of the Cascade Mountains, over the road built in 1853 by the citizens of Pierce and Thurston counties for the immigrants of that year to enter the Puget Sound basin.

     The road was free from difficulty till the mountain pass was reached. From that on to the end of the journey it was incessant labor and hardship. It was a mere trail through the mountains, nothing more. It was simply blazed, not cut out. And thus these weary immigrants, day by day, hewed out the road by which they reached their future homes. Huge logs of trees, the growth of centuries, obstructed their progress, which could not be removed within the time allotted for them to get through. Pole bridges had been constructed, over which horses could pass, but which were obstacles for wagons; and so they unloaded them from time to time and lifted them over. The western descent was abrupt, rough and dangerous. River crossings were necessarily frequent; and their beds and steep sides were as the floods for ages had washed them out and left them. Some days their march was not to exceed three miles; but that heroic little band pushed through without the loss of a single animal. One place even those patient pioneers characterized as difficult. "Just before getting down to the Green-river crossing we had to lower our wagons by ropes some three hundred yards."

     John Carson and his family reached Fort Steilacoom (the site of the present State Insane Asylum), on the 15th of October, 1853. His little family then consisted of himself, his wife and one son. Two daughters and one son were subsequently born. His wife has but recently departed this life. In December, 1853, Mr. Carson with his family settled at the crossing of the Puyallup river, about a half mile from the town of Puyallup, on the county road from Steilacoom to Puyallup valley. At that date, or rather after the immigrants of 1853 had distributed themselves and taken their Donation claims, there was only one wagon in all the Puyallup valley, and that belonged to Benjamin F. Wright, who lived on a claim adjoining Mr. Carson. Mr. Carson established a private ferry across the Puyallup river for the crossing of passengers traveling the county road between the valley and Steilacoom, at that time the county seat of Pierce county, and the only town or American settlement or community within the county, if we except the garrison of Fort Steilacoom, about a mile and a quarter back from the Sound.

     Mr. Carson was a Democrat in politics, and was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the Legislative Assembly of the session 1855-56. He was a modest, unassuming man, made no pretentions as a speaker, but was a very useful, industrious member. The Indian war had broken out on Puget Sound in the month of October 1855. Mr. Carson's family were at that time obliged to leave their home and take refuge in Steilacoom. During the sessions of the legislature (December, 1855, and January, 1856), they had resided at Olympia. His dwelling house was at the crossing of the Puyallup river, on the line of communication between Fort Steilacoom and the Muckleshute Prairie, in the heart of the hostile region, at which point Lieutenant Colonel Casey, U.S. Army, in command of the military district of Puget sound, established a blockhouse, to which were dispatched six companies of the Fourth and Ninth United States Infantry.

     On the opposite side of the river from Mr. Carson's log-cabin home, a blockhouse was erected February 14, 1856, to guard the ferry and keep open the communication between Fort Steilacoom and Muckleshute. Between the sides of the river a government boat was used for the crossing of troops and supplies. To Mr. Carson was committed the charge of that ferry boat. To protect his side of the river, he raised an independent company, consisting of twenty-three volunteers, of which he was captain. They refused to be mustered into the United States service, but acted as a garrison for the defense of that settlement. They were provisioned by the United States regulars at Fort Steilacoom, and provided with arms from the United States steamer Massachusetts. For two years and four months Mr. Carson was employe' of the United States quartermaster of Fort Steilacoom, engaged as a carpenter on the buildings erected at Fort Steilacoom.

     In the year 1858, it became safe for him to return to his Donation claim at the Puyallup ferry, by the cessation of Indian hostilities. He then, under a charter of the Legislative Assembly of the territory, established a toll-bridge across the Puyallup river, which was carried away by the high water of  the winter of 1862-63. He then established a ferry under a license of the board of county commissioners of Pierce county. When hop-raising began to be a specialty in Puyallup valley, like the rest of his neighbors he participated in the cultivation, and was very successful. He had realized a sufficiency in 1882 to justify his building a sawmill in the suburbs of the new city of Tacoma. This was burned to the ground in the early summer of 1886; but Mr. Carson rebuilt in July, 1886, a mill of increased running capacity, capable of sawing thirty thousand feet per day. He was among the earliest to build a brick store on Pacific avenue in the city of Tacoma, at the time quite distant from the occupied portion of that street, and when the approach was over stumps and without sidewalks. The road, while not so bad as the immigrant road of 1853, was bad enough, and required quite as much moral courage to put faith in such an investment.

     John Carson for fifteen years successively was one of the board of county commissioners of Pierce county, and was elected regardless of which party was dominant; and most of that time he was the chairman. He still lives, a hale, hearty, active business man, esteemed and beloved by all who know him, proverbial for his integrity, and respected for his industry, attention to business and sterling qualities as a citizen.

                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES                                245

     JOSEPH L. CARTER. - This prominent educator of Eastern Oregon was born at the old Methodist Episcopal Mission, near Salem, January 22, 1845. He is the son of David Carter, who fifty years ago was a merchant in the various cities and states of South America, and in 1840 came via the Sandwich Islands to the then unclaimed Oregon, marrying Miss Orpha Lankton, of the mission party of the bark Lausanne, and settling on Mill creek near Salem, and also living at The Dalles, passing much time in the mines of California and becoming prominent upon our coast in the early days.

     After the death of his father, in 1854, Joseph removed with his mother to Brownsville, and from that place to Lebanon. He laid to rest this beloved parent in 1873, cherishing her memory not only as a devoted mother, but as a friend of the lost and ignorant Indians, and of our rising young state, and as a servant of God, - one whom all Oregon should now honor in her grave.

     Much of the early life of the young man was passed in study; and he graduated from the Willamette University in1868. The information which he received, and the ideas with which his own mind was fertilized, he strove to disseminate, and entered immediately into the educational field as teacher. Twelve years he was thus laboring in Oregon and Washington, being engaged for three of these as preceptor of the Blue Mountain Academy, putting forth his utmost endeavors, together with those of Mrs. H.K. Hines, to build up a first-class institution. In this effort much success was attained and much good accomplished.

     In 1878 he engaged in the drug business at island City, successfully continuing the same for seven years. In1888 he was honored by the county with the trust of its educational work, being elected as school superintendent, and is to the present time fulfilling the responsible duties of this office to the entire satisfaction of the public.

     Mr. Carter was married in 1869 to Miss Maggie E. Rector, of Salem, and has a home plainly indicative of comfort and refinement.

     MRS. C.B. CARY. - This refined woman and intelligent lady, one of our earliest pioneers, comes of one of the old Virginia families of English or Cavalier origin; whose members, in the early days of the Old Dominion, took and held an advanced social position. She was born at Richmond in 1815, and at the age of four moved to Kentucky with her father, William Taylor. In 1831 she was married to Miles S. Cary, one of the pioneer sons of Kentucky, with his full share of southern chivalrousness and western energy. In 1835 they moved to Missouri, and were prospered in their efforts to make a home and carry on business. In the winter of 1842, however, their attention was called to the advantages of Oregon by a neighbor of theirs, a certain Squire Vivian, a merchant, who, on a visit to St. Louis on business, had found a pamphlet on Oregon written by Doctor Whitman, and was so much impressed by the value and possibilities of that country as there described that he determined to go thither the coming summer.

     The Carys, reading the document, also formed the same purpose. The Squire was unable to accomplish the design owing to the sickness of his wife; but the Cary's collected their all into wagons and early in the spring of 1843, set out for the rendezvous on the Missouri. They also drove a considerable band of cattle, expecting to kill them for beef if necessary, or otherwise to drive them through, and thus to have the nucleus of a herd in the new home. For a time with A.J. Hembree, and afterwards with Jesse Applegate, they performed the long journey, experiencing nothing worse than fatigue, some excitement, some privation and some sickness, losing a little daughter, whom they buried at Fort Bridger. But there were no disasters. Their journey though the first performed with wagons, was in truth, one of the best conducted and most successful in the whole history of crossing the plains. Leaving their cattle to winter on the range at Walla Walla, they performed the remainder of the journey to the Willamette in boats, accompanying Jesse Applegate down the Columbia river, and witnessing the capsizing at the Cascades of the boat in which were his sons, one of whom escaped and one was drowned. An old man who was in the boat with them was also drowned.

     Reaching Vancouver the 11th of November, they spent the rest of the year at Linnton; but, Mr. Cary finding employment with Doctor McLoughlin on the grist mill at Oregon City, they resided at this old capital of the state, until in 1844 they took up a Donation claim on the north Yamhill river. By the great gold excitement of 1848, Mr. Cary was drawn to the fields of California, and intended to make that state his home, but, owing to constant sickness in his family while they lived at Benicia, decided to return to Oregon. Once more reaching our fair state, he bought out a squatter at the present site of St. Joseph. Here was made the permanent Oregon home; and the family circle grew and extended as the years went by, but was sadly broken by the death of the father in 1858.

     Mrs. Cary, however, remained at the old place, managing it with ability and cultivating it for many years. Sometime since however she disposed of it, and now makes her home at Lafayette. She is one of our most intelligent and delightful old ladies, full of reminiscences and kind feeling. She has had a family of twelve children, nine of whom are deceased. The two sons, J.J. and Wesley B. live near Lafayette; and a daughter, Mr. Ettie, resides at home.

     HON. SAMUEL CASE. - Prominent among the men who have made Oregon famous as a rendezvous for enterprise, talent and industry, may be mentioned the gentleman whose name is the title of this brief biography. Mr. Case was born in Lubec, Washington county, Maine, May 31, 1831.He acquired his education at East Maine Conference College, of Bucksport.

     In 1853 he took the fever to come West, and started for California, coming by way of Nicaragua route. After his arrival he followed teaching and mining for four years, when he returned to his Eastern home on a visit, from whence he returned to the Golden State in 1858.

     In 1861, the regular troops having been called

246                                                               HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

East on account of the Rebellion, the Pacific states had to organize volunteer forces for their protection against Indian depredations; and, thinking of the welfare of his fellow men, he abandoned his own interests and enlisted in Company D, Fourth Infantry, California Volunteers, and was ready to proceed at once to the call of duty. The company to which he belonged, and of which he was orderly sergeant, was ordered to Oregon, where he followed its wanderings until November, 1864, when he received an honorable discharge. For four years thereafter he was employed as superintendent of farming on the Alsea Indian Reservation.

     In 1866 he removed to Yaquina Bay, and located the claim upon which the town of Newport now stands. In this place he owns, besides the elegant Tourists' Hotel, other large interests. Mr. Case was one of three peace commissioners appointed by the general government to treat with the hostile Modoc Indians in1873; but, fearing to trust the Indians as proposed by the authorities, he resigned. His judgement in the premises was sound; for the treacherous Modocs afterwards attacked, under flag of truce, the commissioners as re-organized, killing one and wounding another, and also murdering General Canby.

     Mr. Case is happily married; and his home is surrounded with all the modern comforts of life.

     PHILIP F. CASTLEMAN. - Those who now make the trip in the palatial car across the continent from the populous cities and thickly settled districts of the union, and view the Pacific Northwest in its present development, can but faintly realize the dangers and privations the sturdy pioneers experienced in reaching here, nor yet understand the troubles they had with the red man who then roamed its confines at will, and knew no law save what pleased the savage heart the best. They often meet among its residents not a few upon whom the snows of many winters have fallen, - and fallen while braving the inconveniences of pioneer life. They see in them the man or woman whose years are well-nigh ended, with no evidences that the passing one has a history and a record which ofttimes is not only that of a pioneer, but one who undertook many a dangerous task in order to reclaim and build up this the fairest section of America.

     Among those who might pass unnoticed, except that he is a man of years, with kindly look and gentlemanly bearing, is the gentleman whose name heads this article, and who well might occupy a place with heroes. He was born on May 17, 1827 near Hodginsville, Kentucky, his ancestors being of Revolutionary fame. He received what education could be secured at the common schools of that time, which were not of the best, the term being usually three months in the year, and the distance to the old log schoolhouse being sometimes as much as four miles. The instructors were not always well educated; but, with application and a determination to know something, he was enabled to surmount the difficulties and instill into his mind a good understanding of his text books. He then attended a nine-months' term in the village of Hodginsville, where he forged ahead with great rapidity. On the closing of the term, he received a fine recommendation from his tutor, W.H. Fenton, now a leading lawyer of New York City, which, together with his general bearing, enabled him to secure a school at a hamlet called Bacon Creek, located some ten miles from his home. Here as a pedagogue he gave such general satisfaction that his refusal to teach a second term, although having been offered increased inducements, was greatly regretted by all. he had caught the California gold fever, and to the new El Dorado must go.

     He left home on May 3, 1849, and went to Aetna Furnace, Hart county, and there joined a company of eighteen others under the leadership of C.W. Churchill. Their trip across the continent was attended not only with sickness but death, the whole party being afflicted more or less with cholera. Seven of the nineteen succumbed to its ravages before reaching the Rocky Mountains. Theirs was not the only company which suffered in a like manner; for in many camps could be seen the dead, dying and almost helpless suffering emigrants; and all along the route there was a graveyard at nearly every camping place. Our subject was not an exception; for he had several attacks of the disease. At times, when able, he took his turn with the rest as doctor, nurse, cook, teamster and herdsman. After a long, weary and distressful journey, the welcome Rockies were at last reached, when in the change of climate better health was experienced until nearing the Sierra Nevadas, when several of the party, including our subject, the latter very severely, were taken down with mountain fever. Proceeding onward under these many disadvantages, they at last reached Sacramento in November of the year of starting, having been nearly six months on the road.

     His first experience as a miner was at Bidwell's Bar, on Feather river. His experience here convinced him that the miner's life was not at all times what the gold-fever-stricken Easterner pictures before leaving home for the diggings, and thinking he could do better in Sacramento City, left for that place. About two or three weeks after his arrival there, he entered the employ of a baker at a monthly salary of $250. This position he retained through the winter and until spring, when he again concluded to try mining, and left for Redding Diggings, in the Upper Sacramento valley. After his arrival he was induced to retrace his steps as far as Stony Creek (now Monroeville), where he erected a house for other parties, which was the first built at that point, and which he conducted as a hotel for some time. he again went to the mines, only to leave them in a short time on account of a severe illness, returning to the valley and buying an interest in what was then called Mundy's ranch. In 1851 he disposed of those interests and left for Oregon, settling at a point near where Eugene now stands. There he erected a sawmill, and later on built a mill on Bear creek, the fruits of whose saws were the first lumber sawed in Southern Oregon, thus making him the pioneer in that enterprise in that section of the state.

     In 1853 he sold out and went to Rogue river, and in partnership with Milton Lindley built and ran a

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