History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 310 - 330

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

310                                                 HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     In 1875 he came to The Dalles, and in 1877, located at Goldendale, which he has made his permanent home. Here he soon built up a lucrative law practice, and an enviable reputation as a conscientious, hard-working attorney. There his advancement in public life has been continuous. In the autumn of 1878 he was chosen probate judge, and at the same election as member of the territorial council. In 1870 he was chairman of the judiciary committee of that body, and introduced the local option bill which was carried in the council, but failed in the house. It was in 1882 that he was elected district attorney. About the same time he began to publish the Klikitat Sentinel, and immediately took high rank among the editorial writers of the territory. In 1884 he was elected to the territorial legislature, which, upon assembling, chose him speaker. The duties of this important and difficult position he discharged with great energy, intelligence, and credit. At this session he was also the author of many beneficent measures which are now among the laws of the territory. He has ever been a fearless opponent of the aggression of corporate power and of monopolies. He has been a warm advocate of legislation restraining or prohibiting the liquor traffic. He is himself strictly abstemious in his habits.

     As a public speaker he is forcible, logical and earnest. A man of unflinching integrity and of positive convictions, he can neither be persuaded nor driven into a deviation from the line of conduct which he believes to be correct.

     In 1873 he was united in marriage with Miss Clarissa White; and they now have two fine children, Fred and Roth. Mr. Dunbar is at present practicing his profession. He is a man of rare ability as a writer.

     W.R. DUNBAR. - The mold in which a place is first cast is a great determining force in its future development. A quarter of a city which begins with mean buildings invites a class of neglectful or impecunious residents, and seldom outgrows its tendency towards squalor. The new settlers which come into a thriftless community sink more easily to the habits of their neighbors before them than they succeed in inciting those lax individuals to more industrious methods. On the other hand, also, thrift, vigor, a high level of public spirit and morality, leave a stamp which sets the tone and fashion of a city or neighborhood for many years. It is with peculiar satisfaction, therefore, that we find places like Goldendale which, from their very incipiency, have admitted nothing but strictly honorable pursuits, and have maintained a vigorous sentiment in favor of only the best things. These places become the augury of a high-minded generation in the future.

     William Rice Dunbar, the subject of this sketch, is one of the men who have thus set the character of Goldendale. He is a man popularly known throughout the Northwest as a sterling worker in the cause of temperance. as a lecturer on this subject, as an organizer of lodges of Good Templars, and as a prominent officer of that order, he has met thousands of the people personally; and his form and voice are as familiar as that of any man on the coast. The service which he ahs done for Goldendale as a citizen he has performed for many other places as a lecturer and organizer.

     He was born in Illinois in 1839. With his parents he came to Oregon in 1846, and is therefore, by education, a complete Oregonian. He lived upon his father's farm in the Waldo hills, but at the age of nineteen began the work of a temperance organizer. He joined the Sons of Temperance at Silverton in 1858. Two years later he was elected grand conductor, and the next year grand scribe. In 1864 he resigned this office to assist in raising a military company to help meet the exigencies of the government, then in its death grapple with secession. He was first to enlist in Company A, First Oregon Infantry. He was soon commissioned second lieutenant, and held that position until 1866. When mustered out, he was in command of the blockhouse on the Grande Ronde Indian Reservation in Yamhill county. That was General Phil Sheridan's old headquarters.

     When he returned to civil life, Mr. Dunbar engaged in teaching on the reservation, and afterwards employed himself in the same way in the Waldo hills. He became a member of the Silver Lodge of the Good Templars. He was also active as solicitor of stock for the Oregon & California Railroad, which was then in prospect of construction. Returning to the reservation, he was soon transferred to the Warm Springs agency at the request of General Meacham. While at Grande Ronde agency he was elected to the Oregon legislature from his home county, Marion, and served during that session, 1870, in which Colonel Kelley was elected to the senate. Mr. Dunbar resigned his position in the Indian service in the autumn on account of the failing health of his wife.

     As he was conspicuous in the Good Templar order, no one was better fitted than he for the office of grand worthy chief templar and grand lecturer; and he was elected as such in 1874. This position he held without opposition until 1879, when it became impossible for him to withhold his time longer from his own private affairs. In that year he selected Goldendale as his home, and in the following was appointed clerk of the district court. This office he held continuously until May, 1888, when he resigned the same. In 1882 he was appointed judge of the probate court; and so popular was his management of its business that he was elected to that office in the autumn of the same year and re-elected in 1884, again in 1886, and also at the last election in 1888.

     Mr. Dunbar is also an Odd Fellow. He was grand master of that order in Washington Territory in 1884, and in 1886 and 1888 was representative to the sovereign grand lodge. He has been re-elected also for the next two years. He has also been mayor of Goldendale; and it is largely due to him that the record of the town for prohibition has been so nobly maintained.

     In 1861 he was married to Miss Eliza A. Small; but this lady died a few years later, leaving one boy, Willie, who followed his mother in 1886, dying with consumption. Willie was clerk of the

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probate court of Klikitat county, Washington Territory, at the time of his death. In 1879 Mr. Dunbar was married to Miss Susy Dudley of Silverton, a lady of culture and recognized social position, who now does the honors of their home. Mr. Dunbar's life has been crowded with public duties and honors bestowed upon him because of merit, and also because of his ability to fulfill them in a dignified and effective manner.

     JAMES S. DYSART. - The subject of this sketch, a portrait of whom is placed in this work, was born in Delaware county, New York, March 22, 1838. His parents were Duncan and Elizabeth (Shaw) Dysart, natives of Scotland. James resided at the place of his birth until he was seventeen years old, when he went via Nicaragua to California to join his brother Alexander, who was living in San Francisco. He reached that city in 1855. His first location was at Placerville, where he engaged in lumbering. That point he made his home till 1862. In that year he went to Nevada, and was engaged in the hotel business on the overland stage road.

     At Stillwater in Churchill county he followed various lines of business till the winter of 1867. His next move took him to Mendocino county, California. He bought a ranch near Ukiah, and followed farming one year. Then returning to Nevada, whence he went to the Sound, where he remained till 1870. then going to the mines, with the result of sinking some $700 in a short time, he went back to the Sound, and in the fall of that year crossed the Cascades to the region of what is know Kittitass county.

     In October, 1871, he located his present place, a government claim of one hundred and sixty acres, to which he has added one hundred and twenty acres by purchase. It is located four miles east of Ellensburgh. In 1884 Mr. Dysart beautified his place with an elegant house. Mr. Dysart united with Mr. Farnsworth in building and running the second sawmill in Kittitass valley. The business of the firm was extensive and remunerative.

     In 1884 Mr. Dysart was elected county commissioner on the Republican ticket, being the only successful candidate on that ticket. That was for the long term of four years. Unlike the majority of our subjects, Mr. Dysart is still in a state of single blessedness.

     HON. ROCKEY P. EARHART.- Among those whose names add luster to the roll of the inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest, none stand higher in the estimation of the public, for ability and probity, than the subject of this sketch.

     Mr. Earhart is a native of Ohio, having been born in Franklin county, in that state, on June 23, 1837. He acquired his education at selected schools; and his natural instincts to fit himself for a useful sphere in after life caused him to make the most of opportunities offered. In 1855, he came to Oregon via Panama, and soon after his arrival placed his foot upon the first round of the ladder of prominence to which he has since attained. Incidentally meeting some of the public officials of the day, his clerical abilities were recognized; and the result was his appointment as clerk under Captain, now Commissary-General Robert McFeely, U.S. Army, stationed at Vancouver. The next move was a transfer to The Dalles, where he entered the quartermaster's department, which was under the supervision of Lieutenant Phillip H. Sheridan, then an unknown soldier, but who during the Rebellion won undying fame, and whose recent death was a nation's grief.

    In that position he remained until 1861, when he went into the general merchandise business in Yamhill and Polk counties. In 1863 he accepted the United States agency of the Warm Spring Indian Reservation, where he remained until the appointment of his successor in 1865, when he removed to Salem. For some time thereafter he served as chief clerk and special Indian agent under Superintendent Huntington, and was secretary of the board of commissioners appointed by the general government to treat with the Klamath and Modoc Indians. During the troublesome times when the Civil war was raging, and when an outbreak might have been made in our very midst by those in sympathy with the South, Mr. Earhart was ever active in the promotion of peace and the preservation of Oregon's loyalty to the union. From 1869 to 1872 he was engaged in the mercantile trade at the Capital. In 1870 he was elected representative to the legislature from Marion county; and to his influence is greatly due the appropriation of funds to erect the handsome public buildings of the state. At the close of his term he removed to Portland, and was for some time engaged in the business department of the Daily Bulletin.

     In 1874 he was appointed chief clerk of the surveyor-general's office, which position he held until 1878, when he resigned to accept the office of secretary of state, to which he had been elected. Removing again to Salem, he entered upon the duties of that office in the fall of that year, and at once commenced a thorough and systematic overhauling, of the books and records, and in a few months' time had the office in better shape than it had ever been prior thereto. So acceptably did he discharge his official duties during his first term in that office, that he received the unanimous vote of the Republican state convention for renomination, and received a majority of over twenty-five hundred at the general election in June, 1882. His second term, like the first, was eminently satisfactory to the people; and upon his retirement form office, - perhaps the most trying and responsible in the state government, - his administration was heartily indorsed by all political parties. In 1887 he returned to Portland and accepted the management of an important corporation organized by local capitalists, in which position he still remains. From 1885 to 1887 he was adjutant-general of Oregon, and in 1888 was elected representative from Multnomah county for the term of two years.

     He identified himself with the Masonic order in 1863, and has held every office within the gift of the fraternity, being still active in its interests. He was elected grand secretary of the grand lodge in

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1872, and served until 1878, when, in recognition of his past services in that body, he was promoted from the secretary's desk to the high and honorable position of grand master, and was re-elected in 1879. He has held the office of sovereign grand inspector, and has attained to the thirty-third degree of the Scottish Rite. He was instrumental in organizing the first commandery of Knights templar established on the North Pacific coast, and served for four years as its eminent commander, being presented on his retirement form that office with perhaps the handsomest Masonic jewel ever brought to Oregon. He is now grand commander of Knights Templar of the State of Oregon.

     He was married July 2, 1863, to Miss N.A. Burden, daughter of Judge Burden, of Polk county, their family consisting of four daughters, who are general favorites in society circles. Mr. Earhart is a gentleman of ordinary height, rather heavy set, weighing about one hundred and seventy pounds, with a full face, partially covered with beard, and with brown hair. His features are pleasant; and his manners are such that he gains friends rapidly. He is an unusually engaging conversationalist, his descriptive powers being vivid and his mimicry complete. He tells and can keenly appreciate a good story; and ten minutes' general conversation with him will make you his friend. No man in Oregon is to-day more popular, or has more friends, than has Honorable R.P. Earhart. He is but just in the prime of life; and we have no hesitancy in predicting for him higher official honors than he has yet been called upon to fill.

     ABEL E. EATON. - The extensive reputation and wide influence of Mr. Eaton bespeak for him a candid notice in any work touching upon the lives of our responsible men. The seventh son in a family of eleven children, he was born May 30, 1834, at Conway, New Hampshire. The father, Simeon Eaton, a lawyer from Maine, and the mother from the same state, whose maiden name was Bessie Paine, made their home upon a farm. During the first eight years of his life, the boy Abel found opportunity for but seven weeks' schooling. This was his annual stipend of educational advantages until his eighteenth year, when he secured eleven weeks in the South Conway Seminary. Nevertheless, having an active New England brain, he eagerly imbibed ideas and information from all sources, utilizing the evening hours by the torchlights and fireplace to peruse books. At the age of twenty, he obtained the consent of his parents to go to Ohio, and in this then somewhat remote region experienced the many adventures, and tried the numerous shifts and turns of the youth away from home, realizing his greatest profit in a business way form a pair of calves purchased with money that he had hoarded as a boy from the proceeds of his bean patch.

     In 1854 he penetrated the West as far as Huntsville, Indiana, and although having no literary effects, except a family dictionary purchased some time before with a bushel of his white beans, he was able to secure a school and to teach it successfully, although heretofore regarded as one of those practically unmanageable schools of the West. He afforded the district a fin illustration of Yankee firmness. The three following years spent at home failed to satisfy him with the old East; and in 1857 we find him once more in Ohio following his profession as teacher. In 1861 his labors in this regard were broken off by General Rosecrans turning his schoolhouse into a military telegraph office, and making of his boys' playground a parade upon which to drill ten thousand of the boys in blue, calling it Fort Denison.

     A touching incident in his life, a few months later, was his relinquishment of a small army contract which he had taken, that he might go out to Springfield, Illinois, to see a dearly beloved sister, a beautiful and self-sacrificing woman who was sick in her distant home. Arriving at the Prairie city he found that she had gone even in her sickness and had been carried on a bed to her home in New England. This family to which Mr. Eaton belonged was one of those in which love and respect between its members rose to the highest significance. At Quincy, Illinois, Mr. Eaton was detained to teach a school from which the last master had been forcibly ejected; and, as in former positions of the same kind, he proved his ability to deal with refractory pupils.

     During these months he had been revolving the advisability of a change to the Pacific coast, and in May was ready to make the journey, having in the meantime read a farewell address to the people, and patrons of the school, and arranged all his business affairs with a view to his departure. He began the arduous trip on the seventh of the month, in company with his brother-in-law A.L. Brown, and one other. The first day out they overtook Doctors Rudd and Griswold; and they five remained together in fraternal bonds until arriving at the present site of Baker City, having met with hairbreadth escapes, buried victims of the barbarous Indians, and in other ways partaken of frontier adventures. At Auburn they witnessed a scene formerly characteristic of early times, - a hanging, being in this case that of a Frenchman who had poisoned his partners. Here they separated, the doctors going to Portland and the other two to Walla Walla; while Mr. Eaton with a net capital of seven dollars and fifty cents; out of which he bought a scythe and a few provisions, proceeded to create for himself a business by cutting and selling hay near Baker City. For this he found a ready sale, and by means of the quantity on hand was able to keep a yoke of oxen, and soon to increase this number so as to engage successfully in freighting to Idaho. From this laborious and even humble beginning, he increased to a large business, operating for eight years, and owning at times as many as a hundred yoke of oxen and twelve mules.

     As the great mining excitement and stampedes of the early days subsided, he turned his attention to farming and stock-dealing, making his home at Union, Oregon. Here he may be found at the present, living at his pleasant village home, the owner of two thousand acres of fine valley land, of six hundred fine horses and of two or three hundred cattle, and of money at interest.

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     He was married November 6, 1867, to Miss Mary E. Baird, a native of Missouri, who crossed the plains in 1863. Although having no children of their own, they have made their comfortable home the means of extending favors and blessings to others.

     Mr. Eaton has figured prominently in the growth and development of educational and religious institutions, and in nearly every enterprise of a public nature in his locality. He has served in educational offices, and as mayor of his city, being in each case sought by the public for the service.

     GEORGE WOOD EBBERT. - A life of sixty years in and west of the Rocky Mountains, fifty of which have been passed in the Willamette valley, - this is the pioneer record of Mr. Ebbert. As such it is full of interest; and in its further character, as a career of exceptional activity and adventure, it is of thrilling fascination. Although now eighty years of age, somewhat bent and infirm, the fires of manhood still glow, and the mind is still active.

     He was born in Bracken county, Kentucky, in 1810. When a youth he was apprenticed at Louisville to learn the blacksmith trade. The last year of his time he deemed unnecessary, and was next heard of at St. Louis. At this town of Frenchmen and trappers he enlisted for the Rocky Mountains to serve in the company of Smith, Sublette and Meek, also a youth of nineteen. A year of service in the fir country finished the agreement; and, like the most of the other young men, Ebbert bought an equipment and began life as a free trapper. This continued two years, when Wyeth coming across the continent secured him as one of his company to occupy Fort Hall, which he had built.

     Life here was not a holiday. On a small stream sixty miles from the fort occurred one of the most desperate fights with the Blackfeet Indians ever had by anybody. Ebbert, Wilkins and three others had a camp on the head of the creek, trapping. It was in a sequestered spot supposed to be hidden from even the prying eyes of the Indians. But one morning just about dawn the boys looked out and saw the lowlands full of the Blackfeet. They were scurrying across the plains, and would  be soon upon the fort. Ebbert roused his comrades by shouting; "Get up boys. All the Injuns in the world are coming!" He himself seized his gun and took a run outside of camp to get a look at the situation. But the storm was already upon them; and a sharp sting in the neighborhood of his heel told the daring adventurer to seek cover. The five men in cap, which was well barricaded, now began a fire upon the assailants; and their fusillade was so effective as to check the onslaught. Ebbert got a good porthole to shoot from, and as he emptied his gun would pass it back for another already loaded. His Nez Perce wife was there. He fired seven times, each shot taking effect. The Blackfeet drew off after a time , but not without shooting a vast number of arrows, many of which fell within the fort. These the Nez Perce woman had the thrift to pick up and put the heads into her pack of treasures, such as beads, etc., which she always carried with her. Each arrow head was valuable, worth a dollar at any post.

     Although the savages had not carried the little camp, it was useless to stay any longer now that its whereabouts was known; and the more expeditiously the trappers got back to Fort Hall the better. Ebbett discovered after the fight that the shot in his heel had half cut the cord; and in this condition he must walk sixty miles. The retreat was painful and severe. Ebbert's heel bothered him; his wife's load of some sixty pounds' weight was so burdensome as to cause one of her knees to swell so as to make traveling almost impossible; and she begged to be left behind; She could dig roots, she said, and would come on a few days later. The pony was so heavily loaded with beaver skins that it could not make rapid progress. Before the march was over, they suffered terribly from thirst; and one of the men dropped by the way. When at last water was reached it was a mere puddle, fouled by wild animals and full of tadpoles; but, by digging, something fit to drink was obtained. while here the Indian wife came up; and the trappers made a cache of all their goods. taking the pony, the woman went back with water to the man who had given out, and fetched him along. After this she rode. At the Snake river they found the water up to the banks, filled with drift and rushing with a terrific current. But they made a raft and managed to pole and paddle across; and ten miles more brought them to the end of their journey.

     In 1833, Ebbert came down to Vancouver as expressman from Lieutenant Thing with messages for Captain Wyeth. He afterwards took service for a time with the Hudson's Bay Company, and in 1837 and 1838 was at Waiilatpu and at Lapwai as blacksmith for the missionaries. In 1839 he came down the Columbia to make a home for himself, and took up the place upon which he now lives, four miles northeast of Hillsboro. Here he passed his time on the grassy plains, herding cattle, hunting deer, and raising wheat. He lived in a little log cabin, of which his faithful Nez Perce wife was mistress.

     In December, 1849, he was called upon once more to take up his gun in the Indian country. This was in the Cayuse war. When the struggle was well along and the way was opene3d eastward, he joined the company going to Washington, to bear the tidings of the massacre of Whitman. There were some eight who started, in February, 1848; and three, Meek, Leabo and Ebbert, got to the Capital. It was a rough trip in the snow through the Rocky Mountains; and, but for the fortunate meeting with Peg Leg Smith on Bear river, they must have eaten more horse been and mule meat than in point of fact they did do. Ebbert remembers his securing a considerable piece of a mule that must soon have died of starvation, and that a slice from this interposed between two slices of fried pork materially increased the value of the latter. At Washington, the Oregonians met many of the great men of the day; but Ebbert failed to get any part of the appropriation made for Meek and his escort.

     Returning to Oregon, Mr. Ebbert felt fully satisfied with his claim on the Tualatin Plains, and has

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 lived there half a century, still maintaining his health. The active affairs of the place he has given over to his son, and to his daughter, Mrs. George Morrow. Mr. Morrow is one of the best farmers in the country, and a man of intelligence and public spirit.

     N.A. EBERMAN. - This still vigorous and erect gentleman of sixty-eight years is a perfect representative of the daring, athletic and pioneer Western men who crossed the plains nearly half a century ago. He was born in Henry county, Tennessee, in 1821, and at the age of ten went with his parents to settle in Madison county, Illinois. In Warren county of the same state he saw something of the Black Hawk war.

     In 1840 he left home for Missouri, stopping in that then unsettled region until, in1843, the eloquence of Burnett and the exertions of others resulted in forming the company to cross the plains to Oregon. Joining himself to this body, young Eberman rode on the plains, shooting deer, antelope, elk and buffalo for the company, meeting many adventures and being in the midst of wild Indians. Being strong and daring and a good swimmer, he was of great service in crossing streams and setting the guide lines for the fording of the train. He was quite promiscuous, acting principally as hunter and scout, and after a time, with Burnett's division, joined himself to Applegate. Being acquainted with Hunt, who was bringing out a sawmill, he went down with that gentleman, after his arrival in Oregon, to the site chosen on the south side of the Columbia river opposite Cathlamet, and worked in the mill. The following spring he went on to the Clatsop Plains, taking up an elegant ranch on the grassy lands, and there raised potatoes and got a start of cattle.

     In 1848 he joined the forces under Colonel Nesmith to punish the murderers of Doctor Whitman, and shared in the desultory but severe campaign that followed. In the fall of 1848 he went with the rest to California, and was very fortunate - or unfortunate - in locating on the rich diggings of the place afterwards called Murderers' Bar. Here the company were taking out one hundred dollars a day to the man. Eberman was sent, after a time, for provisions to Coloma, and was gone two weeks. On his return he found not a living soul at the camp, but everywhere dead bodies, ashes and scattered wreckage. the Indians who had thus visited the camp with destruction and murdered all his partners had left plain tracks; and their trail to the mountains was evident. With the indignation of the frontiersman, he went back and got up a company to punish the savage butchers; and most terrible, and fully satisfactory, and indeed almost sickening, was the result of the campaign, in which Spanish lancers took part and rode down and speared the Indians without respect to age or sex. These bloody scenes left him little taste for life in California; and, abandoning the mines, he returned to our state and took up once more the quiet occupation of the pioneer and settler on the Clatsop Plains, giving his services betimes to the government in its dealings with the Indians, as he has a perfect knowledge of their character, and can speak their language like a native.

     He now owns a fine farm on the little stream Ohanna. He was married to Miss Emma, the youngest daughter of Mr. Hobson, the pioneer of 1843, and has raised a family of fifteen children, three of whom are deceased. Hearty, genial and intelligent, Mr. Eberman is a very interesting man to meet.

     MAJOR THEODORE J. ECKERSON. - Major Eckerson, so long and favorably known among the old pioneers of our coast, enjoys also a like enviable reputation in military circles. He was born January 22, 1821, in New York City, and on December 20, 1838, in his eighteenth year, entered the United States army. He served throughout the Seminole Indian war, 1840-42, and in the Mexican war from its commencement to its close. He was a member of the storming parties in the battles of Cerro Gordo and Churubusco.

     He came to Oregon with the first troops sent after the settlement with England, arriving at Fort Vancouver May 15, 1849. He here established and taught the first school north of the Columbia river in the then territory of Oregon, for the benefit of American settlers, under the auspices of Governor Joseph Lane, and the military commander, Major John S. Hatheway. He was commissioned an officer in the storekeeper's branch of the United States ordnance department in September, 1853, and held the position until March 21, 1865, when he was appointed to a commission in the United States quartermaster's department. He was brevetted a major March 21, 1865, "for faithful and meritorious services," and promoted to the full rank of major January 24, 1881. He served actively until January 22, 1885, when he was retired by law, being then sixty-four years of age.

     Major Eckerson's wife, Elizabeth, to whom he was married in New York, accompanied him to the Pacific coast, and remained constantly at his side, sharing all the vicissitudes of service in this far-off country. Four sons and two daughters were born to them. Of this number one son died at Astoria; two sons received from President Grant commissions in the army; one son was appointed to a position in the general postoffice department at Washington City, under the civil service rules; and both daughters became wives of officers of the army.

In the Indian war of 1855, Major Eckerson did invaluable service for Oregon and Washington which the Oregonian has described as follows:

     "Major Eckerson did excellent service for Oregon in her early days of trial and danger. he had charge of the ordnance depot at Vancouver, during the period of our greatest Indian troubles, and took the responsibility, without orders from Washington and against the remonstrance of General Wood, to supply arms and ammunition upon the requisitions of the governors of Oregon and Washington Territory, for the use of our people. In  this he rendered to us an invaluable service that never will be forgotten. Without the arms and fixed ammunition, defense would have been extremely difficult, and aggressive war upon the

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 Indians impossible. The temper of General Wood was such as to make the matter one of serious difficulty to Captain Eckerson; but the captain took the high position that there was no need of a depot of arms here unless some use were to be made of it for protection and defense of the country."

     This view of his was eventually concurred in by the War Department, despite the prediction of General Wool that the captain wood be severely dealt with by the government.

     Major Eckerson was highly esteemed by General Grant, by whose side he had fought in all the battles of the Mexican war except Buena Vista; and it is proper her to embody the letter written by that general to President Lincoln, in February, 1865, recommending him for the appointment in the quartermaster's department, which was promptly bestowed.

"CITY POINT, VIRGINIA, February 23, 1865.

"To the President of the United States:
"I most heartily approve the application of Theodore J. Eckerson for the appointment of assistant quartermaster in the regular army. He has served for more than twenty-five years in the army, and has maintained a high character. He is very efficient, and well acquainted with the duties of almost every department of the service. I know him personally, and can vouch for what I say of him. He will prove a most excellent quartermaster, if appointed, to have on the Pacific coast, where he has been long and favorably known.
                                                           "U.S. GRANT,

     In January, 1889, at a stated meeting of Multnomah Camp, No. 2, Indian War Veterans of the North Pacific Coast, Major Eckerson was elected an honorary member of said camp by a unanimous vote.

     It is gratifying to know that one whose services have been of such essential value to our state, and so highly appreciated by men of the first position in the nation, is still living in hale age in our midst, and enjoying the prosperity and development of the country with which he has had such full sympathy from its earliest history.

     REV. CUSHING EELS, D.D. - Dr. Eells was born at Blandford, Massachusetts, February 16, 1810, and was the son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Warner) Eells. He was descended from Samuel Eells, who was a major in Cromwell's army, and who came to America in 1661.

     Cushing Eells was brought up at Blandford, became a Christian when fifteen years old, prepared for college at Monson Academy, Massachusetts, entered Williams College in1830, and graduated four years later. The distance from his home to college was forty-five miles. Twice he rode the entire distance, - when he entered and after he graduated, - twice from one-half to two-thirds of the way; and the rest of the trips he walked too poor to pay his way.  Three years later he graduated from East Windsor Theological Seminary, of Connecticut (now at Hartford), and was ordained at Blandford, Massachusetts, October 25, 1837, as a Congregational minister.

     While teaching school at Holden, Massachusetts, he became acquainted with Miss Myra Fairbank, to whom he was afterwards married. She was the daughter of  Dea. Joshua, and Mrs. Sally Fairbank, and was born at Holden, Massachusetts, May 26, 1805. It is said that both on her father's and mother's sides she was pure Yankee. She made a profession of religion when thirteen years old, and at the celebration of her seventieth birthday said that she had never been sorry that she had begun to serve the Savior when so young.

     When Doctor Eels first offered himself as a missionary to the American board of commissioners for foreign missions, he was appointed to the Zulu mission of Africa. afterwards, when Doctor Whitman and others had come to Oregon, the call for missionaries to the Indians on this coast became so urgent that the board decided to send him to this region. Doctor Eels and Miss Fairbank were married at Holden, March 5, 1838. On the next day they started on their bridal tour across the continent, and about a year later began housekeeping near the Spokane river, ready to receive callers.

     Only two women, Mrs. M. Whitman, and Mrs. H.H Spalding, had ever made the trip before, - in 1836. Reverend e. Walker, Reverend A.B. Smith, Mr. W.H. Gray and their wives, and Mr. C. Rogers, were the missionary companions of Doctor and Mrs. Eells; and most of the trip from Missouri was made on horseback. they were under the protection of the American Fur Company to the Rocky Mountains, and of the Hudson's Bay Company from that place to Walla Walla, where they arrived August 29, 1838. That winter was spent at Doctor Whitman's station at Walla; but the next spring, with Doctor Walker and his wife, who were their associates until 1848, they went to their mission station among the Spokane Indians, Tshimakin, at Walker's Prairie, in what is now Spokane county, Washington.

     Here they remained until 1848, after the massacre of Doctor Whitman. Doctor Eels taught a small school a part of the time, besides preaching and doing general missionary work. The results as they appeared at that time were not satisfactory; but thirty-five years later it was plain that the seed then sowed had grown, until two churches of one hundred and twenty-seven members were the result; while during the Cayuse and Yakima wars the tribe remained friendly to the Whites, although strongly urged by the hostiles to join them. Owing, however to the fact that the government of Oregon could not protect them in that region after the Cayuse war, they moved to the Willamette valley in the summer of 1848, under an escort of sixty Oregon volunteers commanded by Major J. Magone.

     They spent four weeks on the Abiqua, when they both engaged to teach in the Oregon Institute at Salem, now the Willamette University. the next year they accepted a request to teach in what was beginning to be Tualatin Academy at Forest Grove. Here they remained until August, 1851, when they

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removed to near Hillsboro, where Doctor Eels taught the Washington Select school about four years, and other schools in the region until 1857, preaching also a considerable part of the time, when he returned to Forest Grove, as principal of Tualatin Academy. Three years were thus spent; when, the country east of the Cascade Mountains being open for settlement, he went to Walla Walla, moving his family there in 1862, and laid plans for beginning Whitman Seminary, in memory of his colaborer, Doctor M. Whitman, which ahs since grown into Whitman College. It was not, however, until 1866 that the first building was completed and the school fairly begun. Since that time he has labored for it as he has been able. He has been president of its board of trustees since the charter was granted in 1859; he taught in it as principal for about two and a half years; he has given to it nearly ten thousand dollars; he spent about a year in the East in 1883 - 84 in its behalf, - his first and only trip East since he came to this coast, - when he was the means of securing about twelve thousand dollars for it; and he lived till, in 1888, it celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his arrival in the territory.

     In 1872 his house at Walla Walla was burned; and he moved to the home of his eldest son, Indian agent at Skokomish, on Puget Sound. He remained there for nearly two years; when he again visited the Indians and White of Eastern Washington, devoting his time mainly to ministerial work.

     Mrs. Eels died at Skokomish August 9, 1878, aged seventy-three years, and was buried at Seattle. After her death Doctor Eels spent most of his time in Eastern Washington, living at different times at Colfax, Cheney and Medical Lake until 1888, when he felt too old to longer endure the hardships of the work, and has since resided with his oldest son, Indian agent on the Puyallup Reservation near Tacoma.

     He assisted in the organization of the Congregational church at Skokomish in 1874, of which he was pastor for nearly two years; organized the one at Colfax in 1877, of which he was pastor for four years; also that at Chawelah in 1879,  of which he was pastor for about nine years; that at Medical lake in 1883, of which he was pastor for five years; that at Sprague in 1882, of which he was pastor for about two years; aided in organizing that at Cheney in1881 and acted as its pastor for three years; and also preached at many other stations in Eastern Washington. To the churches of Walla Walla, Colfax, Dayton, Cheney, Sprague, Lone Pine, Spokane Falls, Olympia, Washington Territory, and Forest Grove, Oregon, it is known that he had given previous to July, 1887, $6,877.55. In addition to what he has given to Whitman College, Mrs. Eells laid the foundation of a professorship in Pacific University, which with accumulated interest now amounts to about three thousand dollars. Doctor Eels and wife have also given various missionary societies nearly four thousand dollars. He received the degree of D.D. from Pacific University, and was chosen assistant moderator of the National Congregational Council at Concord, New Hampshire, in 1883.

     He has two children, Honorable Edwin Eels who has been United States Indian agent on Puget Sound since 1871, and Reverend Myron Eells, missionary at Skokomish, Washington, since 1874.

     HON. CHARLES EISENBEIS. - This wealthy resident of Port of Washington gained his eminence by sturdy industry and sagacious investment during the pioneer days. He is a native of Prussia, was born in 1832, and the fifth in a family of ten children. Of his father he learned the trade of a baker, and was prepared upon his arrival in America in 1856 to earn thereby, in company with his brother, an independent livelihood at Rochester, New York.

     In 1858 he came via Panama to San Francisco, and in the fall of the same year arrived at Port Townsend. He here opened a shop and prepared for the market the first baker's goods in the town, and probably the first in the territory, except at Vancouver. He was under engagement with the firm of Priest & Peterson, becoming a partner within a few months. The site was the same as that now occupied by his present fine building. Two years later he removed to Steilacoom, and after a sojourn of five years at this point, during which he engaged successfully in his former business and in brewing, returned to the city of his first choice, continuing a remunerative management of his shop, and investing his saving in real estate. by this means he has acquired some of the finest property in the city, and at Seattle has been very successful in that line.

     Mr. Eisenbeis has served the city as mayor three terms, being the first to hold that office. He was also the first city treasurer. Three terms he has been a member of the Washington board of health.

     He was married in San Francisco in 1865, to Miss Elizabeth Berghauser, a native of Prussia. She died in 1881, leaving him a family of two sons and two daughters, - Sophia, Charles, Frederick W. and Louise H. He was married recently to Mis Kate E. Marsh, a native of England, with whom he enjoys a most attractive home.

     HON. EDWARD ELDRIDGE. - One of the most useful of Washington's public men has been Mr. Eldridge, whose portrait we present. He is a Scotchman, having been born at St. Andrews in 1828. The Scotch either stay at home and become doctors, essayists, psychologist or preachers, or else go abroad and found institutions and cities. the mind of these islanders is said to be the most severely logical of any in the world, and their grip upon affairs the most tenacious. As a city builder and legislator, our representative of this great people has brought into effective action these characteristic qualities.

     When but a boy of thirteen he shipped as a sailor and followed the sea until 1849. This was the golden year of our coast; and the sharp-eyed young argonaut turned up in San Francisco about that time, hailing from the ship Tonquin. He found that he could handle a spade and "Long Tom" as well as a halyard or helm, and for a year dug gold on the Yuba. He then took a run of eighteen months on the Pacific mail steamer Tennessee; but, concluding that the only satisfactory way of living was as a

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man of family, he married and went to Yreka. Neither this place nor San Francisco, which he tried again, quite suited him; and in 1853 he came up to the Sound with Captain Roder, who was taking up machinery to build a sawmill at Whatcom. Here were the sea-breezes, the convenient boat, the "finest sheet of water in the world," and the place for cows and chickens and other livestock in the woods along shore. He located at Whatcom while the sawmill was building. the inhabitants at that time consisted of twelve men working on the mill. Here for a short time he found employment with the mill owner, his wife cooking for the men. He located half a section of land adjoining Captain Roder, where he has resided ever since and now has the finest home on Bellingham Bay. He was also on the Sound in time to take a hand in the Indian war, serving in Company H, Captain Peabody, and in the battalion of Major Van Bokellen. He was also left for a time in command of a company to guard Whatcom and the newly opened coal mines there.

     In a public way he began early serving the county in nearly all the offices, and going to the legislature quite continuously. In 1866-67 he was speaker of the house, and in 1878 was member of the territorial constitutional convention. In every public capacity he has filled his place with dignity, and has displayed sagacity. Everything which he has undertaken has prospered; and although his early adventures and operations have been, by the quickly shifting times, acquiring a certain antiquarian interest, he is still a man in his prime, and dispatches as much work as ever. He was a Democrat in politics until the flag was fired upon at Sumter. Since that momentous event he has been a Republican.

     His wife, Theresa Lappim, a native of Ireland, whom he met and married in San Francisco, has been in very way his efficient helpmeet, and shares with him the comforts of their pleasant home. two of their four children are living, - Mrs. Isabella Eveds, and Hugh, auditor of Whatcom county.

     JOHN S. ELLIOTT. - Mr. Elliott, a representative citizen of Eastern Oregon, was born in Virginia in 1836. He received a common-school education, and remained upon his father's farm until twenty years of age. Developing a desire for life in the Far West, he went to Texas in 1858, and at a town upon the Red river served as a salesman in the store of an uncle who was doing business there. In 1860 he enlarged his operations by taking a stock of goods to Denver, Colorado.

     In 1862 he crossed the plains to Baker county, Oregon, locating in Powder valley. The next spring he engaged in freighting on the Umatilla and Idaho road with two yokes of cattle. In that avocation he continued until 1878, when he sold his team and went as a drover to Kansas, spending in this venture four years. In 1882 we find him returning again to our state and making his home at Union, in the Grande Ronde valley, and establishing a prosperous livery business. At the present time he has the reputation of having the finest livery stable in the Pacific Northwest, owning a complete stable well stocked with excellent horses. His public interests are large, and his influence in the community extensive.

     WILLIAM ELLIOTT. - This now venerable citizen of our state, whose form and character are familiar to many in Western Oregon, was born in Knox county, Indiana, September 14, 1815. Losing his mother by death when but a child of five years, he was received by an uncle, and remained in his family, removing with him to Missouri in 1820, and not leaving his kind relatives until he had attained his majority.

     In 1836 he became a volunteer soldier under A.J. Morgan, of Fort Leavenworth, to prosecute the war in Florida, and in this service experienced many sharp encounters. After his return in 1838 to Missouri, he was married to Miss Nancy, the daughter of John Sconce, a pioneer of Missouri from Kentucky. She was born in Grason county, Kentucky, June 11, 1816.

     Mr. Elliott then engaged in farming until 1846, when he was seized with the impulse that affected the most daring and impetuous of the Western people to make new homes and a grander state beyond the shining Rocky Mountains, and in 1846 joined the train of eighty wagons bound for the wonderland of Oregon. He had as companions in this company Messrs. J. Brown, William Parker, Benjamin Schrum, Z. Grippel, and many others well known in our state. Continuing with a detachment of some thirty of the wagons, Mr. Elliott and his family made a successful and speedy trip, not, however, without danger and hardship, arriving at Oregon City early in October, being of the second company of that year to pass the Barlow gate. The same season he went out to the Molalla, and with the oxen he had brought across the plains broke and seeded to wheat twelve acres of land. In the February following he entered the Donation claim still designated by his name in Clackamas county. This place he developed with the untiring patience of the early Oregon farmer, and lived upon it for a full quarter of a century. During all this time he was active and earnest in the development of public enterprises, building up christian institutions, and taking especial interest in common schools, being one of the first to subscribe money for building a proper house for school purposes and for paying the teacher. During the Cayuse war he was one of the party that engaged in the Abiqua war, and feels perfectly satisfied that, if the citizens had not acted promptly in that affair the Indians would have risen throughout the Willamette valley and massacred many innocent families, as the fighting men were mainly absent in the Cayuse country. He was also a volunteer under Colonel Kelley in the Yakima war.

     In his farming operations, Mr. Elliott has ever been very successful and progressive, being one of the first to encourage the importation of Devon cattle and of improved breeds of sheep. He took an active part in forming the State Agricultural Society, and, when it was necessary to liquidate the indebtedness of the concern, stood as one of the thirty to furnish the means.

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     In 1872 they sold the old place and removed to Canemah. In 1888 Mrs. Elliott died, and Mr. Elliott at present makes his home with his eldest daughter, Mrs. Captain Apperson, of Oregon City. At this pleasant old town he spends the declining years of his life in looking back upon the great changes wrought by the labors of himself and his old comrades, and in looking forward to the still greater improvements yet to come.

     HON. STUKELY ELLSWORTH. - This eminent lawyer of our state was born at Stockton, Chautauqua county, New York, December 18, 1826. Among his distinguished ancestors were Oliver Ellsworth, the third chief justice of the supreme court of the United States; Mary Lyon, founder of Mount Holyoke Seminary, and Mary Franklin, a sister of Benjamin Franklin. Colonel E.E. Ellsworth is also supposed to have belonged to the same family.

     Mr. Ellsworth received his academical education in Chautauqua county, and graduated at Yale College in 1847. He studied law at Buffalo, New York, nearly three years, and was admitted to practice before the supreme court of the United States at Washington in 1855. He settled the same year at Eugene City, Oregon, feeling a greater attraction for building up a new state than in seeking high position in the older communities. He was married in 1856, at Salem, to Miss Mary Stevens, of Coldwater, Michigan, a daughter of General J.H. Stevens, now of North Powder, Oregon, who was also one of the first pioneers of the state. Mr. Ellsworth engaged steadily in the practice of his profession, giving but little attention to politics, although frequently urged by his friends to do so. His only candidacy for office at the hands of any political party during his residence in Oregon was for the office of judge of the supreme court of the state in 1866;  but, while he received more than five hundred votes from the party of his opponent, he was defeated by the incumbent, Honorable, Geo. H. Williams, ex-attorney general of the United States, who was also in nomination. In 1872 he moved from Eugene City to La Grande, hoping by a change of climate to benefit the health of his wife who had become a confirmed invalid, and received from him the most careful attention and consideration at all times.

     He was a prominent member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Oregon, and was chosen by them as grand representative to the grand lodge of the United States in1875. At this time he revisited his native state after an absence of twenty years. The allurements of place and position had but little attraction for him, and could not induce him to enter the active arena of politics. Notwithstanding this, he took a quiet and unostentatious, but nevertheless effective, part in advancing many matters of public interest, and assisted the progress of his beloved state in many important affairs. About the year 1870 the state and coast were greatly interested in railroad mattes; and, in common with his fellow citizens generally, Mr. Ellsworth gave time, money and influence to these projects. In that year he was one of the board of directors of the Oregon & California Railroad. Some years alter, in helping to locate the State University at Eugene, he took a very active part. As a lawyer, he stood in the front rank of the legal fraternity on this coast, and possessed the enviable reputation of being "a peacemaker rather than a promoter of litigation."

     His death occurred at La Grande January 28, 1876, after a very brief illness. Ten years later he was followed by his wife. There are four children surviving, of whom three reside in this state; while one, a daughter, makes her home in Montana. These are all persons of character and of value to their respective communities.

     PHILOLOGUS ELY. - This venerable pioneer was born in East Tennessee in 1825, and remained in his native state until 1834. In that year his father moved to Dewitt county, Illinois, and continued his occupation as a farmer through life. In the electric atmosphere of this young giant state of the West, Mr. Ely attained his majority, and in the meantime secured a practical education in the common schools. As a resource for his livelihood, he learned the trade of a plasterer, which, combined with his occupation of farmer, he followed in DeWitt and Knox counties. In the year 1851,he was married to Miss Amanda Mansfield, making their home in Knox county till March, 1853, when they started across the plains, and after a severe journey reached Oregon in the September following, locating near Junction, in Lane county.

     In December, 1861, the floods of the Willamette river destroyed most of the property which they had accumulated in the past. In this beautiful valley they made their home until the autumn of 1874, when they removed to Umatilla county. At that time Mr. Ely became afflicted with the rheumatism, and remained an invalid for the next ten years, one year of which he was unable to walk, and will remain a cripple during life. Here he still resides on a good farm with his aged wife, the mother of six children.

     SOLOMON EMERICK, - Some time before Horace Greeley gave his advice, "Go West, young man, go West," there were hardy young Americans making tracks across the Rocky Mountains, and pushing into the fastnesses towards the pacific Ocean. "Ribs of brass and hearts of steel" had these young fellows; and they were without fear or even caution.

     One of these was Solomon Emerick, who was born in Ohio in 1820. He moved to Buchanan county, Missouri, in 1830, and in 1843 was on the way to the rendezvous on the border. Falling in with the pioneer Gilmore, he accepted of him an outfit and took the job of driving oxen to Oregon, writing to his father that he was going to the pacific coast with Burnett's expedition, as the emigration of 1843 was

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 frequently called. When the one hundred and twenty-five wagons and loose stock were well under way, a division was made to accommodate all the hands; and Emerick was in the company that was under Captain Martin, with Gilmore, James Hayes, T. Reeves and others.

     Upon their arrival, after the arduous trip fully described elsewhere, at Walla Walla, they disposed of their oxen to McKinley at the fort, taking an order for an equal number in the Willamette valley from the Hudson's Bay Company, and, embarking in canoes, completed their journey by the swift waters of the Columbia. Unlike the most of navigators, they took no guide or pilot here, but went at their own sweet will past rocks and over rapids. Arriving at Celilo, they deemed the water bad enough to send the women and children and baggage around by the portage; but jumping into the canoe themselves, Hayes and Emerick pushed off and shot the falls and ran the chute, a feat of the most amazing temerity, and only justified by its entire success.

     We read of the Goths sliding down the Italian snow slopes of the Alps on their shields with wild shouts of laughter, to the petrifaction of the Romans who were holding the passes against them. With much the same spirit and no eye to danger, the American immigrants crossed the mountains, and slid down the rivers. Upon telling their adventure to Doctor McLoughlin at Vancouver, he regarded them with astonishment, and assured them that the thing could not be done safely once in a thousand times. The good Doctor moreover astonished them by refusing to furnish the cattle in exchange for their oxen left at Fort Walla Walla. "Select your homes," said he, " and go up in the spring and get your yoke cattle and pay a dollar a head for their keep. You need to plow and haul rails; and my cattle here are Spanish steers, unbroken, wild and unmanageable." this was an instance of his thoughtfulness by which they profited.

     Reaching the Willamette valley, Mr. Emerick showed the taste to select the beautiful and historic site of Forest Grove as his farm; but, discovering that the land was somewhat better a few miles to the East, he sold his claim the next year and located his present farm at Cornelius. There he still lives.

     Perhaps the pleasantest event of his life occurred in 1845. This was his marriage to Miss Lucetta Zachary, in whose company he had crossed the plains. this was quite an event in the social world; for there were two other couples joined at the same time. The triple wedding was celebrated at the house of Reverend Mr. Snelling, who performed the ceremony. The Fourth of July following was celebrated at Five Oaks farm of Alexander Zachary. A barbecue and party and general jollification was given by Mr. Zachary in honor of the marriage of Miss Lucetta, no less than in commemoration of the national birthday. This was one of the first "Fourth of July" celebrations in Oregon Territory. Mr. and Mrs. Emerick have reared a family of ten children, five of whom are living, the daughter in the Big Bend country, the sons in Washington county.

     Mr. Emerick, although approaching old age, is still hearty, and has a world of pleasant anecdotes to tell of old times. he loves to recall the first grand jury of which he was a member. T'Vault was judge; the courthouse was a cabin; the jury-room was a large log some little distance from the courthouse, upon which the jury sat and whittled, and made their findings.

     GEORGE HARVEY EMERSON. - It is ever with peculiar interest that we observe the career of one who has been a soldier of the union. It was noticed that in the England of 1670, if any man was an exceptionally industrious and sober mechanic or man of business, it usually proved that he was an old soldier of Oliver Cromwell. In much the same way the severe discipline and the exercise of elf-devotion in our great war educated the soldier and prepared him for large and difficult enterprises.

     The subject of this sketch was born in Chester, New Hampshire, in 1846, but while a boy went with his parents to Chelsea, Massachusetts. He had the best of educational advantages, graduating from the High School in 1864. Though still so young, the necessities of his country led him to enlist in the army, in which he served eleven months with credit. On being mustered out, he returned home and entered Harvard College, where he remained one year. The opportunities of the great West began to prove attractive to him, however; and pushing out to Leavenworth Kansas, he joined a train of ox-teams bound for New Mexico. From that most ancient part of our domain he found his way through Arizona to California. There he secured a position with Simpson Bros, and by them was sent to North Bend, Coos county, Oregon, and later was given charge of the sawmill at Gardner, Douglas county, where he remained till 1881, excepting three years spent at San Jose', California.

     A trip to Gray's Harbor, Washington Territory, in 1875 had led Mr. Emerson to consider the region around there a wide field for enterprise; and in 1881, in partnership with his former employer, Captain A.M. Simpson, he built the Hoquiam Mills. these mills, together with the Knappton Mills and their lands and various branches of business, have since been incorporated as the Northwestern Lumber Company. Of this Mr. Emerson is manager and a large owner. The establishment of this great enterprise on Gray's Harbor first opened that port to commerce, and first called the attention of the world to the great and varied resources of that section of the country. Since that time the growth of the region has been one of the marvels of the Pacific Northwest.

     Foremost as he is in every enterprise, both public and private, Mr. Emerson well deserves the high esteem in which he is held by all who have dealings with him.

     THE REV. ST. MICHAEL FACKLER. - The Reverend Mr. Fackler was the first clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal church in Oregon. He was a native of Stanton, Virginia, first moved to Missouri, and then crossed the plains for his health in the year 1847. This was greatly improved by the trip; and he soon undertook such work as he could do, teaching and preaching as opportunity offered. For

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a short time he taught in the Methodist school at Salem, the progenitor of the present Willamette University.

     At an early day he secured a farm not far from Butteville, where he resided for a number of years. While thus occupied in secular affairs he was not idle as a clergyman; for he spent his Sundays in holding services at Champoeg, Butteville, Stringtown, Oregon City, Portland and on the Tualatin Plains. In the course of time he fitted up a schoolhouse at Champoeg for services and built a neat little church at Butteville, doing most of the work with his own hands. It was the day of small things then, and those who knew anything of the Episcopal church were very few indeed.

     In 1853 the Reverend Mr. Fackler was one of a small number of Episcopalians who met at Oregon City to consult in regard to the interests of the church in the then territories of Oregon and Washington. He was appointed chairman of a committee to draft a report to be sent to the board of missions in New York, asking for the appointment of a missionary bishop for these territories. The report concluded with the recommendation that the Reverend John McCarty, D.D., of Vancouver, be appointed said bishop. For a year the Reverend Mr. Fackler was principal of Trinity school, Oswego, a boarding school for boys under the supervision of the church. At the same time he was in charge of St. Paul's church, Oregon City, and for more than a year afterwards.

     In 1849 Mr. Fackler was united in marriage to the young and lovely daughter of the Reverend J.H. Wilbur, a pioneer Methodist minister of Oregon. She lived but a brief time after her marriage, and left a little daughter, who lived to be eleven years of age. About the year 1860 he married a second wife, Miss Rachel Wand, of New Scotland, New York, who survived him but a few months. By her he had two children, a son and a daughter. The son sleeps beside the first wife and child in the Butteville cemetery; and the daughter, now a young lady, resides with friends near Albany, New York.

     In the year 1864, at the request of the bishop, Mr. Fackler took a trip to the mining country east of the Cascade Mountains, visiting The Dalles, Umatilla, La Grande and Auburn on the way. "He likewise visited," says the bishop, "the several towns in Boise basin, but has spent most of the time at Boise City, where I am glad to learn his labors have been well received and were useful. The prospect seems favorable for erecting a church and establishing a permanent congregation, should Mr. Fackler remain, or some other be found to occupy the place."

     Mr. Fackler remained there until the fall of 1866, endeared himself to all the people of the place, and especially to the suffering immigrants who came in during the winter of 1865 and 1866, by his untiring efforts for their relief and comfort, organized a congregation, built a church, and in the fall of 1868 left for a journey to the East, followed by the love and the prayers of a grateful people. In his honor the church has been called St. Michaels, now one of the most prosperous parishes in the Pacific Northwest.

     He went East by the way of San Francisco and the Isthmus. After leaving Graytown, the cholera broke out. In the midst of the sickness and distress, Mr. Fackler gave his assistance unreservedly, ministering to the sick, praying with the dying and burying the dead. He took no thought of his own safety, and, being weakened by his exertions, when the disease fastened upon him was unable to rally; and he died at his heroic task, distinguished as few men are by the providence which completed his self-denying life by the sacrifice of perfect devotion. He was followed to his grave with prayers and many tears, and was buried by the church at Key West. Thus closed the life of a good man, - one whom all those who knew him well knew but to esteem very highly in love for his work's sake.

     HON. JOSIAH FAILING. - The name brought to our state by this venerable pioneer, now no longer living, will always be revered by reason of the virtues of the man himself, and of the extensive reputation of the family which he founded upon our coast. His great-grandfather came to America from the Palatinate on the Rhine, and settled in the Mohawk valley west of Albany, New York, in 1703. Mr. Failing was born on his father's farm July 9, 1806, at Canajohane, Montgomery county, New York. When quite a young man he removed to New York City, where he married Miss Henrietta Ellison, with whom he lived as one flesh and bone for over forty-nine years. In 1851 he came to Portland, Oregon, and successfully engaged in the mercantile business until 1864, when he retired in favor of his son and partner. Mr. Henry Failing, now president of the First National bank. In 1853 he was mayor of Portland, and was a delegate from Oregon to the national Republican conventions of 1864 and 1868.

     At a very early day Mr. Failing gave his attention to the subject of public schools in Portland, and during his life was a constant and firm friend of the same. Indeed, he may well be called the father of the public schools of Portland. Appropriately to his services in this regard his name will be popularly spoken for all the future as the designation of the public schools of Portland. Through his days Mr. Failing was distinguished for honesty, industry and for having consideration for the rights and interests of others. His life, prolonged even beyond the three score and ten of the psalmist, has been an example of well doing, which is a rich legacy to the city of Portland and the whole state. He was the first member of the

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Baptist church in this place, and was always one of its most liberal and firm supporters. His philanthropic and public-spirited labors may well be studied with a view to imitation by a people studied with a view to imitation by a people desirous of progress; for they are of that useful character which makes a city great and worth living in. His sons Henry, Edward and James F. at present occupy leading and honorable positions in the business and society of the Northwest, the former being one of the men of the city whose fortune is reckoned by the million; and, worthily to be added, his mind and character are deemed by the public to be a possession to them of even greater value.

     HON. H.W. FAIRWEATHER. - Mr. Fairweather was born in St. Johns, New Brunswick, May 20, 1852. Here he received a common-school education. His father was from Essex county, New York, pure English. His mother's parents were from Ireland, pure Irish.

     Our subject went to Boston in 1868, and found work as brakeman on the Old Colony Railroad. He spent 1869, '70 and '71 in Illinois, Wisconsin, Nebraska and Minnesota in the same line of work. He came to Washington Territory in 1871, and was employed by the Northern Pacific Railroad Company as locomotive engineer, and subsequently as chief clerk. In 1873 he received the appointment of general passenger agent of the Pacific Division, with residence at Kalama. In 1874, he was promoted to cashier, and retained this position until 1877. He resigned this position in that year to accept the general freight and passenger agency of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, with residence at Portland. He resigned this position in 1879 to accept the vice-presidency of the Walla Walla & Columbia Railroad Company, and also acted as general superintendent of this line. He resigned this position in 1881 to accept the superintendency of construction of the Pend d'Oreille Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, and after the completion of this work, resigned in March, 1883, to look after his own affairs. He was married in 1875 to Miss Mattie Curtis of Kalama, Washington Territory, and has three sons and two daughters. Mr. Fairweather has been prominent in territorial politics, having been secretary of the territorial Republican central committee, and a member of this body for many years.

     He engaged in the banking business with George S. Brook at Sprague in 1882, and promoted the organization of the First National Bank at Sprague in 1876, being now its president. He is also a large stockholder and director in the First National Bank of Spokane Falls. His popularity was attested by his election as mayor of Sprague in 1885, and his election as state senator in 1880. He is a member of the mercantile firm of Fairweather & Curtis of Sprague. His business operations extend over a wide field, and include mining, milling and various other enterprises. Financially he has been very successful, and although still a young man, not yet having reached the age of forty, has an enviable competency, covering property in ten or more counties of the territory.

     He is one of those men whose robust health and business success fill him with faith in the territory in which he lives, and which he believes to be the best country on earth. A large business enterprise emanating form his brain was inaugurated while he was in Portland. This was the packet line of sailing vessels to Hong Kong; and he was the man who chartered the first two vessels to carry Chinese passengers home. The possession by Washington of men of Mr. Fairweather's business courage, good fortune and breadth of view is the best guarantee of her success among the states of the Pacific.

     JUDGE JAMES H. FEE. - The present judge of the circuit court of the sixth judicial district, although having attained an eminent position is still a young man, having been born in Wisconsin in 1858. His early opportunities were of the best character. At the upper Iowa University of Fayetteville, and at Waterloo, Iowa, he laid the foundations of his education. Coming to California in 1873, he completed his course at San Jose', and began the study of law, enjoying in his preparatory work the instructions of a priest of that city; and in 1880, at Walla Walla, he concluded his professional studies under T.J. Anders, of the law firm and Anders & Brents. In 1884 he came to Pendleton, and soon took a leading position in his profession. He so gained the confidence of the people, and gathered so much personal influence, that upon his nomination as judge of the sixth district, embracing six counties, - Union, Umatilla, Baker, Grant, Wallowa and Malheur, - although put forward as a Republican in a Democratic region, and running against a gentleman of deserved popularity, he received a majority of two hundred and ninety-eight. His associate is the able Judge L.B. Ison, of Baker City.

     In political circles, Judge Fee holds an essential place, having been a delegate to the Republican state convention of 1888. He also was a delegate to the convention of the officers of the Oregon National Guard, and was elected as an officer in the militia. In his own city he shares the public responsibilities, having been chief of the fire department for the term ending in July, 1888. For a time he also was associated with J.D. Eddy on the Tribune, a paper of wide influence.

     His wife, the daughter of Mr. Maney, a well-known pioneer of the Walla Walla valley, is a lady of culture, and is well known in social circles.

     HON. THERON E. FELL. - Mr. Fell has become especially known in Oregon as a representative to the state legislature from Morrow county. The manner of his election shows his popularity among his neighbors and the people of his own region.

     He was the grandson of an abolishionist Quaker, and the son of an original Republican, and himself has been true to the family record. Having received the regular nomination by the Republican party, his rival "bolted" and accepted an independent nomination. The Democrats seeing this rupture did not fail to improve the opportunity, and presented an

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excellent ticket. The result, however, showed a plurality of fifty-seven for the man whose portrait adorns our pages.

     Mr. Fell has been prominently identified with the sheep-growing interests of Eastern Oregon since 1882. In 1886 he became a member of the firm of Ayers & Fell. They are engaged in the commission business, dealing chiefly in wool in at Arlington and elsewhere along the line of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. His home, however, being at Heppner, forty miles from the railroad, he employed the method of Mahomet. He did not go to the railroad, but brought the railroad to himself. It was largely due to his activity that the branch line was extended from the Willows to Heppner.

     The subject of our sketch was born at Bloomington, Illinois, in 1858. Charles and Lemanda Fell were his parents. His grandfather, Joshua Fell, was a pioneer of the West. Theron was educated at the Illinois Wesleyan University, and as a chemist in the Technical schools of Philadelphia. Soon afterwards he became established in a successful drug business in his native place. But in the year 1882, desiring to visit the Pacific coast, he organized a company of one hundred tourists to come hither. Upon reaching Portland, he was struck forcibly with the immense opportunities of this state. Disposing of his tourists, some of whom had invested in Portland real estate, he proceeded to make Oregon his home, locating on a ranch in Morrow county. And thus it came to pass that this state now has him as one of her most wide-awake citizens.

     Mr. Fell is now manager of the Morrow County Land & Trust Company, and director of the Heppner National Bank.

     CLARK FERGUSON. - This gentleman was born in Putnam county, New York, October 13, 1835, and lived at his birthplace until the age of twenty. In April, 1855, he came with his brother Yates via the Nicaragua route to the land of gold, arriving in San Francisco in May. After two years of life in California, he returned to his Eastern home, but one year later again came west via the overland route. On reaching Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and receiving the intelligence of the Mormon troubles, he located in that place, remaining two years. He then came to the mines of Pike's Peak, but not being very successful in his operations, entered the government employment as wagon-master on trains billed to New Mexico, continuing in that service three years. After a time spent in the mines of Idaho, he came to Washington Territory and joined his brother, Honorable E.C. Ferguson, at Snohomish, and makes that flourishing city his home, owning a large amount of valuable real estate adjoining.

     HON. EMORY C. FERGUSON. - Mr. Ferguson, whose portrait is placed in this history, was born on a farm in Westchester county, New York, March 5, 1833, and is the son of Samuel S. and Maria (Haight) Ferguson. He resided in his native county and learned the trade of a carpenter until reaching his majority. April 5, 1854, he with his brother Yates (who came to California in 1849 and had returned East) started via the Isthmus of Panama for the Golden State, arriving in San Francisco in May. Our subject immediately proceeded to the mines on the middle fork of the American river, where he followed merchandising and mining until 1856. He then embarked in the sawmill business in Greenwood valley, El Dorado county, which he conducted until the Frazer river excitement in 1858. He then came north, but a short time in the mines convinced him of their worthlessness; and he began to retrace his steps. Coming down the Sound, he located in Steilacoom, where he followed his trade until 1860.

     He then conceived the idea of cutting  a trail across the Cascade Mountains to reach the Rock creek and Smilikamun mines, he locating on the present site of Snohomish city, where he built a log cabin which he used as his headquarters, and also kept a small general merchandise store. The cutting of the trail proved disastrous to Mr. Ferguson, as he put all his money into the enterprise, and a short time after his completion the mines proved a failure, all that he had left being his homestead on the Snohomish. With his own hands he slashed and cleared what now comprise the principal streets of the city; and the best years of his life were spent there with the chopper's axe, an army musket, and with no company outside of the savages, who were quite numerous in those parts at that time. As the county became settled, Mr. Ferguson would dispose of small pieces of his property; and at a date when he saw that a city at that locality was assured he had his homestead platted, and became, as now, the principal townsite proprietor.

     From his first location in Snohomish until 1879, Mr. Ferguson was engaged in merchandising, the latter years on a large scale, and did the principal business of the town. Since retiring from the store, Mr. Ferguson has given attention to real estate, and is now owner of many of the finest buildings in the city, together with landed property in Snohomish county sufficient to place him at the head of the list as the largest taxpayer in his county.

     Mr. Ferguson in politics has been a Republican all his life, and has ever worked for the best interest of his town, county and the territory of Washington. He has filled every county office in Snohomish county, and served seven terms in the territorial legislature, five terms in the council and two terms in the house, serving his last term as speaker of the house.

     In 1884 he was appointed Commissioner to represent Washington Territory at the world's exposition held in New Orleans. He also was a member of the convention held at Ellensburgh that formulated the proceedings that secured the admission of Washington Territory as a state. Few men have been more active; and a still less number have conducted industries so varied.

     Mr. Ferguson possesses that admirable faculty of adapting himself to the occasion and the work, whatever it might be. He is a staunch Republican, a good debater, and is thoroughly versed in parliamentary rules; and the community that numbers among its inhabitants such a man as E.C. Ferguson is to be congratulated.

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     JOHN B. FERGUSON. - This now venerable pioneer, one of the large-landholders of Lane county, was born in Richland county, Ohio, June 29, 1825. As an infant he accompanied his parents in 1842 to Hudson county, Illinois, and in 1842 went with them still further westward to Missouri, where they died in 1844 and 1845 respectively. In 1846 he was married to Miss Mary Waldrip, whose father, Wyatt Waldrip, had come from Kentucky to Illinois, and had died there in 1844, after which his family came to Missouri. Not many months after his marriage, Mr. Ferguson prepared to cross the plains to Oregon, and in 1847 performed the hazardous and toilsome journey. He was in the company of Captain Bonnsem, which left the Missouri river May 12th, and reached The Dalles about October 1st. Getting his family and stock down the Columbia river amid the usual hardships and perils, he went out to the  Tualatin Plains in search of a home, and there spent the winter. Continuing the next season on  a tour of inspection up the Willamette valley, he was attracted by the manifest fertility of the Long Tom country to make there his choice of land, becoming one of the best-known and most influential citizens of that portion of the Willamette valley.

     In 1849 he went to the gold mines of California, operating on the Feather river, and in 1851 mined near Yreka. In 1862 he pursued the same business on the John Day river, continuing two years, but thereafter turned his attention to livestock, and in the interest of that business crossed the Cascade Mountains as many as fourteen times. During all those ventures, however, he retained his farm and made his home near Monroe, and increased his original square mile, plus twenty acres, by the purchase of three hundred and twenty acres adjoining on the east. In 1878 Mr. Ferguson served as county commissioner, and has in many public ways rendered valuable assistance to the upbuilding and development of his community.

     By his first wife, who died in 1876, he reared a family of seven children, - John S., James M. (deceased), Sarah J., Joseph H., Mary Ann, Mary E. and Theresa J. By his second marriage in 1877, to Miss Elizabeth Hinton, daughter of T.B. Hinton, he has one child, Josephine.

     HON. ALVIN T. FERRISS.- This representative citizen of Eastern Washington was born in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, in 1852, being the son of James R. and Mary Worth Ferriss. He resided at his birthplace until fifteen years old, at that date removing with his parents to Northwest Missouri. In the spring of 1872 he came west to Denver. After a short stay among the Rocky Mountains, engaged in mining and other operations, and at one time as railroad contractor on the Oregon Short Line, he crossed the continent in1883 to Washington Territory, and, after looking over the country, selected Pullman as his future home. Soon after his arrival, he started the present large hardware business with Charles Kingman. In two years he was joined by his brother, James Ferriss, and conducted the business under the firm name of Ferriss Bros. In June, 1887, they suffered a loss of twelve thousand dollars above insurance by fire, but in the same year rebuilt, erecting their present commodious building where they carry a stock worth forty thousand dollars, and are the largest firm in their line in the Palouse country. Besides his mercantile business, Mr. Ferris is also active in financial circles, being president of the Pullman Bank. In the fall of 1888, his popularity was evinced by his election as representative of Whitman county on nominating of the Republican party, receiving the largest vote on his ticket.

     He was married in Pullman in 1885 to Miss Lizzie Harris, a native of Missouri. By this union they have two children, Robert and Jessie.

     CLINTON P. FERRY. - Clinton P. Ferry was born at Fort Wayne, Indiana, May 24, 1836. Having lost his father, an uncle became his guardian to a great extent. At the age of seven years he removed to Indianapolis, where he attended a preparatory school and business college. For a short time, he engaged in learning the art of printing, and devoted his seventeenth and eighteenth years as a telegraph operator. He was a nephew of W.G.& G.W. Ewing, a firm then largely interested in trading posts on the then Western frontier of the United States. They had branches at Chicago, St. Louis, green Bay and Council Bluffs which gave employment to a large number of trappers and voyageurs. Gabriel Franchere, who had been a clerk in the employ of John Jacob Astor in his Pacific Fur Company enterprise, and who accompanied the expedition to the mouth of the Columbia river and remained on duty until Astor was betrayed by his North West Company partners, who sold out to that company, made his name famous by the fascinating narrative of that ill-fated expedition. He was an agent of Ferry's uncle, G.W. Ewing.

     Young Ferry was bent on "going West." He desired to travel and seek adventure; and Franchere suggested Puget Sound as a future field, in which advice the uncle concurred. That uncle upon his leaving told young Ferry that as soon as he made a hundred dollars to put it into real estate wherever he located, and whenever he got as much as one hundred dollars to invest it in that way. Ferry arrived in Portland, Oregon, in 1858; he remembered his uncle's advice, and invested at once seventy-five dollars in a block in Caruther's Addition. Portland, for seventeen years, continued to be his home, though during that period he was absent at times for months. His first employment was as book-keeper for Henry W. Corbett, later the distinguished merchant and United States senator.

     He continued in that service for about a year, when failing health occasioned his going to sea, his absence continuing for some six months or more, when he returned to Portland and entered the liquor house of Hamilton, Wilson & Co., of which he was for some time manager, and afterwards a partner. Giving up that business, he formed the partnership of Humiston & Ferry as brokers, and so continued until the death of Humiston dissolved the partnership. He was then treasurer of the city of Portland for four years, after which he started the real estate and insurance business.

324                                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     In 1868 he visited Tacoma City, afterwards and long known as Old Tacoma, the town laid out by General McCarver, Lewis M. Starr and James Steele. Mr. Ferry was a son-in-law of General McCarver, and with his wife visited their relatives. He claims to have been the first passenger by sea ever landed at Tacoma. He had come to Victoria from Portland on the Fideliter, and thence took passage by way of the Strait and Puget Sound in the steamer Eliza Anderson from Victoria. At that time the regular route of the Sound steamers was by the more direct west passage, on the west side of Vashon Island, leaving Commencement Bay to the east some miles. Mr. Ferry was obliged to pay eighteen dollars extra for going off of the regular route traveled, and for landing himself and wife at Old Town.

     At the so-called city was one cabin belonging to the late Job Carr. The family of General McCarver occupied a little cabin in Old Woman's Gulch, abreast of the present end of the coal bunkers of the Northern Pacific Railroad. He spent some time on his visit, and looked out several locations for future investments, which he made in the early future. In the fall of 1873, upon the failure of Jay Cooke, Mr. Ferry removed to Tacoma, which had been selected as the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad on Puget Sound, and made it his residence. He was soon after employed as chief clerk and cashier of the land department of that company. In 1874 he had exclusive charge of the Tacoma offices, performing the duties also of cashier and clerk of the Tacoma Land Company.

     Early in 1875 he went to San Francisco, engaging in the insurance business until 1879, when he again returned to Portland and engaged in the real estate and insurance business until 1882. His failing and insurance business until 1882. His failing health at that time necessitated his return to San Francisco. He continued to spend his time between Portland and San Francisco until 1887, when he came to Tacoma to look after his investments made in Tacoma in early days, which had now made him a man of wealth, and required personal attention. Here he built himself a beautiful residence in a sightly part of the town, and devoted himself to the management of his real estate.

     In 1886 he again sought in travel the gratification of his early disposition. he started for a voyage around the globe, first visiting Paris. Governor Eugene Semple of Washington Territory having been advised of Ferry's intention to be present at the Paris Exposition, appointed him commissioner to represent Washington Territory at that great international exhibition of the progress of the world.

     Mr. Ferry is now in the prime of life, with a competent fortune. He is liberal, and is disposed to enjoy the best phases of life; with cultivated taste he is collecting about him paintings and works of art, of which he is a liberal patron. He had early faith in the great and early future of his adopted home, which he realizes as now assured. He claims also to have suggested the name of the city. Be that as it may, it cannot be denied that he has contributed largely to hastening its present claim to importance as a great and growing metropolis of the Northwest.

     HON. ELISHA P. FERRY. - Mr. Ferry was born at Monroe, Michigan, August 9, 1825. He studied law there and at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and was admitted to the bar in 1845 at the age of twenty years. In 1846 he removed to Waukegan, Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of his profession. He resided at Waukegan until July, 1869, when he removed to the territory of Washington. He was the first mayor of the city of Waukegan. In 1852 and in 1856 he was presidential elector for the district in which he resided. He was a member of the constitutional convention in Illinois in 1861. From 1861 to 1863 he was bank commissioner in that state. During these years he was a member of Governor Yates' staff as assistant adjutant-general with the rank of colonel, and assisted in organizing, equipping and sending into the field a large number of Illinois regiments.

     In 1869 he was appointed surveyor-general of Washington Territory. In 1872 he was appointed governor of the territory, and was reappointed in 1876. All of these appointments were conferred upon him by President Grant. He served as governor until November, 1880, when he moved to Seattle and became a member of the law firm of McNaught, Ferry, McNaught & Mitchell. In September, 1887, he retired from the practice of law and entered the Puget Sound National Bank as vice-president, which position he now occupies. On the 4th of September, 1889, he was nominated by the Republican party for governor of the state, and on the 1st day of October was elected by more than eight thousand majority.

     From the day of Mr. Ferry's arrival in the territory he has been one of the foremost men in all Washington, always contributing in some for to the development of the country, and in assiting those who needed aid in the securing of their homes and farms. He is the kind of man who is part of and one of the people, and one of the most approachable men of the times.

     When governor of the territory he did not surround himself with any of the pomp of office, nor was he as governor any less approachable than as a private citizen. He is one of the men who unconsciously make war friends of those with whom they come in contact; and it is done without any effort or attempt. Such men inspire confidence and an unmistakable liking that spring spontaneously, and form a lasting impression.

     With a host of friends in all walks of life,- the day laborer, the farmer, the merchant, the banker, the professional man, - there is every probability that he will have greater honors thrust upon him before his useful life comes to a close.

     WILLIAM H. FIFE. - This gentleman is a native of Otonabee, Petersburg county, Ontario, and is the third child of William and Mary Beckett Fife. He was born on the first of October, 1833. His father was a native of Kincardine, and came to Canada in1820, following farming in that country. His mother was born January 20, 1811, in Ayrshire, Scotland, and came with her parents to Canada about 1820, and is still living with her youngest son on the old homestead in Petersburg county.

                                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                325

     Our subject resided on his father's farm until he became  sixteen years of age, and then went to Keen, Ontario, where he entered a general merchandise store as an apprentice, serving three years. He then clerked for John Ross & Co. in Port Hope for a year, and then entered into business for himself in Norwood, Ontario. He afterwards sold out and moved West, and, on hearing of the great gold excitement of the Caribou mines in 1862, came West to British Columbia via New York and the Isthumus of Panama. He arrived at the Caribou mines in June, 1862, and there followed mining for three years, after which he returned to Canada.

     After a short time he removed to Michigan, locating at the town of Vassar, where he engaged in the mercantile, hotel and lumber business for five years, after which he moved to Cherokee, Iowa, and again gave his attention to a merchandise store on an extensive scale. In 1873 he came to Washington Territory on a prospecting tour; and with keen foresight as to what the future city of Tacoma would be, although at that time there was not a house on the present site, he invested largely in real estate. Returning to Iowa in the fall, the following April (1874) he brought his family by way of San Francisco to Washington Territory, and located on the present site of his magnificent structure, the Fife Hotel.

     Houses were very few at that time; and Mr. Fife found it necessary to erect one for the accommodation of his family, and did so in two days' time.  He immediately set to work to build a store one hundred feet long, it being the first general merchandise store in Tacoma. In July, 1874, he was commissioned the first postmaster of Tacoma; and the first mail consisted of six letters which his son W.J. delivered free.

     He conducted his tore until 1882, and in the meantime bought a fourth interest in the Tacoma Coal Company's mine at Wilkinson, in which he is still interested. He also conducted a store at Ainsworth for two years, and afterwards one at Spokane. In 1887 he built his present beautiful hotel at a cost of one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollar, which he now conducts, besides owning extensive property on Pacific avenue. He has been for several years the largest taxpayer in the county. Mr. Fife is a liberal Republican; and everyone knows him as a straight and honorable man.

     He was married to Miss Harriet A. Johnson, a native of Colburn, Canada, in Buffalo, New York. They have two sons and two daughters living, death having claimed one child.

Mr. Fife is assisted in his business by his two sons, William J. and George W., the former being now Captain Fife of Company C, National Guard.

     FRANCIS FLETCHER. - Mr. Fletcher was among the very earliest of the settlers of Oregon, being here two years before the establishment of the Provisional government, and has consequently seen the great development of this state and coast form its earliest inception; and he has himself been one of the most active to induce the progress of the last fifty years. He was born in Yorkshire, England, March 1, 1814, and, at the age of fourteen years, crossed the water to Ontario, Canada, and afterwards to Peoria, Illinois. In1839, in company with Amos Cook and others, he started for Oregon.

     An interesting bit of his life's history is the chapter dating from the spring in which he left Peoria. It was then and there he heard Reverend Jason Lee, who had been to Oregon, lecture upon the then almost unknown Pacific Northwest; and he was fired with a resolve to come to the land of the setting sun. A company of sixteen men was formed, of whom our subject was the most conspicuous. They started early in May and went to Independence, Missouri, where they exchanged their wagons for pack animals, and after one week's delay went forward upon their trip across the mountains, deserts and plains to Oregon. After traveling about one hundred and fifty miles, they saw their first Indians, a sight which so weakened two of the party that they turned back. The party traveled on the Sante Fe' route and met Sublette's company returning from the Rocky Mountains to St. Louis with furs. Two men who joined them at Independence had been over the route before, and led the party through a vast plain of three days' travel, which was the feeding ground of numerous herds of buffalo that did not seem to be more wild than a band of domestic cattle that had been raised on the range. In fact the party had to send one man ahead to drive the buffalo out of the way so that the pack animals could be driven along the trail.

     At the junction of the Santa Fe' and Fort Bent roads the party separated, thirteen men going to Santa Fe', and the rest, eight in number; among whom was our subject, going to the Fort on the South Platte. There they tried to get a guide for the rest of the journey but were unable to do so, and so remained there two months. During their stay at the fort they hunted buffalo; and one day while away from camp some Indians came and stole the most of their best horses.

     In  September four of the party, Amos Cook, James Holman, R. Kilborne and Mr. Fletcher, started with a trading party for Brown's Hole on Green river, where they wintered, not having been able to get a guide or to proceed. there they met Doctor Newell, chief trader, and wife, William Doty, Jack Lanison and Joe Meek, besides several others. In the latter part of February the entire party started for Fort Hall, taking up two months' time on the trip, which could have been made in twelve days of summer weather. Some days only four or five miles could be traveled. Streams were crossed on the ice; and wherever they could find the snow blown off from the steep hillsides they would stop to let their animals graze. Long before they got through their stock of dried buffalo meat gave out. They had nothing to eat; and, as there was no game to kill, they bought a fat dog of Doctor Newell's wife, which they killed and ate. Finally they met some friendly Indians, form whom they purchased some buffalo meat, and arrived at Fort Hall not much the worse for their rough experience. There they remained awhile, recruiting themselves and horses until a party of traders arrived from Fort Boise, who after a short stay returned, our party accompanying them.

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     From Fort Boise they proceeded to The Dalles under the guidance of an Indian. From there they proceeded down the Columbia to Vancouver, where Doctor McLoughlin gave them a hearty welcome. From there they went down the river six miles, swam the stream with their stock to Sauvie's, went from there to the Tualatin Plains, and thence to the Yamhill river where Lafayette now stands. Here they crossed the river and went to where Wheatland was afterwards built, going into camp on January 7, 1840, having been thirteen months on the way from Peoria. The party remained on the Willamette river until the fall of the year, when Fletcher and Cook went back to the Yamhill. When the town of Lafayette was laid off, they settled and remained there, rearing families and becoming leading men of their section.

     In 1843 Mr. Fletcher married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Andrew D. and Polly Smith. He passed from earth October 7, 1871, at the age of fifty-eight years, greatly mourned by his family and deplored by the community. He left a widow, six sons and two daughters, all of who are now living. A man of great natural force of character, of frontier kindliness and generosity, he was known everywhere during the early days.

     JOHN FLETT. - Among the schemes of the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1839 and 1840, to acquire occupancy and secure British title to the territory on the north side of the Columbia river, was an immigration to the Cowlitz and Nisqually Plains from the Selkirk settlement in the valley of the Red river of the North. It will be remembered that the Hudson's Bay Company was present in the territory west of the Rocky Mountains by virtue of a license of trade from the British Crown, which precluded it from acquiring landed possessions. Its right was a mere tenancy for years. To evade this provision, the attempt was made to form the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, which, though not consummated, yet fostered this scheme of colonization and occupancy. Under its auspices was formed the Red river colony of 1841, of which John Flett, now an aged farmer residing on Steilacoom Plains in Pierce county, is the lat survivor of the then married men or heads of families who, with their families, flocks, herds and worldly possessions, constituted the Red river immigration to the Oregon territory in 1841.

     Mr. Flett gives the following graphic description of the journey to Oregon of that colony:

     "An agreement was entered into by Duncan Fenelon, acting governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, on the one side, and a party of immigrants on the other, to the following effect:

     "That the company should furnish as captain James Sinclair, Esq., should also furnish each head of a family ten pounds sterling in advance (which all accepted by A. Buxton and John Flett) also, goods for the journey, and horses and provisions at the forts on the route as needed; and on the arrival at Puget Sound the company should furnish houses, barns and fenced fields, with fifteen cows, one bull, fifty ewes, one ram, and oxen or horses, with farming implements and seed. On the other part, it was agreed that the farmers should deliver to the company one-half the crops yearly for five years, and at the end of five years one-half the increase of the flocks.

     "To this agreement twenty-three heads of families appended their names. White Horse plain, about fifteen miles west of Fort Garry, at the junction of the Red and Assinaboine rivers, was appointed as the rendezvous, and on the fourth of June, 1841, our twenty-three families, containing eighty persons all told, were assembled, with about fifty carts, seven oxen, two cows and sixty horses. On the morning of the 5th of June we broke camp, and, turning our backs to the rising sun, plunged into the wilderness. Our route lay along the north bank of the Assinaboine. We crossed the Mouse and Qu'Apelle rivers, and then turning north past Fort Pelly started for the Saskatchewan. On this vast plain we met our first buffalo, immense herds being seen feeding on the rich grasses of the valley. Here Mr. James Bird overtook us and became our guide. In this region we also met Doctor Tolmie and his party from the Columbia, and were passed by Sir George Simpson, on his tour around the world.

     "We reached the south branch a few miles above where it joins the Saskatchewan. The crossing was a difficult and dangerous work. The river was about a mile in width. A portion of the party passed safely to a small island in a small boat. The other portion, putting their cars and effects on a hug raft of dry logs, attempted to pole their raft across. The current was very swift; and they soon lost bottom and drifted down at a fearful rate towards the rapids, a short distance below. As they went by the island on which the first party had landed, they passed so near that a rope was thrown to them; and, after a long struggle,, the raft was secured to the bank. When a crossing was at last effected, we passed on through open country until we arrived, on the 28th of June, at Fort Charlton, on the banks of the great Saskatchewan. We secured some horses, replenished our stock of provisions, and on the thirtieth resumed our journey. Dangers were now thickening around us. On the ground over which we were passing a great battle had been fought between the Crees and Blackfeet, the Crees being worsted. We kept men on guard night and day. War parties were on every side. We now began to believe what others had told us, that we should never get through. Still we forced our way on, and on the 10th of July crossed the Saskatchewan river to Fort Pitt. Here we found many wounded Crees, who had fled to the fort for protection. Here we rested two days, and on the 12th again broke camp, traveling on the north side of the river until we reached Fort Edmonton, on the twentieth, where we recrossed the river. We had traveled far out of our direct route for safety, but now must face the unknown dangers. The region through which we had to pass was a fine hunting ground, buffalo being very plentiful; and the different tribes - Blackfeet, Assinaboines, Piegans, Crees - were continually striving for it, many bloody battles being fought.

     "Moving southward through this region, keeping careful watch for hostiles, we again reached the waters of the South branch on the 30th of July. Here the writer and a younger brother had a narrow

                                                                                                           BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                327

escape. While out hunting we were surrounded by hostile Indians. We concealed ourselves until dark, and in the twilight swam the cold, swift river. Having stripped off our outer clothing, we fastened it on our horses and plunged in. The water was cold, icy cold, the river was very swift, and about two hundred yards wide. twice we swam the river, and after wandering about for two days at last reached camp in safety. Of all the dangers I have seen in a pioneer life of fifty years, the dangers of those two days were the worst. we overtook our party encamped at old Fort McLeod, an abandoned post of the Hudson's Bay company, now known as British Pass, or Rocky Mountain. Here we were compelled to abandon our carts and pack our goods on the backs of the oxen and horses. After long debate about what should be taken and what should be left behind, we at last had our train in readiness, and again started on our way. The oxen, however, were unused to this mode of traveling, and becoming frightened, a stampede ensued. Then what a sight, - oxen bellowing, kicking, running; horses neighing, rearing, plunging; children squalling; women crying; men swearing, shouting and laughing; while the air seemed full of blankets, kettles, sacks of pots, pans and jerked buffalo. At the last the cattle were again secured. All our goods that could be found were gathered up, the remnants repacked, and we again started.

     "Crossing the South branch, we entered the timber, sometimes following an Indian trail and sometimes traveling where there was no trail. On the second day after we entered the mountains, James Bird, our guide bidding adieu to his friends and relatives, started on his return. On the 5th of August we reached the summit, and found ourselves on a small plateau. here we saw a huge snow-drift whose melted waters formed three little rills, one running east through a deep cañon, and finding its way through the Saskawatchan into Hudson's Bay, another running southeast into the Missouri, and at last into the gulf, while the third sent its waters through those 'continuous woods were rolls the Oregon.' On the ninth day after we entered the Rocky Mountains we emerged on the western side, at the Kootenai plain, then through a belt of timber, and then over the Tobacco prairie. To avoid some marshy land which lay in our course, we climbed the projec5ting point of a high mountain, said to be one of the Bitter Root range. Then our route lay through a flat, marshy country until we came to a deep, sluggish river, called by the Indians, Paddling river. Then our course lay to the southwest, through a rich country with plenty of grass, until we came to Lake Pend d'Oreille. While traveling along a rocky cliff jutting towards the lake a horse, ridden by one of our women, slipped; and horse and rider rolled into the lake, being rescued with some difficulty. We crossed the lake where it is about one mile in width; and while we were engaged in crossing, our first horse was stolen. Here we left two families, who on account of sickness were unable to proceed farther.

     "We arrived at Fort Walla Walla on the 4th of October. On the next day the fort was burned. Our party assisted the men of the fort to save their goods. The Indians were so numerous that it was not deemed safe to camp there; and so we traveled down the Columbia until midnight. In about four days we arrived at The Dalles, at the Methodist mission, then in charge of Daniel Lee and Mr. Perkins. On the twelfth we crossed the river; there one horse was drowned. When we reached the Cascades we found some boats on which the families, with some of the oldest men, sailed down the river; while the horses and cattle at Colville were driven to Vancouver, at which all arrived on the thirteenth.

     "There we met Sir George Simpson, Peter Skeen Ogden, John McLoughlin and James Douglas; and there Sir George informed us that the company could not keep its agreement. As I remember, this was the substance of his speech: 'Our agreement we cannot fulfill; we have neither horses nor barns nor fields for you, and you are at liberty to go where you please. You may go with the California trappers; and we will give you an outfit as we give others. If you go over the river to the American side we will help you none - very sickly. If you go to the Cowlitz we will help you some. To those who will go to the Nisqually we will fulfill our agreement.' Of course we were all surprised and hurt at this speech. After some discussion the party divided, some going to California, several families to the Cowlitz Prairie, some to the Willamette valley, and the rest to Nisqually, where we arrived November 8, 1841, having traveled nearly two thousand miles without the loss of a single person, while three children were born on the way.

     "Upon reaching Nisqually, Captain James Sinclair made a trip on the steamer Beaver to Whidby Island, with the view to our settlement on that island. Bras Croche, the Cree guide, who accompanied him on his trip, was asked what he thought of the Beaver steamer. 'Don't ask me,' was his reply; 'I cannot speak; my friends will say that I tell lies when I let them know what I have seen. Indians are fools and know nothing. I can see that the iron machinery makes the ship go; but I cannot see what makes the iron machinery itself go.' He was a very intelligent Indian, but so full of doubt and wonder that he would not leave the vessel till he had received a certificate that he had been on board of a ship which required neither sails nor paddles. With this paper he said he could go back to his people, and, although they would not believe him, yet they would give full credence to all that was written. Captain Sinclair, on his return from Whidby Island, went to Colville and remained that winter. He crossed over to Red river the next season. Returning to the territory, he was subsequently clerk in charge of Fort Walla Walla until the fall of 1855, when it was attacked and robbed by the hostile Indians and never afterwards occupied by the company. At the Cascades on Wednesday, March 26, 1856, when the Yakimas attacked the place, being in Bradford's store, he walked to the railroad door to look out and was shot from the bank above, and instantly killed.

     "As the company furnished no houses, each man had to build his own cabin. As no plows could be obtained, John Flett and Charles McKay went to

328                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

Vancouver after iron to make some plows. They spent Christmas day at the fort, and on their return turned the first furrows which were plowed this side of the Cowlitz. Some seed wheat and potatoes were furnished the farmers, but no teams nor cattle, although they were greatly needed. The writer tried hard to get a cow, either as per agreement or for money, but failed. Some who removed got some wild cows, but no sheep. There was much discontent; and loud murmurings were heard. Several at once left the Sound in disgust. The Flett brothers left in June, 1842, for the Willamette, more followed in the fall; and at the end of three years all had left, getting nothing for their labor or their improvements."

     John Flett was born August 5, 1815, in Rupert's Land, about six hundred miles northeast of Manitoba, in the valley of the Red river of the North, his father then being in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's store for the Cumberland district. When John was about seven years of age the family removed to the Selkirk settlement, where he continued to reside until 1836, at which time he went to the site of the present city of St. Paul, Minnesota, there being at that date three houses where that great city is now erected. Having remained there during a short season, he went to Chicago, Illinois, and stayed there about a year, during which time he assisted as a bricklayer in the building of the third brick house erected in that city of phenomenal progress.

     In 1837 he returned to Manitoba, worked for a time as a blacksmith, and at intervals in hunting and trapping in the wilds of Minnesota and Dakota. In June, 1841, he joined the Red river colony, and made the journey hereinabove described in his own language. In June, 1842, he settled in Washington county, Oregon, and was engaged in farming until 1854, when he accepted the position of Indian interpreter under General Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon. His services in that capacity were very valuable; and much is due to Mr. Flett for the successful negotiation of the treaties then made. As a recognition of those services, he was continued as interpreter and appointed also subagent, in which capacity he went to Southern Oregon. Alone he visited the war camp of the Rogue river Indians, and induced them to go upon the reservation. He visited the Indians at Crescent city and Port Orford. He accompanied General Palmer and Indian Agent Chris Taylor to Klamath Lake and the Modoc country, that being the first party who visited that region.

     In all the meetings and councils of Superintendent Palmer with the Southern Oregon Indians, Mr. Flett accompanied him as interpreter; and on General Palmer going to the Walla Walla council, in June, 1855, Mr. Flett attended. He continued in the service of the Oregon superintendency for three years, and during that time executed many delicate and difficult missions, requiring courage and discretion. In 1859 he settled at South Prairie, in Pierce county, and engaged in farming. He remained there until 1868, when he purchased his present location near Lakeview, about six miles distant from Tacoma. From 1862 to 1878 he was employed upon the Puyallup Indian Reservation as farmer or interpreter. He is a thorough Indian linguist, and adept in understanding the Indian character, and was long recognized as among the most efficient and valuable of the attaché's of that department. He is a hale, vigorous man, with a family consisting of a wife and six children; and with a competency this fine old christian gentleman is rounding off in comfort a long and busy life.

     PETER DEWAR FORBES. - In the gentleman whose name heads this brief memoir, and whose portrait appears in this history, we have one of the very earliest settlers of Tacoma, as well as one of her prominent business men and capitalists. Mr. Forbes was born in St. Johns, New Brunswick, February 18,1845, and is the son of William and Jesie Dewar Forbes. After his school days were passed, Peter learned the trade of a carpenter and shipbuilder, becoming a master mechanic.

     In 1868 he came to the United States, locating in Minneapolis, where he became a well-known architect and builder, until 1873. In that year he desired to seek a milder climate, and chose Washington Territory as the most desirable location, making his first residence in Seattle and engaging in his former business. His matured ability soon attracted the notice of the officers in the Northern Pacific Railroad, then entering the territory. In April, 1873, he accepted employment as superintendent of depot and bridge construction, and in this capacity built all the depots, roundhouses and machine shops form Land Pend d'Oreille to Tacoma, and from Kalama to the latter place. On his arrival at the present site of the beautiful city of Tacoma, there was but one building in the place; and in 1874 Mr. Forbes built the headquarters building for the company, then standing where the magnificent new theater is now being erected.

     Together with these important works of an almost public character, Mr. Forbes also superintended private enterprises in his line; and in 1875, we find him master and owner of the steamer Isabel, running from Victoria to Alaska for one season, after which he gain returned to the employ of the railroad. On the completion of the Puyallup branch of the Northern Pacific, our subject purchased an interest in the New Tacoma Sawmill, and became a member of the firm of Smith, Hatch & Co., with whom he remained for three years. In 1884 he became a member of the wholesale grocery firm of John S. Baker & Co., and one year later disposed of his interest and gain resumed railroad building, - this time as superintendent of depot and bridge construction from Hauser Junction to Coeur d'Alene City. On the completion of this he engaged in real estate in Tacoma, and has been very successful.

     It may be seen by this short synopsis that Mr. Forbes has been an active, energetic and prominent man. He is to-day in the full prime and vigor of manhood. By steady application to business, and by good judgment in investments, he is one of the wealthy men of the City of Destiny. He was united in marriage at St. Johnson, New Brunswick, to Miss

                                                                                                        BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                329

Bessie Osborn. They have two daughters and one son, the latter of whom is senior member of the well-known and popular firm of Forbes & Vose, wholesale and retail grocers of Tacoma.

     DAVID FORD. - This highly esteemed citizen, a portrait of whom is placed in this history, was born in Indiana July 27,1837. After his marriage to Miss Mary Medler, October 11, 1857, he was occupied at his home until the war of the Rebellion, in which he served as a soldier in the Union army, bearing an honorable part, and making a brave record up to the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, where he received a wound which made him unfit for service. He belonged to Company A, Eighty-fourth Indiana Volunteers.

     In 1872 he came to Missouri, and five years later to California. A year's residence in the land of gold and semi-tropical fruits convinced him of the desirability of removing to Washington; and two years at Yakima led the way to his residence at Ellensburgh. There he was very active in all of the best enterprises, being a trustee of Ellensburgh Academy, and treasurer of the church with which it is associated, and a prominent member of the Grand Army of the Republic, James Parsons Post, No. 11, holding the office of quartermaster. The home which he left is a mile and a half from town, on a farm consisting of one hundred and sixty acres of the best of land. The house is superior, and all the accommodations are such as to make comfortable his family of wife and six children. His death, which took place in 1887, was universally deplored; and he left a place in  society which cannot be filled.

     HON. JOSEPH FOSTER. - Mr. Foster was the fourth child in a family of eleven children, and the son of Thomas and Rosetta J. Larsky Foster. He was born near Hamilton, Ontario, April 10, 1828, where he lived until six years of age, when his parents moved to Geogy county, Ohio.

     When old enough he learned the tailor's trade, and when twenty-one years of age went to Wisconsin, locating in Cheboygan, where he followed his trade for three years. He then, in 1851, started overland to the Pacific coast, and reached Portland in July, 1852. he went to the Shasta and Rogue river mines, where he followed mining a short time, after which he went to San Francisco. He then came on a sailing vessel to Seattle, and located a Donation claim on the Duwamish, and has since followed logging and farming. He now owns three hundred and forty acres nine miles east of Seattle.

     Mr. Foster is a strong Democrat, and in 1859 was elected tot he territorial legislature on the Democratic ticket. Since that time he has been elected three terms to the lower house, and three terms to the council, being the only man in Washington Territory who has held the same position so many times.

     He was married on the Duwamish to Miss Martha J. Steel, a native of Indiana. By this union they have had a family of five children, of which only two sons survive.

     CAPT. ENOCH S. FOWLER. Mr. Fowler, a portrait of whom appears in this work, was one of those argonauts who came to this country at an early day, and has since made himself a name known as a household word all over Puget Sound. Captain Fowler was born in Lubec, Maine, November 19, 1813, and died in Port Townsend November 27, 1876, being sixty-three years of age. He came to the Pacific coast in 1849 as master and part owner of the brig Quoddy Bell, which he sold in San Francisco, joining the brig George Emery as mate, and made his first voyage in her to Puget Sound in 1850, Alfred A. Plummer, Sr., the founder of Port Townsend coming on her as passenger.

     On the next voyage of the George Emery, Captain Fowler commanded her. He next, with the Wilson Brothers of San Francisco, purchased the topsail schooner Cynosure and came to the Sound as captain of her, on a trading voyage for oil, salmon, furs and cranberries in 1852. In the fall of 1853 he landed a large stock of goods there with Mr. Gilbert Wilson in charge of the store. He then went East, and returned in the spring of 1854 with the schooner R.B. Potter, a pilot boat, which he purchased in San Francisco. She was very fast, and was chartered by the late General, then Governor I.I. Stevens, who employed her to carry dispatches, mails and supplies to the various Indian tribes on the Sound, with whom the Governor as superintendent of Indian affairs was making treaties, and to supply the various posts and to protect the inhabitants from the Indians during the Indian war of that year. General Stevens was a warm friend of Captain Fowler. He had the utmost confidence in him, and paid him a liberal compensation for his services.

     In 1857, concluding to retire from a seafaring life, he located at Port Townsend, where he devoted himself to mercantile pursuits; nor did he go to sea again, except to make occasional short cruises on the Potter. Besides the Potter, he owned several small schooners for trading on the Sound, and built the scow schooner Experiment, which, however, did not prove a success. In 1859, he built the first wharf which was capable of having a ship made fast to it. This work was in the rear of the old custom-house. It was a substantial structure built on piles, but from the destructive action of the teredo, was entirely destroyed in 1863. In 1864 he built another large wharf, which was also destroyed in 1869 by the same agency.

In 1874 he built the five-story building on Adams street, now used as the courthouse of the district court, which bears deeply cut in a stone over the front entrance the legend, "E.S. Fowler." In 1874 he also built a great many wooden buildings for stores and dwellings in various parts of the city. He was a very energetic, active man when in health, ever with an eye to business. Shrewd and fortunate, he held various territorial and county offices. In 1863 the legislature elected him brigadier-general of the territory. He was treasurer of Jefferson county for a long time, during which he built the old jail. He was chairman of the board of pilot commissioners from the time the pilot law was passed in 1868 until 1875, when he resigned.

330                                                                  HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     Captain Fowler was twice married. His first wife belonged to Lubec, Maine, by whom he had several children, who all died young, - one a boy of eight years, who with his mother came out to California where she died. After his mother's death, the little boy was sent home in charge of a nurse, when they both mysteriously disappeared and were never again heard from. The impression is that both were drowned by the upsetting of a canoe in the Chagres river. His second wife was Mary Caines, widow of the late Captain Caines, who survives him. She is a most estimable lady, and is now in her seventy-fifth year. Captain Fowler was a member of high rank in the Masonic order, and was buried from Masonic Hall, the entire population of Port Townsend, together with many from other points on the Sound, turning out to pay the last sad tribute of respect of one of the post popular men that ever lived on Puget Sound.

     JACOB FRAZER. - This pioneer of the wool business in Eastern Oregon, and owner of some of the best buildings in Pendleton, is a native of the Buckeye state (1820), and while but a boy of ten went with his father to Indiana, and as a youth of sixteen to Iowa. In this state, then known locally as the Black Hawk purchase, his father died at the advanced age of eighty-three.

     In 1850 Mr. Frazer crossed the plains to California with horses, being one of a party of five. This company was made to pay a toll of sugar, flour, etc., by the Sioux, and near Salt Lake had eight of their eleven horses stolen. Frazer himself was sick at the time; but two of the company gave chase and recaptured the animals. arriving at Hangtown (more euphoniously Placerville), our pioneer began gold digging. One of the first men he met in the country was his brother Montgomery, who had been out a year, and who had been very successful, insomuch tat he returned East soon after and bought the farm in Iowa which Jacob had first purchased with the avails of a big job of wood-chopping that he had undertaken for the brother of Jefferson Davis.

     Four years of mining life proved hazardous. Indeed, the list of casualties to which Mr. Frazer was subject suggest some sort of protecting agency that does not guard everyone. Once he had been setting a blast in a deep mine. Hastening up the shaft to be out of the way, the windlass crank broke, dropping him back and leaving him to take the explosion, which he was trying to prevent. He was not hurt. Another time he was buried fifty-four feet deep under a land-slide at Mokelumne Hill, but was dug out uninjured. At Georgetown, while he was in the twenty-five foot shaft, the reservoir gave way, filling the pit with water; and he was hauled out like a drowned rat, yet was by no means drowned.

     Quitting the mines in 1854, he began ranching on the Sosumnes river, which he followed eleven years. Collecting, however, a band of cattle, he drove them to Boise to sell in the mines, and with his usual good luck passed unhurt with this tempting prize of a hundred and seventy-one animals, and with but seven men to guard them, between bands of Indians before and after, who were on the warpath and were massacring everyone that they caught out. In 1866, after settling up his affairs in California, he came to the Willamette valley and bought large bands of sheep, which he drove up East of the Mountains to the immense ranges on Birch creek. Here he has made his big ranch, acquiring 1,401 acres of deeded land, and some 1,600 acres adapted to grazing on the headwaters of the creek. His flocks increased so that in one year alone he sheared 104,160 pounds of wool from twelve thousand head of sheep, which he sold for $22, 860.

     While out here in 1878,he had a skirmish with the Bannacks and renegade Umatillas. Captain Sperry's company of volunteers, numbering forty-eight men, met the hostiles at Willow Springs and fought them for five hours. At the first attack of the Indians, the horses of the volunteers were nearly all shot down; and sixteen of the valiant volunteers ran away. But the rest kept up the battle until dark, losing two killed and nine wounded. Frazer received a shot through the leg which grazed the bone, and from which he nearly bled to death before he could receive attention at Pilot Rock.

     Selling his sixteen thousand sheep in 1880, Mr. Frazer has devoted his time and means to the erection of fine buildings in Pendleton. In 1881 he put up a two-story brick building on Main street, twenty-five by eighty-eight feet; in 1882, the First National Bank building, two stories, fifty by eighty feet. Of this bank he is vice-president. In 1886 he built the Frazer Opera House, two stories, fifty by one hundred feet. The business enterprises in which he is engaged are the Customs Flouring Mills, and the Pendleton Foundry and Machine Shops. He is also one of the promoters of the Washington & Oregon Railway.

     His wife, Mary Kizer, whom he married in Linn county, is one of the pioneers of Oregon, having come in 1854. She was from Iowa also. They have one son, Nickolas K., who is in the firm of Alexander & Frazer. He received his education at the Oregon State University and at Heald's Business College, and was married to Miss Ida Cogswell, daughter of the well-known pioneer of that name of Lane county.

     FRED FURTH. - One looks for saddles and harnesses in Spokane Falls under the sign bearing the name of the above. The gentleman thus designated is from Germany, where he was born in 1839. He came to America in 1855. Stopping but a short time in St. Louis, he came to San Francisco in 1856 via Panama, and went thence to Washoe and Virginia City, Nevada, merchandising. He located in Colusa county, California, in1869, and came thence to Spokane Falls, engaging in his present occupation. Mr. Furth is of the opinion that Spokane Falls is, and will be the most important place in Washington next to Seattle. He thinks it is one of the finest countries in the world, and has all the advantages of soil, climate and resources which can be reasonably expected anywhere.

     Mr. Furth has the qualities of popularity, and has been repeatedly honored with the trust of public office. While in Douglas county, Nevada, he held the office of county clerk for two years, and the

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