History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 351 - 370

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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 for the Utah, Idaho & Oregon Stage Company throughout the Inland Empire.

     Securing a section and a half of land near Blalock he erected a hotel and conducted it in connection with the business of office agent for the stage company, and for Wells, Fargo & Co. Several years there, however, prepared him for a removal to Wallowa Bridge, Oregon, where he is at present presiding, and is owner and manager of the La Grande and Wallowa stage line.

     Mr. Griffin lost by death his first wife in 1875. Some years later he married Miss Margaret Courtnay, of Umatilla county. They have five children.

     HON. L.F. GROVER. - Governor La Fayette Grover was born in Bethel, Maine, November 29, 1823, of ancestry on both sides distinguished in the early and late history of Massachusetts. He is a brother of Major Abernethy Grover, a man of distinction in the politics of Maine and in the war of the Rebellion; of Professor Talleyrand Grover, an eminent classist; and of General Cuvier Grover, a skillful commander in the war of the Rebellion.

     He was educated at the Classical Academy of Bethel, and at Bowdoin College, Maine. He studied law in Philadelphia under the instruction of the late Asa I. Fish, and was admitted to the bar there in March, 1850. Late in the autumn of that year, he took passage on a merchant vessel bound round Cape Horn to San Francisco, where he arrived in July, 1851, and in the next month reached Portland by the old steamer Columbia. He at once proceeded to Salem, where he established himself as a layer. The first regular term of the United States district court was held at Salem in the following month; and on the invitation of Chief Justice Nelson, who presided over the court, Mr. Grover became the clerk, stipulating that he would accept the position temporarily, and until a suitable successor could be appointed. He held the office six months, obtaining an excellent acquaintance with local court procedure, and with jurors, witnesses and litigants. The following spring, resigning the clerkship, he formed a law partnership with Benjamin F. Harding, afterwards United States district attorney, secretary of the territory of Oregon, and United States senator. With him Mr. Grover at once entered upon a general and lucrative practice, which lasted for several years.

     In 1852 he was elected by the legislature prosecuting attorney of the second judicial district, which then extended from Oregon City to the California line. In 1853 he was elected and served as a member of the territorial legislature.

     In 1853, by appointment of Governor Curry for the service, he raised a company to quell Indian disturbances on the Rogue river, and, being elected lieutenant of the company, served through the campaign. At the close of hostilities in September, Mr. Grover appeared as deputy United States district attorney in the district courts in the southern counties, then being held for the first time by Judge Matthew P. Deady. Congress having assumed the compensation of settlers whose property had been destroyed by hostile Indians during the Rogue river Indian war of 1853, Mr. Grover was appointed one of the commissioners to assess the spoliations, and served as president of the board in 1854. He was again returned as a member of the legislature from Marion county in 1855, and served as speaker of the house during the session of 1855-56.

     In the war of 1855-56 he aided in raising troops, and served in the field throughout the Yakima campaign on the staff of Colonel J.W. Nesmith. He served the following year as a  member of the military commission, appointed by the Secretary of War under authority of an act of Congress, in auditing and reporting to the War Department the expenses of Oregon and Washington incurred in suppressing Indian hostilities of 1855-56. On this commission his co-laborers were Captain A.J. Smith and Rufus Ingalls. The former subsequently served as major-general in the Civil war. The latter, in the Civil war, acted as chief quartermaster of the Army of the Potomac, and became quartermaster-general of the armies of the United States.

     In 1857 Mr. Grover was chosen a member of the state constitutional convention. He served as chairman of the committee on the Bill of Rights and as a member of several other important committees, and took an active and prominent part in giving directions to the work of that body. He was returned as the first representative in Congress from Oregon.

     Retiring form the Thirty-fifth Congress, he devoted himself almost exclusively for ten years to professional and business pursuits. He formed  at Salem, with the late Honorable Joseph S. Smith, a law partnership, which was afterwards extended to Portland, including Judge W.W. Page.

     He took part in the organization of the Willamette Woolen Manufacturing Company, at Salem, in 1856. This corporation had in view the introduction to the state Capital, by canal and natural channels, the waters of the Santiam river as power for general manufactures. He became one of the directors of the company, and remained in this connection for fifteen years, during which time the first broad enterprise for manufactures in Oregon attained large proportions and great success.

     In 1860 Mr. Grover became owner of one-third of all the mills and water-power of Salem. From 1867 to 1871 he was manager of the company. Under his direction the Salem Flouring Mills, which had been begun, were completed, including the putting in of all the machinery and works, and the construction of a steamboat canal from the river to the mills. These flouring mills were a marked success from the start, and were the first direct shippers of Oregon flour, by the cargo, to foreign countries. He also greatly enlarged and improved the woolen mills. The operations of this company were great stimulants to the growth of wheat and wool in early Oregon, and facilitated many other business enterprises in all directions. The unfortunate destruction ff the Salem Woolen Mills by fire occurred subsequently to Mr. Grover's retirement from the company.

     In 1866 he presided over the Democratic state convention of that year, and by the convention was elected chairman of the Democratic state central

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 committee, which position he held for four years. During this period the Democratic party attained the ascendancy in the politics of the state, which it had not had since 1860.

     In 1870 Mr. Grover was elected by the Democratic party as governor of the state for four years. In 1874 he was re-elected tot he same position, which he held till 1877, when he entered the Senate of the United States, having been elected to that position by the Legislative Assembly at its September session of the previous year. In his canvass for the governorship, he based the chief issue on the abrogation of the Burlingame treaty with China, though, the subject was not mentioned in the platform of either political party.

     During his term as chief executive, many changes took place; and unusual progress was made in business enterprises, and in the general condition of Oregon. His first step as executive was to put in force a law which had been enacted two years previously, but not executed, providing for tug boats at the mouth of the Columbia river, and a subsidy for their support. This movement gave the first reliable basis for a coastwise and foreign commerce from Oregon's great river, which took root vigorously, and has increased ever since to its now strong proportions. He favored the construction of the locks at the Willamette Falls by a private company, assisted by aid from the state. The project was successful, and opened the Willamette river to competition with the railroads, and reduced freights throughout the Willamette valley to such an extent as to stimulate greatly farm production and general commerce.

     Another attainment of his administration was the securing to the state the segregation and patenting of all public lands to which Oregon was entitled under various grants by Congress, and a recognition of her rights to the tide lands which she held by reason of her sovereignty as a state. He also favored the erection of permanent public buildings for the state; and, during his term of office, penitentiary buildings and the state house were erected of permanent and enduring structure, an example of economy and honesty in public work. One feature may be noted in these buildings. They were erected at an expense inside of the estimates of the architects, - quite unusual in such cases. While the state house was not at first carried to full completion, its mason work as all done, the entire roof put on, and so much of the interior finished as to render it suitable for the convenience of the state offices, the legislature and the supreme court.

     The grants by Congress for the establishment and support of a State University and for an Agricultural College in Oregon having been secured and utilized, Governor Grover interested himself in promoting the organization of these institutions, which was also accomplished during his term of office. There was also, during the same period, founded at Salem, the institution for deaf mutes, and the school for the blind. Having labored to secure to the state the indemnity common-school lands, held in lieu of those occupied by settlers before the public surveys, and the proceeds of their sales having been invested for common-school revenues, the period had arrived for a more complete organization of the public school system of the state, and for its support out of the public funds thus utilized. This important foundation work was also accomplished; and the first distribution of public funds by the state in support of common schools in Oregon was made during the term of Governor Grover as chief executive.

     In his inaugural address to the Legislative Assembly in 1870, he presented the subject of Chinese exclusion, and favored the abrogation of the Burlingame Treaty. The legislature of that session, on his recommendation, memorialized Congress to that effect; and from that time forward until, from the seat in the Senate of the United States, he voted for a bill excluding the Chinese, and for a modified treaty with China, both of which prevailed, he never abated his zeal in promoting this movement.

     An effort was made in the legislature of Oregon, in1870, to initiate a system of subsidizing railroad corporations by bonding cities and counties in their roads. A bill was passed by both houses by more than two-thirds majorities, authorizing the city of Portland to issue its bonds in the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, in favor of Ben Holladay, to induce him to build the railroad up the west side of the Willamette valley, making its principal terminus at Portland. This bill was considered by the governor as against public policy, and as against distinct provisions of the state constitution. The bill was vetoed in a message which settled the policy of the state on the subject of public grants of money to railway corporations, as long as the present constitution of the state exists. This veto, having been filed subsequently to the adjournment of the assembly, went over as an issue in the elections which returned the following legislature; and the veto was almost unanimously sustained by the Senate, where the bill originated, only one vote being given against it. So that Oregon has been and now is entirely free from public debt, both general and local, growing out of the construction of railways, which has been the source of much embarrassment to the new Western states.

     The memorable contest for the presidency of the United States in 1876, between Hayes and Tilden, raised an electoral question in Oregon. In this case Governor Grover held, on issuing certificates of election, that, under the injunction of the constitution forbidding a federal officer to be appointed a presidential elector, the votes cast for him were void, and as if never cast; and he gave the certificate tot he candidate having the next highest vote. This decision was far-reaching, as the contested vote in Oregon held the balance of power in the electoral college, if all other contested votes in Louisiana and Florida should be counted for Hayes. And it called for the organization of the "Electoral Commission," which overruled the governor's decision. But he desires it understood that on re-examination he adheres to his original views.

     Having been elected senator from Oregon, he took his seat in the Senate of the United States in March, 1877. In that body he served as member of the committees on military affairs, public

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lands, railroads, territories, manufactures, and private land claims. His chief efforts during his term as senator were to  procure a settlement of the Indian war claims of Oregon; to promote the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad; to obtain liberal appropriations for the surveys and improvement of the rivers and harbors of Oregon, and the Pacific Northwest coast; and the extension of the government surveys of the public lands west of the Rocky Mountains. He also labored constantly for the enactment of laws excluding the Chinese from emigrating to this country. He made speeches on the extension of time to the Northern Pacific Railroad Company for the completion of this road, on the several Chinese exclusion bills, and in secret session on the ratification of the treaty with China modifying the Burlingame Treaty of 1868, and on other subjects.

     His health being impaired, Mr. Grover determined, on his retirement from the Senate in 1883, to withdraw from public life, and in future to devote himself exclusively to his personal and private business affairs, which had long suffered neglect. Not proposing to return to the practice of his profession, he entered vigorously upon the improvement and disposal of tracts of real estate immediately adjacent to the city of Portland, owned in part by himself and in part by his wife.

     Having purchased a quarter interest in lands now known as Carter's Addition to Portland, several years prior, he joined with the other owners in laying out and establishing that extension of the city. In 1884 Mr. and Mrs. Grover laid out and dedicated a tract of high land belonging to her, the gift of her parents, in the northwest elevation of the city, as "Grover's Addition to Portland," naming it "Portland Heights;" which name became so contagious, that all the high grounds now forming the southwest part of the city bear that name. As a business movement, these enterprises have proved a great success; and these broken hills, once so forbidding, are now occupied with fine residences, and form a most beautiful and attractive part of Portland.

     Mr. Grover has made other real-estate investments to the west of the city, in the path of its future extension. he became one of the original incorporators and stockholders of the Ainsworth national Bank of Portland in 1885, and later of the Portland Trust Company of Oregon. He is also interested in the Portland Building & Loan Association, and in the Portland Cable Railway Company. He has also invested in coal lands. He is an honorary member of the Portland Board of Trade, and takes a lively interest in the rapidly increasing commerce of Oregon.

     Mr. Grover was married in 1865 to Miss Elizabeth Carter, youngest daughter of the late Thomas Carter, Esq., an early resident of Portland, who was one of the most successful merchants and real-estate owners of that city, and one of the proprietors of the town. It is almost unnecessary to say that Mrs. Grover is one of the well-known women of the state, a lady of high accomplishments and culture, and of artistic tastes, possessed also of beauty and a graceful and distinguished manner. Throughout all the varying fortunes and misfortunes of her husband, for he has at times met with adverse currents, - she has been his steady companion and support. They are communicants of the Episcopal church.

     Their son, John Cuvier Grover, a youth of twenty-three summers, so named after his grandfather and uncle, the sold offspring of this union, was educated at the Peekskill Military Academy, New York, and is now completing his studies in Europe.

     Thus we have traced the leading incidents of the career of La Fayette Grover, - scholar, soldier, lawyer, lawgiver, and man of business. In appearance he is a man of imposing presence, six feet in height, and with a slender but vigorous and well-proportioned frame. His strongly marked but regular and expressive features bear the stamp of intelligence and power; while in his steel-blue, deep-set, penetrating eyes may be read the determination and force of will, characteristic of one who has raised himself to a foremost rank among the statesmen of Oregon, and to a national reputation.

     THOMAS GUINEAN. - The proprietor of the Esmond Hotel, in Portland, Oregon, and one of the most popular men in his line upon the Pacific slope, was born in the city of Quebec, Canada, in 1838. In the year 1849 he was left an orphan and thrown upon his own responsibilities, and went down to Boston, but within a year left the old Puritan city and journeyed on to New York, where he took passage in the steamer California to San Francisco, arriving at the Golden Gate in the early part of 1852. He remained in San Francisco nearly one year, and from that point engaged in business at Sacramento. In 1855 he sought a new location at Coloma in El Dorado county, and leased the American Hotel at that place, which he ran until 1858. In the same year he returned to Sacramento and opened the Bank Exchange Oyster Saloon and Chop House and the Crescent City Hotel, which he sold out in 1859 and bought property on Second street one hundred to one hundred and sixty feet, and opened the Arcade Hotel, which he ran until 1865, when he tore down the original frame building and erected the present Arcade Hotel, a place which was celebrated in the history of California for nearly nineteen years as the headquarters of the supreme court and bar, and of the leading statesmen of California.

     In the year 1881 he arrived in Portland, Oregon, and bought the St. Charles Hotel, which he conducted for two years and a half, when he leased the Esmond Hotel, then newly rebuilt; and under his popular management this has become the only first-class hotel in Portland.

     Mr. Guinean is a gentleman of striking appearance, of easy and affable manners, and is known in the business and financial circles as a man of sagacity and very considerable wealth. He is one of the popular figures in the metropolis, and by his comfortable entertainment of travelers and strangers commends his city to the favorable notice of all.

     SAMUEL HADLOCK. - The people of the Pacific coast at present belong to that time in the history of their states and society when they do the

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 things that the after-time lovers to look back upon and scrutinize. They are full of restless energy, and experience all that falls to the lot of man. The old free days, when the country was new and towns were built, will ever be regarded by the populous and crowded future as the golden days of our history, - mixed with severe toil and deprivation alternating with abundance.

     Samuel Hadlock, who founded Port Hadlock, Washington, of which we give a partial view, is one of the men who belong to and have made this age. He was born in Hudson, New Hampshire, in 1829. Both his parents were New Englanders of old family; and life on the farm developed in our subject the nervous, muscular and mental force which were his by inheritance.

     In 1850, the year of his majority, he went out to St. Louis, and in 1852 was on the plains for Oregon with Captain Morgan's train. He reached The Dalles in September, and leaving behind him the fields and valleys of the Columbia went gold hunting to Southern Oregon. He was as far south as Yreka before the new year, and endured great hardships in the way of sickness and well0nigh starvation. Flour was a dollar a pound. Making his escape the next spring with his pair of blankets on his shoulder, he went afoot to the vicinity of Portland, finding employment with a farmer. In 1854 he found more congenial work in the building of a sawmill on Shoalwater Bay, and in the autumn passed by Astoria to the Southern beach, mining the seashore sand at Port Orford, and soon was at San Francisco dealing in mining stock, milling and selling lumber, doing a driving business until 1868.

     Thereupon Mr. Hadlock, on the part of five associates, came to the Sound, looking for a sawmill site. The spot now occupied by the Port Blakely Mill Company was chosen; and, upon Mr. Hadlock's return to San Francisco, the firm of Hanson, Ackerson & Co. was formed, embracing our subject as an active partner. Upon his arrival again with plains and machinery for a mill, the title to the site was found to be imperfect. The company therefore selected the site of the Tacoma Mill, and in September of 1868 began the erection of that large structure. Mr. Hadlock built and superintended that mill until 1870. Disposing of his interest, he now retired from business, but in the fall of 1870 returned with Mr. Glidden to the Sound and purchased the present site of Port Hadlock, consisting of four hundred acres, where, a few years later, was constructed the large sawmill now owned by the Washington Mill Company. In 1886 Mr. Hadlock laid off the town and gave it the name which it now bears. The spot has become flourishing, and numbers above five hundred inhabitants.

     In appearance Mr. Hadlock is of commanding person; and his strong will and business sagacity are a credit to any community in which he may elect to reside. He was united in marriage in San Mateo county, California, in 1864, to Miss Susan Lawrence, a native of Bath, Maine. She died at Port Hadlock, in 1873, leaving one son, Nathan L.

     Social customs and business methods may change; and the work of the pioneers of the lumber business no less than that of all the pioneers will be superseded; but the energy and impulse of character communicated by such men as Mr. Hadlock will never cease.

     COL. J.C. HAINES. - This gentleman was born February 14, 1850, at Hainesville, Lake county, Illinois, his father being the late Honorable E.M. Haines of Illinois, who was twice speaker of the House of Representatives of that state, and for a short time acting governor, and also the author of several treatises and text books on law. He is also a nephew of Honorable John C. Haines, who was twice mayor of Chicago and for many hears a prominent banker in that city. Our subject acquired his early education in the public schools, and completed his studies at Williams College, from which he graduated in 1870, taking third honors in the class, the same that Garfield took at the same institute. He entered the law department of the Chicago University in the same year, and graduated therefrom in 1871, and was admitted to the bar of the State of Illinois in that year.

     In 1872 he was appointed city justice of Chicago by Governor Palmer. He served in this position for four years and was then re-appointed by Governor Beversers consisting of three, who canvassed the returns of Cook county when a strong effort was made by the Democrats to throw out the votes of one of the Republican electors of the State of Illinois on the ground that his name was misprinted, the result of which would have been to elect Tilden as President. Two members of the board, our subject being one of them, counted the votes given this elector; and he was given the certificate of election. At the expiration of his second term as justice, he resumed the practice of his profession in Chicago, and continued therein until 1880, when he came to Washington Territory, resuming the practice of law. In that year he became a member of the law firm of Struve, Haines & Leary, which, by Mr. Leary's retiring, and Mr. McMicken entering, became the present firm of Struve, Haines & McMicken. This firm has always been one of the leading law firms of Washington, and is now and has been for several years the firm of attorneys retained by nearly all the prominent corporations in that commonwealth.

     Colonel Haines has been identified for the last six years quite prominently with the National Guard of Washington, serving as captain of Company B during the Chinese riots of 1886. In 1887 he was elected to the colonelcy of the First Regiment, a position which he now holds, having been re-elected for a second term. He was in command of the military for two weeks immediately following the great fire of June 6, 1889, which destroyed the business portion of Seattle, during which time the city was guarded entirely by the regiment. He has always been an active Republican, and has been prominently identified with that party since being a resident of Washington. He was chairman of the King county delegation in several territorial conventions, and was chairman of the delegation to the last state convention. During his residence in the state he has been connected with the trial of nearly every important case in Washington.

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     COL. GRANVILLE O. HALLER, U.S.A., Retired. - Granville Owen Haller was born in York, Pennsylvania, January 31, 1819. His father, George Haller, died when he was but two years of age, leaving a pious and most devoted mother in charge of four young children, who, with limited means, but with industry and thrift, had the satisfaction of seeing her eldest son graduate at the Jefferson Medical College of the University of Pennsylvania. She was very desirous of sending Granville to the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to be fitted for the ministry, but conscientious doubts on his part prevented him from conforming to his mother's wishes.

     In 1839 a vacancy belonging to his district occurred  at West Point Military Academy, when he and several other young men became applicants to fill the vacancy. The Honorable Joel R. Poinsett, Secretary of War, ruled that the recommendation of the representative of the district, giving his preference to one of the applicants, should secure his appointment. Haller received the preferred recommendation, but did not receive the appointment.

     Walter S. Franklin, of York, Pennsylvania, clerk of the House of Representatives, a warm and consistent friend of the Honorable James Buchanan, senator from Pennsylvania, and also a friend of Secretary Poinsett, had recently died, when Senator Buchanan applied for William B. Franklin, son of the deceased to be appointed. William was thereupon appointed to West Point; and Haller was invited to appear before a board of military officers, which met in Washington, District of Columbia, for information as to his fitness for the military profession. Haller presented himself, was examined, and on the seventeenth day of November, 1839, was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Fourth Regiment, U.S. Infantry, although not quite twenty-one years of age.

     Lieutenant Haller, served in the Florida war in 1841-42, and was with Brevet Major Belknap, Third Infantry, when fired upon by the Indians in the Big Cypress swamp, and with Colonel Worth, Eighth Infantry, at the action at Palattikaha swamp, which resulted in the capture of Halleck Tustenuggee's band, and which ended the Florida war. Frequent mention is made of Lieutenant Haller in Brevet Captain John T. Sprague's history of "The Origin, Progress and Conclusion of the Florida War," in 1848, for services deemed worthy of mention.

     He was adjutant of the Fourth Infantry from January 1, 1843, until he resigned, September 10, 1845, and was promoted to be first lieutenant July 12, 1846. He was brigade-major of the Third Brigade, U.S. Regulars, under General Taylor, when in Texas in 1845, until relieved for duty as adjustant commissary of subsistence to the Third Brigade. He had to receive and receipt for all the provisions issued to General Taylor's command when leaving Brazos St. Iags for Matamoras. He lost none of them at Palo Alto, was at Resaca de la Palma during the fighting, but received and took upon his return of stores immense quantities of certain subsistence stores captured from the Mexican army. He served under General Taylor in Mexico until after the capture of Monterey, when the Fourth Infantry was transferred to General Worth's division, and ordered to Vera Cruz, under General Scott's command. He was engaged in all the battles until the capture of the City of Mexico, from the siege of Vera-Cruz, and was one of the storming party at El Molino del Rey, September 8, 1847. He was brevetted captain "for gallant and meritorious
conduct in the battle of Chapultepec," and promoted to the captaincy of the Fourth Infantry January 1, 1848.

     In 1852 Brevet Majors Larned's and Haller's companies embarked on the U.S. store ship Fredonia in charge of the regimental baggage, and sailed around Cape Horn, arriving safely at San Francisco and Washington Territory in June, 1853, having spent seven months on the voyage. Major Larned's company proceeded to Fort Steilacoom; and, after a brief rest at Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory, Haller was ordered to Fort Dalles, Oregon.

     Towards the fall of 1854, word arrived at Fort Dalles that a small party of immigrants, consisting of a Mr. Ward, his family, and a few other families, had all been murdered by hostile Indians on Boise river. By this time many of the five-years' enlisted men's time having expired, they were discharged; and some of the recruits having received eight months' pay felt rich enough to live outside the service of Uncle Sam, and deserted. In this manner the garrison was reduced to about fifty men.

     The commanding officer, Major G.J. Rains, Fourth Infantry, provided horses for twenty-six enlisted men, the necessary pack mules, and dispatched Haller, Lieutenant MacFeely and Dr. Suckle with these men out upon the immigrant road, to give protection to all the trains coming to the West, and if possible chastise the murderers. While proceeding on the road, Captain Nathan Olney, brother of Judge Olney, of Oregon, with a party of mounted volunteers, overtook the command, and reported for duty by order of Major Rains. Captain Olney was provided with rations for thirty men, but picked up on the road, chiefly immigrants, a few over his number. In consequence the rations fell short; and finally volunteers and regulars had to subsist on captured cured salmon and captured horses, as the provisions had been exhausted before the date for which issued, and the train bringing a new supply was behind time in arriving.

     This command arrested four Indians who had been pointed out as murderers; and they were examined before a court of inquiry, where they explained the whole proceedings, and the share each one had in the massacre. One tried to escape, and was shot dead by the guard. The other three were hanged on the massacre-grounds, about thirty miles east of the Hudson's Bay Company's old Fort Boise, by the river road. The gallows was constructed close to the pyramid of bones of their victims. The regulars, in addition, captured a family of the hostile band, and killed two bucks of the same party while trying to escape, during the scouting on the Payette river, where the murderers had located. The command was discovered by the great column of dust, as they approached the

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 lodges of the main body of the murderers, who effected their escape, but left their booty behind, consisting of the clothing, dishes, cups, etc., of the murdered people. On this occasion the volunteers were
complimented by being placed in front, in the order of battle, and did their duty efficiently. The enemy, to hide their trail, kept, for a long space, in the bed of the river, getting out of the way of the Whites. Captain Olney's men soon discovered this, and pursued with vigor; but the game had escaped.

     In 1855 General Wool directed that Major Haller, with his company and a detachment of the Third Artillery under Lieutenant Day, should return, give protection to the immigrants, and search out the murderers. Lieutenant Day, with a small party took the trail of a stolen mule and horse from Salmon Falls, and followed it until he reached Fort Lemhi, a Mormon settlement on the headwaters of the Missouri river. On his return he accidentally discovered the thieves and the property, captured the party, hanged the guilty, and brought back the animals and some prisoners.

     Major Haller returned to Fort Dalles by forced rides, but allowed his command to travel leisurely homeward. He found the old friends of the Whites, near the Umatilla, greatly excited, the Yakima Indians under arms, and the agent, Major Bolan, murdered. A large body of recruits had arrived at Fort Dalles for the two infantry companies, making it possible to improvise two companies of fifty men each, including the old soldiers who had been left to "hold the fort." Major Rains had been transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and in command of the Department of the Columbia; and Haller, presuming that he would be ordered against the Yakimas with all his force at Fort Dalles, organized two companies of fifty men each, with a sergeant-major and commissary-sergeant in addition. The officers were Major Haller, Captain Russell and Lieutenant Gracie (the last in charge of the mountain howitzer), also Doctor William Hammond.

     The reports sent by Major Haller from The Dalles made little if any impression at Vancouver Barracks; but Acting-Governor Mason requested that a command be sent into the Yakima country to demand the murderer of Mattice, a miner, killed while passing through that country. In answer to this request Major Rains ordered one company to be sent; but Haller, being on the spot, knew one company would be insufficient, so ordered his one hundred and two men and officers across the Columbia, and began his march. On the fifth day, descending the heights along Toppinish creek (near the present site of Fort Simcoe), a considerable number of hostile Indians disputed the approach to the water. A fight ensued, but Captain Russell had gotten unperceived on their right flank and rear, and when he opened on them they fled. It was quite dark before the wounded could be moved; and, a camp near at hand being desirable, one was found for the night without reference to grass and water for the animals.

     Early next morning the camp was completely surrounded; and hourly all day squads of mounted Indians were seen approaching and joining the war party. Father Paudoza, a Catholic priest, who was held by the Indians a prisoner in reality, but ostensibly an interpreter, etc., considered the small force of soldiers in such imminent danger, as Kamiakin had by count over two thousand, two hundred warriors, that he employed a christian Indian (Cheruscan) to hurry to Haller's camp with a letter and a white flag to apprise Haller of the danger, and the only terms upon which the chiefs would make peace. Cut off from the grass and water, it became necessary to get out of the present camp. The danger was not so great, as the Indians did not have arms or ammunition  sufficient to arm a formidable force, but fought in small detachments, at different times and at different points, making their assaults less formidable than if delivered simultaneously. Whenever one warrior got tired, he would fall back and turn over his arms to another, who would try his skill in crawling up until within certain aim. One party had stones thrown up in front, á la rifle pits so as to be very dangerous; but they were driven off by a bayonet charge upon their flank.

     In breaking up camp, it was deemed advisable to return to Fort Dalles, and get a sufficient force to intimidate the enemy. The Indians, on the second night, having withdrawn from the front, left the woods at the border of the creek safe to cross back; and the command marched out, having forty men for rear guard, to protect the rear and look after the pack animals; but the night was unusually dark, so much so that Cutmouth John, the guide in front, had to get off his horse and feel for the trail. It was impossible for the rear guard, in the wooded banks of the Toppinish, to see pack mules that stepped out of the trail to nip grass; hence many were overlooked and fell into the enemy's hands. But the rear guard itself missed the trail of the head of the column; and, when such was discovered, the white guide was sent to conduct them to the proper trail, while the front marched to a small grove on the side of a steep hill, where they built large fires to light the lost detachment to the camp, meanwhile preparing their suppers.

     Daylight came, but no rear guard; hurrying on the wrong trail to catch up with the column, they got far towards Fort Dalles that night, beyond the reach of the Indians, who flattered themselves that they had killed all in sight. The Indians understood the bright fires, and threw some warriors in the rear to intercept the march. There were sixteen wounded, the howitzer while marching, and the pack animals that remained. Fortunately, the war party in the rear did not expect the white men to be in motion at day-dawn; for a large band of horses were seen on the left grazing leisurely. Shortly after the troops had gotten past this band, they were all mounted; and a skirmish commenced, which lasted for several miles, when the troops found a tongue of wood surrounded by open prairie, where the command halted, cleaned their muskets, etc., while a small guard held the Indians at bay. The Indians tried to burn the grass; but counter fires defeated them. They set the dry needles of the fir trees lying on the ground on fire, but did no harm. Towards evening, the guard having been strongly reinforced, made a rush upon the Indians

                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                            357

in their front and drove them off, not to return. In this charge the commissary sergeant (Mulholland) was killed, also a private of
Major Haller's company. This ended Haller's repulse.

     Kamiakin's ability as a leader had not been appreciated by the populace generally; and their minds had been greatly prejudiced by idle stories. He foresaw that the assassination of the agent, Bolan, would, on being ascertained by the white race, lead to immediate war, and prepared for it by gathering his allies in his own camp. But the death of Bolan was not brought about by any act of Kamiakin's. On the contrary, his plan of operations was to await the cold weather, when the Columbia river would be covered with ice, and when the steamers would be locked up in it; when the Cascade Mountains would be wrapped in deep snow, so as to cut off communication with the Willamette population; - then would be the time for his warriors to fall upon the few soldiers and settlers east of the mountains and wipe them out.

     Haller's repulse defeated his well-laid scheme; for it roused the people to their danger. The governor of Oregon called out volunteers; and the department commander took the field with all the regulars at his command. Major Rains with six companies of regulars, and Colonel Nesmith with six companies of mounted Oregon volunteers, took the field against Kamiakin. This warrior met his foes near the Two Buttes at the mouth of the Attanum creek, and held them there all one day. At sundown Haller charged the warriors on the Attanum Butte, and brushed them away. Next day the Indians were more cautious. Cut-mouth John only was able, through his dress, to get near enough to kill a hostile Indian. The great number of soldiers discouraged the Indians, who fled across the Columbia river; and the fall of snow drove the cavalry to The Dalles for forage, where Major Rains followed.

     Colonel George Wright, with a newly organized regiment, the Ninth Infantry, armed with the Minié rifle, was sent to the department, and was impressed by General Wool that this war was occasioned by the bad faith of the white population, and to govern himself accordingly. The massacre at the Cascades took place the day he marched out from Fort Dalles intending to overawe the natives throughout the Walla Walla country. Hearing of the massacre, he returned, took the two steamboats (which had that day escaped from the hostile Indians, and had brought the news) and hurried to the scene, rescued the whites besieged in the Bradshaw residence and elsewhere, after driving away the hostiles. Had the Indians succeeded, they would have broken his communications. Returning to The Dalles, he changed his plan, and, crossing the Columbia river there, invaded Kamiakin's country. He found a large body of Kamiakin's warriors at the Qui-wi-ches, three miles in front of the Nahches river, prepared to resist any further advance. Colonel Wright sent for Major Haller's company, which was garrisoning at Fort Dalles,
to join him, and then offered the hostiles peace, on condition that they would return to their former homes and not molest the Whites, but would obey the agents appointed for their protection. He told them that, if they declined this offer, he would make "war to the death" on them.

     Kamiakin realized is position, and advised his people to accept the peace offered. He feared that his warriors would be harassed if not killed, and the women and children captured and made slaves of by the conquerors. The acceptance would end these dangers; but, says William McKay, the interpreter, he raised his right hand and struck his left breast, exclaiming; "As for me, I am Kamiakin still! I will go to the Blackfoot country, where there are no white men." Kamiakin's advice lead Owhi, his brother, to call on Colonel Wright, who renewed in person the offer; and they fixed upon the day when the Indians should come into camp and conclude peace. But, as Owhi left the Colonel, an afterthought induced him to say to Owhi; "Tell your people they must bring with them all the horses and mules stolen from the Whites."

     Owhi, and Qualchen his son, called on Major Haller, with McKay to interpret. During the interview Owhi referred to Colonel Wright's expecting the Indians to give up the captured horses and mules, remarking that his people considered a capture as much their personal property as if they had purchased it with money, and that he believed they would not attend under such circumstances. They did not, but dispersed, leaving the Colonel without an enemy. He then selected Simcoe for a military post, and left a battalion under Major Robert Garnett to build and garrison it. He located Major Haller's and Captain Archer's (afterwards the rebel general whose brigade was captured at Gettysburg in the first day's fight) companies in the Kittitass valley, as a permanent threat to the Indian families in that region, if they began hostilities.

     In the fall of 1856, Haller was relieved and ordered to establish a post near Fort Townsend on Puget Sound, where the inhabitants might find an asylum in case of raids by Northern Indians, who were becoming troublesome. The governor of Washington Territory had resolved upon the expulsion of all foreign Indians, and called upon the United States navy at Seattle to order them out of the country. The U.S. steamer, Massachusetts proceeded to execute the order; when, at Port Gamble, some Hydah Indians from Russian American, employed by the Port Gamble Mill Company, located at Teckalet, were ordered to return to their native country, but refused point blank, and defied the navy. The result was the landing of some sailors, which obliged the Indians to seek shelter in the woods, where a lively cannonade from the steamer, while the sailors were destroying their camp, caused the death of their chief. They surrendered at length, and were removed, only to return the next season, 1857, when they retaliated for the loss of their chief by attacking Colonel Isaac N. Ebey's house at night, on Whidby Island,
killing the Colonel (the most prominent settler in that section. having been collector of customs, colonel of volunteers during the Indian war, etc.), and, cutting off his head, carried it to their country, where it afterwards was purchased and brought to his relatives in Washington Territory.

     The only running water, or suitable spot for a

 358                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

garden, or for grazing for government animals, near Port Townsend, was some three miles up the bay, where Haller located and erected buildings for the garrison. The friendly Indians brought all the clam shells wanted for making lime; the soldiers cut out the laths, made the mortar, and applied the same to the walls; the prisoners cut the wood and burnt the clam shells; all this, while the most extravagant tales of the richness of the Caribou gold mines, and the high wages paid hired miners, were circulating, naturally excited the enlisted men; and they deserted in squads across the Strait of Fuca.

     Soon the loss of the men by desertion was felt, when a boatman offered to bring from Victoria, British Columbia, as many laborers as were required, and who would only charge one dollar a day and a ration, and a blacksmith for one dollar and a half a day and a ration. Haller authorized him to hire a blacksmith and five or six men, which he did. The soldiers were astonished, but soon learned of the difficulties of the road to the new El Dorado and the danger to miners in many ways; and, seeing that these men preferred the small wages here to high offers there, desertions ceased; and a very comfortable post for officers and men was constructed, which has been kept up to this date.

     The garrison at this post had frequently to make excursions on the Sound in pursuit of Northern Indians. Once, the Smith Island lighthouse keeper was attacked and besieged. At another, the deputy collector on San Juan Island was fired upon in his own house while in his bed. When these depredations were reported, a detail was hastened to the relief of those government officers, in chartered vessels. Major Haller, on one occasion, while scouting, on board the U.S. revenue cutter Jeff Davis, discovered a large body of Northern Indians in Elliott Bay, paddling for Seattle. A gun on the cutter was fired, when the canoes pulled for the shore, and awaited Haller's arrival in the cutter's gig. It was a fortunate and timely arrival, as Haller took one of the party in his boat to Seattle, where Curley, a prominent Indian, was dressed in his war paint, and had his warriors in arms, to give these Northern quasi friends a warm reception. These Indians, finding the settlers unwilling to employ them as heretofore, were returning home, and wished to take some squaws, their relatives, with them; but these declined to leave their male friends and hid themselves, that neither Whites nor Indians could find or remove them from their adopted country.

     The Indian troubles in the Northwest induced the War Department to order General Harney (Secretary Floyd was a warm friend of this officer, who had conducted for him some financial speculations), popularly known as the Great Indian Fighter, to command the Department of the Columbia. His arrival was occasion for the legislatures of Oregon and Washington territory to pay some flattering tributes to his renown. These seemed to rouse in him the presidential bee; and, to show that the pen was as powerful as the sword, he replied with American spread-eagle sentiments in his thanks to the governors.

     In 1859 General Harney inspected the posts on the Puget Sound, and called at Semiahmoo on Mr. Campbell, the boundary commissioner. Embarking at Fort Steilacoom on the steamer Massachusetts (then transferred to the quartermaster's department), he visited Fort Townsend, which had been constructed before he came to the Northwest, and seemed surprised at the showy quarters. He then proceeded to Bellingham Bay, where night overtook him. He became the guest of ex-Judge E.C. Fitzhugh, while his staff officers who had been classmates of Captain Pickett, commanding Fort Bellingham, where lodged at Captain Pickett's quarters. Pickett, for some time, manifested a desire to be stationed on San Juan Island, which the Secretary of State, Governor Marcy, announced that President Pierce directed should be treated as neutral territory until commissioners of the two countries could agree upon the water boundary; and now Mr. Campbell, the United States commissioner, was engaged with British commissioners in ascertaining the water boundary.

     What line of reasoning was used by Judge Fitzhugh upon General Harney, or by Captain Pickett upon his staff officers, to get to San Juan Island, has never come to light; but the General, before reaching Semiahoo, resolved to order Pickett's company to occupy the disputed island. This determination was made known to Mr. Warren, the secretary of the boundary commissioner, by the staff officers; but General Harney did not mention the subject to Mr. Campbell, nor did Mr. Warren supposing that General Harney's visit was to consult Mr. Campbell before giving the order.

     When it is remembered that the North and South in 1858 and subsequently were violently agitated upon the question of slavery, and that the North determined to prevent slavery, at the least, north of the Missouri Compromise, with or without the consent of the constitution and laws of the United States, it is evident that the South would have taken no share in a war with England for free soil up to fifty-four degrees, forty minutes north latitude. A war in the Northwest against England would have carried our fighting force farthest from the slaves growing cotton and sugar. It would have left the South the more at liberty to secede and make its own terms with England. Certainly, it was bad policy to provoke England to war at that time. It was discourteous to Mr. Campbell and to the English commissioners thus rudely to interfere. It is patent that General Harney did interfere. He ordered, on his return to Vancouver Barracks, Haller's company to break up Fort Townsend and remove to Fort Steilacoom, and Pickett to move post and all to San Juan in the usual manner, that is, by orders forwarded through the headquarters of the
district; but Pickett was furnished with special instructions, which did not go through the commander, but direct to Captain Pickett.

     It is somewhat significant that the instructions, which charged Pickett with the "serious and important duty of resisting all attempts at interference by the British authorities residing on Vancouver Island, by intimidation or force, in the controversies of the above-mentioned parties," and who, upon landing, announced the island as subject exclusively to American jurisdiction in his order assuming command, were not transmitted through Lieutenant-

                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                             359

Colonel Casey, commanding the district, who, in an emergency, might be and was called upon for assistance, but had to decline, as he was ignorant of General Harney's intentions and instructions.

     When it is known that Lieutenant-Colonel Casey was a Rhode Islander or Northern man; that General Harney's lenient course in Missouri towards the friends of secession obliged Captain Lyon, Second Infantry, to disregard the General's concessions at the risk of his commission, until the General was removed; that Captain Pickett and Judge Fitzhugh immediately hastened to and joined the army of the Confederate states, - it raises a presumption unfavorable to the last three gentlemen's integrity, although the country escaped a collision.

     This escape was due to the failure of the British mail steamers to arrive on schedule time; and they therefore did not connect with the mail steamers on the Pacific. The news of the battle of Solferino was first heard of by British officers through American newspapers; and it was conjectured that the controversy about the San Juan boundary had been adjusted in England, and that General Harney's orders were simply carrying out instructions from his government. Indeed, the responsibility of having San Francisco, the mouth of the Columbia, the Strait of Fuca, etc., blockaded by five large British war vessels at hand was so great and so foolhardy, that British officers could not believe it emanated from General Harney's own volition. General Scott was sent by the President to correct matters. He proposed to the British soldiers on San Juan, to exercise jurisdiction and protection over all British subjects, as the Americans had to protect and maintain peace among the citizens of the United States on said island. This was accepted, with a request that Captain Hunt, Fourth Infantry, be located on the island in place of Captain Pickett, Ninth Infantry, and his company; and the imbroglio was at an end.

     The removal of Pickett's company from Bellingham Bay had a bad effect upon the Nootsack Indians. Soon after Pickett had moved away, some Young Lummi Indians entered Whatcom with arms and war paint, and insolently demanded the liberation of their chief, whom they supposed was confined in the jail. One citizen warned them away, threatening to shoot. Not heeding his warning, he thereupon shot one, when the warrior shot and killed him. The citizens by this time had armed themselves and shot down three who had participated in the killing. Major Haller was patrolling the archipelago in the Massachusetts, to find and remove some Northern Indians. he was notified of the difficulty by boatmen, who were sent out to find the steamer and invite Major Haller and company to hasten to their protection. Haler landed at Whatcom the same day, and hastened out to the Nootsack crossing to head off the Indians, who had gone below to receive the slain. The next morning they came up; but, the current being swift, it was impossible to get by if the soldiers chose to prevent them. They voluntarily came ashore to hold a council; and when the young warriors who had entered Whatcom were demanded as hostages, that there should e no more fighting, and to revenge the slain, they surrendered them; and the outbreak was thus averted. As the surveying parties of the boundary commission were scattered in small groups over a long line, the hostility of the Lummi tribe might have cut off many of these before they could have learned of an outbreak, and have suspended field operations.

     Major Haller was ordered in 1860 to California, where he was assigned to Fort Mojave, Arizona, subsequently, in 1861, to San Diego, and finally to the East, to join the grand army which was being organized by General McClellan. He found, on arriving at the East, that he had been promoted to be Major of the Seventh Infantry, September 25,1861. His regiment had become prisoners of war in Texas, and hence were not able to fight the enemy until exchanged. Therefore, Haller reported to General McClellan, who attached him to the provost-marshal-general's staff (General Andrew Porter). Soon afterwards he was appointed commandant-general of general headquarters, on General McClellan's staff; and the Ninety-third New York Volunteers were placed under his command as the general headquarters guard, and, when required, as guard to prisoners of war captured upon the field. Haller was thus employed throughout the Virginia and Maryland campaigns under General
McClellan, the subsequent campaigns of General Burnside, and (for a short time) under General Hooker. He was then designated provost-marshal-general for Maryland; but, upon the invasion of Pennsylvania by General Lee's Confederate army, he was attached to General Couch's staff, whose headquarters were at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He was detached to York and Gettysburg to muster in volunteers, get all the information possible of the Confederate army's movements, etc., and order the citizens to remove their horses, wagons and farm stock across the Susquehanna river, as General Couch apprehended a visit in that direction from the rebel army.

     General Couch, in the latter part of July, 1863, received orders to relive Haller, who, upon reporting to the adjutant-general, United States army, for orders, was informed that he had been dismissed on 25th of July, 1863, "for disloyal conduct, and the utterance of disloyal sentiments." all appeals for a hearing were pre-emptorily refused. By joint resolution of Congress, March 3, 1879, sixteen years afterwards, Haller was allowed a court of inquiry, and was tried in Washington City, where the official papers in his case were submitted to the court, and where Haller first read the original order of his dismissal, being a small wrapper around Senator Covode's letter, inclosing one urging Haller's disloyalty. The order was in these words: "Major G.O. Haller, Seventh Infantry, will be dismissed the service for disloyalty, and the utterance of disloyal sentiments. By order of the Secretary of War. (Signed) James A. Hardie, Asst. Adjut.-Gen." General Townsend, Adjutant-General, in orders, falsely stated that Haller was dismissed by order of the President, knowing that the Secretary of War could not dismiss.

     Fortunately General Couch and Major Charles J. Whiting were still alive, in civil life, when the court

360                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 was ordered. The latter was in Haller's tent at the time of the alleged "disloyal sentiments" were uttered by him, and heard all that was said. The former could testify as to his conduct. When asked, "did Major Haller discharge his duty to your satisfaction, and how did you regard him?" he answered: "Major Haller's service while on duty with me was wholly and entirely satisfactory. I do not think that there were any of the fighting generals of the Army of the Potomac, if they had been in York, in the position of Major Haller, that could have done any better than he did. I thought so at the time, and I think so now."

     On cross-examination, he was asked; "Do you consider that your intercourse with Major Haller was of that familiar nature, during that time, that you could have discovered sentiments of disloyalty had they existed with him?" He answered: "I do not know how I can answer that question except by saying that I cannot conceive that a man could do what Major Haller did for the country and at the same time be disloyal.

     The proceedings of this court of inquiry conclude thus: "The court finds that Major Granville O. Haller, late Seventh U.S. Infantry, was dismissed for disloyal conduct, and disloyal sentiments, on insufficient evidence, wrongfully; and therefore, hereby, by virtue of the authority constituting it, does annul said dismissal published in 'S.O. No. 331,' dated 'War Dept., A.G.O., Washington D.C., July 25, 1863.'"

     The most remarkable part of these findings is the fact that the court consisted of one lieutenant-colonel and two majors, and that these rehabilitated in the army a colonel, who must rank them on all occasions. The President, R.B. Hayes, approved the proceedings and findings; and the Senate confirmed the nomination as a colonel of infantry in the United States army, to rank from February 19, 1873. Subsequently a vacancy occurred by the death of Colonel Jeff C. Davis, Twenty-third Infantry, when
the United States Senate confirmed the assignment of Colonel Haller; and thus he received a second commission, that of
colonel of the Twenty-third Infantry, from December 11, 1879. On the 6th of February, 1882, he was retired, being over
sixty-three years old.

     During the interval from his dismissal until his rehabilitation as colonel, Major Haller and family resided in Washington Territory. They resided for some time on his farm on Whidby Island. He then engaged in a mercantile business in connection with a water-power sawmill - an elephant that he received for debt, and which he found to be a daily loser in the cost of manufacturing lumber, until he shut it down - at the mouth of Chemicum creek, near the city of Port Townsend. Having established a branch store on Whidby Island, he disposed of his interests in Port Townsend, and located his family at the store in Couperville. He did more, perhaps, than any citizen in that vicinity to enable settlers, who had only their robust health and brawny arms to support themselves and families with while clearing off public land for homes, to remain on their claims and improve them, by furnishing them supplies and carrying them from year to year until they had the means to pay. His customers were not confined to Whidby Island, but came from the Swinomish Flats, the Skagit river, around the Jam and above, and from the flats about
Centerville (now Stanwood), on the Stoluckwamish river.

     Upon being rehabilitated in the army, Colonel Haller closed his mercantile operations. He then found that his liberality in supplying settlers, and in indulging them in long credit, was somewhat embarrassing, inasmuch as his liabilities to his creditors were considerable, and, while his liens and book accounts showed a favorable balance in figures, yet, if he had been compelled by legal process to pay off his indebtedness, he in all probability could not have paid fifty cents on the dollar, due chiefly to the fact that public lands at that time could be had by simply locating upon them, and that improved lands could not be sold for half the cost of the improvements. The annual taxes, at times, were an inconvenient burthen, making him land poor.

     Upon being retired in 1882, Colonel Haller located with his family in Seattle, King county Washington Territory, where his elder son had been located. His family consisted of his wife, Henrietta Maria; his elder son, George Morris Haller; his younger son, Theodore Newell Haller, both of whom were admitted to the bar to practice law; his younger daughter, Charlotte Elenor Haller; and two grandchildren of his elder daught4er, Alice Mai H. Nichols, deceased, late wife of Lieutenant William A. Nichols, Twenty-third U.S. Infantry, the son of the late Adjutant-General William A. Nichols, U.S. Army. The elder son was married to Miss Anne Cox, in California, in 1887. They reside with their parents at No. 606 Twelfth street, Seattle. The younger son is now traveling in Europe.

     PATRICK HALLORAN. - The map makers are kept busy by the geographical changes of the Pacific Northwest; and the general public is often far behind the times in learning of the new towns springing up everywhere. The corner postoffice becomes a city; and the old farmhouse suddenly becomes a small town with store, and hotel. The water front of Puget Sound begets a new village almost every day. One of these places is Edison; and one of the principal men in the place is Mr. Halloran. He came as a logger in 1876 to the Sound, but in 1879 took up his present claim, and has made of it a most productive farm. Hay, at two and a half tons per acre, timothy seed, of which he produces three or four tons per annum, and twenty tons of oats, constitute the output of his farm. His hay crop is about two hundred and thirty-five tons per year. He finds local market for all his produce, selling hay at an average of twelve dollars per ton. His fields net him fifteen dollars per acre. He has a hopeful outlook for his city, and as a resident believes it a good place for anyone who is sober, industrious and tends strictly to his own

     In 1886 Mr. Halloran was elected county commissioner, and was re-elected in 1888. He has wisely adopted the course of
building roads to open up the region. He is married and has three children, - James E., Mary A. and George.

                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                 361

     ARCHIMEDES HANAN. - This venerable pioneer, whose portrait appears in this work, was born on the 9th of November, 1810, in Harrison county, Kentucky. The early years of his life were truly those of a wanderer. Illinois, Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota reckoned him as a citizen at sundry times and places up to the year 1852. In the spring of that year he started on the long and wearisome journey across the plains.

     Oregon was his objective point; and after the usual trying though interesting incidents of the immigrants' career, he stopped at Albany in the fall of 1852. There he took a government claim about four miles form the town; and there he resided till 1865, when he sold his seven hundred and forty acres of land for ten dollars per acre, and went to the town of Albany, where he formed a business partnership with Beach & Montieth. The firm erected a large flouring mill; but, the business not proving a very successful investment financially, Mr. Hanan sold out, and in 1871 removed to a farm on Whisky creek, Washington territory, whence he again journeyed on seven years later to Dayton. There he owned much valuable property, and had a pleasant home. His happiness was irreparably marred, however, in 1880, by the death of his faithful wife. Her maiden name was Ann Maria Van Winkle. She became the wife of Mr. Hanan in 1837, and during forty-three long years had followed him through the varying fortunes and vicissitudes of his lot with the Spartan devotion which is nowhere better shown than in the lives of the frontier women of this coast.

     Among the other evens of his active and varied career, Mr. Hanan was a prominent actor in the great Indian war of 1855. He was first lieutenant of Company H of the First Regiment of Oregon Mounted Volunteers, and took a most creditable part in the fierce fight on the Walla Walla.

     Mr. Hanan has no children, though he cared for and educated a girl who is now living near Cheney, Washington, and who is the mother of nine sons and one daughter.

     In spite of his burden of years, Mr. Hanan is still hale and hearty, and enjoys in this autumn of his days the deserved esteem of a large circle of friends and acquaintances.

     HON. CORNELIUS H. HANFORD. - The subject of this sketch, although a young man, is one of the pioneers of Washington. He was born in the town of Winchester, Van Buren county, Iowa, on the 21st of April 1849. His father was a well-to-do farmer at that place. The gold discoveries in California soon attracted attention to the Pacific coast; and in 1853 he resolved to dispose of his Iowa property and seek a new home on Puget Sound, where his two brothers Seymour and George then were. accordingly in the spring of that year he started with his entire family in emigrant wagons drawn by oxen for the new El Dorado. Joining one of the many trains which were then crawling across the plains, he with the train moved slowly westward, meeting and overcoming the numerous dangers and hardships then commonly incident to a journey of that kind, and finally reached a point near Portland, Oregon, in time to go into winter quarters. Here the elder Hanford left his family and proceeded to Seattle, which consisted of a small sawmill and a few rough cabins surrounded by an impenetrable forest. He found his brothers there, and, although to a farmer the surroundings seemed in striking contrast with the beautiful plains he had left, he was quick to perceive the grand possibilities of the country, and decided to cast his fortune with it, and in the following spring moved his family to Seattle and settled upon a Donation claim immediately adjoining the town.

     In the Indian war of 1855-56, which culminated in an attack upon Seattle by the Indians, and which was defeated only by the determined bravery of the citizens and by the sloop-of-war Decatur, then lying in the harbor he served as a volunteer under Captain C.C. Hewitt and Edward Lander, both of whom were afterwards chief justices of the territory. In the battle two white men were killed, one of whom was Milton Holgate, the brother-in-law of the elder Hanford. This war was a general uprising among the Indians in the vicinity of Seattle and to the eastward of the Cascade Mountains in pursuance of a long and well-considered plan. Young Cornelius, prior to the outbreak, mingled freely with the Indians, and won the esteem of old Curley, a chief who rendered valuable services to the White people as a scout and spy; and probably owing to that friendship is due the fact that he was one of four inhabitants of Seattle whom the hostile savaged decided to spare from the general massacre of the Whites on Puget Sound.

     In 1861 Cornelius removed to San Francisco, where he remained until 1867, during which time he took a course in a commercial college there; with this exception he is entirely self-educated. His father's property was almost entirely destroyed by the Indians during the war; and in consequence of the losses thus sustained, and the subsequent failure of some of his business ventures, he became impoverished; and Cornelius was early thrown upon his own resources and required to undergo all the hardships attendant upon pioneer life. He worked as a farm laborer; he swung his axe in the forests as a wood chopper; he split rails and built fences, and for a long time carried the mail on horseback from Seattle to Puyallup through what was then a wilderness with scarce a trail to travel upon. Upon becoming of age he took up a pre-emption claim in Walla Walla county, and set to work with characteristic energy to improve it; but his physique, never strong in early life, was unequal to the task; and his health broke down.

     In 1872 he was compelled to abandon his claim and return to Seattle. He reached there an invalid, but, in nowise daunted by that fact, immediately decided to adopt the profession of the law, and entered upon a regular and systematic course of legal study in the office of George N. McConaha, son of the brilliant gentleman who was president of the council for the first session of the Legislative Assembly of Washington Territory. Honorable George N. McConaha then held the office of prosecuting attorney of the third judicial district, which

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which included all of Western Washington north of Thurston county. The duties were necessarily numerous, exacting and important; but so rapidly did Mr. Hanford progress in his studies, and so readily did he adapt himself to the requirements of his newly chosen calling, that he was soon appointed Mr. McConaha's sole assistant, and remained such during the four years he held the office. In that position nearly all the office work devolved upon Mr. Hanford; and it was performed with the accuracy and promptness which have always marked his career.

     On the 2d of February, 1875, he was admitted to the bar at Seattle, and at once entered upon the performance of the duties of an advocate. So marked was his ability in this direction that he was at the first term of his practice intrusted with the leadership in many important cases, in all of which he was successful. In the fall of 1876 he was elected a member of the council, and served in the territorial legislature in that capacity in 1877-78. Although the youngest member of that body, he was chosen president of the temporary organization, and was appointed and served as chairman of the two most important committees, judiciary and corporations. As a legislator he took a leading position. As a debater he ranked among the first; and his keen and accurate judgment was invaluable in shaping the important measures of that session.

     In 1878 he formed a law partnership with the late Colonel Charles H. Larrabee at Seattle, which continued until the latter part of 1880. In 1881 he was appointed assistant United States attorney for Washington Territory, a position which he held under Honorable John B. Allen until 1885, and for about a year thereafter under Mr. Allen's successor, Honorable William H. White, finally resigning to give more attention to his private practice. During this time he had complete charge and conducted the trial of all United States causes in Western Washington. These duties he performed with signal ability and remarkable success. Some of the most important and difficult cases which have ever arisen in the territory of Washington were disposed of by him, and in every instance with credit to himself and satisfaction to the government.

     In 1883 he was elected city attorney of Seattle, and was re-elected in 1884 and 1885. While in that office he devoted much time to the remodeling of the city charter; and many of the most effective and valuable provisions were drawn by him, and their adoption secured by his influence. In 1886, and while he was city attorney, what is known as the Seattle anti-Chinese riots occurred. These originated in an attempt made by certain agitators to forcibly expel the Chinese from the city. This effort was resisted by the city and county authorities; and in the conflict which ensued several of the rioters and one of the city policemen were shot. Mr. Hanford, as the law officer of the city and the legal adviser of Mayor Yesler, took a bold and decided stand in favor of the enforcement of the law, and against any concession to the law breakers; and, when a cal was made upon the citizens to assist the officers in maintaining the peace and protecting the helpless, he shouldered his rifle and served as a citizen soldier until all danger was past.

     In the fall of 1888 he was elected chairman of the Republican territorial central committee; and the Republican territorial central committee; and the remarkable political revolution which took place at the election, by which a territory previously Democratic by over two thousand, five hundred majority was made Republican by nearly eight thousand, was largely owing to his able generalship and untiring devotion.

     On the 12th of March, 1889, upon the resignation of Chief Justice Burke, he was, in obedience to a most urgent and practically unanimous request of the bar of his district, appointed chief justice of the territory. His nomination was confirmed and his commission issued on the following day; and he assumed the duties of his office on the twenty-eighth of that month, thus becoming the last chief justice of the territory of Washington.

     His career on the bench has been one of which anyone might be proud. While prompt and rapid in the dispatch of business, he is ever painstaking and courteous, and is carefully considerate of the judicial acts. He is a firm believer in the efficacy of swift and severe punishment for heinous crimes; and his practical application of this doctrine on the bench has done much to rid his district of the most dangerous part of the criminal element. The clearness and accuracy of statement which distinguished him as a lawyer render his opinions models of terse and vigorous English.

     His decisions are never swayed nor colored by popular clamor or private prejudice, but have always been marked by that some fearlessness in the maintenance of the right which has ever been the most prominent trait of his character. He is a public-spirited citizen, a kind friend and an honorable foe. His life, both private and public, is without a spot. No man as young as he is, in the new State of Washington, has been called to fill so many high posts of trust and honor. He is in the prime of life, well equipped both physically and mentally for the battle to come, and is in the midst of an honorable and useful career; and his future cannot fail to be a brilliant one.

     HON. DOLPHES BRICE HANNAH. - This gentleman is the son of Brice and Celia Tade Hannah, and was born in Gallatin county, Illinois, October 11, 1822. His father, who was a substantial business man engaged in trade and forwarding, died in the spring of 1823, leaving a wife and two children, one boy and one girl. He left considerable estate, consisting of personal property. John McLaughlin and the widow were appointed to administer the estate; and, as usual, McLaughlin did the work, pocketed the entire proceeds of the estate, and then left for parts unknown.

     About two years after the death of young Hannah's father, his mother married Silas Farley, a flatboatman and farmer, by whom she had five children, three boys and two girls. They moved to White county and settled on the Big Wabash river. In the winter of 1833-34 Farley died, leaving a wife and seven children. While living with his step-

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father, young Hannah attended school two terms, one kept by a man by the name of Blackwell, a severe disciplinarian, the other named Buckalew, whom he remembers as an elegant and kindly man. The last expedition of his stepfather on the river proved disastrous, all of his estate being swept away, leaving his wife and seven children without means.

In the spring of 1834 the widow with her family left their former home and rented a small farm, and with the help of her children planted ten acres of corn and vegetables. In the fall of 1834 she sold the crop standing in the field, and moved to Jefferson county, Illinois, and built a cabin in the woods.

During the summers of 1835-36, Dolph worked on a farm and in a brickyard at four dollars a month. In September, 1836, his grandfather, David Tade, came from his home and moved the family to Lee county, of the then territory of Iowa, where they again built a cabin in the woods. They lived poorly through the winter, receiving some timely assistance form General Brown, U.S. Army, stationed at Mount Rose, who was an old friend of the family.

     For several years Dolph was variously engaged running a ferry, a carding machine, as cabin boy, steward, and keeping a hotel, and attending school as he had opportunity. In the fall of 1839 Dolph walked from Fort Madison, Iowa, to Belleville, Illinois, through snow and ice, to attend free school. Mr. Taylor being the teacher. In the year 1840 he returned to Iowa, and between that year and 1843 learned the brick-mason's trade, attending school in the winter. In the winter of 1841-42 his teachers were ladies named Wilson.

     On reaching manhood Hannah rented the ferry at Smith's Mills on Skunk river, Iowa, and ran it for two years. While thus engaged he saw a description of Oregon Territory written by General M.M. McCarver and Peter H. Burnett, which enlisted his interest in the country. He attended a meeting at Fort Madison, Iowa, in the fall of 1844, called for the purpose of organizing an Oregon emigration, and there signed an agreement to start for Oregon the next spring. He left Fort Madison on the 14th of April, 1845, and reached The Dalles on the Columbia river in October. Hannah had outfitted for a hunting expedition across the plains, but soon learned that the long journey could not be made a diversion; so he agreed to drive Mrs. General McCarver's team to Oregon. Their pilot was Joe Meek, who proposed at Fort Boise on Snake river to take them by a southern route into the head of the Willamette valley, Oregon. Mrs. McCarver refused to leave the old trail; so their mess came safely across the Blue Mountains and above The Dalles. They were met by General M.M. McCarver, who had boats ready to take the family down the Columbia river. Hannah was left in charge of the goods and wagons at The Dalles, where a raft was built; and as captain, he took them to the Cascades, where he was relieved by Mrs. McCarver's brother-in-law, Samuel S. White, who had taken the cattle down the trial. He proceeded to McCarver's location on the Tualatin Plains, and made his home with the family until the death of Mrs. McCarver.

     In the summer of 1846 Hannah and Mr. Howland laid the brick walls of the Catholic church at French Prairie, which are still standing. The next winter he made rails, and by the light of fir limbs at night improved himself by study. In the spring of 1847 he made a trip to Puget Sound with a party consisting of John Cogswell, E.R. Scott, Robert Pentland, Sam Knox and Messrs. Williams, Flint and Polly, their object being to engage in the lumber business. At Tumwater they hired Polly Slocum, an Indian chief, with six of his men and a large canoe, to take them through the Sound. At Point defiance an Indian chief met and warned them not to land on Commencement Bay, as trouble had arisen with the Northern Indians. They then visited the wild country surrounding Elliot Bay, also the bay where Port Townsend is located and crossed to Whidby Island, where the Tumwater Indians and the islanders had some difficulty in regard to a debt owed by Polly Slocum and his Indians to the islanders. At one time during the night, while at this camp, matters assumed rather a serious turn; but the difficulty was quietly settled by the party making up the amount necessary to pay the debt due the islanders; so they were allowed to go with their hair. Before reaching Fort Nisqually on their return, they ran out of provisions. While they were passing the southern shores of Commencement Bay, Mr. Flint shot five eagles; and the party landed at Point Defiance, skinned, and cooked the birds, and regaled themselves on patriotic soup. They abandoned their purpose of building a mill and of shipping lumber to the Sandwich Islands, and returned home.

     On his return Hannah was appointed deputy sheriff of Clackamas county, Oregon, by William Holmes, and in the winter attended Judge Thorton's school at Oregon City. On the 18th day of August, 1848, he started with a party for the California mines, reaching Sutter's fort in the latter part of September, and went to the American river to mine. In January, 1849, he left the mines, taking with him three thousand, five hundred dollars in clean gold dust, and went to Sacramento and invested in city property. There McCarver and Hannah built a storehouse and went into the commission business. In February, 1849, Hannah was elected sheriff of Sacramento county, and held the office until California was admitted into the union. He then returned to Oregon City.

In 1855 Hannah enlisted in Company C, of Clackamas county, Oregon Volunteers for the Yakima war. On the organization of this company, James K. Kelley was elected captain and D.B. Hannah first lieutenant. The volunteer companies rendezvoused at The Dalles, where the regulars were concentrated under command of Major Rains. It is not necessary to review this campaign further than to say that Colonel Nesmith's order to Major Armstrong at the Yakima gorge were carried out to the letter. Of the two Indians that were killed, as returned in Colonel Nesmith's report, Lieutenant Hannah killed the first. In the charge through the gorge, Lieutenant Hannah was in the lead; and, when he reached the brush at the junction of the Yakima and Attanum rivers, he urged his horse forward, reached the

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the north bank of the Attanum, and found himself confronted by a number of mounted Indians. He stopped his animal suddenly, and was thrown violently over his horse's head, gun in hand, facing the enemy, but made one good Indian before Major Armstrong came up with the command.

     At this point Major Armstrong ordered a halt. Lieutenant Hannah was on the ground with an empty gun; and, when the Major inquired what he had done, Hannah merely answered that he had made a good Indian, and said, "Major, the Indians are running away." The Major at once ordered the command to charge. The only Indians to be seen were feeling up the Attanum river and across the valley towards the Nahchess. The Major and the command dashed away after them, leaving Hannah behind on the ground reloading his gun in a cloud of dust so dense that nothing could be seen. Lieutenant Hannah did not see Major Armstrong or the command again that day until two o'clock in the afternoon. If Colonel Nesmith and Major Rains had both been present, they could not have prevented the volunteers from following the Indians wherever they went, the order to charge having been given.

     In the spring of 1856 Hannah went into the steamboat business on the Willamette river, following it for a year. He then bought a law library, and studied law at Oregon City. In 1858 he was sent to the legislature, and helped to elect General Joseph Lane and Delazon Smith United States senators He was a member of the first and nearly all the Democratic territorial conventions. On the admission of Oregon as a state, he was appointed United States marshal by President Buchanan, and took the United States census of 1860 of Oregon. From that time until 1872, he was engaged in the land business, going in that year to Tacoma, Washington Territory where he invested in real estate, and has been in that business till the present time.  He was married in May, 1874, to Mrs. Kate E. Wilcox, a daughter of Peter G. Stewart, of Portland, Oregon, by whom he has had four children, three of whom, one boy and two girls, are now living.

     In 1878 he was elected one of the fifteen delegates to the Walla Walla convention, which formed a constitution for the State of Washington. He was county commissioner of Pierce county at that time. He was a member of the city council for Tacoma in 1866-87, and has been several times a delegate to the Democratic territorial convention, and once a candidate of his party for the territorial legislature. Hannah was a member of the committee of fifteen which was appointed by a mass meeting of citizens to persuade the Chinese to leave Tacoma on the 3d of November, 1885. At the beginning of the agitation for the removal, there were about nine hundred Chinese in the city; and they were all persuaded to leave without personal injury or the destruction of property. Since that time there have been no Chinamen in the city or county, except those passing through. For his connection with the removal, Hannah was indicted, with fifty-two other citizens of the county; but they were never brought
to trial, for the reason that the federal courts had no jurisdiction. He is now a prosperous and leading citizen of Tacoma, Washington.

     CAPT. JOHN HARFORD. - This distinguished captain, whose portrait is given here, is now a resident and one of the principal owners of the townsite of Pataha City, Washington, and was born in Westchester county, New York, February 14, 1828. In 1842 he removed to Kendal county, Illinois, and in 1850 journeyed westward to the city of San Francisco. In 1852 he located in Placer county, California, on a ranch where now stands the little city of Lincoln. He removed thence to Marysville, where he engaged in the butcher business until 1855. There he purchased a band of sheep at ten dollars per head which had been driven from Ohio. After the investment, he again became a rancher, and soon afterwards married Miss Maggie Harris, a woman who has proved herself a model wife and mother, and whose kind and winning ways have ever made for her household a home of happiness and love.

     In 1862 the captain removed to San Louis Obispo, where he erected the first wharf and the first warehouse building in that now Port Harford. He also became a member of the firm of Schwartz, Harford & Co., lumber dealers. With a capital of but five hundred dollars each, the partners retired in nine years with a nice little fortune. Captain Harford then commenced building a railroad from Port Harford to the city of San Luis Obispo, and after completing one mile associated himself with the noted steamship firm of Goodall, Perkins & Co. under the firm name of the San Luis Obispo & Santa Maria Valley Railroad Company. This fir constructed a railroad from San Luis Obispo to Port Harford (named in honor of the captain), a distance of nine miles. When the steamship company disposed of their interests in that county, the partner in whom we are interested retired from the business. In 1882, with his wife and two sons, he removed to his present location, and engaged in the banking and milling business. He owns a beautiful home, a commodious bank building, and a roller-process flouring mill, with a capacity of one hundred barrels per day, under the firm name of House & Harford. In connection with the mill, he owns all the water rights and grounds controlled by virtue of the improvement.

     Although never seeking political preferment, he held the office of county commissioner in San Luis Obispo county for four years. This was time spent in laboring for the public welfare rather than for his own public advancement. He was also, for nine years, captain of the port of Port Harford, California. Four children have blessed his married life; Frederick, who is cashier of Harford & Son's bank; Harry, a hardware merchant; Emma, the wife of W.H. Bogardus, a business man of Seattle, Washington; and Maggie, who still resides at his home.

     Mr. Harford has many interesting reminiscences of his trip across the plains, and of the pioneer days in the West and Northwest. Most Americans have heard of a young man who started westward across the plains vowing that he would shoot the first redskin he met. This proved to be an Indian woman; and he promptly put his resolve into execution. For the offense he was captured by the Indians and skinned alive. Mr. Harford was one of a company's train to which the young man

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belonged, and vouches for the accuracy of this almost universally discredited story. The vent occurred on the sink of the Humboldt, August, 1850.

     Honest to a penny, and generous to a fault, Captain Harford has gathered about him a circle of friends only numbered by his acquaintances. He has virtually retired form the active pursuits of life, having amassed a handsome competency, gained wholly by a strict observance of those primary principles which ever carry with them success. His life exhibits a career worthy of honorable regard, and of emulation by all those engaging in business.

     GEORGE W. HARRIS. - This successful business man of  Morrow county was born at Pittsfield, Pike county, Illinois, February 18, 1858. during his minor years he followed the fortunes of his parents, who moved to Iowa in 1860, and four years later crossed the plains to California with ox-teams, locating at Red Bluff. In 1865 they came to Oregon and located at Monmouth. From that date many changes and removals were undergone, including a return to California, a residence at Corvallis and again at Eugene; also a trip across the continent to Missouri, Texas and Iowa, and a return to Oregon, where a home was made at Bethel, Polk county; and in 1880 a final settlement at Pendleton.

     During these wanderings George received a good, common-school education, and upon reaching adult life studied medicine three years with his father with the expectation of taking a full course at some medical institute and receiving a degree, although he never completed the design. Soon after coming to Umatilla county, he began business for himself, making his first effort in agriculture. The winter of 1884 he spent at Portland in attendance upon the business college. With this further equipment for business, he returned to Pendleton and engaged as clerk the following year in a drug store.

     In 1885 he discovered, or made for himself, a suitable opportunity at Lexington, Oregon, and coming hither opened a drug business, which he successfully continues to the present time. He was appointed postmaster in the fall of 1886, and still retains the position. He also handles implements for Frank Bros. of Portland, and deals wholesale in wheat.

     He was married in 1887 to Miss Hattie Powers, and lives with her a most happy domestic life, having one child, Georgie.

     JUDGE M.V. HARRISON. - This early builder of Arlington, Oregon, and highly esteemed gentleman, was born in West Virginia in December, 1857, and in 1865 accompanied his parents to Indiana. He enjoyed educational advantages in a graded school at Dayton, gaining a good foundation for his later studies. In 1877 he began reading law under J.R. Carnahan at Lafayette, Indiana, but after a year abandoned this project and formed the purpose of learning the requirements and forms of mercantile life, and in pursuance of this plan accepted a position as clerk in a store.

     In 1880 he sought a larger life upon our Pacific coast and came hither, locating in the Yakima country. The following year he undertook the hard and adventurous trip back across the Rocky Mountains as one of the drovers of a band of cattle to Cheyenne. In the fall of 182 he returned to our coast, locating at Arlington, where he opened a store, having an excellent assortment of goods, - the first stock of the kind placed in Arlington. In 1883 he disposed of this business and engaged with Mr. J.W. Smith, who had in the meantime brought in a very large stock of goods. In 1883 he established the hardware business, which he still manages with satisfactory results.

     In his public relations, Mr. Harrison has been active and efficient. He has served as councilman in the city of Arlington ever since its incorporation, being at present a member of the board. In December, 1888, he was appointed county judge to fill the unexpired term of W.W. Steiwer. He is a member of the Democratic state central committee. The Judge has been one of the real fathers of Arlington, and one of the most active men to develop the vicinity and surrounding country, ever since there was an attempt in 1880 to build a city here upon the drifting sands by the bank of the Columbia.

     He was married at Lafayette, Indiana, to Miss Sophia Gregory in 1882, and has two children, Dale V. and Lelah E.

     GEORGE E. HARTSON. - The subject of this sketch, editor and proprietor of the Skagit News, was born in Troy, New York, n 1855. While but an infant his parents made a new home in Wisconsin, and nine years later in Iowa. In 1869 they came to California, but almost immediately continued their travels up the coast, coming to a final halt at Coupville, Washington Territory. Young Hartson accompanied them, and at this place made such good use of the public school as to be able at the age of seventeen to engage as teacher; but in 1872 he made a permanent home near Mount Vernon, Washington Territory, purchasing land a mile distant and farming, and in the interim of his new labors plying his old profession as school teacher. He was promoted by the popular voice in 1882 to the position of school superintendent of Skagit county, which he held till 1886. In 1885 he purchased the Skagit News, a paper devoted to the interests of Mount Vernon and Skagit county in particular, and to the Sound at large. With what success he has conducted it, the public already knows. In connection with his newspaper office, he accommodates the public by keeping a stock of books and stationery.

     He was married in 1879 to Miss Matilda Gates, an accomplished young lady and the daughter of the substantial business man, Jasper Gates. There are three children in their family, Ralph, Clifford and Gracie.

     L.B. HASTINGS. - Under the bluffs on the sandbank at the old place that the Frenchmen called La Dalles, in the autumn days of 1847, a company of wayworn immigrants was lying along the river side, the women at the tents, the children playing with the dogs and romping on the shore, and the ponies and cattle feeding upon the mountain. The men were at work day after day a whole

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month, with their axes and hammers, in making a flatboat from the pines that they cut form the hills. This company of sixty wagons had just come out of the infinitely long distance to the eastward; and when the craft, made with the woodman's rude skill, was done, tents, wagons, equipages, women and children were all packed on board; and the clumsy, square-headed barge was set afloat, drifting down the wide river between stupendous mountains. Past Mimmeluse Island and past the beetling crags of Wind Mountain, it approached and reached the dangerous Cascades. Here was the portage. below that was the drifting and rowing to Linnville, and along the thickly wooded shores of the Willamette to the spot where Portland now stands, which consisted then principally of Pettygrove's cabin; while behind it rose the forest giants, "black-stoled, black-hooded, like a dream." These amphibious travelers, or voyagers were LB. Hastings and company, - Hastings, the pioneer of Portland and Port Townsend.

     There are men who would not given a nickel for all that a crow could fly over in a day of such a country as Portland and vicinity appeared to be in 1847. Hastings was not one of these. He bought a lot on the original townsite, and put up a log cabin. His first work was a contract to furnish supplies to the troops on the way to the Cayuse war. The following year the California gold excitement lured the Portlander to set out to dig for his fortune; but a detention of thirty days at the mouth of the Columbia decided him to postpone his trip until the next year. He then made ten thousand dollars in the mines, merchandising, not digging, and invested this capital in our city, purchasing a new stock of goods and buying more lots. But the summer backwater of the Columbia and the dense woods on the shores were proving unhealthful; and in 1852 Mr. Hastings purchased a schooner and embarked for the Sound. F.W. Pettygrove, T.A. Ross, T. Tallantacre and David Shelton with their families, and Mr. Hastings, sailed down the river and around to the Strait, finding a location at Port Townsend, Washington territory. Mrs. Hastings was the first white woman to set foot upon the beach; and the first house in the city was in process of construction. There the Hastings domiciled themselves.

     Beginning now to create a city, Mr. Hastings entered into a partnership with Pettygrove in the merchandising business, and also took a contract for piling for loading vessels. he continued the mercantile business twenty years, until, in 1872, he felt the encroachments of age, and laid upon his sons his public cares. During his long residence there, he assumed his full share of public duties, serving a term in the territorial legislature, and as sheriff, probate judge and treasurer of Jefferson county. Subsequent to 1872 his large property interests required his attention. In 1881 he received a stroke of paralysis, which caused his death the following year.

     He was born in Vermont in 1814, and spent his life on the frontier. The trade which he learned was that of dyer and wool carder; and he also taught school to assist him in acquiring an education. At La Harpe, Illinois, he met and married Miss Lucinda Bingham. Their children are all people of ability and distinction: Oregon C. Hastings, a photographer at Victoria; F.W. Hastings, L.B. Hastings, Jr., and Warren I. Hastings, respectively real-estate dealer, steamboat owner, and attorney at Port Townsend. His elder daughter, Mrs. D.M. Littlefield, also lives at Port Townsend, and the younger Mrs. A.G. Allen at Astoria.

     Through his long and eventful life, Mr. Hastings was in the van of all progressive efforts, and sustained an unblemished reputation.

     M.R. HATHAWAY. - Among the brightest and most popular men on our coast is M.R. Hathaway, adjutant-general of Washington. His character, frank and genial, is strengthened also by a manly reserve and modesty which cause every honor bestowed upon him to repose with double dignity.

     He was born in Kerkimer county, New York, in 1823. Fitting himself as teacher, he found employment in Wayne county. While still but a youth, he removed with his father to Michigan, where his labors alternated between teaching, and opening out a farm. In 1848 occurred his marriage, Miss Maria Smith, of La Porte county, Indiana, being the bride. Three years later he crossed the continent to Oregon, arriving at Portland in the autumn of 1852; and it was here that their little daughter Mary passed from earth. In 1853, he engaged in business as master of the Stevens' ferry, substituting horsepower for the oars.

     In the autumn of that year he removed to Fale's landing, fourteen miles below Vancouver, on the Washington side, and took a claim, and became master of the postoffice there established. In 1854 he was chosen superintendent of public schools of Clarke county, with but eight votes dissenting, and in 1857 was re-elected without opposition. Declining the office in 1860, he was again elected in 1864, serving the county in that capacity nine years, during which the schools increased in number from fur to twenty-five. From 1854, and for many years thereafter, he was teaching at Vancouver, The Dalles, and at other points, everywhere being recognized as one of our most efficient and popular educators.

     When the Indian war broke out in 1855, he enlisted as private in Captain Strong's company of mounted riflemen, and was unanimously elected orderly sergeant. This company was mustered into the United States service, and made an expedition to Strong's battleground, forming a treaty with the Indians. Two scouting expeditions were made north of the Columbia; but, while rendezvousing at The Dalles, General Wool from Vancouver ordered the return of their transports and horses; and the volunteers were compelled to quit the service after what they deemed a most inglorious campaign. But this was not to be the end of Mr. Hathaway's services.

     Governor Stevens, who returned from Fort Benton in January, 1850, was planning a campaign against the Indians early in the spring, with territorial troops. On February 7th he sent for Mr. Hathaway, and tendered him the position of quartermaster and commissary-general, with station at

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Vancouver. The situation was very difficult; and many believed that supplies could not be obtained. The new quartermaster, however, displayed great activity and persistence, and by diligence succeeded in furnishing over one-third of the supplies for the whole territory, gathering them all the way from the Calapooia Mountains to Clatsop Plains, as well as in his own county of Clarke. Nothing needed was rejected, from three pecks of beans up. A difficulty, however, arose with respect to the form of blank used by him in making orders, - a form printed from that of Oregon and adopted by him in accordance with the advice of Governor Curry, Governor Stevens having left the matter with Hathaway. Out of this grew complications which culminated in his resignation.

     Returning to private life, he engaged in business and school-teaching at The Dalles, and in 1857 came back to his claim. It was not easy, however, for him to live a strictly private life, as his neighbors were ever seeking him for some public duty. In 1865 he was elected to the territorial legislature, and served with fidelity and distinction. Disallowing the use of his name as candidate for the territorial council in 1858, and in 1864 and in 1870, he was nominated by the territorial convention of 1876 as joint councilman. Although not a member of the convention, having come out as an independent, and having also two opponents in the field, he received a majority of all the votes cast. Declining the nomination in 1880, he was persuaded to accept a position as adjutant-general, and to this office was elected by a flattering majority.

     From 1881 to 1885, he was in business at Portland, in the employ of the Oregon Railway & Navigation and Northern Pacific Railroad Companies.

     In 1887 he suffered a terrible stroke of paralysis, from which he believes that he will never recover. In his home at Vancouver, in the midst of life-long friends, he looks without dread upon the last changes, and with much of pleasure upon his life-work now done. The life-work of such a man as Mr. Hathaway, however is never ended. It is still active and blessed in our society.

     S.G. HAVERMALE. - Reverend Mr. Havermale, a leader in the business and social circles of Spokane Falls, was born in Maryland in 1824, and removed with his parents to Ohio while but a boy of eight, and at the age of twenty went to Illinois. There he came under religious influences, and undertook the work of preaching the gospel. For twenty-one years he gave his life and strength to his sacred calling. In 1873 he was transferred to Walla Walla, where he preached two years, and in 1875 came to Spokane Falls, Washington Territory. Although having been engaged in ministerial work there, he did not confine himself exclusively to its duties. He took up a claim of one hundred and sixty acres half a mile from the city on the banks of the river. It has not become very valuable. He also entered energetically into the flouring-mill business, erecting a six-story structure on the ground plan of fifty by one hundred feet with a capacity of six hundred barrels per day. His partner in this business is George A. Davis. Mr. Havermale has a family of three children, all of whom are married and in good circumstances.

     Before locating at Spokane Falls he made a thorough investigation of the country form the Snake river to British Columbia, and found no other place so entirely commending itself to him as adapted to meet the requirements of a great center. Its water-power, timber, agricultural and mining advantages leave little to be desired. There, therefore, he lives in a hale age, doing the work of the most active business man at a time of life when "superannuated" is sometimes written after a minister's name.

     MR. AND MRS. GAY HAYDEN. - Prominent among the many pioneers of the Pacific Northwest who deserve an enduring place in its history are Mr. and Mrs. Hayden of Vancouver, Washington, whose heroism under the many difficulties that beset the emigrants who broke the way for advancing civilization on this far frontier will seem to generations yet unborn, who are destined to read these pages, more like the dream of the novelist than a recital of fact.

     Mrs. Mary J. Hayden, who at this writing is a handsome, well-preserved and charmingly vivacious woman, as ready-witted, graceful and gentle as though border life had never been her portion, was born in the year 1830 in Athens, Maine, and spent her early childhood with her grandparents in the town of Cornville in that state. At the age of fifteen Miss Bean emigrated with her parents to the wilds of Wisconsin, where she was married in1847 to Gay Hayden, one of the well-known pioneers of the Pacific Northwest, with whom her lot was cast; and, in the year 1850, they emigrated to that part of Oregon Territory to be known in future as the State of Washington.

     In recounting her experiences in crossing the plains with teams of oxen, Mrs. Hayden says; "We traveled leisurely at first, but wearily, as the roads were bad in early spring, and accommodation for ourselves and teams could be had at night in the spare settlements, through which we thought it safer not to hurry. But, when we launched out in the open prairie beyond the settlements, we enjoyed a sense of freedom and exhilaration born of inexperience and the exuberance of young, untried ambition. At Council Bluffs we remained in camp for about ten days, waiting for the tardy grass to grow sufficiently to sustain our stock. Here we occupied the time in enlarging tents, mending ox-yokes and repairing wagons. We also provided supplies for the long, long journey, and effected an organization of one hundred people for our mutual protection."

     On about the 20th of May the little party took up their line of march up the north side of Platte river, where they soon found good roads and abundant forage, and with perpetual sunshine during the day and terrific thunder-storms at night. During one of these storms the cattle stampeded, leaving them stranded for ten days without teams. They were compelled to abandon half of their stock, which was left behind to be picked up by more fortunate travelers. their wagons were broken by the teams upsetting them; and there was no timber to be procured for repairs except by swimming to an

368                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON

 island in the Platte, where they obtained green cottonwood poles to replace seasoned hickory tongues and axles, with which they moved uncertainly on.

     After reaching the sandhills of the Platte, they made slow progress with their depleted teams. At Fort Laramie they purchased more oxen, paying enormous prices. Here they entered the Flint or Black Hills, where their oxen became so tender-footed that many were unfit for use. The Pawnee Indians, through whose country they laboriously traveled, annoyed them greatly, but offered no bodily harm. The uneventful and yet exciting days sped on until at last they reached Fort Hall. After leaving this fort, the party met for several days an almost continuous band of Indian braves, many of whom were very insolent. They demanded food, blankets, etc.; and at one time Mrs. Hayden was seized by two of them and partially drawn from the wagon in their search for powder, which they were frantically determined to get hold of. But for the timely action of Mr. Barker, Mrs. Hayden's uncle, who was driving the team and who promptly rescued the lady, there would doubtless have been a terrible

     One pleasant afternoon, as they were nearing Salmon Falls on the Snake river, a young Indian came bounding out of the hills, and was suspiciously cordial in his greetings. Walking up to Mr. Hayden, he put his arm around him. Not wishing to be outdone in cordiality, Mr. Hayden returned the compliment; and the two (the white man unsuspecting and the Indian on the alert) walked and talked together as best they could be signs and gestures, when suddenly the Indian turned around and, pointing to the wagon, asked in Chinook. "Konsi Chick Chick, chareo, okoke sun men a loose?" (How many wagons are going this way before the sun goes down?)

     Mrs. Hayden divined the Indian's treacherous intentions, and interrupted her unsuspicious husband by promptly answering, "Twenty," holding up her extended thumbs and fingers twice to denote the number. The Indian being thus deceived as to their real situation broke away and disappeared in the hills as suddenly as he had come; but, upon arriving at camp, the anxious party was delighted to find four or five wagons head of them, although the mythical twenty did not appear, nor did the Indians either.

     Arriving at The Dalles, our emigrants sold their teams and the running gear of their wagon, reserving the bed, with which they constructed a boat to bring them on to Portland. At the Cascades they could not find an Indian or anyone else who would pilot them over the rapids of the Columbia; so they made the portage by hiring a government team to haul their effects, including the novel boat, around the falls, where they launched and embarked, but had to "waup" the wagon bed around several points of rocks before reaching open water. In making one of the portages on this perilous trip, Mrs. Hayden rode on the top of their clumsy boat, which had previously been perched upon a huge government wagon, her lofty, jolting, rocking eyrie carrying her far above the tops of the tall fir trees that rose in the gulch below her. In many places the grade was a narrow, sidelong, slippery wagon track, which the faithful mules trod with human sagacity, as they stick their plinth hoofs among the rocks that guarded the mountain side. After all the danger was over, and the teamster had time to think, he grew nervous and made Mrs. Hayden, who was in poor condition for walking, dismount and make her way afoot over a long stretch of safe and level road, saying he
"couldn't control the team." At Cape Horn the dauntless party rounded the cliffs in their wagon-bed boat, although men experienced in navigating  the Columbia succumbed to a violent windstorm that was raging and tied up their staunch whale-boats till the passing gale had spent its fury.

     After many adventures, our emigrants safely reached St. Johns on the Willamette with their boat and camping outfit, but soon returned to Vancouver, where they were entertained for six weeks by Mr. A.M. Brown, a sturdy pioneer, who with his good wife gave the jaded travelers a hospitable welcome. Here Mrs. Hayden became the proud mother of twins, whose exultant crowings brought added joy to the family's lodge in the wilderness. It was a whole year after the Donation land act became a law of Congress before the welcome news reached these dauntless people on the bo4rder; but they were on the ground ready to take advantage of the law when the tidings came. And Hayden's Island near Vancouver soon became their home. They lived there five years, embracing all the trying period of the Yakima war, during which Mrs. Hayden spent many weeks alone in the forest with her children, her husband being often away on business, and menacing Indians always within sight.

     During all this trying time, Mrs. Hayden went well armed. She became an expert shot through daily practice with her rifle, judiciously exercising her firearms always within sight and hearing of the Indian villagers, being herself the only white woman in the neighborhood who lived outside of forts or stockades, with the exception of Mrs. James Bybee, whose home was three miles distant. But there was one family living on the Lackamas which deserves notice. This was at a point about sixteen miles from Fort Vancouver. The family consisted of a wife and eight or nine children, the husband and head of all this domestic felicity, who owned a valuable horse, having prudently placed himself and horse under the protection of the government guards at the fort.

     After the close of the Indian war, the Haydens removed from their Donation claim of six hundred and forty acres to the town of Vancouver, Washington Territory, where they have ever since resided in the beautiful home they have wrested from the wilderness.

     At the breaking out of the Rebellion, the few ladies who resided at Vancouver formed a very successful sanitary society, in which Mrs. Hayden took a leading part. The survivors of this society, which had contributed to the sanitary fund with phenomenal liberality, formed themselves into a dinner club at the close of the Rebellion, which originally consisted of seventeen members. This club has ever since met annually at the home of someone of their

                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                            369

 number; and all are pledged to meet thus a long as any of them shall remain upon the earth. At this writing the club numbers but eight, the other nine having been called away by the vicissitudes of life and death. At each annual meeting the question as to who shall be left at last to dine alone becomes more and more a serious matter for consideration, as their depleted ranks gather around some hospitable board to
talk of "Auld Lang Syne."

     Mrs. Hayden has imbibed the true spirit of American independence in her years of pioneering, and is an active woman suffragist. During the period when the women of Washington enjoyed the elective franchise undisturbed by the treachery of politicians, Mrs. Hayden served acceptably to herself and the public as a grand juror. She regards the disfranchisement of the women of Washington as an act of unwarrantable jurisdiction over the inalienable rights of the dauntless heroines who risked their lives to defend their homes as pioneers, of which future generations will be ashamed, and asserts that she will never be able to sympathize to any great extent with the disfranchised negro element of the South until the white women of the Pacific Northwest are again placed in the political category as their equals at least, and thereby raised above insane persons, criminals, idiots, Chinamen and Indians not taxed, with whom the carpet-bag judges of the South have recently rated them.

     SIGISMUND A. HEILNER. - This leading merchant, who is described as one of the most energetic, broadminded, and liberal citizens of Eastern Oregon, exhibits in his life that romance of business which has made many of the phases of Western life so fascinating to the young men of our state.

     He was born and educated in Bavaria, and in 1853 came to New York, repairing soon to Washington, District of Columbia, and within two years more to Crescent city, California, and Althouse, Oregon. At that point he was engaged in business, and was there during the war of 1856. As commander of an expedition for packing arms and ammunition to the volunteers, he saw active service, and was barricaded for some time. Upon this packing trip he found one man killed and another wounded by Indians, who had surprised them on the road; and his report of this outrage was the news which precipitated the war in that section. He saw service thereafter under Captain Driscoll.

     In 1865 Mr. Heilner left merchandising, and being unsuccessful in quartz mining came up to Portland in search of an opening. Taking a stock of goods, he set out for the wild region at the Little Dalles, and thence passed to the Big Bend country. Thereafter he penetrated as far as Bear Gulf, Montana, and there disposed of the remainder of his goods. He now showed his facility by taking up a business which he had learned in the Old Country, that of landscape and portrait painting. In this pursuit he was successful; but it did not last long, and he returned to Portland, where he found employment with the Alaska Fur Company.

     Upon his return some years later from the north, he was married to a lady of recognized position in Portland; and he engaged in business at Sparta in Union county, but subsequently removed to Baker City, Oregon, where he is at the present time successfully engaged in the forwarding and commission business, and the renting of several fine business houses. A magnificent design for a structure, in the hands of architect A.M. Milwain of Portland at present, will be erected during the season of 1889 by him; and he is always on the alert for improving Baker City.

     His two oldest sons, Jesse and Joe, are cadets in Bishop Scott's Academy, Portland, Oregon.

     JAS. HENDERSHOTT. - Mr. Hendershott, who became known to the state as a member of our legislature in both branches during the years 1866-72, is now residing upon a beautiful and well-improved farm upon the gently sloping lands described as a "territorial paradise," lying east of Hendershott's point, near The Cove, Oregon. He is engaged in farming and fruit-raising, and in the culture of fine stock and poultry. His is a farm somewhat rare on this coast, where a flock of pea fowls may be seen. His residence is described as 'palatial," and is known as "Forest Home." His mode of life is upon a liberal scale. Many of his experiments are conducted with a view to public improvement and information, since he holds the position of state horticultural commissioner for the fifth district. He is evidently fulfilling his duties in this line with fidelity and efficiency. His three children and six grandchildren live near.

     Mr. Hendershott is, as the name implies, of German extraction, and was born in Illinois in 1829. His parents became early settlers of Iowa; and at Burlington young James received his education. While but a youth of nineteen he was married to Miss Harriet J. Vincent, of Iowa, and in 1852 crossed the plains to our state in the company of Asa McCully, who was in the lead of the other trains, and thereby escaped the plague and disasters for which that year was notable. As salesman of J.L. Starkey, at Salem, in 1852; as pioneer, auditor and sheriff of Josephine county from 1854 to 1860; as scout in the Indian war; as miner on the Salmon river, and as settler of the Grande Ronde valley, whither he first came in1862; as state legislator in 1866, state senator 1868-72 and state land registrar 1872-74, and now as horticultural commissioner, - Mr. Hendershott has made an honorable record, and has served the state with efficiency. He and his excellent wife are noted for their hospitality, and are honored by their neighbors.

     HENRY HEPPNER. - This s the gentleman after whom the city, in which he resides, and of which he was one of the first proprietors, and the builder of the first brick building, has been worthily named. He was born in Germany in1843. He came to New York in 1858 and in1863 via Cape Horn to San Francisco. His first venture was in Shasta, California, in the mercantile business; but after two years he transferred his business to Corvallis, Oregon. Meeting with little encouragement there he opened a stock at The Dalles, doing well

370                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

for six years. As the mines of Idaho were opening out, he projected a trade with that territory. It was no easy matter transporting goods in the troublous times of 1861-63. The great war raging at that time took the attention of the government; and the Indians of the plains and the Upper Columbia became saucy and troublesome. Heppner operated by the Cañon City route. His means of transportation was a train of pack mules. On one of his trips, nearly two years after his commencement of the business, his train of twenty-nine mules was attacked, the animals driven in one direction, and the five men in charge compelled to take shelter in another. Fortunately this mishap occurred on the return trip, when the train was empty. He was able to replace the animals, and continued his business without trouble from the Indians, "except," as he says phlegmatically, "being fired on once or twice." being shot at was so common an occurrence up east of the mountains as scarcely to be noticed.

     In 1874 he quit his arduous business, going to the Grande Ronde. Here he met Colonel Morrow, and together they went down into Umatilla, Oregon, opening up a business at the town since named Heppner. Theirs was the first store. After eighteen months' partnership, Heppner sold out to Morrow, going into business soon with Maddox. In eighteen months he again sold out his interest, intending to retire; but, his neighbors prevailing upon him to remain, he continued on by himself. After three years he took in his partner, Henry Blackman, his brother-in-law, and is now himself engaged chiefly in the forwarding and commission business, which he was first to establish at Arlington.

     As he is not married, and has no children upon whom to leave his name, it was a happy thought of his neighbors to place it upon their city. In the neighborhood, at a meeting held to christen the place, he voted against the motion to name it thus; but the rest carried it over his head, and Heppner it stands.

     GEORGE A. HERBERT. - The parents of George A. Herbert crossed the plains in 1850, locating in Wasco county, where our subject was born January 22, 1860, on Fifteen-mile creek. The early years of George's life were spent on the farm of his father until he reached the age of sixteen years. Previous to this time his opportunities for securing an education were very limited; but afterwards he was able to attend The Dalles Public School during the winter, while he still rode the ranges during the summer.

     In 1879 he commenced a regular course of study at the Oregon State University at Eugene, but owing to failing health was compelled to abandon his education and return to Wasco county. After coming home he accepted a position as clerk in the general merchandise store of Mays & Greer, at Antelope. He remained in their employment until June, 1884, when he went to The Dalles and accepted the position of deputy sheriff under James B. Crossen, then sheriff of Wasco county. At the expiration of Mr. Crossen's term, Mr. Herbert was elected sheriff to succeed him, and in 1888 was re-elected, running on the Democratic ticket and receiving a majority of three hundred and twenty-five in1886, and a majority of two hundred and eighteen in1888.

     Mr. Herbert is one of the most enterprising and popular young men of the county in which he was born, and undoubtedly has a future of still greater distinction and usefulness.

     GEORGE F. HERBERT. - This gentleman and his wife were a venerable couple whose lives as pioneers in our state, and as citizens of great merit in social, religious and business life, have made them well known and highly respected in the entire circle of their acquaintances. Mr. Herbert was born in Frederick County, Virginia, in September, 1815. Mrs. Herbert (Elizabeth) née McCormick, was born May 1, 1818, in the same state. They were married in 1838, and emigrated to the frontier of Illinois, where they remained until 1842, when they moved to Iowa, making a second prairie home.

     In 1850 they yielded to the impulse, then very strong throughout the prairie states, to cross the continent, and securing an outfit, made the great journey to Oregon with Captain Williams' train. Arriving within the limits of our state, they made their first home at The Dalles, living all the first winter in a tent. This first winter of their life in our state they met with the great loss of their eldest son, James Ambrose, a lad of thirteen. By this sad event much of their pleasure and enthusiasm in founding a home in the new West was for a time overshadowed. The next year they removed to Eugene, Lane county, engaging in farming and stock-raising, but in 1856 returned to Wasco county and located on the beautiful little steam known as Fifteen-mile creek, which waters that section of the country lying south and east of The Dalles. Here they made and improved a home and farmed until the death of Mr. Herbert in1868. Mrs. Herbert there-upon removed to The Dalles in order to afford her children the advantages of a school, and has resided there to the present time, - a noble and venerable lady, meriting the honor of a life
given, with that of her husband, to the upbuilding of our great state.

     GEORGE HERRALL. - This prominent figure in the business circles of the metropolis of the Pacific Northwest, the
connections of whose house are co-extensive with the mercantile interests of the whole boundless Pacific coast and western
world, and the designation of whose industrial activity is imprinted universally in all our Pacific Northwestern commonwealths,
dates the hour of his nativity to the year 1832, and looks back far across the water to the populous state of Baden, a potent
political unit in the vast empire of Germany, to the scenes of his birthplace, childhood, youth and early manhood; for it was
there that he imbibed the principles of industry, thrift, perseverance, economy and shrewdness for which his countrymen and the
people of his vast nationality have from the most remote times been distinguished. There, by the wise counsels of his father, and
by the sagacious choices of his own as yet immature but nevertheless penetrating mind, he was thriftily set to learn the trade of
brewing and of coopering, thus laying the

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