History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 289 - 309

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP


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fusillade escaped with, seventeen of his fine, blooded horses. At Fort Hall the nephew died. Arriving at Auburn, Oregon, in September, Mr. Cowles set to work to recuperate his finances by day's labor. On the last day in the year, he encamped with his little company on the present site of the village of Cove, in Union county, upon the handsome tract of land now owned by the niece mentioned above, then Miss Fanny Cowles, a native of Tennessee, and for whom the majestic mountain peak that towers into perpetual snows and keeps watch over her elegant home was named.

     E.P. McDaniel, the junior partner, was born in Missouri in 1839, and was raised on his father's farm. In 1856 he emigrated to Kansas, where he engaged in farming and trading. In 1861 he crossed the plains to Portland, Oregon, and engaged in work at his trade of carpenter. In 1863 he came to Grande Ronde valley, and was engaged in packing, clerking and in the livery business. July 4th, 1865, he was married to Miss Fanny Cowles, and the next spring joined her uncle in conducting the farm, upon which they planted extensive orchards and erected a handsome residence, which is now embowered with a beautiful growth of ornamental trees and flowering shrubs, and is surrounded with rare flowers, which, being artistically arranged, make it a delightful villa. They soon combined stock-dealing with farming and milling, and in 1884 opened a general mercantile establishment near their residence, the New-England-like village of Cove having meantime sprung up party on their own land. They are at present conducting a very large and prosperous business, and deal in everything that is salable. They entertain many friends and guests at their commodious residence. Mr. and Mrs. McDaniel have six children, the two eldest of whom are young men with good training and education.

     ANDERSON COX. - There has never lived a man in the Northwest more worthy of commemoration than that pioneer of 1845, Anderson Cox. He was born near Dayton, Ohio, in 1812, of Quaker parentage, and moved with the family to Indiana in 1830, and claimed a share in the home formed on the Wabash river at Attica. He was married in 1836 to Miss Julia Walter, and in 1840 removed to New London, Iowa. In 1845, with his wife and four children, he made the journey to Oregon, and was in the company of immigrants who endured the privations and rugged experiences of the "Meek cut-off". At the Des Chutes, the crossing of this turbulent river was effected by drawing the loaded wagon-beds over as ferries by means of ropes. Two canoes served to convey the family and their goods from The Dalles to a point known as Parker's cabin, on the Lower Columbia. A return to The Dalles from this point was attempted, with flour for the immigrants still coming, and with the purpose of bringing down the wagons left at the mission. The journey, however, was discontinued at the Cascades, as there the flour was all given away to hungry parties coming from above, and as news was received that the wagons had been burned by the Indians.

     Returning to the Willamette, he found work and an abiding place for his family at the Salem mission, and the next season went south to the other side of the Santiam river, Mrs. Cox being the second white woman to cross that stream, and selected a Donation claim  at the present site of Albany, whose environs at the present time cover a part of the old farm.

     Mr. Cox was notably connected with Linn county's early and subsequent history down to and including the exciting times of 1861. He was twice elected to the territorial legislature, the first time traveling to the capital by a canoe. he was instrumental in fixing the boundary line between Marion and Linn counties, and gave the name of Linn to the new county, in honor of Senator Linn of Missouri, the friend of Oregon.

     In 1861 he became a pioneer once more, being among the first to lay the foundations of the now imposing Inland Empire. He laid out a new town, Coppei, sixteen miles north of Walla Walla, but in 1865 removed to a claim adjoining the young city of Waitsburgh, and here developed one of the most productive places in the region.

     In 1872 he became interested in Whitman county, and located at the growing city of Colfax. He had very extensive business plans in view, and, although then approaching age, had no thought of giving up life's activities. He was concentrating his means and efforts to erect extensive saw and grist mills. But, returning to Waitsburgh, he suffered on the journey great exposure, which his frame did not withstand as in earlier years; and even at the roadside he lay upon the earth and paid the great debt of nature. At the time of his death, Mr. Cox held the office of receiver of the Walla Walla land-office, having been appointed to this responsible position by President Grant in 1871, when the district embraced all of Washington east of the Cascade Mountains. In this capacity  he did his work well, and made warm friends of the settlers.

     Mr. Lewis Cox, his son, who owns the old place adjoining Waitsburgh, worthily upholds the name and perpetuates the manly virtues of his father. He has a family of twelve children, and is one of the most esteemed citizens of Walla Walla.

     ADNA C. CRAIG. - At the union depot on the line of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, at the south end of the Grande Ronde valley, is the Craigton Hotel, into which water is conducted through pipes from a spring half a mile away, and one hundred and sixty feet above. This water where it springs from the steep sidehill has a temperature of 180 degrees Fahrenheit, while at the hotel where it enters the bathroom its temperature is about 90 degrees. It shows by analysis iron, borax, sulphur and magnesia. For twenty years this hotel has been a health resort for those afflicted with rheumatism and kindred diseases. The proprietor, Adna C. Craig, was born in Ohio in 1821, received a common-school education, and learned the trade of a tanner and currier.

     Emigrating to Iowa in 1841, he engaged in brick-making until he removed to California with the argonauts in 1849. He transferred his business to



290                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 our state in 1855, mining and lumbering in Josephine county. He carried with him a whipsaw, and found that this brought the "dust" even faster than the "Long Tom." In 1858 he made brick and erected the first brick building in Douglas county, and often joined General Lane or Colonel Mosher in the hunt.

     In 1861 he was in the Idaho mines, the most of the time running the Armstrong whipsaw and making lumber, which he sold at one dollar a foot. He passed the winter in a temperature which congealed mercury, and froze his feet, while the prices of provisions were: Flour two dollars, bacon three dollars, potatoes two and a half dollars, tea and coffee five dollars, and tobacco fifteen dollars per pound. After an adventure the next spring with nine school teachers while in search of a bonanza which did not exist, and nearly losing his life, Mr. Craig set forth for Auburn, but passing through the Grande Ronde was entranced by the beauty of the region, and determined to set his stakes there and make a home, choosing a claim near the present site of Union. He has since that time farmed, packed, raised grain and stock, acted as sheriff for four years, as assessor for three years, as county Judge for eight years, and as swamp-land commissioner for four years. We find him still a hearty and jovial "boy" of sixty-eight years, ready with his anecdote or joke, and a leading man in the community.

     COL. WALTER CROCKETT, Sr. - The lineal representatives of many of the distinguished families of the Atlantic states have become the builders of our own communities. Such was Colonel Crockett, who was in the line of the old Virginia family that went out West to settle in the early days of Braddock's war. The father, Colonel Hugh, was of Norman-Irish descent, and earned his rank in the Revolutionary war. His mother, Rebecca Larton, was a Knickerbocker, born at Jersey City, New Jersey. It was near Shawsville on the upper Roanoke, whither the Colonel had gone to settle, that his son, Walter was born, January 29, 1786.

     The boy spent his early years in school and on his father's plantation, and came to manhood in ample time to participate in the war of 1812. He served under Captain, afterwards Governor Floyd of Virginia. He served with distinction, and thus led the way to political preferment. He was a member of the Virginia legislature three terms, and was an elector in the electoral college which elevated Jackson to the presidential chair. He was also for several years colonel of the Montgomery militia. He as generally influential in public affairs. It was in Virginia that he was joined in marriage to Mrs. Mary Black Ross, daughter of John Black, a man of distinction in the Old Dominion, and the founder of Blacksburg.

     In 1838, however, Colonel Crockett determined to begin entirely new far in the West, and removed to Boone county, Missouri, and in 1840 to Putnam county. This location did not wholly satisfy him; and in 1851 he took the final step to reach the Pacific coast. With a few of the families from the neighborhood, embracing Robert Cochran of Eugene, Oregon, and the family of the late Colonel Ebey of Whidby Island, he repaired to the rendezvous, and in a considerable company performed the dangerous journey. The Indians were troublesome; and the travelers were little beyond Omaha before they had their cattle stamped, some of which were killed by the savages. There were subsequently many similar annoyances; and in a brush with the Bannacks, near the present site of Pocatello, the Colonel's second son John,  a veteran of the Mexican war, and an old Indian fighter, escaped death only by the rifle ball striking and glancing from his powder horn. After reaching Oregon Colonel Crockett directed his course to Olympia, whence, in December of 1851, he removed to Widby Island, locating upon the place still owned by Walter Crockett, Jr., and upon which was built in 1857 the stockade, a view of which will be found in this work.

     Here the Colonel employed himself with his family in farming; and they all became prosperous. After a residence of eighteen years, during which his influence was brought to bear and was widely extended throughout the territory, he passed to the other shore.

     The members of his family are well known on the Sound. John Crockett, of whom mention has already been made, is no longer living. Samuel B. Crockett, the eldest, is a pioneer of a very early time, having reached Oregon in 1844, and in 1845 was at Olympia with Michael T. Simmons, being first to build the flouring mill at Tumwater. Susan H. is now living at Seattle, and is the widow of Samuel Hancock, the well-known pioneer. Hugh is at Puyallup; and Charles and Walter, Jr., are living prosperously at Whidby Island.

     HON. CLANRICK CROSBY. - This gentleman, of whom an excellent portrait appears in our work, was born in East Brewster, Massachusetts, January 6 1838. He is a son of Captain Clanrick and Phoebe H. (Fessenden) Crosby. In 1849 he came with his parents via Cape Horn on board the brig Grecian, of which his father was captain and part owner. The father was a sea-faring man until his arrival in San Francisco in the above year. After a short stay there, he brought his vessel to Portland, and there selling her quit the sea.

     The family remained in Portland, Oregon, during the spring and summer of 1850, while Mr. Crosby, Sr., went to Milton, Oregon, where the family joined him during the summer, excepting the son Clanrick, who was attending school at Tualatin Academy at Forest Grove, then in its incipiency.

     In the fall of 1850, the father went to Puget Sound and purchased the famous water-power and mill property at Tumwater, Washington Territory (then Oregon), the family following him in the spring of 1851. Here the Captain resided until his death. When Clanrick had attained his majority, he learned the trade of wagon and carriage maker, which business he followed for five years. He then found employment in his father's store for one year. Then, embarking in the manufacture of buckets, he introduced the first pail made by machinery in Washington Territory. After this he became a member of the firm of Leonard, Crosby & Cooper, and engaged in the manufacture of sashes and doors



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 in Tumwater; but in six months he sold out and undertook a sawmilling enterprise near Black river, which he continued for two years.

     Then, seeking a new location, he came to the now flourishing town of Centralia, Lewis county, Washington, which had then just been laid out. It was owned by a colored man who rejoiced in the great name of the "Father of his Country," and was situated on the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, midway between Kalama on the Columbia river and Tacoma on Puget Sound. At that time there was but one house in the town, owned and occupied by Mr. Isaac Wingard; and it served the quadruple purpose of dwelling, hotel, store and postoffice. Mr. Crosby, perceiving the natural advantages of the place, proceeded to erect a store on the right-of-way of the railroad. Although not owner of the townsite, he may be regarded as the founder of the place. In 1874 he purchased his present store property, where he is now actively engaged in business, and owns considerable town, farm and mill property.

     In 1884 Mr. Crosby was elected to the territorial legislature on the Republican ticket. Prior to this, while living in Tumwater, he held the office of county commissioner of Thurston county for one term. Mr. Crosby is a strong advocate of temperance, and has been a lifelong Republican. As his portrait indicates, he is a strong and intelligent man, whose influence would be felt in any community.

     He was married in Tumwater December 23, 1863, to Martha Ward, a native of Illinois. They have had four children, - Ella M., Carrie E. (deceased), Fannie and Walter E.

     The enterprise and success of Mr. Crosby, a worthy son of the famous old pioneer, who was surpassed by no one in establishing the commerce of Oregon and Washington Territory, show that the sons of the founders of the Northwest are able to take their fathers' places. Such instances are encouraging to those interested in the development of our great section; for they prove that the high endeavors which actuated the builders of our states still move those left to complete and adorn them.

     JAMES B. CROSSEN. - Mr. Crossen is the present postmaster at The Dalles, and was born August 11, 1838, at Donegal, Ireland. This was his residence until he emigrated to America in 1849 and made his home with his parents in New York city until of age. In 1859 he crossed the Isthmus to California, and resided at Callaghan's Ranch for four years, going from thence to Idaho, where he engaged in business at Placerville until 1863. Seeking a new location, he cast his eyes with hope towards the State of Oregon, and selected The Dalles as the most eligible point for business and residence, and has remained there until the present time. Mr. Crossen has ever occupied responsible positions in public life. He was elected sheriff of Wasco county in 1876, and was re-elected in 1878 and in 1884, thus serving three full terms. He was also elected twice to the city council of The Dalles. In the interim he followed merchandising and auctioneering until, in 1886, he was appointed postmaster, a position which he now fills.

     In 1863 he married Miss Frances H.C. Gray of Portland, Maine, who bore him three children, two of whom are now living, - grace e., born in 1867, and James a., born in 1864. His wife Frances dying in 1870, he was married secondly in 1872 to Laura Alice Martin, his present wife, and the mother of his two youngest children, G.W. and Emily A.

     Mr. Crossen has been continuously and is now actively engaged in business pursuits, and is closely identified with the interests of The Dalles and of Wasco county.

     CAPT. JAMES J. CROW. - Mr. Crow, a portrait of whom will be found in this work, is one of the early pioneers of Oregon, as well as one of the early and substantial residents on White river. He was born in Lincoln county, Missouri, April 5, 1842, and is the son of George and Mary E. (Howdeshell) Crow, both of whom were pioneers of the above state. In the summer of 1848 his parents, with their family of five children, started to cross the plains to Oregon; but, on reaching the Missouri river, it then being late in the season, they concluded to return to their former home. However, they again, early in February, 1849, started with a good outfit and with ox-teams to cross the trackless plains to the far West, arriving near Oregon City late in the fall of 1849, where they passed the first winter. In the spring of 1850 they moved to the Kellogg ranch, south of Portland. In the following fall his father purchased a farm near Milwaukee, on the Willamette, where in 1852 the family suffered the irreparable loss of the husband and father.

     On the death of his father our subject, with the pluck and energy that has so often been displayed by the early settlers to the Pacific coast, began to do for himself, and followed different occupations until 1860. He then came to the Puyallup valley, Washington Territory, and in 1862 located a claim, but a short time thereafter abandoned it  and went to Seattle. In 1864 Mr. Crow took up a claim on White river, one and a half miles south of the present beautiful little city of Kent. Here he ahs cleared up and made a magnificent farm, consisting of one hundred and fifty-four acres.

     In 1875 he embarked in the cultivation of hops, in which he has been very successful, and is recognized as one of the men who have brought that industry to the front, and who have made that section of the country famous for the quantity as well as quality of hops. In 1883 Captain Crow embarked in steam boating on the Sound, and for four years was owner and master of the steamer Lilly, in which undertaking he was also very successful. He has held the office of constable for the White river precinct for eighteen years.  The Captain is well and favorably known all over the Sound country, and is a gentleman whom it is a real pleasure to meet.

     He was united in marriage in Seattle September 18, 1862, to Miss Emma Russell, a daughter of S.W. Russell, a pioneer of 1852 and among the very first locators on White river in 1853. By this union they have a family of thirteen children, all of whom are living and residing with their parents in their magnificent home in Kent, where the Captain has


292                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

retired from the active pursuits of farm life, and is prepared to take the comforts that are to be found in his happy and beautiful home.

     LEVI H. CYPHERS. - Mr. Cyphers, who occupies a very prominent position in Snohomish county, having served as sheriff by the choice of the Republicans as well as democrats, is a native of the Keystone state, having been born in Monroe county, Pennsylvania, in 1849. He engaged in business at his early home, but at the age of twenty-six acted upon the belief that there were better opportunities for young men at the West. He accordingly set out for the Black Hills in the fall of 1875, with the expectation of digging gold, but, upon arriving at Cheyenne, found that miners were excluded by the Government form the region. Continuing his way westward to San Francisco, he was ready by Christmas day to embark for the northern coast, and brought his journeyings to an end at Seattle. from this point of vantage, he took a general survey of the whole Sound country, and, as the conclusion of his investigations, selected Snohomish as the site of his future home and business. since his residence there, lumbering or logging has occupied his attention. From superintendent of camps he advanced in 1880 to the operation of his own, in which he employs twenty men, and owns a tract of timber land on the Skykomish river. He is also engaged in ranching.

     In the fall of 1886, Mr. Cyphers was elected sheriff, and still holds this office. Although the county is strongly Republican, he received a majority of over seven hundred, and was on the Democratic ticket. He has been very successful in business, and is well established financially. He is as yet unmarried.

     CAPTAIN J.D. DAMMON. - This pioneer of the Kittitass valley was born in Seabeck, Maine, June 22, 1825. In 1843 he removed to Wisconsin, then a territory, living in Dane and Monroe counties. In the spring of 1859, he went with others to Colorado. Denver was then a small  place of a few tents and log huts. At Arrapahoe and on Clear creek he engaged in blacksmithing; then with his partner, R.S. Kingman, he bought the Bob Tail Lead in Gregor's gulch ,from which millions of dollars have since been taken; but his partner sold it for $300 during Mr. Dammon's absence. He went back to Wisconsin in 1859, and in 1861, at the outbreak of the war, raised a company of one hundred and five men and took them to Camp Barstow at Jamesville, Wisconsin, to be incorporated in the Third Wisconsin Cavalry, and was commissioned captain of Company A of the same regiment, Colonel William A. Barstow commanding. In May of the same year, he was quartered at Leavenworth, Kansas, with the whole regiment. Here he was detailed with his company on duty between the fort and the city. Three weeks later the regiment was mounted; and Dammon was appointed provost marshal of Donovan county. On the march thither he was prostrated by sunstroke, and was granted a furlough to return to Wisconsin and recover. In September he came back to Leavenworth, and at Fort Scott rejoined his regiment.

     In March, 1863, he resigned his commission on account of ill health and went back to Wisconsin where he lived until 1870. After a few years in Iowa in the hotel and mercantile business, he set out for Washington Territory (1871) with horse teams, but stopped for the winter in Utah, arriving in Yakima county in 1872. Mr. Dammon built the first sawmill in this county, and the second gristmill. His first home was up in the mountains, where his first daughter was born. The house was roofed with hearth and had no floor except the ground, and was a very rude structure, as there was as yet no lumber for building purposes. He came down the next summer and located the place where he now lives, about two and one-half miles of Ellensburgh. This property comprises two hundred acres of excellent land, on which he has a fine residence, six hundred fruit trees and some very fine stock and a dairy.

     He still runs the same gristmill he constructed when he first came, although it has been enlarged and changed to the roller process. The mill is situated on a race taken out of the Yakima river. Mr. Dammon was married first to Miss Mary Cushing who died in 1865, leaving three boys. He was then married to his present wife, Miss Sabrina June, in Wisconsin. They have one boy and one girl living.

     JAMES R. DANIEL. - The subject of this sketch was born in1826, and has lived a life that might well be described in poetry as succinct as that in which Othello related his own.

     The son of a machinist and shipbuilder of Philadelphia, Mr. Daniel early learned naval craft on the schoolship North Carolina in New York harbor, and on the brig Washington of the Coast Survey, and was then transferred to the Independence and Potomac. After his honorable discharge from the United States navy, he made voyages as able seaman to Havre and Liverpool, and to the West Indies. In 1846 he joined the United States army to subdue Mexico, and was in the exciting scenes of that war until its close, being one of the number to witness the planting of the American colors on the old Aztec capitol. He was in the quartermaster's department, and at one time had charge of a mule train, loaded with silver dollars, from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. He was engaged for a time after the war in business at that old city, and in 1850 came to the mines of California.

     With almost every passing year he encountered new romances and adventures. He was with the banished Mobile Guard of France, and served as scout to quell the Indians of the Stanislaus in California. In the month of July, 1852, he sailed for Australia, and on the way prospected the Samoan Islands of Tutuila. After mining in Australia, he came to Oregon, and on Althouse, and Klamath rivers mined with success. On Sucker creek he lost his partner by the bullets of the Indians.

     In 1858 he went with a companion to Frazier river, British Columbia, and was one of the fortunates who discovered Hill's bar, from which himself and partner took ten thousand dollars each within six months. Going now with his money to



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San Francisco, he fell in the way of an appointment as interpreter for the secretary of the legation to Chile. But soon after reaching this South American country the revolution broke out, compelling his return by smuggling himself off on a Danish ship.

     Coming to Portland in 1859, he took a band of cattle to the Umatilla, and changed the epithet, "Hamstring," applied to the country to "Tu tu willow," after the Samoan Tutuila. Here he has made his home ever since, although he has made many mining expeditions to British Columbia, and did not neglect to celebrate our glorious Fourth by raising our colors and singing patriotic hymns even across the line. In the spring of 1861, he took out six thousand, five hundred dollars at Oro Fino, Pierce City and Rhodes Creek, but lost his cattle by the severity of the season. In 1862, with his old partner Hill, he procured a train of goods at The Dalles and opened a hotel at Lee's Encampment, which he afterwards sold to A.B. Meacham. In the same year he was married. In 1878 his loved companion departed this life, leaving six children.

     Mr. Daniel's eight hundred acres of land thoroughly engage his attention; and he did not leave his home even during the time of the Indian scares in 1878.

CATHERINE S. DAVIS. - One of the beautiful and happy lives among the pioneer women of our state is that of the lady named above. It has, to some extent, been spent amid the utmost dangers, difficulties and privations, but nevertheless has been constantly adorned by works of devotion and benevolence. Hers is a life made beautiful not so much by wealth or technical culture as by patience, fortitude and good works.

     She was born of Dutch parentage in the State of New York, January 23, 1811. Her father, William K. Sluyter, one of the Knickerbockers, moved to Pennsylvania when she was nine years old, and nine years later to Ohio. In that state she was married at the age of twenty-one to Benjamin Davis. In 1838 they, with their children, moved to Indiana, settling near where Plymouth now stands. In 1847 herself, husband and six children joined the train of Captain Peak to cross the plains to Oregon. The journey was without startling incidents during its earlier sages, with the exception of some annoyance from the Pawnee Indians, and the exaction of toll by them. At Fort Hall, however, the train divided, that portion to which Mr. Davis belonged taking the southern or Applegate route through the desert and Modoc country and the Rogue river valley. almost from the point of departure from the old track, there were threats, shootings and surprises from the Indians with frequent returns of bullets from the immigrants. especially was this the case in the Modoc country. In the Rogue river valley, also, having escaped many of the minor harassments of a troublesome enemy, they were threatened with complete annihilation. Two hundred warriors surrounded their camp, having separated themselves from their women and tents. There were no more than eighteen men capable of bearing arms in Mr. Davis'  train; and in case of an onset the results would have been doubtful. Mr. Davis, however, by a clever ruse, kept them off. Having a cook-stove with a drum in the back part of his wagon, which had a fire in it and from which smoke was issuing, he made signs that this was a cannon or some sort of explosive machine, and at his word would destroy them. Noticing its resemblance to artillery, of which they may have had some notion, and not daring to tempt its gaping mouth, they gradually withdrew and let the train pass.

     Arriving at a point two miles north of the present site of Eugene, the beauty and manifest fertility of this land led Mr. Davis and his wife to secure here a claim for a home. The following years were spent amid the privations common to all the pioneers of that early day. With but seventy-five cents left from the journey, they were compelled to trade off a portion of their cattle for flour and seed wheat; and, to get these, Mr. Davis was obliged to go to the Luckiamute, sixty miles away. A cow for twelve bushels of wheat and a yoke of oxen for a thousand pounds of flour was how the trade stood; and this provisioning seemed sufficient for the winter's supply. But long before seeding time in the spring, the flour was exhausted, by reason of Mrs. Davis' unstinted hospitality to the many weary and hungry parties who still came straggling through the mountains. Then the family were compelled to live on boiled wheat, and this without salt, when that article was gone. In the spring an abundance of milk, and unlimited quantities of delicious wild strawberries, without sugar, varied their bill of fare. It was at about this time, however, that Mr. William Dodson, of the upper forks of the Willamette, happened by and discovered their lack of money and the difficulty that Mr. Davis experienced in providing for his family, and insisted upon loaning him, without note or interest, an amount sufficient to purchase provisions at Vancouver, one hundred and forty miles away.

     Notwithstanding the difficulties of these early days, Mrs. Davis remembers them with great pleasure. She glad her children in buckskin suits and supplied them with plenty of butter and cheese. She was skilled in midwifery and became nurse to the families scattered here and there in the upper Willamette valley, being south from Mary's river to the Calapooia Mountains to alleviate the sufferings of those in sickness or trouble. She continued this practice until her failing eyesight compelled her to desist. No one ever passed her house without food or good cheer.

     Seven children grew up in this home, one son being born after their arrival in Oregon. The death of Mr. Davis in 1858 left Mrs. Davis with the three younger children to educate. She lived on the old place until 1874, when, the last of the children having married and moved away, she broke up housekeeping and has since lived with her children, as she felt inclined. With the exception of the loss of her eyesight, her health remains good.

     GEORGE A. DAVIS. - This pioneer in the lumber and flouring business of Portland, and indeed of other points throughout the union, is a native of



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Maine, having been born in Hallowell in 1832. In 1851 he was one of the argonauts, sailing to the Golden state via Nicaragua, and remaining there until 1865 occupied in mining, lumbering and other sorts of business. Returning home in that year, he soon left for Iowa, making his home there for ten years, engaged in stock-raising and farming.  He was married there to Miss Hannah C. Dudley. In 1875 he came again to California, contrasting the facilities of the railroad train with the slower steamship accommodations of the older time. stopping only for a breathing spell at the metropolis of the Pacific coast, he came on to Portland, operating four years in the flouring business, and being well remembered there. In 1879 he went to Spokane Falls, opened a drug store and conducted it for two years, and in 1887 returned to his old-time business of milling, running a sawmill, and afterwards, with Mr. Havemale, building the Echo Roller Mills, the first of the kind in the territory. Two years later he sold out to his partner, but still continued in the lumber business, and in 1887 built a fully equ9ipped roller flour-mill at Marshall, eight miles from the city, - the fourth that he has erected, all giving excellent work.

     Mr. Davis was one of the first members of the city council by appointment, and served another term by election. He was one of the originators of the Methodist College, and has contributed liberally to its building funds. His life on this coast has generally been peaceful; yet in the early days of California he had at least one shrewd brush with the Indians, the train which he was driving being attacked and his partner shot dead at his side, and another man pierced with two balls, himself escaping unhurt. This providential preservation has given Spokane Falls one of her best and oldest citizens.

     JAMES S. DAVIS - Mr. Davis is one of the most interesting and progressive men of our country. The tragic events of Steptoe's expedition in 1858 are described in the body of this work, and need no repetition here. One of the most conspicuous landmarks n the region traversed by that ill-fated troop is the spire-like pinnacle of basalt which has ever since received the name of Steptoe.  It lies in the midst of one of the richest and most productive farming regions in the world, the far-famed Palouse country. Long a solitude, it has lately been occupied by a keen and public-spirited citizen, known far and near as "Cash-up" Davis. Upon that lofty eminence, Mr. Davis has erected buildings of so fine and expensive a character, from which views of such superlative magnificence can be obtained, that the visitor has almost as much curiosity to know the career of the man who did all this as to see the scenes themselves.

     Mr. Davis was born in Hastings, England, on November 16, 1815. At that historic spot, the site of the battle which left William the Conqueror in possession of England, he spent the first fifteen years of his life. His uncle, a captain in the British army, then appointed him his valet; and he entered a postilion school to learn how to take the proper charge of a pair of Shetland ponies which the Sultan of Turkey had given as a present to Lady Erskine. Having remained there a year, the boy took to wandering over all parts of the United Kingdom in company with an army officer, Captain John Guyun.

     The Captain having died within a year and a half, the young man continued his travels in the south of England and in France. Next he was busy as foreman in charge of sixty men engaged in running the Dover tunnel under Shakespeare cliff. On the 8th of August he took ship for the New World. After four years in Seneca county, Ohio, he was married to Mary Ann Shoemaker of Columbus, Ohio; and two years later the young couple went to Wisconsin to make their fortune. There they lived twenty-two years; and there their eleven children were born. Their names in order of age are: William A., Laura C., Francis L., Ferdinand A., Henry E., James P., John, Clarence C., Mary Ann, Amy C. and Charles J.

     Leaving their pleasant home in Wisconsin, they spent two years in Iowa. In 1871 they joined the increasing stream of immigration to Oregon. In the beautiful county of Yamhill they spent a year and a half, and then made still another home in Whitman county, Washington. Having purchased Steptoe Station of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company in 1877, Mr. Davis made some extensive improvements there.

     In 1887 he purchased Steptoe Butte; and there he has built an imperishable monument to himself in the form of his observatory and other buildings. His lofty eyrie consists of a building sixty-four by sixty-six feet in size, in which is a hall running the whole width of the building and forty feet wide. Upon the summit of the building is a cupola encircled by a regular steamship deck. In the observatory is the next to the largest telescope in Washington. With its aid, a view, scarcely to be paralleled in the country, is spread out like a map. A foreground of vast rolling plains, checkered with grain fields; a background of towering mountains, rising, tier on tier, till they break at last against the barrier of eternal frost, - such is the outlook which daily greets the vision of this brave old pioneer of the Palouse. He is thus most happily situated; for his eleven children are located in comfort and prosperity in the fertile land at the foot of his castle.

     HON. MATTHEW P. DEADY. - The character of the man whose name heads this article is one to which justice cannot be done in a short sketch of the principal events of his life. However, it will serve to illustrate one pure, wise and energetic; one of those who, while he gained his education, toiled for his living; one of those whom no circumstances, poverty or hardship could deter or turn aside from his purposes and the pursuit of knowledge. Judge Deady was born in Easton, Talbot county, Maryland, on May 12, 1824. His parents were good and respectable people, his father being a teacher by profession. When the son was four years of age, the family moved to Wheeling, Virginia, where his father was employed as principal of the Lancasterian Academy for a number of years.

     In 1834 his mother died as they were journeying from Baltimore to Wheeling, having been visiting her father at the former city. In 1837, Matthew



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 removed with his father to Ohio, and there spent four years on the farm, until in 1841 he went to Barnesville and wrought at the anvil while he attended the Barnesville Academy. So, while he hammered away at the forge, he also shaped in his mind the knowledge found in good books. After completing his apprenticeship, young Deady with laudable ambition determined to read law; and, realizing that he could only succeed by means of severe application, he began the study of law in 1845 with Honorable William Kennon, of St. Clairsville, Ohio, afterwards on the supreme bench of the state, and now deceased. While pursuing his studies, he supported himself by teaching school. In October, 1847, he was admitted to the supreme court of the state, and commenced practice in St. Clairsville. His indomitable will and hard labor, both mentally and physically, had now placed him on a fair road to brave the battle of life; and he started out to succeed.

     He crossed the plains to Oregon in 1849, and taught school during the winter of that year, until in the spring of 1850 he commenced the practice of his profession, soon becoming a man of mark in the community. Indeed, the very year he began to practice, he was chosen at the June election to the lower house of the territorial legislature, in which he was an active and leading member, and, as a consequence, was in 1851 elected a member of the territorial council form the same county, - Yamhill, - the opposition being Honorable David Logan. Here he served as chairman of the judiciary committee in the session of 1851-52, and as presiding officer during the special session of July, 1852, and the regular one of 1852-53.

     He was already one of the leading men of the country, both at the bar and in the legislature, and was strongly urged in the spring of 1853 as a candidate for delegate to Congress, but preferred to accept the appointment of associate justice of the supreme  court of the territory, which office he filled by subsequent reappointment, until the admission of the state into the union in February, 1859. Soon after his appointment he removed to the southern district, comprising at that time the country south of the Calapooia Mountains, and settled on a farm in the valley of the Umpqua, where the interested traveler may still find the fruitful orchards and vines planted and trained by his hands in the intervals of judicial labor.

     While occupying this position he was elected from Douglas county as one of the delegates to the constitutional convention, which met in Salem in 1857, and formed the present constitution of the state, being president of the body, and active and influential in its workings. At the first election under this constitution, Judge Deady was elected one of the justices of the supreme court of the state from the southern district; but as he had been appointed judge of the United States district court for the state, on her admission in 1859, he accepted the latter position and moved to Portland in 1860, where he has ever since resided and occupied a seat in the district and circuit courts with marked ability.

     In 1861-62 he prepared and reported to the legislature the present code and civil procedure, which was adopted with two small amendments, and with slight alterations has constituted the code of civil procedure for the state since it went into effect in May, 1863. At the request of the legislature of 1862, he also prepared and reported to the legislature of 1864 a code of criminal procedure, including the definitions of crimes and their punishments, which was passed at that session without amendment, and which is substantially still in force. With all of is other labors, Judge Deady has found time to prepare and publish a large amount of correspondence and contributions to the periodicals of the country, containing much information concerning the history of Oregon and its affairs. He has also given of his labor and means to the establishment and support of charitable and educational institutions, one of which is the Portland Library, of which he is president, and another the State University, of which he is president of the board of regents.

     The judge, with his tall stature, with his intelligent and sparkling blue eyes, and auburn hair now plentifully sprinkled with gray, is when on the bench urbane and courteous, though requiring that decorum which he considers indispensable to the dignity of the court and the orderly transaction of business; and the "bullies" of the law soon find their level in his court. He is very kind and encouraging to the young and inexperienced lawyers; and neither reputation nor eloquence compensate, before him, for carelessness or neglect in the preparation or conduct of a case. In the social circle he is lively and entertaining; and those who have met him in assemblages where it was necessary to meet wit and eloquence with impromptu repartee, remember with delight the graceful humor, elegant dictation and forcible expression which characterized his utterances. His lectures have always abounded with original thought and interest; and he is indeed one whom Oregon may be proud to claim.

     He was married in June, 1852, to Miss Lucy A. Henderson, the daughter of Robert Henderson, of Yamhill, a lady universally respected. They both occupy a high social position, and are among the best people of Trinity church, of which Judge Deady is a vestryman of long standing.

     RICHARD W. DEAL. - This old-time freighter of the mining days was born in Ohio in 1838, and was the son of a stock dealer. He remained at home assisting his father until twenty-two years of age, having secured in the meantime from two weeks to three months log-cabin-school education per annum. Soon after attaining his majority, he began life on his own account, seeking his fortune upon the Pacific coast, finding himself in San Francisco about the first of June, 1862. Having taken a look at the mining district of California, he sailed for Oregon in July of that year, and in the autumn was hard at work at the Granite Creek mines in the John Day district of Eastern Oregon. Subsequently, having ranged over the country somewhat, he traded off some horses which he had secured in various mining speculations for immigrant ox-teams, and then and there entered upon



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his renowned career as leading freighter on the Umatilla road. In this capacity he was known by everyone, and still carries with him much of the same old-time luster that gathered about the head of the successful conveyer of miners and gold dust on the old route across the Blue Mountains.

     In 1867 he owned 380 work oxen, all of which were employed in drawing freight, such as machinery for quartz or stamp mills, and supplies for the Idaho mining district. He is full of reminiscences of these old, semi-barbarous times, when privations, hardships, incalculable labor and constant perils from the Bannack Indians were the order of the day. In 1868, in making a trip to Camp Harney with a train, he was attacked by a mixed marauding band of Indians, and having corralled his "bull schooners" (by which pleasing appellation the enormous freight wagons of those days were called), began with his men a desperate fight, routing at length his assailants without losing anyone of his party. He remarked to the writer that he "knowed the nature of the varmints," and was usually prepared for their funny business.

     In 1875 he took a drove of three hundred horses from the Grande Ronde valley across the plains to Iowa, improved the occasion by a visit to the Centennial exposition held the following year, and subsequently dealt in fine horses in the Middle West. In this business he is engaged at the present writing.

     In 1868 he married Miss Lizzie Williamson, who crossed the plains from Pennsylvania in 1862. They have four children.

     VAN B. DE LASHMUTT. - The present mayor of Portland exemplifies the versatility characteristic of the early pioneers. As journalist, merchant, real-estate dealer, capitalist, banker and miner, he has been able to bring to bear his large abilities with equal facility. He is a native of the Hawkeye state, having been born at Burlington in 1842, where he passed his early years on a farm, - the best of all places to develop muscle and nerve. He reached Oregon in 1852, and when a youth of fifteen entered the office of the Salem Statesman, having a latent ambition for journalism, and was treated with fatherly consideration by Asahel Bush, the editor. Upon the outbreak of the Civil war, he left his prospects at our capital, and, enlisting in the Third California Infantry, served his term with General Conner's command in Utah. When mustered out in 1864, he again directed his attention to journalism, being publisher and editor of the Times at Washoe, Nevada. Even while in the army at Salt Lake he had been concerned in publishing the Vidette, the first daily in the Mormon capital.

     In 1865 he had reached Oregon once more, and found employment in the office of the Oregonian. Although displaying the qualities which constitute a journalist, he sought a freer and more remunerative field in the business world. with unusual sagacity he saved his earnings, and with a Mr. Hibbard, and later with H.B. Oatman, carried on a successful business. In 1870 he diverted his capital into a general real-estate and brokerage line. This was a time in the city's history analogous to the present; and the careful investments made by Mr. De Lashmutt multiplied his fortune many fold. He is now regarded as the owner of more improved property than any other man in our metropolis.

     In connection with Judge Thayer and others, he incorporated in September, 1882, the Metropolitan Savings Bank, which, though at first beset with difficulties, won for itself through his able management an enviable repute as one of the most stable and prosperous institutions in Portland. Encouraged by its success, he organized in 1886 the Oregon National Bank, of which he was elected president, and conducted its affairs with such ability that it has ever since been recognized as among the soundest and safest in the state, its business increasing to vast proportions. Thus Mr. De Lashmutt has gained for himself an established reputation as one of the most able financiers on the pacific coast, being elected president of the Ellensburgh National Bank, the Arlington National Bank, and the Miners' exchange Bank at Wardner, and also being connected with the Northwestern Loan and Trust Company.

     Perhaps Mr. De Lashmutt is best known outside of the city for his extensive mining enterprises. He early made large investments in the Coeur d'Alene region, and now owns a controlling interest in three of the largest mines in that wonderfully rich quartz district, - the Sierra Nevada, Stemwinder and granite. At their present valuation, these mines are worth one million dollars; and two of them have declared dividends amounting to twenty  thousand dollars. These mines will be source of wealth for many years to come. Their productive capacity will be so largely increased by their further development that annual dividends amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars may confidently be expected.

     It was in connection with these enterprises that Mr. De Lashmutt rendered the city of Portland and the people of Oregon and Washington a service too valuable to be computed. When, by the proposed joint lease of the Oregon Railway & navigation Company to the Union Pacific and Northern Pacific, the interests of this region were threatened with the stoppage of competitive transportation and the cessation of construction of much-needed lines of railway, he stepped to the front and assumed the expense and responsibility of securing an injunction. Others indulged in protestation and argument; but nothing but effective action could satisfy him. In spite of fair promises from the promoters of the joint-lease scheme, he adhered to his position until it had the effect of defeating the proposed action. The results are already apparent in the renewed activity of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company to secure new territory and push its line to Spokane Falls and the Coeur d'Alene mines.

     In February, 1868, Mr. De Lashmutt married Miss Kelly, a native of Kentucky, who came with her parents to Oregon in early infancy. Her father, Albert Kelly, was a Methodist clergyman. It is almost unnecessary to say that she is  a lady held in very high esteem in the social circles of Portland, as well as in its religious society. Of their five children, two sons and one daughter survive. The elder



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son, an energetic and studious youth, with decided literary tastes, is receiving his education at Leipsic, Germany. The younger is at Portland, and the only daughter at Wellesley College.

     In physique and appearance, Mr. De Lashmutt is a man somewhat above medium height, with a slender but well-knit frame, upright in carriage, quick of speed and agile in motion, with black hair and eyes, and a luxuriant growth of beard. In his regular and well-chiseled features, his lofty forehead, and his clear, prominent eye, there is an expression of kindliness and benevolence, of strong intelligence, and a keen sense of humor.

     He has not until recently been concerned in politics. But in 1888 the circumstances demanded his presence; and he was elected by the city council as mayor of Portland, and was afterwards re-elected by the people by a majority of 1,071, the largest ever recorded in the political annals of our metropolis. Of this victory he is justly proud, as an indication of the esteem and respect in which he is held by the community. He is still a man in the prime of life; and the nerve and foresight which have given him such substantial results hitherto will undoubtedly lead to even greater things.

     JAMES M. DE MOSS. - This well-known musician of Eastern Oregon was born at Greensburg, Indiana, May 15, 1837. As a child he removed to Iowa with his parents, and in that state was reared, receiving his higher education at Western College. At eighteen he became a teacher of music, and three years later was married to Miss Elizabeth a., daughter of Reverend Henry Bonebrake. He spent his early manhood as an exhorter in the United Brethren church. In the great patriotic meetings held during the days of the Civil war by Honorable Henry Wilson, and others, he was appointed to lead in vocal music, thus assiting in helping on the Union army.

     In 1862 he crossed the plains to Oregon. Arriving at Powder river about the middle of  September, he was so much delighted by seeing the swarms of salmon disporting in the clear waters of the stream and was morever so well pleased with the surroundings of the place, that he stopped at this point, locating and building a cottage hotel, where now stands the town of North Powder. Here he put in a fish trap and built a toll bridge, the latter of which remains, having little need of repairs.

     He soon resumed clerical labors as missionary, and labored extensively in the eastern section. In the spring of 1863 occurred the rush to the Idaho mines; and thousands of persons crossed the bridge. John Hailey established there his line of stages. In the midst of this activity, Mr. De Moss reaped a golden harvest, and in the autumn sold out to excellent advantage, removing with his family to The cove, and throwing a toll bridge across the Grande Ronde river at the base of the mountain known by his name. He also built a mill, but sold both properties soon afterwards, and invested in mines, making and losing a fortune.

     It was in 1867 that he began teaching music as a profession, operating in the Cove, in the Grande Ronde, in the Walla Walla and the Umatilla regions. Taking a transfer from the annual conference of his church, he began giving concerts with his family, who also developed great musical ability. In 1872 he took a tour East as far as Iowa, traveling with his family under the name of the DeMoss Concertists of Oregon, the members being himself, and wife, and the children, Henry S., George G., Lizzie, Minnie and May. All the children were under twelve years, and were even thus early known as musical prodigies. The professor still continued teaching becoming principal of the Normal Musical Institute at Des Moines, and there constructing a chart, called the Key to Music. On account of the failure of the health of Mrs. De Moss, who was also a teacher in the Institute, the family returned to the Pacific states, giving concerts en route through Colorado, at the summer resorts and parks, and continuing the same in the prominent towns by way of Salt Lake to san Francisco. The following summer they continued their tour through Utah and Idaho, and brought their wanderings to a close in Wasco county, Oregon, where they secured 840 acres of land, form which they set off 80 acres of the site of a town, - DeMoss Springs.

     They have continued their concerts, making tours each year, although in 1886 the family circle was sadly broken by the death of Mrs. DeMoss, and of the daughter May, while they were in California. There are therefore now five members in the household, all of whom write songs and compose music to accompany. They are appropriately styled The Pioneers Concertists of Oregon, and Lyric Bards of the Mountain West. They have been making a successful concert tour of late to the far Eastern states, but still retain their residence in Oregon.

     ARTHUR A. DENNY. - With the history of the early settlement of Puget Sound no name is more intimately blended than that of Arthur A. Denny, the pioneer, the founder of one of its chief metropolitan cities, the volunteer in the suppression of Indian outbreaks, the legislator, the politician, the office-holder, the congressman, the successful banker, the liberal philanthropist, the honest man and good citizen.

     Like many more of those who were his contemporaries in rescuing Washington Territory from the wilderness, he has seen the newcomers who are enjoying those comforts of life, not to say luxuries, to which his early sacrifices so eminently contributed, - who have undergone the same routine as the eloquent Denny. In speaking of his noble wife and companion in early isolation and labor in the dedication of future commonwealths, he aptly described as her portion. Said he; "She bore the hardships of the trip across the plains and the privations of pioneer life upon Puget Sound with the greatest fortitude She was never known or heard to complain or repine her lot, - in her mission of laying the foundation of future American commonwealths, - but with singular courage met every obstacle that stood in the way of the early settler of the Northwest coast; and they were truly many, and often calculated to appall the stoutest heart."

     With such a companion, no wonder Mr. Denny



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accomplished so much for the good of his race; and yet, that good old man, whose early life was so occupied, so feelingly added (1888): "It is now thirty-six years since I came to Puget sound; and I am more and more impressed with the fact, as each succeeding year rolls by, that the early settlers of the country will very shortly all have crossed over the river and be soon forgotten; for we may all concede the fact that we shall be missed but little when we are gone, and that little but a short time. But when we have met the last trial, and our last campfire has died out, some may desire a knowledge of such facts as we alone can give."

     And then the "old man practical;" briefly, too briefly, gave a summary of incidents illustrating his removal to the Pacific coast, and his recollections of the early settlements on the Sound. With characteristic modesty, however, he spoke of  others, not himself; and what should have been an autobiography of perhaps the most notable of Washington Territory pioneers and philanthropists falls short in that respect. The task of giving a pen-picture of his laborious life, this humanitarian, this servant of the people, this layer of the foundation of the future state, falls to an admirer and friend who has known him through all these years that his life service has been performed within Washington Territory.

     That pure life will afford an example for the best of men to find something that they can imitate for self-improvement. To the business man, his integrity, his industry, his life of work, commend themselves for adoption as a model. The citizen may profit by contemplating his liberal donations for the University for schools, for hotels and for public improvements. The young man may watch his career in sagaciously marching to the extreme frontier, far beyond the confines of divination, and there and then, surrounded by savages, hewing out a home in the dense forest of Puget sound. The land he first attempted to reclaim from savagery is now the majestic city of Seattle.

     What a lesson there is in the life of this nobleman. In green old age 9with all his faculties as matured and bright as the day when he conceived the locating of Seattle, and that he would be the founder of a great city) he is pushed aside, reminded by the busy scenes around him that "The early settlers of the country will very shortly have crossed  over the river and be soon forgotten; for we shall be missed but little when we are gone, and that little but a short time." And yet, in that city he founded, in its works and charities, his life will be recalled; and to him, however heartless the indifference of the world may appear, there must be comfort in the assurance of the Psalmist:

"The sweet remembrance of the just
Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust."

     Perhaps the very best estimate of Mr. Denny's own view of duty, of the claim a man has to the respect of his fellows or of posterity, is embodied in his own language urging old settlers "to contribute what they can to make up a record of those early times."  Said he; "The most important thing in my estimation is to make no wrong or incorrect statements. Let it be the pride of the old settlers to state the truth. It is no time for romancing or painting fancy sketches, when we are nearing the end of our voyage. The work is too serious for fiction. we want solid facts only."

     Arthur A. Denny was born in Salem, Indiana, June 20, 1822. His father was honest John Denny, the first Republican candidate for the office of Governor of the State of Oregon, in the year 1858, - a contemporary and political associate of Abraham Lincoln in the early days of Illinois, a soldier in the war of 1812, and in the Black Hawk war, a native of the State of Kentucky. Old settlers of Oregon and Washington will remember him as an eloquent speaker, a thoroughly informed man, and a great speaker, and a great humorist. In many respects the son Arthur resembles him. The latter, however, was more retiring in his disposition than the elder Denny, and in public forensic efforts did not display that wit and humor which his friends and companions have so enjoyed in social conversation, but which with the father pervaded his public speeches.

     To Arthur was afforded the opportunity of acquiring a rudimental education, such as in those times could be conferred in the frontier states. He made the most of his opportunities, and in early life acquainted himself with a thorough knowledge of surveying, which he practices as his profession more or less during his early manhood. The family removed to Knox county, Illinois, when Arthur was fourteen years of age. while continuing his residence in Knox county, he held the office of county surveyor for eight years. His wife, to whom reference has already been made, was a native of Tennessee; and there were but a few months difference in their ages. The family consists of two daughters and four sons, all of whom reside in the city of Seattle.

     Mr. Denny with his family crossed the plains in 1851, and during that fall came to Puget Sound. it is to be regretted that room is not permitted for his graphic description of the trip across the plains, so full of interest in being contrasted with the journey over the continent now, on one of the transcontinental railways, with all the comforts and luxuries of city life. The little train of four wagons- seven men and their families of women and children, - left Knox county, Illinois, April 10, 1851. They reached Fort Hall, July 6th, having traveled 1,104 miles from the Missouri river. Two days later the party journeyed along the south side of Snake river; and as they passed American Falls they observed that a large band of Indians were camped on the opposite side of the river; and a war party of ten crossed at the foot of the falls. the hostile band approached the head of the little train and endeavored to stop it, pretending they desired to trade. They refused to halt; and, after they had traveled a short distance, the Indians, who had concealed themselves behind boulders and rocks, fired upon them without doing any injury. A number of the Indians now commenced to pursue; but the train crossed the ravine, down which the Indians had approached, secured a good position for defence, and waited for the attack. The Indians, appreciating the strength of the position, kept out of range and soon retired. But a few weeks later, at that identical ravine, a family named Clark were cruelly massacred.



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     The little party reached The Dalles August 11th, sent their wagons across Barlow's Pass of the Cascade Mountains, and went down the river in boats, reaching Portland August 22d. It may be curious to know that the estimated distance over the immigrant road to The Dalles was 1,765 miles from Missouri river, - eighty days' travel, - that this party, from their Illinois home, occupied ninety days to The Dalles and ten days to Portland.

     Francis A. Chenoweth, speaker of the first territorial house of representatives of Washington afterwards associate justice of the supreme court of the territory from 1854 to 1858, was, at the time Mr. Denny passed, building a tram-road for the transfer of freight and passengers around the Cascades of the Columbia. At the upper landing were the Bradfords and Bishop. There was also being built a small sidewheel steamer called the Flint, to run between the Cascades and The Dalles, the first steamboat engaged in navigating the Columbia river. Above the Cascades Chenoweth was running an old brig called the Henry, between Portland and the Cascades. The baggage of the Denny train was the first freight transported on the first railroad west of the Rocky Mountains. it was taken over on a car by hand, the families traveling on foot to the Lower Cascade landing, where they took passage on the brig to Portland.

     Mr. Denny describes Portland in 1851: "It contained a population of two thousand or more, at that early period giving promise of future greatness." Mr. Denny and his family sailed from Portland on the schooner Exact on the 5th of November, 1851, and arrived at Alki Point, on Puget Sound, November 13th, and there remained for the winter. They built log cabins for the several families; and that winter they cut a cargo of piles for San Francisco. On the 15th of February, 1852, Mr. Denny, his brother David T., and William N. Bell, crossed Elliott bay from Alki Point, and located there three claims contiguously, the southern boundary being fixed at what is now the head of commercial street, in the city of Seattle. He quaintly remarks: "Piles and timber being the only dependence for support in the beginning, it was important to look well to the facilities for the business." It would be foreign to the purpose of this sketch to trace the growth and vicissitudes and the progress of Seattle, as it expanded to metropolitan proportions, however interesting and intimately connected therewith was Mr. Denny. Enough has been told to illustrate the task he undertook, the limited means with which to operate, the herculean result which has flowed there-from, which must greatly be attributed to his sagacity, enterprise, activity and public spirit.

     About the time of the arrival of the Denny colony and the formation of a settlement at Seattle, there were a number of other points upon Puget Sound that were occupied and settled. The year 1852 was marked by the arrival of a largely increased population in the territory north of the Columbia river. from the summer of 1851, the question of a division of the territory of Oregon has been agitated. During the fall of that year, meetings had been held and the matter discussed. This led to a calling of a convention of delegates to be selected by the towns, communities or counties in Oregon Territory on the north side of the Columbia, to be held at Monticello, in Cowlitz county, on the 25th of November, 1852. Of this convention Arthur A. Denny was a prominent and influential member; and form it emanated a memorial to the Congress of the United States praying that so much of Oregon Territory as lay north of the Columbia river be set off as a separate territory, to be called Columbia Territory. The territorial legislature of Oregon, at its session of 1852-53, among its very earliest acts adopted a strong memorial to Congress to the same effect; and the act setting off the territory north of the Columbia river from the remainder of Oregon and establishing the "Territory of Washington: passed Congress and was approved by President Millard Fillmore, March 2, 1853.

     Mr. Denny was elected a member of the house of representatives of Washington Legislative assembly for the first, second, third and fourth session. he was a member of the council for three years. As a legislator, he distinguished himself as a working member, though he frequently made speeches, which were listened to with marked attention. There were many measures, memorials and acts introduced by him; and he did much towards molding the early territorial policy of the territory, though being a decided Whig was in the minority in the legislative council. In the Indian war of 1855, he was among the earliest to enroll as a volunteer, and held the commission of first lieutenant in Company A., Second Regiment, of which company chief Justice Lander was captain.

     In 1861 he was appointed by Abraham Lincoln register of the United States district land-office at Olympia, the duties of which office he discharged with eminent ability and to the hearty satisfaction of the people of the territory. In 1865, about the time his mission would have expired, he was elected by the Republicans of the territory delegate to the Thirty-ninth Congress of the United States. In every position to which he was called by the people he did well, faithfully performing every duty creditably to himself and satisfactorily to those who made the selection. On his return to the territory, he entered into business at Seattle, and gave his entire attention to his private affairs, which had suffered to some extent by his protracted absence at Olympia, and at the national Capital.

     The unexampled growth and progress of the city of Seattle, which began to assert its supremacy as a center of trade early in the "seventies," would have made him a man of wealth; but with his business methods, his close application, his conservative tendencies, that wealth has been largely enhanced. But he has made proper use of that blessing. He presented to the territory the necessary land on which to erect its university buildings. Lately he has made a princely gift of land on which and funds with which to erect an hotel worthy of the city of Seattle. At all times he has contributed to the support of every enterprise and legitimate charity.

     The history of the growth of Seattle, its charities and enterprises, would have to be written to complete his biography. But Seattle cannot claim Arthur A.



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Denny exclusively, though he was its founder. His fame and good works are the property of the territory of Washington. among the living pioneers of the new state he is the peer in service, in worth and works of all that memorable little band, who in his own characteristic language 'will very shortly all have crossed over the river," not, however, let us hope, for the credit of humanity, as he regretfully said, "soon to be forgotten;" for Denny and others of them will yet live as the revered founders of a commonwealth, the establishers of our Western civilization.

     DAVID THOMAS DENNY. - Mr. Denny was the first settler of Seattle, Washington. He was born in Putnam county, Indian, on March 17, 1832, of sturdy pioneer stock, his parents having settled in Indiana as early as 1819. His father, John Denny, lived in Indiana till 1835, when he removed to Illinois, and in 1851 to Oregon. He was a volunteer in the war of 1812, and served under William Henry (Tippecanoe) Harrison at the Battle of the Thames.

     David T. Denny was a lad of only nineteen years when he joined a party of emigrants with his older brother and crossed the plains. That older brother was Arthur A. Denny, now one of the most honored citizens of Seattle. Early in 1851 they started out; and David drove the four-horse team of his brother Arthur. After the usual excitement attending those early expeditions, they landed at Portland, Oregon, on August 17, 1851. They remained there one month to rest; and there David Denny with John Lowe and Lee Terry left for Puget Sound to spy out homes for the colony. they arrived at Olympia on September 22, 1851; and, taking canoes from there, they journeyed to Alki Point, so named by them because Alki means bye and bye, and that point was to be a Boston bye and bye. Here, on September 28,1851, these three men laid the foundation of the first cabin ever built by white men in King county. John Lowe then returned to Portland for the rest of the colony, and brought them back in the shooner Exact, sailed by a Captain Woodbury and another man generally known as "Cap." The passengers of this schooner were Arthur a. Denny, C.D. Boren and William N. Bell and their families.

     The winter was spent on Alki Point; but early the next year David Denny went across Elliott Bay and found what he considered a good place for a home, and reported to his brother. Soon afterwards the men made up an exploring expedition. They took a bunch of horseshoes and a clothes-line for a sounding lead, and proceeded to make the first survey of Seattle harbor. David Denny had remained at the cabin on account of having severely cut his foot. Hence it was that Arthur Denny, C.D. Boren, W.N. Bell and the others got their claims in the best places. They offered to narrow up their claims and let him in; but he was unmarried, and so insisted on going north of the Bell claim. His self-sacrifice has since proved great good fortune, as his land is now immensely valuable.

     During the Indian war that raged on Puget Sound in the years of 1855 and 1856, Mr. Denny was a corporal in Company C, Captain C.C. Hewitt (afterwards chief justice), of the volunteers. His company was stationed close at hand when the Indians made a raid on Lieutenant Slaughter's camp, killing the Lieutenant and several others. Company C rescued the survivors of the camp. Mr. Arthur Denny's family was accompanied in the trip across the plains by his wife's sister, Mis Louisa Bown. Before the long journey was ended, she and David had fallen in love; and on January 23, 1853, they were married. Mrs. David Denny is therefore as much of a pioneer of Puget Sound as her husband. She was born in Illinois on May 1, 1828, and was therefore but twenty-three years of age when she crossed the plains. This union was blessed with four sons and four daughters, of whom three sons and two daughters are now living.

     In the early days of Seattle and King county, Mr. Denny held many positions of public trust. He was a member of the first board of trustees of the town of Seattle. He also held the following offices: Treasurer of King county for eight years, probate judge of the county for three years, and treasurer of the board of regents of the University of Washington for three years. Mr. Denny had frequently shown himself to be alive to his city's best interests. He is now president of the Western Mill Company, operating one of the largest sawmills in Seattle; the Washington Improvement Company, which company is building canals to connect Lakes Union and Washington with tide water; the Union Water Company; vice-president of the Seattle Electric Power and Motor Company, operating the first electric railway in Washington Territory; director of the Bank of North Seattle; and senior member of thee real-estate firm of D.T. Denny & Son.

     JEREMIAH DE SPAIN, - This veteran among the pioneers of Union and Umatilla counties illustrates in his career what one may accomplish on this coast. Coming here a poor man, he left at his death a competence valued at many thousand dollars. He was born in Knox county, Kentucky, in 1833, being the fifth child of Benjamin De Spain, whose family numbered six sons. In 1836 he removed with his parents to Warren county, Illinois, and there, on his father's farm, acquired the habits of industry, and obtained what education was afforded in the frontier schoolhouses. In 1852, having attained his physical growth, he grew tired of the close work and small wages of his home country, and crossed the plains to Oregon. The journey was toilsome and perilous; but, despite Indians and cholera, and a thousand hardships, the Willamette valley was reached; and in Lane county our young pioneer found a home. He took up the livery business a few years, but, upon the outbreak of the great Salmon river mines excitement, began the hazardous work of packing thither. He avoided or escaped all the difficulties which wrecked the "prairie schooners" of the navigator of the plains and mountains, and in 1862 was able to locate to good advantage in the Grande Ronde valley.

     In 1866 he was united in marriage to Miss Nancy E. Howard, daughter of Reverend William H. Howard, of Monmouth, Oregon. This lady was in


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every respect his worthy companion, sharing his toils and labors, and giving zest and enjoyment to his successes.

     Soon after their marriage the energetic young couple went onto a sheep ranch on Birch creek near a stage station since known as Pendleton, and in 1872 moved into the town, which by this time had attained some importance. Here Mr. De Spain began to devise means for improving the place. He still kept his sheep, but the avails of his business he began to use in erecting buildings. The result of this policy is the De Spain Block on Court street, adjoining the Villard House. It was built in 1887 at a cost of thirty thousand dollars, and is one of the best business structures in the city. It was erected after his death; but the building was according to his plans and arrangements.

     During the winter of 1886, owing to long and close application to business, his health suddenly gave way; and at the solicitation of his family and friends, who hoped that the change might benefit him, he went East. But their hopes were not realized; and a few days after his arrival in Illinois, his old home state, his death occurred. He left a wife and seven children, who reside in Pendleton. His loss from the community has been deeply felt and universally deplored; but the results of his life remain to the city and to his family. His were the virtues which our young men may well emulate.

     REV. JOHN F. DEVORE, D.D. - Doctor Devore was a native of Kentucky, being born near Lexington, December 7, 1817. He was of French descent, as the name indicates, and owed very much to the pious example of religious parents, who urged him with their last words to be "faithful to his God." The "Life of Bramwell" fell into his hands at an early date, was read with great relish, and had much to do in molding the shape of his after life. Entering the ministry, he joined the Rock river conference in 1842, Bishop Roberts presiding. He was ordained deacon at Milwaukee in 1844 by Bishop Morris, and elder at Galena, Illinois, in 1846 by Bishop Hamline. In May, 1853, he was transferred to the Oregon conference by Bishop Waugh, and arrived with his family at Steilacoom, Washington Territory, the latter part of August in that year, and entered at once upon his singularly interesting and successful career of ministerial labor on this coast, embracing a period of thirty-six eventful years.

     While in the Oregon conference, Doctor Devore's appointments were as follows: Steilacoom two years, 1853-55; Olympia one year, 1855-56; presiding elder Puget Sound district three years, 1856-59; Vancouver two years, 1859-61; The Dalles two years, 1861-63; East Tualitan two years, 1863-65; Milwaukee one year, 1865-66; presiding elder Portland district four years, 1870-74; Vancouver two years, 1874-76; Albany three years, 1876-79; Seattle two years; 1879-81; Tacoma three years, 1881-84.

     In the Puget Sound conference, organized in 1884, by Bishop Fowler, Doctor Devore's appointments were as follows: West Tacoma two years, 1884-86; presiding elder Olympia district one year, 1886-87; conference agent of church extension one year, 1887-88; and educational agent for the University at Tacoma one year, 1888-89, at which post of duty he fell, July 28, 1889, at four o'clock A.M., in the seventy-second year of his age.

     Doctor Devore was for many years one of the publishing committee of the Pacific Christian Advocate and trustee of the Willamette University, and also of the Olympia Collegiate Institute. In all of these relations he was prompt and active in the discharge of duty, laboring incessantly for the prosperity of all these institutions.

     As delegate to the general conference at Brooklyn in 1872, with Doctor C.C. Stratton as colleague, Doctor Devore labored with unusual perseverance and success for the interests of the whole church, but especially for the benefit of this Northwest coast. He introduced some important amendments to the discipline, and had passed by the general conference a memorial providing for the purchase of lots in the city of Portland, and the erection thereon of a suitable building for the Pacific Christian Advocate, and a book depository, - measures which, if they had been carried out as intended, would to-day have proved a source of vast influence for good.

     His last active appointment was to the presiding eldership of the Olympia district, by Bishop Harris, in 1886. To this work he went promptly, and apparently with the vigor of youth renewed. At every appointment he seemed to infuse fresh activity and enterprise, manifesting a deep and abiding interest in the welfare of the preachers and their charges.

     Before the year closed he was stricken down in helplessness, and returned reluctantly to his home in Tacoma, and resigned the work. While thus afflicted he wrote to the writer expressing the characteristic wish that he "might be spared to build a few more churches." He was spared, and for two more years as conference agent of the Church Extension Society, and educational agent of the University of Tacoma, he held up the banner of the cross, and with pen and voice led on in cheer for the great work. Gradually declining in health and strength, and expressing form time to time perfect resignation to the will of God, without pain or struggling, he passed peacefully home on that Sabbath morning, to rest from the labors of a long and useful life.

     His beloved wife, two married daughters, Mrs. Josie Devore Johnson, of Oregon City, and Mrs. Mary Devore Edmonds, of Clarke county, Washington Territory, and one son, George R. Devore, mourn his loss; but the great consolation is theirs that they had such a man of God for husband and father, and that his faithful record is now in heaven. Appropriate memorial services were held in the First Methodist-Episcopal church of Tacoma.

     Doctor John F. Devore was a man of marked peculiarities. Over six feet in height and well proportioned physically, his venerable and striking mien commanded observation in whatever assembly he appeared. When he arose to speak, a pleased and riveted attention was given to his utterances, which were accompanied usually with an inimitable quaintness of logic and expression. His sermons were well prepared, but always brief and practical, and were delivered with a marked intonation of voice



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 that became not unpleasant, but which no minister would dare to imitate. In pastoral fidelity and tact he had no superior. He could more easily and skillfully apportion the work to be done by his parishioners, and visit and pray with more families in one afternoon, than the most active of his brethren in the ministry. His life-long habit of visiting and addressing day schools and Sunday schools, and of calling promptly upon strangers and imparting to them all needful information concerning the country and the church privileges, was most commendable and exemplary. Next to his efforts to win his fellow beings to "wisdom's was" and to God were his unceasing labors to erect churches, build parsonages and foster institutions of learning. In his best days, none could surpass him in ability or success in such work, as his numerous monuments in this line will testify. He was a follower of Bramwell in his promptness to meet every engagement. He was happy in his temperament and at times even jovial among friends; but, if any controversy arose likely to produce unpleasantness, his love for peace prompted reticence, acting on the motto, " The least said the better. " he truly and wisely aimed to lead a "blameless life," - honest in the sight of men as well as before God. In all religious meetings he took an active part from principle, and made it a duty to be among the very first to speak or pray.

     He is gone. His like in all respects as a worker for Christ and humanity we may never see again. We shall miss his genial presence at our annual conferences. He will be missed by his many friends in all the districts, stations, circuits and boards of trustees in which he has labored. At home and every place where he has lived and worked, will be missed and mourned the genial, quaint, true-hearted and indefatigable John F. Devore.

"Servant of God, well done!
Thy glorious warfare's past.
The battles fought, the race is won;
And thou art crowned at last."

     The foregoing is a verbatim extract from the very eloquent and appropriate obituary notice of good Father Devore by his friend and able confrére in the ministry, the Reverend Isaac Dillon, D.D. The writer has the esteemed privilege of adding thereto some of his recollections of the life-service of Father Devore outside of the Methodist church, for humanity at large, for every community who were blest for a period with the presence in their midst of that great humanitarian and philanthropist. That distinguished minister never for a moment paraded sanctity of claim, never forgot his calling, his profession, his duty to himself, to his church, and above all his love for humanity, - his interest in their welfare.

     His great ambition was to labor for the good and advancement of the locality in which he lived. If his duty called him to a place where there was neither church, schoolhouse nor lyceum in which meetings for worship or for the amelioration of the race might he held, Father Devore at once initiated the movement to provide the necessary sanctuary or temple of learning. He then labored on until the necessity ceased to exist. He aimed first to have a church edifice for his own denomination; and, when he did commence, success usually followed. If the church edifice was supplied, then he assisted as zealously in supplying the schoolhouse or the lyceum. While always loyal to his church, he was equally zealous in serving humanity. The communities in Washington in which he has ministered (the writer speaks from knowledge as to such territory; and he has been informed that the same may be said of Oregon communities) have occasion to remember with gratitude the active services of the untiring worker for the benefit of his race, in adding to their public improvements, frequently the church, the schoolhouse, the institute, the lyceum hall, or some road or wharf or bridge or other beneficial work for the public.

     In 1857, just after the Indian war had impoverished the people of Washington, when Indian war scrip, as it was called, constituted almost the circulating medium of the country, Father Devore undertook the erection of a large and commodious Methodist-Episcopal church in the city of Olympia. Some three years previously he had secured the means and caused the erection of a good church building in Steilacoom. It was  a trying time at Olympia financially; but Father Devore took the matter in hand in dead earnest. He received donations in the scrip referred to (scrip was a certificate of indebtedness issued by the territorial volunteer authorities for services performed or supplies furnished by the citizens in the Indian war of 1855-56); he collected a considerable amount of that paper, sold it at a discount, and applied the proceeds to the erection of the church. He also received subscriptions in money or material.

     He was ready and willing to utilize any and everything of value which could contribute to his darling purpose. Full of resource, shirking no responsibility, and of the very highest order of courage, he continued his labor. Nothing could discourage or daunt him; occasionally some ribald phrase by some worthless specimen of humanity would be addressed to him. But this deterred him not; and generally his patient, mild reply would disarm the most malignant, and cause the offender to regret his ill manners to that faithful servant of his Master.

     He was ready for any proposition that could be made. An old friend had been called upon by him for a donation of lumber; having pleaded his inability to make a cash contribution, thinking to put off Father Devore without actually denying him, the party offered Father Devore, as a donation for the church, all the lumber that he would personally pack from the mill wharf at Tumwater and raft alone to Olympia, a distance of two miles. without either accepting or declining the offer, Father Devore waited until the tides should best subserve his purpose. Within a few days after the donation he repaired to Tumwater in the night, to be on hand when the long ebb tide at the head of the Sound should commence to run out. At the first of that long ebb, he began to pack the lumber to the beach; and, as the tide receded, leaving the ground dry, he commenced to construct his raft. He labored incessantly during all that long ebb, and until the next flood, in packing lumber and making a raft. The flood tide floated the



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raft, and enabled it to reach Olympia. Long before the raft was afloat, the donor of the lumber was watching with genial good humor the zealous father at work in his shirtsleeves, and that huge raft of lumber of sufficient dimensions to build a church. This incident among the many which might be related is illustrative of the energy, directness of purpose, and the methods of that earnest and most practical man, who contributed so much to the building up of the outposts of civilization by his active and personal exertion, who infused hope in others, and who so generously encouraged every laudable enterprise.

     But those active contributions were not restricted to his sect. He assisted all; and all those many towns and communities in which he ministered abound with the monuments attesting his personal labor; and many living witnesses will bear affectionate testimony as to his great usefulness. How truly it was said by his eulogist; "He will be missed by his many friends in all the districts, stations, circuits and boards of trustees in which he has labored. At home, and every place where he has lived and worked, will be missed and mourned the genial, quaint, true-hearted and indefatigable John F. Devore."

      FRANKLIN T. DICK, - The present postmaster of La Grande was born in Westport, Kentucky, May 7, 1840, where he remained until 1861, receiving a common-school education. In 1863 he removed to Burlington, Iowa, and in the latter part of the year went to Nevada. In 1864 we find him at the Silver City mines, Idaho; and from this point in 1866 he found his way to La Grande, where he has remained ever since. In 1870 he began domestic life, marrying Miss Marquise Lewis; and they now have a family of three boys and one girl. After coming to La Grande, Mr. Dick was engaged seven years in agriculture, and then occupied the position of host of the best hotel in the place for another seven years. He has been serving as postmaster more than two years.

     His political record is of an honorable character, he having been elected to the Oregon legislature, where he served his constituents with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of the public. He has recently become heir to fifteen thousand dollars left him by J.B. Stevens, the founder of East Portland. The public may well congratulate Mr. Dick upon this good fortune, feeling certain that it could have fallen into no more worthy hands.

WILLIAM H. DILLON. - Mr. Dillon, a pioneer of four states of our union, and a perfect example of the frontiersman, whose life story has been recounted in other pages also, was born in Kent county, Delaware, July 4, 1818. His parents were of English and Irish descent, and in 1823 moved west across the Alleghany Mountains to Ohio, then upon the very outposts of civilization. Eight years later they came on to Indiana, locating in Tippecanoe county on the Wabash. The desire, however, of owning and farming his own lands took possession of the elder Dillon, and he pulled up once more, crossing the Mississippi and taking a claim within the wholly uncultivated borders of Iowa. This was in 1837. William Dillon, the subject of our sketch, thus early learned the ins and outs of frontier life, and was deeply impressed with the purpose of being an independent land-owner.

     The death of his father in 1840, and his own marriage to Miss Harriet Hatten, the daughter of an old Kentuckian, imposed the necessity of hard labor and much economy; and, his health somewhat failing, he determined to come to the Pacific coast, where he understood that the climate was more favorable, and work less exacting. The journey was performed in 1847; and the usual vicissitudes of storms, stampedes, occasional lack of water and feed for animals, and the wear and tear of the trip that fell to others, was also their experience. They suffered more or less from the pilfering of the Cayuse Indians. It was the Oscalusa train with which they performed the journey; and some of their companions were the unfortunates who remained at Waiilatpu and fell victims to the Indian atrocity the same time as Whitman. The passage down the Columbia from The Dalles was accomplished by means of rafts. The exposure and constant hardships of the plains and the river at last induced the mountain fever, from which both Mr. Dillon and his wife suffered very severely.

     In company with him was his brother and family; and he himself had a little girl and a pair of twin babies. He found an old acquaintance living at the mouth of the Willamette river. There he remained the first season, raising a crop of vegetables for the next winter's use, and making ready to look up a claim as spring opened. Upon the news of gold in California received at Portland in August, 1848, his brother went down to ascertain the truth of the report, and returned the next winter with a quantity of dust. In May, 1849, both Mr. Dillon and his brother took passage on the bark John W. Cater, a vessel very heavily loaded with lumber and produce. He was fairly successful in the mines, and returning to Oregon located a claim nearly opposite the mouth of the Willamette in Washington. He followed farming and stock-raising, and for fourteen years kept a ferry across the river.

     In 1871 he suffered the loss of his wife, and went soon after upon a prolonged visit to his friends in Iowa. While there, he married Mrs. Eliza Swetland of the town of Tipton, Iowa. He returned to Washington in the autumn and settled  once more on a snug little farm northwest of Vancouver, where he is at present living in comfort. His children are married; and he contemplates with much pleasure the progress of the communities and states which he has done his part to establish. Nevertheless the pioneer spirit still remains; and he sometimes wishes that there was a new land to settle out West so that he might hitch up and drive on.

     HIRAM DONCASTER. - No one seems to operate so much in the capacity of a creator as the shipbuilder. The products of his brain and hand have a life of their own, are given a name, and have their own personality. Shipbuilding on the Sound is, moreover, an important business; and the masters of this craft are men of distinction. One of



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 these is the man whose name appears at the head of this sketch.

     He was born in Nova Scotia in 1838, and first came to this coast via Panama in the year 1856, mining in Plumas count two years, and pushing out with the stampede to the Frazer river mines in 1858, fighting Indians more or less the whole distance. After eleven years on the coast, he went back to the East on a visit of three months, and returning began work at his trade, or art, becoming a prolific builder of crafts of all kinds. He worked in San Francisco at the shipyards of Middlemas & Bool, Nova Scotians. At Port Ludlow, Washington Territory, he built the bark Forest Queen. At the mouth of the Umpqua he built the little steamer Swan, which made the first and only and probably last trip to Roseburg, on the violent Umpqua river. In San Francisco again he built the Steamer Enterprise, considered at the time the finest and fastest boat on the coast. On the Sound he built the schooner J.B. Leeds, which is still "alive."

     He was soon again in San Francisco, working for his old employers, who recommended him to the firm headed by Mr. W.L. Adams. He built for the establishment the following vessels; The bark Cassandra Adams; the team tug Holyoke; the barkentine Mary Wilkerman; the barkentine Retriever; and the single-deck ship Olympus, supposed to be the largest single-decked ship in the world, and the greatest success in her line afloat, capable of carrying one million, four hundred thousand feet of lumber. His next construction was the schooner American Boy, and following this the stern-wheel boat Louisa. Removing now to Port Ludlow, he built the steam tug Tyee and the barkentine Skagit. At Tacoma he has built the steamer Mogul, and the stern-wheeler Nellie Brown. A fleet has thus passed from his hands.

     Mr. Doncaster is now permanently located at Tacoma, strictly devoted to his business, but exerting a strong personal influence, and is greatly respected in his city and throughout the entire state.

     SIR JAMES DOUGLAS, K.C.B. - The first governor of British Columbia is worthy of more than a passing notice in this work. With a peculiar though undesigned poetical fitness, he first came to the land of his fame on the famous old steamer Beaver. On her he came to Esquaimalt harbor in the summer of 1849. He had gone from Fort Vancouver, where he had been head clerk, to be chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company in British Columbia. Having founded the city of Victoria, he made his home there, conducting with great ability the work of the company.

     In 1849 the first governor, Blanchard, had arrived from England; but owing to ill health he resigned in two years and returned home. Douglas was appointed his successor, and took the oath of office in November, 1851. His first official act was to summon all the Indians around Victoria, and pay them in full for their lands. This was one of the numerous similar acts which showed the strong sense of justice possessed by the man. On the other hand, he conducted a most vigorous administration. He restrained outbreaks with a strong hand, and brought offenders to justice with prompt impartiality. The result was that acts of injustice and violence were rare, though a ruffian horde from California tried to manage affairs to suit themselves. But the Governor was firm as a rock with the lawless crew, and exercised an almost despotic sway, which, to his great credit be it said, was never abused.

     In 1857 his commission as governor was renewed for another term of six years. He had at that time two provinces to govern, British Columbia and Vancouver Island. The latter became a separate province in 1864, in which year Douglas was succeeded by Governor Seymour. After his retirement from office, Governor Douglas made his home at Victoria, and there remained till his death on the third of August, 1877. His last years were spent in well merited rest amid the scenes which had witnessed so many struggles in early times, and in the enjoyment of the universal esteem of his fellow citizens. In 1859 he had been created C.B.; and in October, 1863, he was knighted by Queen Victoria in recognition of his eminent services.

     Governor Douglas was born in Demerara, Scotland, on the 14th of August, 1803. Having been left an orphan, he accompanied an older brother to this coast, and at the age of fifteen entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1827 he married a daughter of Mr. Connolly, Chief Factor at Red River. In 1832 he became head clerk at Vancouver, and there remained for seventeen years. His career after that was onward and upward, and in his death the people of the coast mourned the death of a great and good man. In recognition of his worth, the citizens of Victoria have erected an imposing monument to his memory; and as they fondly point it out to strangers they love to dwell on the esteem in which he was held by all.

     JOHN DOVELL. - Mr. Dovell is one of those men who have belabored fortune, and have knocked about the world until it is sufficient to turn one's hair gray simply to listen to their adventures. A native of the Azores, of Portuguese parentage and born in 1836, he came to Portland, Maine, at the age of fourteen, and learned shipbuilding. He left in four years and plied his trade in New Orleans, shipping thence to Liverpool, and coming as ship's carpenter from that foreign port to San Francisco. He soon came up the coast to Portland, Oregon, and worked upon the steam ferry Independence, building near the "South End Sawmill" by Powell, Coffin, "Preacher" Kelly, and Hankins, the captain, to run opposition to Stevens' ferry.

     Starting for the Frazer river mines in 1859, he met a number of friends at Victoria, and, together with seventeen of them, put across the Georgian Gulf in rowboats, making a dangerous passage. They then followed up the river by the Skilloot route to Horse Beef bar, the company then separating and going to prospecting. Dovell made no strike. Some twenty of the company on the way back went down to the Littoot Lake, and in the absence of a boat to go down to Langley were



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compelled to take one by force from one Robertson, for which high-handed act they were arrested upon their arrival at Victoria three days after, and compelled to pay Robertson eighty-seven dollars. The judge gave Dovell ten dollars for his part taken in the matter.

     Returning to Portland, he worked in Jacob's wagon shop, and in the spring of 1860 went to the Nez Perce mines, whipsawing lumber and taking bed-rock for pay, bringing him for a fact to bed-rock financially. On this trip he first saw Walla Walla, but was little impressed with its meager proportions. Upon getting out of the mines, however, he stopped in the valley, taking care of the cattle of George E. Cole, afterwards member of Congress. Opening a wagon shop in the city in 1862, he took a stock of goods to Placerville, Boise, in 1863, doing a flourishing business except for selling too much on credit. Returning to Walla Walla, he did some genuine pioneer work for the city, putting up a water-power planing mill, and in 1870 replacing it with steam. In the same year he built the first public hall in the city. He is at present in the furniture business.

     Such, much in brief, and much in his own language, is the story of Mr. Dovell's life. He is an honest, jolly fellow, half salt and half fresh, who has no quarrel with Fortune, but when she plays the vixen makes no bones about giving as good as she sends. Mr. Dovell has an interesting and well-educated family, consisting of the following: Dorothy F., born in 1867; W.T., born in 1869; and Rose E., born in 1871. The two latter graduated from Whitman College in 1888.

     HON. B.F. DOWELL. - Benjamin Franklin Dowell was born in Albemarle county, Virginia, on the 31st of October, 1826. He was named for an uncle of his grandmother on his father's side. She was a daughter of John Franklin and a niece of Benjamin Franklin, the statesman and philosopher. Mr. Dowell's father and mother were natives of Virginia, and were born and brought up within one mile of each other. His mother's maiden name was Fannie Dalton, a woman of rare culture and refinement.

     The Dowells were originally from England; the Daltons were from the Scottish Highlands. As a child, Mr. Dowell removed with his parents to Shelby county, Tennessee, where he attended the Male Academy and acquired a liberal education. After having concluded his academic studies, he returned to Virginia and entered the State University, where he graduated in law in 1847, before he was twenty-one years old, with distinguished honors. He returned to Tennessee and began the practice of his profession at Raleigh and at Memphis. An extensive and lucrative practice soon engaged his whole attention; but the fame of the newly discovered gold fields of the Pacific caused him to desert the bar for a time to try his fortune in the mines.

     In the spring of 1850, he formed a copartnership with three other young men and started from St. Joseph, Missouri, whither he had gone by water, for California. He arrived in Sacramento on the 20th of the following September. Here he had a second attack of cholera, the malady of which so many died on the plains that year. When he had partially recovered, his physicians advised him to go North; and on the 5th of October he started from San Francisco for Portland, taking passage on a small schooner. At the mouth of the Columbia the vessel encountered a terrible storm, and was driven back to sea, dismasted and almost helpless. It was not until the thirty-fifth day after leaving San Francisco that a safe landing was made at Astoria. Mr. Dowell did not remain long in the Willamette valley; and in 1852 we find him engaged in packing and trading in Southern, Oregon. He pursued the business until 1856, and was very successful. In 1857 he again engaged in law practice, in Jacksonville, and soon obtained a very extensive business.

     When the Oregon Indian wars broke out in 1853, 1854 and 1856, Mr. Dowell was engaged in merchandising with a pack train from the Willamette valley, Scottsburg, and Crescent City to the mines in Jacksonville, Oregon, and Yreka, California. He voluntarily hired himself and all his animals to the quartermaster as long as they were needed. Mr. Bancroft, in his Oregon history, says "He was the first in the war and the last to come out." During these wars he took some desperate chances. He frequently carried the express in the most dangerous places.

     In 1853 a party of twenty soldiers was detailed to find the camp of the Indians. The detachment was under the command of Lieutenant Eli. Mr. Dowell being in the quartermaster's department, it was no part of his duty to fight; but he volunteered to accompany the detachment. They found the Indians on Evan's creek near the Meadows, and returned down the creek about five miles where there was good grass, wood and water, and commenced cooking and eating breakfast. The lieutenant being young and inexperienced in the Indian sagacity and fighting, put out no guard. So the Indians completely surprised the detachment; and at the first fire about one-fourth of the men were killed, and as many more wounded. The Indians also captured all the horses of the volunteers but one, which was staked near the camp. The owner of this animal mounted him and made for headquarters, which was near Steward's creek, a distance of about thirty-five miles. The balance of the company fled to the timber close by, and took shelter among the trees and fought Chiefs Sam's, Jim's and Joe's whole band of five hundred Indians form early in the morning until late in the evening, when they were rescued by the volunteers from headquarters. During the fight, General Crosby sang out at the top of  his voice, "Jordan am a hard road to trabel, I belief." He had a repeating breech-loading rifle which he fired in double-quick time. The others had good rifles; and each had a good Colt's revolver. So by hugging the trees, and using these pistols frequently, the Indians were kept at a distance; and but few of the Whites were killed after they reached the timber.

     That was the hardest battle ever fought on the Pacific coast. Mr. Dowell has often told his friends that that was the most fearful and the longest day of his life.  Yet in December, 1855, he was in



306                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 Colonel Kelley's four days' fight on the Walla Walla river. Mr. St. Clair, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, had two four-pound howitzers which he cached with some ammunition in Walla Walla near the fort. The volunteers fished them out a few days before the battle. Major Chin and Captain Wilson took charge of one and Mr. Dowell of the other. The second day Captain Wilson overloaded one, and it burst. Mr. Dowell invented a carriage so as to shoot off a mule's back, and mounted it on an arayho or leather pack saddle, and placed it on the back of one of his finest mules. He, with the assistance of one of the packers, would load in a ravine and then charge up close to the Indians, wheel the mule around and fire the cannon off of the top of the mule's back. At first it knocked the mule down on his knees, but he soon learned to brace himself so as not to fall. This was the biggest gun these Indians ever saw.

     Perhaps the most accurate and full description of the battle and death of the Chief Peu-peu-mox-mox and his comrades in the battle of Walla Walla is found in a letter from Mr. Dowell to his brother. It is true history, and is a sample of Mr. Dowell's forcible style of writing. Here we insert the following extract:

     "On the fifteenth of October I was employed by the quartermaster as packmaster at six dollars per day for my services, and three dollars per day for my pack mules, to transport supplies for the use of the First Regiment of Oregon Volunteers; and I have been in active service ever since. I have made one march through the Yakima country with Colonel Nesmith, and saw one little battle while with his command near the Yakima river. After we returned to The Dalles, I was ordered to accompany Colonel Kelley and his command to the Walla Walla valley. On the fifth instant, Peu-peu-mox-mox or Yellow Serpent, the head chief of the Walla Walla Indians, met Lieutenant-Colonel Kelley near the Touchet, near its confluence with the Walla Walla river, like the Prophet met General Harrison before the battle of Tippecanoe, - with pretended friendship, and about dusk tried to get the whole command to enter and camp in a deep cañon, which was lined with thick underbrush, rocks, logs, and served as an ambuscade for a large force of hostile Indians, - a complete natural fortification, and an excellent place for the enemy to cripple Colonel Kelley and his whole force of three hundred and thirty-nine men. The Indians were seen and their plot discovered by the Indian agent, Nathan Olney, and by Colonel Kelley. Peu-peu-mox-mox and five of his treacherous comrades were taken prisoners; and Colonel Kelley and his command camped in the opposite direction from the canon.

     "The next day the command returned to the crossing of the Touchet close to its confluence with the Walla Walla river. The next morning the hills in front of our camp were literally lined with the enemy. A general engagement soon followed. Both the Whites and Indians were well mounted; and those that had the best horses did the fastest running. The advance of the enemy soon fled up the Walla Walla towards their camp and the old Waiilatpu Mission. About two miles below this, they made a desperate stand; and our advanced companies, being harassed by a cross fire, were compelled to fall back to the main command. The transportation trains, under my charge, and the Indian prisoners under a guard of twelve men, were close up with the command in the midst of the battle; and, soon after the Indians shouted over the retreat of our advance, one of the prisoners drew a knife and stabbed one of the guards. Four more of them refused to be tied, and seized the gun of the guard; and in half a minute the whole five were shot down. The other prisoner, a young Nez Perce, made no resistance; and he still lives to tell the tale. Peu-peu-mox-mox said he would rather die than be tied; and he fought like a tiger to the last.

     Thus fell one of the richest, shrewdest, proudest and most haughty chiefs that ever "danced over a white man's scalp west of the Rocky Mountains."

     Strict integrity and untiring persistence in what he conceives to be his line of duty are characteristics for which Mr. Dowell is noted; and, though past life's meridian, he is still vigorous in mind, and bids fair to survive many years to serve the public and retrieve pecuniary losses which he has sustained by trusting others who have proved unworthy of his generous confidence.

     In the practice of his profession he had no superior in Southern Oregon. He only lost three suits in which he advised the commencement in thirty years. Mr. Dowell was brought up a Whig; and he has been frequently heard to say: "I never voted but one mean vote in my life; that was for Breckenridge and Lane in 1860." This he said he did conscientiously, with the hope to keep peace of slaves at the commencement of the war; but when the conflict began he looked upon the South as a spoiled child, and declared that they deserved should not be dissolved. He delighted in his profession; and he never pressed himself forward for office. He was several times nominated for and elected to small offices; but he resigned them and never held any office, except district judge in Tennessee, by appointment of the governor, and prosecuting attorney of the first judicial district of Oregon, and as district attorney of the United States for a short time, and in a few special cases.

     He has strong convictions on all political issues, and as a writer uses strong language to express them. He denounced the Rebellion in the strongest language.

     In 1865 he bought the Oregon Sentinel to keep it from falling into the hands of the Democrats. He was the owner of it for nearly fourteen years. But he continued the practice of his profession and hired editors and printers to run the paper. He scarcely ever wrote for it when at home. But a part of the time he was in Washington City; and during the time his letters published in the Sentinel were strong, able and to the point. This made him warm Republican friends and bitter Democratic enemies.

     He was the first man to hoist the name of General Grant for president west of the Rocky Mountains,



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and first to advise the nomination and election of President Harrison. His letter on this subject was published in the Gold Beech Gazette in 1887.

     In 1861 he was married to Miss Anna Campbell. They now have a family of three children, two daughters and one son. The elder daughter, Fanny, is now the wife of G.M. Love. Annie E. studied law, and is a better lawyer than many of the male members of the profession. The son, B.F. Jr. gives promise of being one of the foremost men of the State.

     Mr. Dowell and his family resided in Jacksonville from 1852 to 1885, when they moved to Portland and have since made that city their home.

     HON. WILLIAM R. DOWNEY. - There are few men who are more familiarly and favorably known to the old pioneers of Puget Sound than the gentleman whose name heads this sketch. His father was a Revolutionary hero, having followed General Washington in the battles waged by the colonists for freedom from the oppression of Great Britain.

     Mr. Downey was born in Mount Sterling, Kentucky, March 6, 1808. At the age of three years he accompanied his parents to Hopkins county, and while living there received his education.

     On February 12, 1829, he was united in marriage to Miss Emily S. Wetzel. Twelve children were born to them, four of whom now survive. In 1850 he, with his family, removed to Dade county, Missouri. In the spring of 1853 they started to the far-off West, and arrived on Puget Sound October 15th of that year, locating a home on the Nisqually Plains.

     On the breaking out of the Indian war of 1855-56, he was obliged with other settlers to abandon his home and seek protection for his family in the fort erected at Steilacoom, where they remained until the cessation of hostilities. In common with his neighbors, he shouldered his gun and enlisted for the campaign, serving in all the engagements until 1857, when the Indians were subjugated and peace restored. On the return of the settlers to their homes, school districts were organized; and Mr. Downey was chosen as one of the directors of the district in which he resided. He has also been county commissioner of Pierce county, and in 1864 was elected by her citizens as their representative to the legislature. He served as mayor of Steilacoom in 1887, and was re-elected to that position in1888.

     Quite a notable and pleasant event took place on February 12, 1887, such being the occasion of the golden wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Downey. Few there are that such an occurrence comes to, and especially with recollections les clouded with the shadows begotten by adversity. hardly had these festivities been forgotten when the affectionate wife and mother closed her eyes in death; for on August 28, 1882, she entered upon the well-deserved reward of a life that was without reproach.

     Mr. Downey has uniformly acquitted himself with honor in the discharge of the duties incident to the positions of trust which he has held, and by his courteous bearing and strict integrity has earned the plaudits of many who speak of him in such a tenor, that in following his example the rising young man could not build more wisely. He is still hale and hearty, and bids fair to do yeoman's work for a number of years to come; nor will his name become extinct, for some of his immediate family survive, and he has also thirteen grandchildren, and sixteen great-grandchildren.

     DR. HORACE P. DOWNS. - Doctor Downs is one of  those highly educated gentlemen who have deliberately chosen a new country in which to exercise abilities that are ever in demand in the older communities. He was born in Freedom, New Hampshire, in 1840. The family made a number of removals. It was at great Falls that he received his first comprehensive instructions; and at Exeter he pursued his academic course, and graduated from the medical department of Bowdoin College in 1865. Entering at once upon the practice of his profession, he chose a location at Tansworth, New Hampshire, and three years later secured a lucrative practice at Charlestown, which has since been incorporated with Boston, Massachusetts. In 1878 he determined to transfer his interests to the Pacific coast, and selected a home in that part of Whatcom county which has now been delimitated and named Skagit. In 1880 he was elected commissioner of the old county, and in the autumn of 1883 was appointed by the legislature as one of the three commissioners to segregate and organize the new county. At the special election following, he was chosen auditor, and by re-election still holds this office. He also served on the committee to make a settlement of affairs relating to the two counties. He is a Republican in politics.

     In business relations Doctor Downs has been prosperous, and has become a large holder of town property, and of some five hundred and twenty acres of land adjoining. He is one of the representative citizens of Skagit county, and indeed of the Pacific Northwest.

     HENRY DRUM. - Among the progressive, intelligent and enterprising business men who are lending their energy and strength to the constant and rapid development of the great resources of the State of Washington, no name stands higher, or is more widely known and deservedly popular, than that of Henry Drum. No more conspicuous example of the results of careful attention to business, probity of character and steadfastness of purpose, can be cited than the brilliant career of Tacoma's ex-mayor. It is to this class of young, keen and active workers that the great Northwest is to-day indebted for its magnificent prosperity and unparalleled growth. Always foremost in every enterprise for the upbuilding of the city and territory at large, he has achieved a name and reputation that many men of the allotted three score years and ten might well feel proud of. Although but thirty-two years of age, no name is better known in Western Washington than that of the young senator from Pierce county. The same strength of purpose and untiring pursuit of objects aimed at having characterized him from boyhood to the mature man; and the earnestness of youth has been combined with the calm



308                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

judgement of riper years to create the pushing but prudent business man and careful financier and adviser.

     Mr. Drum was born in the town of Girard, Macoupin county, Illinois, on November 21, 1857, and is therefore but thirty-two years of age. He attended the public schools of Girard during his childhood; but, not content with the education to be received from that source, he set earnestly to work to fit himself for teaching as a stepping-stone to higher attainments, and at the age of sixteen secured a certificate and began to teach in one of the schools of Macoupin county, holding the school until the end of that term. The following year he used the money he had earned in teaching to enter the Illinois State University at Campaign, and remained there for two years, after which he again taught another year, and again re-entered the university, continu9ing his studies and working during the interval to earn sufficient funds to continue his self-education, until he had finished the course.

     In 1880 he removed to Farmer City, Illinois, and there engaged, in company with R.J. Davis, now of Tacoma, in the manufacture of brick. This first business venture not proving as profitable nor furnishing as large a field as he anticipated, he gave it up and moved to Hebron, Nebraska, where he again resumed the profession of teaching, being very successful in that occupation, for which he displayed great natural aptitude, and a sincere liking. After his first term in Hebron, he was offered a position in the bank of Honorable Walter J. Thompson of that city, which he accepted, and from which time until the present he has remained the warm friend and business associate of Mr. Thompson. The year following they bought a large amount of land in Nebraska and engaged extensively in stock-raising, in addition to their banking business.

     In the fall of 1883, after investigating the resources of Washington territory, and being convinced that it had in store a splendid future, both he and Mr. Thompson decided to close out all their business interests in the State of Nebraska and remove to the then small and comparatively unknown village of New Tacoma, arriving in the City of Destiny on Christmas eve, 1883. They soon afterwards bought the bank of New Tacoma, the oldest financial institution in the young city, and immediately reorganized it as the Merchants' National Bank, of which Mr. Drum became first assistant cashier, and soon afterwards cashier, in which position he has grown familiar to every resident  of Pierce county, as for several years he was unremitting in the faithful performance of the duties of his position, being always at the counter of the bank and attending carefully to every detail. He is now the vice-president of this bank, although for some time he has not attended to any of the clerical duties, his watchful eye and keen judgment being continually exercised in looking after and carrying forward its business interests. In the year 1887 he was elected a member of the school board, his previous experience as a teacher and his fine business qualities eminently fitting him for that position, which he has ever since retained, being now president of that body.

     In May, 1888, although a staunch Democrat, he was elected mayor of Tacoma, over a strong and popular opponent on the Republican ticket, that party at the same election giving a majority of about three hundred for all its other candidates. As chief magistrate of the young city, Mr. Drum gained universal respect and admiration for the prudent, conservative and, at the same time, broad and energetic policy of administering the city government; and it is probably no exaggeration to say that the trying position occupied by him was never filled in a more satisfactory and efficient manner. Col-headed and non-partisan, he won the encomiums of both parties, and all factions. At the end of his first term, it was not strange that men of all stations and political faiths should desire his re-election to the same office; but constantly growing business interests, demanding ever-increasing attention which could not be ignored, compelled him to decline the nomination for re-election.

     Mr. Drum has always been an ardent worker in the Masonic order, being a charter member of all its organizations in this city. besides occupying several offices of the local chapter and other lodges, he is at present grand treasurer of the grand chapter of Washington.

     Besides his interest in the Merchants' National bank, Mr. Drum is a large stockholder and director in the Skagit Railway and Lumber Company, Washington Loan and Investment Company, Fidelity Trust Company, Tacoma Wood-working Company, Pacific Navigation Company, and many other of the prominent enterprises of the city of Tacoma and of his large real-estate investments, make it necessary that he should be constantly alert and active. That his business ability is kept continually in demand goes without saying; for nothing but commercial talent of the highest order could care for and assist in the management of so many diverse and important enterprises and industries.

     In 1884 Mr. Drum married his present wife, a sister of Honorable Walter J. Thompson; and their elegant home is among the handsomest and most beautifully situated of the many costly and modern residences which now occupy the points of vantage and commanding sites on the hills overlooking the beautiful waters of Puget Sound, and the inspiring scenery of mountain and forest, valley and river of picturesque Washington.

     Mr. Drum's faith in the future importance and prosperity of the city of Tacoma has never faltered since his first knowledge of the advantages of its location and of the illimitable resources surrounding it; and he is earnest in the belief that his most sanguine expectations in the past will be largely exceeded in the future.

     In religion, as in business, and in every other relation of life, Mr. Drum is broad minded and liberal, and willing to accord to everyone a perfect right to entire freedom of belief and action. He was one of the first promoters of the Unitarian church in Tacoma, and together with a few others was mainly instrumental in organizing the First Unitarian Society



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of that city, and contributed largely tot he erection if its church and in placing the society upon a firm basis.

     He has always been recognized as a man of the people and a constant friend of the wage-earner, with whom he has the most sincere sympathy, - born of his own early struggles, - at the same time fully appreciating and recognizing the rights and advantages of the more favored classes.

     Although generous to a fault, his reputation for being fair-minded and just is recognized by every class; and this all-pervading sense of justice is probably the dominant characteristic of the man, and that which more than any other one element in his character has resulted in his universal popularity and respect. During the stirring times of the anti-Chinese excitement, he was among the foremost in his determination to remove from the fair city of his adoption the baleful curse of coolie labor and Mongolian vice. His efforts in this direction were but the result of his earnest interest in the welfare of the laboring masses.

     At the recent election of the organization of the new State of Washington, he was the unanimous choice of his party to represent it in the senate of the new commonwealth; and although the overwhelming Republican majority almost completely annihilated the Democratic candidates throughout the length and breadth of the territory, yet Mr. Drum, in spite of the overpowering odds, came off victorious, for the second time beating a popular Republican candidate, backed by a supposed invincible majority, and earned the well-merited distinction of being the only Democrat elected to the higher branch of the legislative body.

     PETER DUEBER. - The life of Mr. Dueber exemplifies the rewards which our coast and society hold out to the old-fashioned qualities of industry and economy. He was born in Newport, Kentucky, in 1857. At the age of ten years he removed with his parents from Minnesota and crossed the plains with ox-teams to Oregon, arriving in Portland safely the following autumn. He first attended school, and at the age of fourteen qualified himself for a sure livelihood by learning the trade of harness-making. He followed this actively in Portland and San Francisco until 1870, when he found a new location at Spokane Falls, which was then but in its earliest infancy. He established and conducted a harness and saddle store, which was the first of its kind in Spokane. He continued in that business for nine years, when his avails were so considerable as to enable him to deal successfully in real estate and in mining stocks. He has ever been highly respected by his fellow citizens, and has held the office of councilman for five years. He is recognized as one of the leading men of his city, and is foremost in every enterprise to insure its enlargement. He is a democrat in politics, and has filled the office of chairman of the Democratic county committee. He was married in San Bernardino, California, in 1876, to Miss Mary Brown, a native of that state. They have two sons.

     THE DUKE OF YORK. - Cheetsamahoin, who was usually styled His Royal Highness, the Duke of York, appears to have been hereditary chief of the tribe of the Clallams, who occupy the land at the mouth of the Strait of Fuca on the south side. He was an able, faithful ruler, and highly esteemed by the Whites. As early as 1854, he was officially appointed head chief of his tribe by Governor Stevens through the agent, Michael T. Simmons. He held this office and performed its duties with vigor and fidelity until, in 1870, he was found to be growing too old and infirm for its active obligations, and by Agent Eells was at that time constituted a sort of honorary chief, whose counsels were to be respected. He was a good, faithful man, and doubtless saved many lives by his honest adherence to our government. He died a few years ago at a great age, and was followed to his grave by a great concourse of people of both the white and Indian races.

     HON. R.O. DUNBAR. - It is not always an enviable distinction to be made eminent for political preferments. the exceptions are in the cities where office is held as the currency of political services, and as the opportunity for public plunder. In the smaller communities, however, where personal acquaintance extends to all citizens, and an honest public spirit precludes fraud, one may well feel pride in that confidence of his friends in his ability and probity which selects him as a public servant. Preferment at the suffrage of the citizens of a place like Goldendale, noted for its correct sentiment and love of cleanliness, would therefore be gratifying. Mr. Dunbar has been an office holder of this kind for many years. His political sphere is, however, by no means confined to the town of Goldendale, as he has represented the county of Klikitat in the territorial council, and during one session served that body as speaker. He has served upon important committees, and has introduced important legislative measures. He has been attorney for that district, embracing Klikitat, Yakima, Skamania and Clarke counties, and as a prominent Republican has long been before the party as a probable candidate for delegate to Congress.

     Mr. Dunbar was born in Schuyler county, Illinois, in 1845. He crossed the plains when but one year old, enduring the trip bravely. His parents christened him Ralph Oregon, in commemoration of his early introduction into that state, and at their fine home and productive farm in the Waldo hills brought him up to a vigorous manhood. At the age of nineteen he began his studies, entering the Institute at Salem. Here he remained four years, applying himself continually to his books, with the exception of a few months spent in teaching to secure funds for the further prosecution of his course. In 1867 he went to Olympia and studied law. In two years he was admitted to practice, and in a short time was appointed clerk of the district court. In two years more he came to Salem, and was admitted to practice before the supreme court. In 1871 he removed to Yakima City, and entered upon the practice of his profession, interesting himself also in stock-raising.



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