History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 371 - 390

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP


                                                                                        BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                    371

foundation for the golden reward that was to await him in our metropolis of the Northwest. In 1850 he went to France, working at his trade.

     In 1853, leaving the narrow bounds and crowded life of the old world, he crossed the broad ocean to the majestic shores of America, the land for the enterprising, shrewd and noble of every nation. The ship upon which he made the memorable voyage was designated by the suggestive appellation, Yankee Plate, plying then across the brine from Havre to New York. Not satisfied with the Eastern states, but following the admonition of the sun to move west, he pushed out to Illinois, the giant state of the prairie; and, being once in the stream of surging American enterprise, he could not long be confined within the valley of the Mississippi, but was born on to the land of the setting sun, to California, the country whose rivers run with sands of gold. It was in 1854 that he made this adventurous trip; and, within only one more year, he was borne by the irresistible tides of enterprise to the fairer shores of Southern Oregon. There, on Althouse creek, he swung the pick and rocked the "long tom" obtaining by labor in snow-cold streams, and under a burning sun, the yellow metal for which civilized man will often lay down his life. In the fearful time resulting from Indian horrors and atrocities, he fled for safety to Crescent City, and bore a brave part in supplying pack trains for troops from Crescent City to Chetco, Rogue river, Port Orford and Coquille.

     In 1862 he came to the busy little city by the Willamette, with the dark-green hills at her back, and the diamond-glittering crown of snowy old Hood in front, who stands as the silent, immovable, everlasting signet of the imperial destiny which awaits the city whose skirts and shoreline trail in the waters of the river that receive the snow-cold springs of the imperial mountain. A career in Idaho was only sufficient to prove that here at Portland, upon the banks of the Willamette near its confluence with the Columbia (down the waters of both of which must flow the wealth of empire, and down the rails of steel set by man along their shores must pour the tides of human industry), would rise the greatest city of the Northwest. here, therefore, Mr. Herrall set his business stake, and entered upon his vast enterprises with such success that he is now at the head of the universally known United States Brewing Company, and a man everywhere held in high esteem.

     HENRY HEWITT. - Many differences have been developed in respect to the particulars of the immigration of 1843 which can be reconciled only by making allowances for the natural discrepancies of memory with regard to events long since passed, and to the fact that the different companies and sections of the whole immigration had different experiences, and that the few survivors are not likely to have seen nor heard precisely the same things. Each of the various accounts may be given as each pioneer remembers it to have occurred; and each will have its own interest and value. It was to this immigration that Mr. Hewitt belonged.

     He was born in Huntington county, Pennsylvania, but, going to Missouri at the age of sixteen, made his home near that of a Mr. Matheny. There becoming acquainted with the pioneer's daughter Elizabeth, one year his junior, he was married to her three years later. The next year, 1842, he met a mountaineer who had been in Oregon and who, by his long stories of adventures and accounts of the wonders of the West, set fire to his imagination and so filled him with the idea of coming here, that he talked with all his friends to induce the formation of a large Oregon company; and, indeed, he held a public meeting, at which as many as thirty-six men signed a paper promising to make the journey the next season. All but six of this number, however, receded from the agreement; and Hewitt himself, not feeling certain that the company would go through, and remaining on account of his family, did not go to the rendezvous. Relying on the promise of his comrades that he would be informed of the forward movement, he was, nevertheless, left behind, greatly to his disappointment. Making arrangements, however, to cross the country the next year, he raised a small company, and was on time at the rendezvous, joining the first great emigration with Applegate, Burnett, Martyn, Lennox, Waldo and others.

     Soon after starting, their great care was to march in such fashion as to be able to resist an attack of the Indians, of whom they had a wholesome dread. To this end they drove in four columns, some thirty wagons in each, at such a distance apart as to easily form a hollow square in case of an attack, with a place for their herds within. But this plan, which we find mentioned first by Mr. Hewitt, proved cumbrous; and it was also wearisome to the animals to break four separate roads. It is not possible to preserve much order in crossing the streams; and at every ford each column must wait until all were over. To handle the large bands of cattle in any such way was also difficult. The train was therefore divided into three companies, each with its own captain. In the crossing of the South Platte, usually said to have been effected by means of chaining all the teams together and passing over in solid column, Mr. Hewitt speaks of a large part making the crossing by putting buffalo robes underneath the wagon beds, thereby transforming them into boats, while men waded alongside of these amphibious crafts to propel and guide them. At the North Platte he speaks of canoes being obtained and lashed two and two, into which the wagons were rolled with
the wheels on one side in one of the canoes, and the wheels of the other side in the other; and by this ferriage the crossing was accomplished. Doubtless these different methods were all tried in different places or by different companies.

     Our pioneer speaks of the efficient services of the Pilot Gant to Green river, and of Whitman's guidance the rest of the way, - how the Doctor hastened on ahead of the train from Fort Hall, leaving directions tacked up all along the road, and also sent back to them an Indian guide, the faithful old Sticcus, to meet them in the Grande Ronde and pilot them through the Blue Mountains. Mr. Hewitt himself kept the lead over this difficult



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 range, and was the first to drive a wagon, with the exception of Whitman's old vehicle in 1838, from the summit into the vast Columbia basin that lay before the desolate plain. On the way to The Dalles, however, Lenox gained the lead, Hewitt coming in second.

     The trip from The Dalles was by water; and the cattle were driven along the south shore, but were crossed over to the north side at Wind Mountain, taken thence to Vancouver, and were swum back to the south side at Sauvie's Island. Hewitt selected a home in Washington county, but the next year went up the valley to the Yamhill, buying the Joseph McLaughlin place, which had been first taken in 1832 and was the oldest farm on the west side of the Willamette. This has been Mr. Hewitt's home for nearly half a century. Here he has farmed and borne his share in building up the community, and has reared his family of ten children, all of whom are still living; and all but the eldest, his only daughter, Anna Eliza, are natives of this state.

     Of all his reminiscences of early times, none are more pleasant than those that relate to Doctor McLoughlin. Whoever came to this venerable father of our state in need of any kind, whether for food or clothing, paid to him what money or wheat he could bring with him, and got the supplies. If the pay were enough to square up, it was all right. If the settler had little or nothing, and the pay were insufficient, it was all right also. The Doctor divided with the pioneers, and waited for them to pay their bills when they were able. Some never became able; and the Doctor thereby lost some twelve thousand dollars.

     Mrs. Hewitt is no less a pioneer than her husband, having been born in Owen county, Indiana, in 1823, moving at an early age to Illinois with her parents, and afterwards to Platte county, Missouri. She has thus seen all the life of the West.

     FLEMMING R. HILL. - Mr. Hill's experiences have been so varied and extensive, and his services on this coast so valuable, that we can here give but enough to serve as specimens.

     He was born in Overton county, Tennessee, in 1824. In 1829 he accompanied his parents west to a new home in Missouri, and in 1844, was ready for adventures of his own account. With three companions he set forth to the Rocky Mountains, but at the rendezvous left their enterprise, and joined himself as teamster to a train of emigrants bound for Oregon.

     The trip across the plains was varied with many exciting and amusing incidents. Being weather-bound a day at Ash Hollow, a few hours were spent in exploring a cave filled with bones, said to be those of a party of trappers killed by the Indians.  At the north fork of the Platte, Mr. Hill had a very narrow escape. After the train had crossed the ford, it only remained to cross the cattle. When this was commenced, it was found that one of the company was on foot and unable to get over. Hill offered to lend him his horse, and to take the chances of crossing upon one of the cattle. The cattle entered the river by a buffalo trail, which made a deep cut in the bank of the stream. As the last part of the stock was entering the river, Hill jumped from the bank of the cut upon the back of an unbroken five-year-old steer. The ox, of course, was surprised, and stampeded the whole band. Mr. Hill rode the animal to the other bank in safety, while his companions were anxiously watching with the
expectation of seeing him drowned or trampled to death.

     While in the Rocky Mountains, he and several others were left behind hunting; and not daring to return after the train, which was usually followed by prowling bands of Indians, they made a détour through "Devil's Gate," and over some of the most difficult rocks that a horse ever clambered across. One of the most exciting scenes resulted from a young man's shooting a buffalo bull which had taken up with the loose cattle. The infuriated animal charged the train, tossing the dogs right and left and into the air, and receiving without immediate effect a shower of bullets. Backed up against the wagon, and keeping everything at bay, he was at length dispatched. At the crossing the Des Chutes the oxen having become weakened by long travel, were unable to resist the strong current. One team, drifting down to a bar next the Columbia, had the wagon overturned; and only by the exertions of Mr. Hill was a young lady, the daughter of his employer, rescued from drowning. Here he himself lost his invaluable buffalo gun.

     Arriving in Oregon, he took up the various pursuits or occupations which promised some return, taking a claim also on the Tualatin river, and busying himself at Oregon City. In 1847 he enlisted in Captain Owen's company to punish the Cayuses, and had some desperate experiences in this war, participating in the fights at the Des Chutes, on the Tukanon and on the Touchet.

     Just before the fight at the Des chutes, the men were drawn up in line and counted off, every seventh man being detailed to guard the train. Hill drew number seven; but as a young man named Manly Curry, who had drawn number six, had an excellent rifle, Hill offered to exchange numbers with him if he would also exchange guns. The offer was accepted, and Hill became one of the fighting men. While the company were in line of battle, Hill saw an Indian coming down the opposite mountain on horseback. Without orders Hill broke ranks, and ran forward to an intervening gulch bordered by willows in order to intercept the Indian. On arriving at the opposite bank of the gulch, finding that the Indian was too far off to run towards him, he thought he would get within range before the Indian could climb the mountain, and ran across a small plain to intercept him. When he was discovered running across the little prairie, Colonel Gilliam and the whole command called to him to come back. Hill, however, continued the chase until he thought he was within reach, when he fired and knocked the Indian off his horse. Hill
made his escape to the gulch in safety under a very heavy fire from the Indians.

     At the Tukanon he was one of the charging party to save the life of the interpreter, Mungo, who was wounded and downed among the Indians. The



                                                                                      BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                373

 rest of the party failed to charge; and Hill, finding himself alone, saved his life only by falling from his horse upon the sand as if shot, and at an unobserved moment drawing his gun and shooting the Indian who was about to finish the killing of Mungo; and springing on his horse to ride away. This diversion as of a dead man coming to life confused the Indians and allowed the others to save the interpreter.

     Mr. Hill was one of the party to escort Reverends Ells and Walker out of the Indian country; and, after a winter and spring of adventures, he returned to the Willamette valley and was honorably discharged. As to the affiliations of the Indians during the trouble, and the responsibility of war, Mr. Hill says: "I made up my mind from what I saw during the campaign that if I had been a 'King George' man I could at any time have gone into the hostile camp with perfect safety. all may draw their inference."

     He was among the first to go to the California mines in company with Nesmith, Ford, Judge Locke and others, and was among the number to purify Placerville of robbers, - making the name "Hangtown" appropriate, - and serving notice that that was the place where felons might expect to hang. The proceedings by which four desperadoes were executed were orderly. The trial was conducted by lawyers on both sides, and the verdict rendered by lawyers on both sides, and the verdict rendered by the entire community as jury. Returning to Oregon in 1851, he selected a claim at Wilbur, in a delightful valley, and has made this his home to the present time.

     In a public capacity Mr. Hill has ever been at the fore, having been the chairman of the convention to organize Douglas county, and in the following year was elected sheriff. He has also served as postmaster a number of years, but is at present occupied in keeping a hotel. He was married in1853 to Miss Belinda Reed, daughter of Doctor Reed, the pioneer of 1850, who built the first sawmill in Douglas county. Their two daughters are both married, and are living in Oregon.

     HON. ROBERT C. HILL. - Mr. Hill, one of the most responsible men of Washington, and a pioneer of an early day, was born in Hatboro, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1829, the son of Doctor John Hill, his mother's maiden name having been Eliza L. Davis. At the age of seven he moved with his parents to Philadelphia, and received his education at the excellent grammar and high schools of that city. He entered upon a business career as clerk in a wholesale dry-goods store in the city, and followed that occupation four years. In 1848 he removed with his parents to New Jersey.

     In 1850, with his father and two brothers, he came to the new empire on the Pacific shore, making the trip via Panama, and arriving in San Francisco on board the steamer New World in July. In partnership with his father he opened a lumber yard at that city, and a year later tried the fortunes and vicissitudes of life in the mines, but shortly afterwards accepted a position as manager of the ranch of his brother in Sonoma valley, Seeking for something better to the north, he arrived at Whidby Island in February, 1853, and found located there his brothers Nathaniel D. and Humphrey, who had located in the fall of 1852. He took an adjoining place, and with them went to the Indian war. In 1862 he returned to California, and in that state and in Nevada engaged in the hazardous business of mining, remaining thus occupied with the exception of one year spent at the East, until 1867. Coming back to Whidby in that year, he lived there an active and useful life, until in 1882 he broadened his business connections by a removal to Fort Townsend, and establishing with Colonel Henry Landes the First National Bank. In that city
he has a large property interest, and is always ready to assist in undertakings which work to the advantage of the place, ever preserving a clear and large business outlook.

     In public positions of trust and responsibility, Mr. Hill has been much sought, having been appointed, by Judge Fitzhugh, clerk of the United States district court of the third judicial district, and in 1869 was elected auditor and probate judge of Island county, holding that position until by reason of his removal to Port Townsend he was obliged to resign. a Democrat, he has of late years engaged in politics, only with a view to the conservation of the public good, and without personal ambition for office.

     He was married at Olympia, February 21, 1875, to Miss Elizabeth Philipps, a native of Canada, and has a family of three children. We insert here with great pleasure the portrait of Mr. Hill as a man upon whose sagacity and public spirit the people of the Lower Sound greatly rely.

     HON. WILLIAM LAIR HILL. - The distinguished lawyer, author, versatile writer and thorough student whose name introduces this sketch was asked to furnish such data as might contribute in its production; and he diffidently and reluctantly responded. Among other hastily prepared notes, he answered: "Have lived an honest a life as my environments seemed to allow, mainly for the reason that, according to my hereditary creed, one who is not at least indifferently honest, cannot be very happy. In all my laborious life the one single fact in which I have the slightest pride is that, like Jim Bludsoe, I 'never flunked,' even when I thought the laboring oar in work or responsibility was unjustly given me."  Again: "Was a radical Republican from the time of the organization of that party, but really had no particular views on politics except bitter hostility to slavery."

     As to his literary tastes, he said: "I have always had a passion for the study of languages; and, though I never had proper advantages at school to gratify that desire, I have employed numbers of private tutors, and have given much time to the acquisition of that branch of learning. I have a reading knowledge of Greek, Latin, French, German, Spanish and Italian, though I will not pretend to any great proficiency or degree of scholarship in any of them. I have been an incessant worker all my life. I have no faith in any genius but that genius which



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owes its existence to persistent, concentrated and methodical labor, nor in any gospel that promises success without unremitting toil. I put no trust in the advice of a lawyer, physician or statesman, nor in the learning of that scholar or scientist who finds time in summer to go yachting, or who seeks the genial climate in winter." He then sums up: "That is all there is of the man; and 'tis not much. It stands his works and his tastes procterea nihil."

     Such are his own views of his great individuality, - a patient, steady worker, not an idler, - nothing more. Those who have the privilege of acquaintance with the man will accept those phrases as illustrative of him, and characteristic of his walk through life. Industrious, fearless, honest, frank, independent of the world's opinion, at times even brusquely so, not to say cynical, he has made himself distinguished for erudition in the legal profession, for painstaking and exhaustive examination of every subject engaging his attention or committed to his care. Despising the concealment of expression, he avoids all rhetorical art or indirectness of language. His legal opinions and theses, his editorial contributions and articles, his many addresses upon almost every branch of knowledge, are models of perspicuity of expression, vigorous, thought, and are exhibitions of conscientious care in investigating the truth, justice or right, and in reaching the legitimate conclusion.

     This busy life of work was ushered into existence August 20, 1838, at a plantation in Southwestern Tennessee, just across the river from that memorable historic field which will be known as "Shiloh" in the ages to come. His father was there and then (later in Oregon) a prominent physician, and also an active Baptist clergyman. Our subject, as he himself claims, was a pioneer by heredity, his father coming of that stock of pioneers who carried civilization from the Carolinas across the Blue Ridge into the wilds of Tennessee. His mother was a descendant of the Huegenot Lairs who abandoned Normandy, and assisted in the colonization of the Atlantic seaboard, to escape persecution for opinion's sake, and again migrated westward with that first installment of pioneers who crossed the Alleghanies, to hew away the forest of Kentucky, and there establish the homes of civilization.

     Lair Hill in early life received just that little start in school-learning which the old-fashioned subscription schools of the Southern and Southwestern States a half-century ago afforded. To him, however, it was a start; and later in years, after he had arrived in Oregon, he appreciated his improved opportunities in the district school at the Jefferson Institute, at Jefferson, Oregon, and at the College at McMinnville, of which he was a student from 1857 to 1859, inclusive. An institution, by the way, which his father was most active in founding and sustaining, and of which the Reverend George C. Chandler was president, and whose daughter subsequently became the wife of Mr. Lair Hill. Mr. Hill made the most of all these opportunities; but to himself and his continuous and systematic pursuit of study, rather than to any institution, is due his great scholarly attainments and wealth of knowledge, not only in his adopted profession, but in history, belles lettres and almost every branch of useful learning.

     The father of Mr. Hill crossed the plains in 1850 for California, and in 1851 visited the Willamette valley, remaining there until 1852,when he returned in 1853 to Tennessee for is family. He was an old-time Wig, and took an active part in politics so far as advocating the moral aspects of political questions. His son was thus stimulated to an ardent interest in the political issues of the day, and as early as his eighteenth year commenced to make political speeches when opportunity offered. That time marks the formation of the Republican party, - the nomination of its first national candidates, Frémont and Dayton. Although of Southern birth, young Hill espoused the Republican cause, seeking no better excuse than his unrelenting and bitter opposition to the institution of human slavery. When the Oregon state constitution, framed by the convention of 1857, was submitted to the people for ratification, although but nineteen years of age, he wrote and spoke against its adoption because of the presence of the alternative article, which provided that Oregon should become a slave state should a majority of the people so vote, by favoring the separate article, which provided: "Persons lawfully held as slaves in any state, territory or district of the United States, under the laws thereof, may be brought into this state; and such slaves and their descendants may be held as slaves within this state, and shall not be emancipated without the consent of their owners."

     The vote polled was 10,400 of which 7,700 was against the separate article, a majority for a free state of about 5,000. In 1860, the first election after he had attained majority, he took an active part in the presidential canvass in his county, zealously supporting Abraham Lincoln. He had commenced the study of the law in the office of George H. Williams (of national reputation as a jurist, lawyer and statesman, and who has added luster to the offices of senator, cabinet officer and foreign ambassador), and was admitted to practice in1861. Checkered to some extent has been his career, at times seeking other fields in which to devote his energies; yet Mr. Hill early, steadily and almost immediately gained a prominent rank at the bar, and has maintained it, until his reputation as a great constitutional lawyer had become national.

     Early in the war of the Rebellion he became a civil employé in the army, accepting service under Major Benjamin Alvord, Paymaster U.S. Army, department of the Columbia, who subsequently was made paymaster-general United States army, and was succeeded by Simeon Francis, who was transferred from the editorial chair of the Oregonian to the office of United States paymaster, department of the Columbia, with headquarters at Fort Vancouver, with the rank of major, United States army. While Mr. Hill was attached to the paymaster's department, under Majors Alvord and Francis, he paid the troops at Forts Hoskins, Yamhill, Umpqua, Dalles, Walla Walla, Lapwai and Colville. But he was not content alone with that service. During the war his active pen was enlisted; and he contributed constantly to several newspapers



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articles in support of the war, and suggestive of the policy to be pursued. Many of those articles were of remarkable force and ability, and attracted the public attention. He also made many speeches at war meetings and at conventions called to support and encourage Union measures. He was among the earliest and most persistent of the advocates of emancipation of the slaves of the rebellious states, urging it
on as the plain and practical method to save the Union, as a war measure, and at the same time to purge the nation of a crime against humanity and civilization in general, and republican civilization in particular.

     From 1864 to 1866, inclusive, he held the office of judge of Grant county, Oregon. In the latter year he returned to Portland, adopted that city as his residence, and entered upon the practice of the law. In 1872 he assumed the editorial charge of the Oregonian, in which he continued with marked ability for about five years, when his health, which had always been feeble, failed him. In search of health, he went east of the Cascade Mountains, selecting The Dalles as his place of residence, and there resuming and actively engaging in the practice of his profession. He continue to reside in that city until 1886. In 1870, without solicitation upon his part, Mr. Hill was tendered by President Grant's administration the appointment of associate justice of the supreme court of Washington Territory, which he declined. Again, a similar appointment for Idaho Territory was offered, which he declined, recommending for the place Honorable W.C. Whitson, who received the appointment and died during his term of office.

     While residing at The Dalles, between 1872 and 1886,Mr. Hill delivered numerous addresses and lectures mainly upon educational and social subjects before colleges, societies and general audiences. To his labors and influence perhaps, more than any other person, may be attributed the building up of the Wasco Academy at The Dalles, now one of the most flourishing institutions of learning in the state of Oregon. In 1880, during the presidential canvass, Mr. Hill took a very active part, addressing in the interest of the Republican nominee. In 1882 he was equally zealous in support of the election of Governor Moody and the Republican ticket; and in 1884 he made numerous speeches in support of the election of James G. Blaine. He was never idle when work presented itself for him to do.

     In 1886 Mr. Hill went to San Francisco to supervise the publication and issue in two volumes of the codes and general laws of the State of Oregon, compiled, rearranged and annotated with reference to the judicial decisions of Oregon, of the other states and of the federal courts. Upon that work, which gives evidence of exhaustive labor and wonderful accuracy and study, Mr. Hill may rest his reputation for future fame. Nor is it disparaging to the labor of other distinguished codifiers and compilers of the laws of Oregon to say that the "Hill Codifications" is the authoritative compilation in use in the State of Oregon. This work completed, and Mr. Hill being in nowise enamored of California as a place of residence, he removed to Seattle in January, 1889, where he has since resided, and where he is recognized as a leader among the very able bar of that city.

     Upon the passage by Congress of the Enabling act to admit Washington as a state into the federal union, Mr. Hill commenced the publication of a series of very able and instructive articles in a number of the Washington territorial journals, urging the adoption of a judicial system for the new state which would make its courts a means of administering justice rather than the mere forum for technical disputation. He advocated that plan which has been engrafted in the Washington judiciary system of vesting all jurisdiction, civil, criminal and probate, legal and equitable, in the same courts, and abolishing terms of the court, with all the technical learning pertaining to the subject. His valuable disquisitions on constitutional law, his citing those instruments of the various states, and his comments on the difference of fundamental provisions, where in keeping with all his labors for the past quarter century to simplify the practice in courts, to secure needed reforms to weed out old errors, and to give commons sense and right reason their proper influence.

     Mr. Hill is now in the vigor of manhood. He has a large and growing practice, and is recognized as an authority on every question of constitutional law; and none more than he enjoys the confidence of the state in which he lives as the able jurist, sound lawyer and exemplary citizen.

     REV. GUSTAVUS HINES. - Gustavus Hines was born in Herkimer county, New York, in 1809. On his mother's side he was descended from the Carvets and Wilkensons of the old Massachusetts colony, and on his father's from the Hopkinns of Rhode Island, all names of the highest respectability and even celebrity in the early history of New England. Governor Carvet of Massachusetts colony, and Stephen Hopkinns, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, were of the same families. he grew to his majority in the county of his birth, and in 1832 removed to Cattaraugus county, in the western part of the same state, and soon after entered the itinerant ministry of the Methodist-Episcopal church in the Genesee conference. He filled important appointments in that conference until 1839, when he was appointed by Bishop Hidding and the missionary board of said church as "Missionary to Oregon," and sailed from New York on the 9th of October of that year in the ship
Lausanne, Spaulding master, which had been chartered by the missionary board to convey Reverend Jason Lee and his missionary company of thirty-six souls to the Columbia river. Passing around Cape Horn, calling at Rio Janeiro, Valparaiso and Honolulu, the company landed in Oregon at Vancouver on the 1st day of June, 1840.

     Oregon was then almost exclusively inhabited by Indians. The only exceptions were the gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, perhaps fifty Americans who had drifted down from the mountains or drifted up from the seas, and the small company of missionaries then established in the heart of the Willamette valley, about twelve miles below the



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present city of Salem. With the exception of the band of missionaries, the Whites of the country were so allied in modes and purposes of life to
the Indians, and were so connected with them, that it would hardly be correct to call them a whit population, especially if in that term we understand to be included home and church and school, the symbols and fruits of a christian civilization. Of these there were absolutely none, except in connection with the Methodist mission station before mentioned.

     Entering upon his work in such a field as this, Mr. Hines was first detailed by the superintendent of the mission, Jason Lee, to explore the region of the Umpquas with a view of establishing a mission among them. There was not then a house, nor a single sign of civilization, south of the "old mission." Rumors of the hostile and treacherous character of the Umpquas reaching the mission, Mr. Lee decided to accompany Mr. Hines on his tour of exploration. With a guide they proceeded up the great but then wild Willamette valley, crossed the Calapooia mountains, descended the Umpqua river to the sea, and in the midst of the greatest personal peril accomplished the purpose of their explorations, but decided that the Indians were too free and too untrustworthy to justify the establishment of a mission among them. Returning, Mr. Hines was appointed to the superintendency of the Indian Manual Labor School, afterwards the Oregon Institute and later the Willamette University. It was largely under his influence that the present site of the university was chosen for the erection of the Manual Labor School. He erected the first house built in Salem, the present capital of the State of Oregon. It was known many years as "The old Parsonage."

     In 1843 Mr. Hines was put in charge of the Willamette Falls mission, and built the parsonage and church yet occupied by the Methodists at the present Oregon City. He planted some fruit trees in that year, some of which are yet standing in the lot near the parsonage, green and vigorous and fruitful, long after the hand that planted them has withered into dust.

     In the autumn of 1843 occurred an incident that illustrated the determined and fearless character of this pioneer. A fine saddle horse of his had been stolen during the spring; and he had given it up for lost. In the autumn a band of two hundred Mollala and Klamath Indians, painted and insolent, camped in the Clackamas bottom about two miles from the Falls; and a friendly Clackamas Indian informed Mr. Hines that his stolen horse was among theirs. At mid-day, when the Indians were all in their camp, he mounted another horse, and taking a lariat in his hand rode alone in the midst of the grim and painted warriors, and throwing the lariat over the neck of the stolen horse led him out of the camp, not an Indian daring to interfere with him.

     While residing at Oregon City, the then only Indian agent west of the Rocky Mountains, Dr. Elijah White, solicited Mr. Hines to accompany him on a tour to the interior to assist in appeasing an intense excitement then agitating the Cayuses and Nez Perces on the Walla Walla, Umatilla and Clearwater rivers. Several were engaged to accompany them; but, when the time of departure came, all refused to go; and Doctor White and Mr. Hines, against the protest and advice of Doctor McLoughlin, and all the gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, were left to go alone or leave the missions stations of Doctor Whitman at Waiilatpu and Mr. Spaulding at Lapwai without an effort to save them from threatened extermination, and all the scattered settlements of the Willamette valley from most imminent peril. By canoe to The Dalles and then on horseback, they went among these fierce tribes, met and treated with their chiefs, such as Yellow Serpent, the Peu-peu-mox-mox of the Indian war of 1855-56, Five Crows, Red Wolf, Ellis Lanitan, and thus averted for some years the tragedy at Waiilatpu and the long Indian war which followed it.

     In 1845 Mr. Hines returned to New York by the way of the Sandwich Islands, China and South Africa, and resumed his labors in the Genesee conference, where he remained until the winter of 1852, when he was again transferred to Oregon, and crossed the plains in the summer of 1853, reaching Portland early in October of that year. His work in Oregon subsequently had a very wide range, and was of a very diversified character. He was stationed at Salem, Albany, Lebanon and The Dalles, and was also presiding elder of districts that embraced all the country on the Columbia river and southward to California west of the Cascade Mountains. He pursued his work with indefatigable industry and the most conscientious faithfulness; and few indeed are the men of any denomination of Christians on this coast who had more seals to their ministry, or have left a sweeter memory behind them then he.

     Mr. Hines was more than a minister; he was a public man in the best and broadest sense. He bore a very important part in the first attempts to establish civil government in Oregon; and the history of its organization cannot be written without honorable mention of his name. He wrote largely of and for Oregon, publishing two books, one entitled, "Missionary Expedition to Oregon," and the other "Oregon and its Institutions," which were very widely circulated, and exerted a great influence in favor of the land he loved so well. He was a leading trustee, patron and friend of the Willamette University in all the stages of its development until his death. He visited the older states, and lectured widely on Oregon and the Pacific coast.

     Mr. Hines was naturally and essentially a pioneer, with a magnificent physique, great physical strength, indomitable will, a voice of great compass and force, and with an intellect of more than ordinary power. He was splendidly equipped by nature for the part he was called on to fill in laying the foundations of civilization and christianity on the shores of the Pacific. He died in Salem, Oregon, in 1873, leaving an enduring mark on the history of his state and church.

     ALANSON HINMAN. - The career of this well-known pioneer, whose portrait appears herein, has been unique and
interesting; and in one respect, at least, he occupies at the present time a peculiar place among the early settlers of our country.
That is, he is almost the only man yet living, of the earliest pioneers, who still remains in the full vigor



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of mind and body. There are, indeed, a few yet living whose immigration dates further back than Mr. Hinman's; but they are almost all now in extreme old age. He, on the other hand, though he has now been here forty-five years, came so young, and is possessed of so robust
health, that he is still as active in body and as accurate in memory and judgement as ever. This gives a peculiar value to his historical reminiscences. And when every phase of our development, educational, commercial and political, we can readily see what important contributions it is in his power to give to history.

     Mr. Hinman was born in New York on the first day of May, 1822. In 1842 his active and enterprising mind caught the great westward movement of the times; and he went to seek his fortune in Iowa. His first work was one to which he subsequently devoted much attention, i.e., teaching. Two yeas having passed in this line of life, the farther and then unknown West, the ultima thule of the adventurous spirits of the border, far-off Oregon, excited his interest; and thither in the spring of 1844 he turned his face. This was the second large immigration, consisting of eight hundred souls, of whom two hundred and fifty were able-bodied men.

     The immigration of the preceding year, under the guidance of Doctor Whitman, had demonstrated the possibility of taking wagons through to the Columbia. The immigration of 1844, therefore, pushed right through the shaggy defiles and over the towering heights of the Blue Mountains, and in the autumn reached Walla Walla. Here, Mr. Hinman spent the winter, engaged in his former vocation of teaching. In June, 1845, he proceeded, in company with Doctor Whitman, to the Willamette valley; and there he again found employment as wielder of "the birch and rod." This time his work was in the Salem Institute, which was situated near the present site of the Willamette University.

     In 1846 he was married to Martha E. Jones Gerrish, of whom he was deprived by death in 1861. His children were Deidamia, Arvid, Mary E., Ida, Oliver, Sarah, Alanson and Charles. Of these, Deidamia, Sarah and Charles died in infancy.

     In the historic and tragic year of 1847, Mr. Hinman was connected with the mission station at The Dalles; and there he was during the terrible days of the Whitman massacre. A fund of valuable information is stored up in his mind concerning those "times which tried men's souls." It is to be hoped that his remembrances of the controverted events of that time may sometime by published in full; for they would constitute a resource for historians which might well supplant the tissues of assumption, and prejudice put forth latterly so voluminously under the sacred name of history.

     After the events of 1847 had rendered the Inland Empire uninhabitable for Whites, Mr. Hinman followed the wise fashion of the times, and in the spring of 1848 located a Donation land claim in the beautiful valley now known as Patton's valley, at a point three miles west of the present town of Gaston. There he lived, engaged in stock-raising and farming for several years; when he moved to Forest Grove, Oregon, and there has since made his home.

     In 1860, having formed the design of embarking in the mercantile business, he went to San Francisco for a stock of goods. Returning on the old Northerner, he took part in the wreck of that ill-fated rover of the sea off the shaggy headlands of Cape Mendocino. He lost on this occasion eight thousand dollars' worth of merchandise, but deemed himself fortunate in escaping with his life; for over a third of the passengers were drowned. After this disastrous adventure, Mr. Hinman, nothing daunted by misfortune, went to the Idaho mines. There he met with such success as to repair his broken fortunes, and to lay the foundation of the financial prosperity which has not since failed him during his active and laborious career.

     In 1865 he was married, secondly, to Miss Margaret Solphia Bowen, of Oberlin, Ohio, whose rare qualities of mind and heart have long made their beautiful family residence a center of attraction, and have added much to the scope of his husband's influence and power. The children of this marriage were Charles Lucius and Frank William.

     In 1867 Mr. Hinman was appointed collector of customs for the Oregon district. This position he held for six years, living at Astoria. The duties of this responsible office he discharged with distinguished ability and faithfulness. Mr. Hinman has been in various offices a number of times, having been justice of the peace, member of the legislature, and county commissioner. Since returning from Astoria to Forest Grove in 1873, he has been engaged constantly in mercantile life.

     Though now relieved by his sons, Alanson and Frank, and his son-in-law, Reas Leabo, of much of the confining drudgery of business, he is still as active as ever in managing the details of his various enterprises. Although the pedagogic period of our subject's life has long since passed, he has not lost his interest in educational work. For thirty-six years a trustee, of Pacific University, and during the greater part of the time has been president of the board and chairman of its financial committee. The institution owes much to his business shrewdness and general good sense.

     As one of the most intelligent and effective, as well as earliest, builders of the growing empire of the Northwest, the subject of this sketch is deserving of special remembrance.

     HON. EDWARD HIRSCH. - Someone has written, "There's a divinity that shapes our ends, rough hew them as we may;" and the subject of this sketch is a living exemplification of it. When, away back in "the fifties," he landed a poor boy in the city of New York, among strangers in a strange land, and looked about him for honest employment in any capacity, how little he dreamed that as years passed by he would hold the purse-strings for the then almost unknown territory of Oregon, when a few years later she should lay aside her swaddling clothes and emerge into the maidenhood of a young and prosperous commonwealth. Such has been his career, however; and no man in the state stands



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higher in the estimation of the people than does Honorable Edward Hirsch, ex-State Treasurer.

     He was born at Wurtemberg, Germany, May 3, 1836, and came to America in 1855. Landing in New York City, he at once sought employment. Proving unsuccessful, however, he went over into the neighboring State of Pennsylvania, and secured a clerkship in a store in a little town in Mercer county, at the princely salary of seventy-five dollars per annum. He remained there for several months, and then went down into the State of Georgia, where he remained nearly two years, the greater part of the time at Macon. He became thoroughly acquainted with Southern life in all its varied phases, and to this day bears pleasant recollections of his sojourn in the sunny South. Becoming imbued, however, with the Western fever, he again went north, and in company with his brother, Honorable Sol. Hirsch, ex-State Senator from Multnomah county, embarked on the steamship Star of the West, booked for the Pacific slope via the Isthumus of Panama. This was in the year 1858. They reached Portland about the middle of April of the same year, and a few months later opened a retail store at Dallas in Polk county. They remained there
about three years, and then moved to Silverton, Marion county, where they carried on a general merchandising business three years longer. They then dissolved partnership; and Edward Hirsch went to Salem, Oregon, being employed for some time as salesman in the firm of J.B. & M. Hirsch. In 1866, having been elected president and business manager of the Eagle Woolen Mills at Brownsville, he went there and remained in charge of the enterprise for about two years. In 1868 he returned to Salem, where he has resided continuously since. In 1869 he was interested in the mercantile firm of Hermann & Hirsch of Salem; and in 1876 the name was changed to L. & E. Hirsch.

     In 1878, when the Republican state convention met in Salem, Mr. Hirsch's name was urged by a host of friends as a candidate for state treasurer. The contest in the convention was a vigorous one; but Mr. Hirsch was successful, and a few months later was elected by a very large majority. The writer of this sketch has been intimately acquainted with Mr. Hirsch for many years, and would regard this biography as altogether incomplete and insufficient without giving here a brief résumé of the results of Mr. Hirsch's admirable administration of the monetary affairs of our state for eight years. And, first, the writer would call attention to the fact that, at the time the new treasurer was inducted into office in 1878, he found the securities of the state at a discount. Without reflecting or bewailing the seriously impaired finances of the state, he went to work vigorously, quickly and continuously to remedy the same; and, under his able management, the securities of the state rapidly rose, and were within a very few months at par. Through the subsequent years, the state securities were constantly advanced.  It should be stated here that the office of state treasurer is by no means a sinecure. First, he is a member of the Public Building Commission; second, a
member of the State Asylum Commission; third, a member of the Canal and Lock Commission; fourth, a member of the Board of School Land Commissioners; fifth, the general duties of the state treasurer's office.

     Mention should be made of the development and establishment of the State Asylum. This establishment was designed and built during this administration; and it is a proud monument to the foresight, care, economy and discreet management of the Public Building Commission. The building of this institution was one of the great tasks undertaken by the administration; and when we come to consider the many details connected therewith, in the way of general management, selection and purchase of lands, locating buildings, superintending their construction, purchasing stores and materials, employing architects and workmen, we can realize a little of the work to be done. The many details in the matter of furnishing a great institution like this was a great work of itself. The purchasing of kitchen furniture, and all the various and numerous appurtenances belonging to the laundry, and furnishing the several wards, the management of the farm and stock, etc., all constituted a great work.

     During this administration the state house was almost completed, including the Senate chamber, numerous committee rooms, the legislative hall, the rotunda, the supreme court room, west portico and part of the east portico. The furniture furnished was of a good and substantial quality, and was secured at reasonable rates. The frescoing was done by the best artists, and would be a credit to any state house in the country.

     At the beginning of this administration the condition of the state prison was very poor. The improvements that followed at the prison during the eight years that Mr. Hirsch served as treasurer were many and various, including an entire new wing with double rows of iron cells; also the new brick wall or stockade, which is a solid and substantial affair, was build; and inside this wall large and commodious brick shops and foundries were designed, built and completed. Many repairs in the way of floors, etc., were made; and in addition to these a fine new brick barn for placing the stock of the entire establishment was completed. It should be stated here that in the year 1882 Mr. Hirsch was renominated by his party; and at the state election held in June of that year he was re-elected by a largely increased majority over that of 1878. His careful, prudent, economical and successful administration of the monetary affairs of the state was entirely acceptable to the people at large; and especially was this the case in his own home county of Marion, where his majority during that year was nearly eleven hundred. This majority was particularly large at his home at Salem, larger, as the writer remembers, than any state officer ever received before or since.

     Without taking up in detail the continuously sound financial policy of Mr. Hirsch during his second four years of service as state treasurer, the writer will here only undertake a brief recapitulation of the great advance made during his two terms, as will be seen in the following items; First, the state tax levy in the beginning of this administration in 1878 equaled seven mills; second, the last



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tax levy made by the board for general state purposes in the year 1886 equaled one and nineteen-twentieths mills only; third, in the year 1878 there were no public buildings finished or completed; at the close of this administration the State Asylum, State House and State Prison were almost completed, and in fine condition; fourth, this administration found a high tax when they took charge of state affairs; and they ended with an exceedingly low state tax; fifth, when this administration took charge, they found the public credit of the state largely impaired; and it was closed with public credit, advanced above par, and sustained by that public confidence that gives tone and solidity to public credits; sixth, this administration found a large debt to begin with, and ended with the public debt almost entirely liquidated, with the exception of one small balance, which could have been paid out of the general fund, but was not paid because it was due from a special fund; seventh, Mr. Hirsch as state treasurer, in taking charge of the office in the year 1878, received from his predecessor the sum of one hundred and twelve thousand dollars; when Mr. Hirsch as state treasurer turned over the state money to his successor in office, the sum was found to equal a total of three hundred and eighty-eight thousand dollars; and this one item alone speaks volumes for the sound and thorough financial policy constantly pursued by the subject of our sketch.

     Without reverting further to his success as a state financier, we will state that his honesty, integrity, discreet management of the public funds, his high social standing and unflinching adherence to the principles of the political party he espouses, have endeared him to the people of our state. His honesty is proverbial and his popularity great, having the respect of all and the enmity of but few. His liberality is acknowledged, although many of his acts of kindness are known to none but himself and the grateful recipients. Mr. Hirsch as a private citizen is greatly respected by all, and has served as a member of the common council of the city of Salem for several terms. Mr. Hirsch has been a prominent and active member of the Republican party for many years. He served as chairman of the Republican county central committee in the year 1876 with great ability. He has long been a prominent, useful and active member of the I.O.O.F. and of the A.O.U.W.

     Mr. Hirsch was married May 10, 1868, to Miss Nettie Davis; and their family now consists of seven interesting children. Mr. and Mrs. Hirsch take an active interest in all social and public affairs. As an active, thorough-going and public-spirited citizen, Mr. Hirsch is destined to many long years of usefulness; and the people of this state will not fail to take advantage of his great abilities in the future as they have done in the past.

     JOHN HOBSON.  - Mr. Hobson, with his father and brother Richard and three sisters, came to Oregon as early as 1843, being members of the first large immigration. The story of their trip and the influences which directed their footsteps hither is one of the pleasantest and most romantic among our early annals; and there is no novel nor history more fascinating than to listen half a day as we did to the recital of his adventures.

     He is a native of England, having been born in Derbyshire in 1824. His father was a hatter, and, losing his wife by death, sought a new region to bring up his children under better conditions than his means would allow in the Old Country. He determined therefore to emigrate to America, and chose Wisconsin as his objective point. In order to cross the ocean, he found it necessary to join a party of Mormons, who were under the leadership of a bishop and were going in a ship chartered by him. Leaving Liverpool, January 11, they reached St. Louis in March following, but here found progress impeded by ice in the river. While waiting several weeks for the breakup, they made the acquaintance of Miles Ayers, who was one of the movers in the organization of a company to go to Oregon; and the father was persuaded by him to join the train. Doctor Whitman was also there and confirmed their resolution.

     Mr. John Hobson, then a young man of nineteen, well remembers the Doctor, and the assistance which he rendered in procuring for them a dog, and later, at the Kaw mission, a yoke of cattle. The experiences of the trip of 1843 embrace a wide variety of details, according to the different portions of the train to which the various individuals belonged, and according to the scenes or exertions which impress different persons most forcibly. Mr. Hobson remembers distinctly the efforts of  Doctor Whitman at the crossing of the Platte river; and that the danger of the cattle stopping and sinking in the quicksand were avoided by chaining the entire train together, and passing on en masse. A crossing of the Snake was effected in the same way; but at this point Miles Ayers was drowned.

     Upon arriving at Waiilatpu, Whitman's home, the travelers were disappointed by finding the gristmill burned, but procuring a little wheat made flour with their coffee mills. They also left their cattle there on the range, by advice of Whitman, and making a large canoe out of a cottonwood tree, with an Indian guide procured by the Doctor, proceeded down the Walla Walla river, and made the descent of the Columbia four hundred miles in this frail shell. At the falls of Celilo their experiences were thrilling, and indeed, terrifying; and a canoe following was overturned and one man drowned. At Vancouver they were generously accommodated by McLoughlin for goods, for which they gave a note.

     Leaving their families at Vancouver, a company consisting of G. Summers, Thomas Owens, Holly, Harogus and Hobson went on down the river in their canoe looking for claims, spending nine days for the trip. Stopping at Chinook they met with the loss of their craft by its being dashed upon the shingly beach as the tide and sea swell rose. They were, however, put across to Tanzy Point by the Indians, and found the following white men there; Solomon Smith and Mr. Tibbetts, of Wyeth's expedition. Elbridge Trask of Wyeth's ship, and William T. Perry. Task went to the mountains in 1836 to trap. On his return in 1842 he met and married Mrs. Perry's sister. Mr. Perry, his wife and her



380                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 sister were immigrants of 1842 with Mr. Crawford. Mr. Parrish and W.W. Raymond were living at the mission. After selecting claims they returned for their families, and with a bateau made the trip down the river once more. Five days on the river returning, it was Christmas night when they camped on the shore by the little cove at Astoria. One experience illustrates the shifts of the early times. After crossing over Young's bay to Tanzy Point, their canoes sank; and all their flour became wet. They saved this dough by baking it, and had hardtack for months.

     The season of 1844 was nearly as eventful as the preceding to John Hobson. It was necessary to go back to Walla Walla for the cattle; and by the time they were collected from Whitman's range, and brought over the Cascade Mountains north of Mount Hood, and crossed over the Willamette to Linnton, and driven over the Portland hills, and across the Tualatin river, and through the gap by way of Chehalem Mountain to the riffles of the Yamhill at the farm of Amos Cook, and in short over the Coast Mountains to the ocean beach, and past Tillamook to the Clatsop home, the summer was well consumed.

     The matter of living at all in those early days was accomplished with much labor. Potatoes for seed must be got of Birnie at Astoria, and paid back in time; and it was not until 1846 that this return could be rendered. Wheat must be taken a hundred and forty miles by canoe to Oregon City to be ground into flour and eventful were the trips of Hobson in getting his canoe loads there and back again.

     In 1845 young Hobson felt the desire to go into a region still more remote than the now comparatively well-settled Clatsop, and with John R. Jackson, Moore and Gardiner passed over to the Cowlitz prairie, but returned before winter to his place on Clatsop. The succeeding years, until 1848, were spent in the improvement of his home, and in various expeditions up the Columbia and up and down the beach, in wrecking the schooner Shark, the whaler Maine and the bark Vancouver, which were driven ashore on the Clatsop sands or upon the beach below Tillamook head.

     It was early in 1847 that the people of Clatsop vindicated their love of order by breaking up saloons at Astoria, which were running unlawfully and corrupting the Indians. A posse comitatus, under Sheriff Caples, embracing nearly all the men on the plains, with Captain James H. McMillen, who was at work on a boat at the mouth of the Skippanon creek, ran down and nearly drowned one George Gear, who was selling "Blue Ruin," and had taken to the river to elude pursuit and to escape to Chinook. As the Clatsop party, who were in a large canoe, came near to seize him, he made an effort to strike Hobson with a hatchet, and perhaps to overturn the canoe in which his pursuers were seated, being prevented only by McMillen's covering him with a revolver, and declaring that he would shoot if he made a motion.

     In 1848 Mr. Hobson with his brother and many other Oregon friends, such as Marcellus, Jeffers, Latty and Bradbury, went down to the mines; and all met with excellent success. The stories which are told of taking out $5,000, $10,000 or even $25,000 in a single season to the man seem almost fabulous. Hobson saved his money, and, returning to the green peninsula at the mouth of the Columbia, bought the quitclaim of Perry for the handsome place now owned by Mr. Wingate, paying therefore $3,000. He was induced to sell for $3,500 to Governor Gaines, who was delighted with the sea beauties of this region. The Governor, however, losing his wife by a distressing accident, sold it back again at a thousand dollars advance. Marrying Thomas Owens's eldest daughter, Diana, who was wont to be called the Clatsop belle, and who was indeed a very beautiful and attractive young woman, Mr. Hobson made his home on this place for many years.

     In 1855, he saw a touch of the Indian trouble. Going with his wife and child and his wife's sister, Jane Owens, now Mrs. Hyman Abraham, to the Umpqua valley on a visit to Mrs. Hobson's people, he passed through Tillamook and the Grande Ronde. On the Upper Yamhill, they passed by a cabin that was laid in ashes; and the calcined bones of human beings were distinguished. These, they learned afterwards, were the remains of an old lady, Mrs. Clark, and her son, whom the Indians had killed, and had then burned the cabin over them. Coming back a few weeks after, Mr. Hobson discovered that the murderers of these whit people had seen himself and his little family, with some fifteen cattle, pass by, and that they had been practically at their mercy for some time.

     Of late years Mr. Hobson has occupied a prominent position in business and society at Astoria, and is at present collector of customs at the port, having been appointed by President Cleveland. He is a remarkably upright and sincere man, of strong character and purposes, and of exceptionally firm mental and physical fiber.

     JOSEPH HOLMAN. - This pioneer of the North Pacific was born in Devonshire, England, in 1817, and came to the United States when nineteen years of age. Three years later he was at Peoria, Illinois, at which place he listened to a lecture on Oregon by Reverend Jason Lee, and was one of the party organized to cross the plains which left early in the spring of 1839, reaching the Willamette after fourteen months of travel, toil, hardships and privation. Many of the incidents of his trip are mentioned in the biographical sketch of Francis Fletcher in this book, he being one of the party of four that remained together during the entire trip to Oregon Territory. The party that left Peoria consisted of sixteen, all of whom but four became dissatisfied upon reaching the junction of the Fort Bent and Santa Fé roads, and turned off upon the later.

     Holman's party of four was determined to come on to Oregon, and adopted a motto, "Oregon or the Grave;" and Oregon it was. The three companions of Holman were Francis Fletcher, Amos Cook and R. Kilborne. They reached Brown's Hole on Green river, where they wintered with Doctor Newell, chief trader of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Indians, leaving early in February for Fort Hall, where they arrived after two months of desperate traveling over a route that was ordinarily traveled



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in twelve days. For four days they were without food, finally killing a dog, which served them until some friendly Indians whom they met furnished them some buffalo meat, which served them until they reached Fort Hall, where they were supplied with salt salmon and a few other things; but, although they were over a year on the road, they never ate a particle of bread from the time they left Arkansas until they arrived at Fort Vancouver.

     Mr. Holman was engaged at Fort Vancouver as mission carpenter until 1843, when he took up a claim near Salem, which he farmed for six years, abandoning it to go into the mercantile business at Salem. In 1872 he was appointed one of the three commissioners on the new penitentiary buildings. He was also appointed superintendent of the state capitol, both of which places of trust he filled with credit to himself and to the general satisfaction of the people at large. While serving as mission carpenter at Vancouver he was married to Miss Almira Phelps.

     Mr. Homan was one of the foremost of Oregon's early pioneers, and filled several responsible minor positions before he received the appointments above mentioned. Under all circumstances, in adversity and prosperity, the life of Joseph Holman exemplified the truism, that "the rank is but the guinea's stamp." He was pure gold. He died June 25, 1880.

     W.H. HOLMES. - The subject of this sketch was born in the year 1850 in Polk county, Oregon. He came of sturdy pioneer stock, who were among the earliest settlers of this state, and to whom he is indebted for those qualities of mind and body which fit him to encounter the rugged contests of life or the arduous and difficult duties of his chosen profession. His early years were spent on the farm, engaged in the usual occupations of farm life; but his love of books drifted his mind towards other pursuits, and soon determined him to seek a liberal education, although educational advantages at that time were limited, consisting chiefly in common schools and academies. With this purpose, he availed himself of the best schools the country then afforded, and applied himself with untiring zeal to the acquisition of knowledge. Nor did he neglect to improve his opportunities in the great school of human experience, in which human nature is taught and exemplified and a practical knowledge of men and things acquired. In fact, it may be said that, from lessons thus learned, and the discipline so acquired by actual experience, often comes that nice tact, that keen discrimination, or that quick perception of the situation and its needs, as applied to the practical affairs of life, which is of such invaluable advantage to the lawyer, and to which he often owes much of his success and reputation.

     As a result, when at twenty-two years of age he became a student in the law office of Thayer & Williams of Portland, his mind had not only been disciplined by study and liberalized by extensive reading, but it had been also disciplined in the severe school of human experience, which greatly aided him in grasping the leading principles of the law, and of understanding its training as applied to the complicated affairs of practical life; and, by habits of sobriety, diligence, and close application to his studies, he passed a creditable examination, and was admitted to the bar in the class of 1874. He began the practice of the law at Dallas, the county seat of his native county, and by strict attention to business soon acquired some local success, but, impressed with the conviction that he could increase his practice, and that Salem offered a better opportunity to extend it, and for the exercise of his talents, he removed there in 1875, and devoted himself exclusively to his profession. Although at this time there was a good deal of talent at that bar, eh did not fail to soon obtain recognition and clients; and, by his close application and mastery of the principles to be applied to his cases, he secured the confidence of an increasing number of clients, and won the respect of the bench and bar.

     In 1886 he was married to Miss Josephine Lewis, who has proven a worthy help-meet in his struggles. His family consists of his wife and two promising girls. Like his father, Mr. Holmes in politics is a sturdy Democrat, and is earnestly devoted to upholding the principles of his party in the belief that, under proper auspices and through proper instrumentalities, its principles cannot fail to secure good government and the prosperity of the people. Democrat though he is, he is not so blind nor partisan as not to condemn error in principle or bad nominations in his own party, or to recognize merit, and laudable candidacy in his opponents. And at this time, there is probably no Democrat of his age in better standing in his party in this state, or who is capable of exerting a wider or more beneficial influence for its advancement, and success. The estimation in which he is held had been frequently exhibited by the confidence reposed in him, and the repeated offers of his political associates to make him the standard-bearer of their party principles in his county and district.

     In 1882 he was nominated by his party for district attorney of the third judicial district; and, although the district was largely Republican, such was the general belief in his fitness for an honest discharge of the duties of this office, he was successful before the people. He served during the term for which he was elected; and such was the ability and fairness with which he conducted prosecutions, and the vigilance with which he watched the interests of the county and state, that there was a general desire for his retention at the close of his term of office; and, although his party tendered, he declined, a re-nomination, and returned to his private practice.

     In 1887, without solicitation on his part or that of his friends, and without any dissenting voice by the court, he was appointed clerk of the supreme court, which office he now creditably fills.

     In personal appearance, Mr. Holmes is a man of fine presence, tall, and with a military erectness. He has a vigorous constitution, which, by general good habits, he has preserved and by continuance in so doing will doubtless preserve unimpaired in old age. As a layer he is industrious and attentive, quick of perception, sound in judgment and careful with advice. In argument he is clear, earnest and impressive, discarding all display or mere rhetorical flash,  presenting in an effective way the strong



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points of his case, and by the general justness of his legal propositions securing the confidence of the court. Upright and honest in his private character, necessarily these qualitative pervade his professional life; and to his credit thus far it may be said no rewards however tempting, whether of professional advancement or employment, have ever tempted him to deviate from the path of justice or honor, or to espouse the cause of vice or immorality.

     MAJOR W.F. HOOKER. - This leading citizen of Eastern Washington, whose capacity for public affairs, and whose independence in politics, have become proverbial, is a native of the Palmetto state, having been born at Hookerton, Green county, North Carolina, in 1835. Like all true Southerners, he is proud of his ancestry, his father having been a captain in the war of 1812 and twice a member of the legislature of North Carolina, and a member of the convention which formed the constitution of that state. Young Hooker was educated at Wake-forest College in his native state, and at the age of twenty-two was married to Miss Mary Williams, a graduate of the Salem High School of the same county. He moved to Southern Georgia soon after his marriage, and went into the manufacture of staves and lumber. His business was broken up by the Civil war; and, removing to Florida, he employed himself in farming until 1880.

     The Southern country, however, was uncongenial; and he sought a place of somewhat larger ideas and opportunities. He sent three of his children ahead to Washington Territory in the year last-named, and, remaining in order to realize upon the sale of his property, came with his wife and two remaining children to Cheney in 1882.

     Since his arrival he has acquired a competency, and with his wife and three sons and two daughters fills an important place in the social circles of the city. He has occupied every office within the gift of the people of Cheney; and his sterling qualities of head and heart have gained for him the full confidence of not only his neighbors, but also the citizens throughout Washington.

     HON. ENOCH HOULT. - The gentleman above-named was born in Monongahela county, West Virginia, April 18, 1825. His parents were of English descent, coming to American in the Colonial days. He lived in Virginia until his twelfth year, when his father moved to Edgar county, Illinois, in the spring of 1832. There Mr. Hoult grew to manhood and remained until he was thirty-three years of age.

     In the fall of 1830 he was married to Miss Jeannette Somerville, daughter of John Somerville, who came from Kentucky to Illinois. In the year 1853 he came with his family overland to Oregon. Leaving Illinois on the 11th of March, they arrived at their destination the 19th day of September.  At the time it was considered a very hazardous undertaking to cross the plains with ox-teams, and required a good deal of courage for a man to take such a risk on such a journey. The plains were infested with Indians and marauders; and the only wonder is that more of those pioneers were not killed. Oregon was then entirely new and very sparsely settled, and the people were obliged to undergo all the privations incident to a pioneer life.

     Mr. Hoult settled first in Lane county, buying a tract of land twelve miles north of Eugene City. On this farm he lived ten years, improving and building up the place. Here he planted one of the first nurseries of the Willamette valley, which furnished also many of the trees on the now fruitful Rogue river valley.

     In the fall of 1863 he removed to Harrisburg, Linn county, where he resided until his demise. Mr. Hoult was the father of eleven children, six of whom survive him: Mrs. Mary E. McCulloch of Pendleton, Mrs. Ella H. Mendenhall of Harrisburg, Mrs. Isabella H. Hendee of Portland, Morgan Hoult of Canyon City, Mrs. Mamie G. Browne of Grant county, and Miss A.L. Hoult of Harrisburg, all of whom are known as honorable and useful members of society. Mrs. Jeannette Hoult died on the first day of April, 1873. All that can be said of the truly good may be said of Mrs. Hoult, - a sincere friend, a faithful Christian, an affectionate wife, a noble and tender mother, and held in the highest esteem by all who knew her.

     Mr. Hoult was a warm-hearted, genial gentleman of the old school, full of public spirit, and a zealous worker in the interest of education. He was a man of stern integrity, and was never known to neglect the smallest duty. The duties of every public position that he was called to fill were performed with the most scrupulous exactness; and he had the unwavering confidence of all who knew him. Mr. Hoult was a man far above mediocrity. Very decided in his political opinions, he was prominently identified with the politics of the state, being one of the leaders of the Democratic party in Linn county.

     In the year 1857 he was elected a member of the constitutional convention from Lane county, and assisted in framing the constitution of the now prosperous State of Oregon. In 1870 he was elected to the state Senate from Linn county, and was re-elected in 1882. During his last term as state Senator he was the author of the bill to regulate fares and freight upon railroads, known as the "Hoult Law." In every public capacity, to serve the best interest of the people was his highest end and aim; and as a consequence he maintained their respect. He was dignified, obliging, kind and courteous in his conversation, and upright in his dealings with his fellow men. His death causes a void in the community, and true, heartfelt grief to his sorrowing children. Long will his memory live in the hearts of his friends, and his grave be kept green by the filial love of a devotion that cannot forget the sacred ties of consanguinity; and his name will ever be honorably associated among the pioneers of the state. He was a zealous Mason, having filled every station from his initiation to the Royal Arch degree; and, when the Great Architect of the universe
called him home, his Masonic brethren laid him to rest, beloved, trusted and honored in life; and in his death a station is made vacant that none can fill.

     ALFRED HOVENDEN. - Mr. Hovenden, known everywhere among the early pioneers as one



                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                        383

of the most benevolent, upright and sagacious of men, was born in Kent county, England, August 26, 1824, of that steady, sterling English stock that fainted not and never failed. he crossed the water to American when twenty years old, and made his first home on a farm in Peoria county, Illinois. In 1849, together with his brother Charles, he turned his property into money, purchased an outfit with the intention of making the Pacific coast his home, and started westward, still being uncertain on the early states of the journey whether it would be to Oregon or to California that he would ultimately go. In his company was also David Logan, the talented but dissolute son of Judge Logan of Illinois. Having betimes decided to take the northern track, Mr. Hovenden came on into the Willamette valley, and laid his Donation claim of three hundred and twenty acres near the present site of Hubbard. He made this spot his home for more than thirty-five years, and was still in rugged health, with the prospect of many more years of life and usefulness, when he met with the accident by which his useful career was ended. By sturdy industry, close application, careful dealing and integrity, he amassed a competence, owning several good farms and a flourishing currant business.

     He was married in June, 1956, to Miss Sarah, a daughter of Bartholomew Soden. This lady was born in Tasmania, of the Australasian Islands, and came from that antipodal region to America in 1852, settling soon in Polk county. With her husband she made one of the brightest and happiest homes in Oregon, and laid the foundation of the fortune which they both used wisely and usefully. They reared also one of the best of the old Oregon families. The son, George B. Hovenden, occupies the farm and holds very much the position in the community of his father. The daughters, Mrs. John Dennis of Hubbard, Mrs. M.L. Jones of Brooks, and Mrs. F.N. Gilbert of Salem, are among the first in the social circles of the state.

HON. A.G. HOVEY. - The reputation of Mr. Hovey, the present mayor of Eugene, Oregon, is co-extensive with the limits of the state, in the affairs of which he has ever taken an active part. His aggressive pushing disposition indicate the stern qualities of courage and self-reliance which lie at the basis of his character, and displace the more ephemeral qualities of a purely sentimental hopefulness or ambition. He is an example of the adage that "God helps those who help themselves;" and his whole life has bristled with instances of the truth therein indicated. He is a man of strong convictions and honest opinions, scorning the hypocrisy of policy and dealing with his friends as friends. In fact, he possess one virtue above all others: In dealing with the world, everybody, whether friend or foe, knows where he may be found when he is wanted. His nature is positive in its character; and, when he has once settled in his mind that he is right, nothing can move him from his course. Such a character must succeed in society, where he is a welcome guest.

     He was born in Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1830, and removed with his parents to Marietta, Ohio, when he was quite young; and there he grew to manhood and was educated.

     He was one of the argonauts of California, having crossed the plains to that state in the fall of 1849; and for nearly a year he was engaged in digging gold near the Sacramento river. In the fall of 1850 he came to Oregon and settled at Corvallis, where he taught the first school in the place, and was elected the first clerk of the county, and acted as such for the first circuit and state courts held in the district. Benton county repeatedly honored him by electing him to fill the county offices; and he was elected from among his compeers to represent them in the state Senate from 1862 to 1866. It was during the latter year that he removed to Portland, remaining, however, only one year, and thereupon settled in Lane county at Springfield, there engaging in milling and merchandising until 1879, when he took a residence at Eugene City, and was one of the incorporators of the lane County Bank, and continues as its president. The Republican party in Oregon sent him as delegate tot he National Convention of Chicago, in 1884, when he assisted in placing in nomination for President and Vice-President of the nation James G. Blaine and John A. Logan. Active in political interests from conviction, still not a place-seeker, eh sometimes, however, has accepted positions, but more frequently has declined.

     His popularity among the people of his own city was recently evidenced by his election unsolicited by a large majority to the mayoralty of Eugene; and he is in that city not only highly esteemed, but is recognized as zealous in every worthy public endeavor. His wife, Emily, the daughter of George Humphrey, the pioneer, is a lady well known and greatly respected. They have three children.

     S.P. HOWELL. - The Adams Hotel at Adams, Oregon, is a comfortable home for the traveler, offering commodious apartments and a table supplied not only with the substantials but with the luxuries of the season. Its proprietor is Mr. Howell. After a life of much roving, he has found his final rest in this thriving young city. Born in Michigan in1845, he crossed the plains while just a boy of seven, and was then introduced to the life of a California ranch. At Hamilton on the Feather river, at the Hungarian ranch south of Yuba, and Petaluma, in the Coast Mountains, and at Visalia, he successively followed the stock business with his father, until the death of the latter in 1872.

     That sad event threw him upon his own responsibility. Leaving his stock with his sister, he then entered upon a scheme of cattle-driving to Nevada for a Mr. Hildreth. In that state of deserts and silver lodes, he remained four years, at Humboldt and Elko, and in 1880 was attracted northward to Walla Walla. He found employment in the city of poplars for a couple of years, and thence came to Adams, where he engaged permanently in the hotel business. He is one of the leading men in the place. His present settled life and secured fortune is largely due to Miss H.J. Hamilt, whom he married in 1881. Two children have come to bless their home, - William A. and Minnie Pearl.



384                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     HON. JOHN P. HOYT. - "Every man has two educations, - one which he receives from others, and one more important, which he gives himself." Very early in life the subject of this sketch learned this important lesson; and the fruits of its strict observance are being enjoyed by him at present. He owes his advancement to no accident of birth or fortune, but has earned success through the toilsome avenue of study and hard work. His early education was acquired at a country district school during the winter months, when the plow used on his father's farm stood idle in the granary.  By close application to his books, he became proficient enough at the age of seventeen to teach the youth of his neighborhood himself, which he did during the winter. The savings of this labor, together with the funds earned during harvest, enabled him to attend an academy located in a village not far from his rural home.

     He thus continued his studies until 1862 when, true to his country's needs, he enlisted for the protection of her flag and fought nobly in her behalf until peace was restored. While in the army he determined upon the adoption of law as a profession, and applied himself to the study thereof as well as the life of a soldier would permit. After being mustered out of service, he returned home and entered the Ohio State and Union Law College, located at Cleveland in that state, and from that institution graduated in July, 1867. Soon after receiving his degree, he removed to Tuscola county, Michigan, and opened up an office; and but a brief period elapsed before he attained high rank among the profession for ability. While located in that state he was elected prosecuting attorney of the county in which he resided, for a term of four years, and was also honored by being elected a member of the lower branch of the legislature for two terms, the latter of which he served as speaker of the house.

     By close application to his profession, his health began to fail; and in consequence he accepted, for the purpose of a change of climate and rest, an appointment as secretary of Arizona Territory, and in June of that year removed to his new field of life. In this position he served until April, 1877, when he was appointed governor of that commonwealth, in which office he continued until August, 1878, when he was appointed governor of Idaho Territory, to relieve Governor Brayman, who had displeased the general government through his administration of affairs during the Nez Perce war. governor Hoyt's successor as chief executive of Arizona did not arrive in that territory until October of that year; and the intervening time afforded our subject ample time to inform himself relative to the troubles in Idaho. After an investigation of them, he concluded that the suspension of Governor Brayman was uncalled for, and through a sense of justice wrote the President, declining to accept the appointment tendered. The President received the letter in the spirit it was written, and at once wrote to the governor that, if he did not enter upon the duties of the office, Governor Brayman would probably be allowed to serve out his time. In such event the President suggested that the governor accept an appointment as associate justice of the supreme court of Washington Territory, which he did, and in February, 1878, removed with his family to that territory, and entered upon the discharge of the duties of the position.

     His first term upon the bench gave such universal satisfaction that ever practicing attorney in each of the twelve counties in the district requested President Arthur that the governor be reappointed, which was done. He served out his entire second term, not being disturbed by President Cleveland, whose election to the presidency of the nation had changed the political complexion of its administration. At the expiration of his appointment, he removed to Seattle, Washington Territory, and took charge of the business of Dexter, Horton & Co's banking house, and has continued in that employ until the present. He was elected a member of the constitutional convention from the twentieth district, and was chosen president of that body, presiding with entire satisfaction to all concerned. At the Republican convention held at Walla Walla for the nomination of the five supreme judgeships of the state; and, at the election held on October 1st following, he was with the balance of the ticket
triumphantly elected.

     EDWARD HUGGINS, - Edward Huggins was born in London, England, on the 10th of June, 1832. He received his education in Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School in that city. On the 10th of October, 1849, he sailed in the Hudson's Bay Company's ship Norman Morrison for Victoria, Vancouver Island, where he arrived in March, 1850. He at once entered the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, having been engaged as clerk by Chief Factor James Douglas, afterwards Sir James Douglas, the governor of Vancouver Island. He was sent to Fort Nisqually on Puget Sound to serve as trader and clerk under Doctor W.F. Tolmie, who was at that time the agent in charge of the business of the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies at that place.

     At that time the business of the Puget Sound agricultural Company, and that of the Hudson's Bay Company, were entirely distinct. The Hudson's Bay Company devoted their whole attention to the trading in furs and the sale of goods, for which at that time there was a great demand and high prices obtained, consequent upon the scarcity of goods of any kind, and the utter impossibility almost of purchasers having a choice of opportunities for trading. In fact, up to 1851-52, the Hudson's Bay Company's store at Nisqually was the only trading establishment between Forts Victoria and Vancouver on the Columbia river, except perhaps a very small American establishment at Olympia, then a small cleared space in the woods, with a very small general store kept by Colonel Michael T. Simmons.

     The company kept a large supply of goods on hand, worth at times from fifty to one hundred thousand dollars; and, for two or three years after 1850 they had the monopoly of the whole Indian trade. In 1850-51 large bands of the Clallam, Scadgil, Snoqualmie, Snohomish and other tribes visited Fort Nisqually every week to trade. Among them as a constant visitor was Patkanim, the chief of the Snoqualmies, who afterwards, in 1855-56, as



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an ally of the Whites, took such an active part in the Indian war of those years. The Klikitats, from the eastern side of the Cascade Mountains, in those early days, also made periodical visits to the fort, bringing horses to trade; and among their number were the chiefs Owhi, Tia-ass and Kamiakin, all of whom became prominent leaders of the hostiles in the Indian war of 1855-56.

     The Puget Sound Agricultural Company (whose business and purposes were entirely distinct from the Hudson's Bay Company), under the treaty of 1846, between the United States and great Britain, claimed nearly all the prairie land in Pierce county, about one hundred and sixty thousand acres, and occupied it with large herds of cattle, sheep and horses. In1850 that company possessed seven thousand head of horned cattle, about twelve thousand sheep and three hundred head of horses, all of which were pastured upon the Nisqually Plains, a few bands of sheep being occasionally kept on the Yelm and Tenalquot prairies, in what is now Thurston county. Up to 1855, Mr. Huggins remained at the fort in the capacity of trader and clerk; but in the fall of that year, when the Indian war broke out, the company's business upon the plains became disorganized, and the manager and herders refused to remain at the stations on account of the hostility of the Indians.

     Mr. Huggins then volunteered to take charge of the business on the plains, and with about fifteen or twenty men in the fall of 1855 went to Muck. The party lived for a time in a large loghouse, and managed to safely care for the company's  stock throughout the Indian war. He remained at Muck till the fall of 1859, when he succeeded Doctor William F. Tomie as manager of the company's business in Pierce county, Doctor Tolmie having become one of the board of management of the Hudson's Bay Company's affairs at Victoria, British Columbia. In 1859 Mr. Huggins was ordered to make a trip to the Similkameen valley to report as to the feasibility of removing the company's sheep or part of them to British Columbia; and in company with three men, with a band of horses and mules, he went via Nahchess Pass and Okanagan to Similkameen, returning via the old Snoqualmie Pass.

     In those days there was no settlers on the east side of the Cascade Mountains; and Mr. Huggins was obliged to ride for fourteen days before reaching the end of his journey, during all of which time he did not see a settler's house until he had reached Similkameen. When near Fort Okanagan, he visited the camp of Chief Moses and his band; and they seemed hardly to realize that peace had been proclaimed. For a time the conduct of the Indians was very suspicious, and quite unfriendly; and the party were apprehensive that they would be murdered for the sake of the horses they had. But one of Mr. Huggins' party, a courageous half-breed, who understood the Indian language, was instrumental in saving their lives. Mr. Huggins reported unfavorably as to the project; and the sheep were not removed.

     In 1862 the company had but little livestock remaining; and Mr. Huggins' time was principally devoted to the trading in furs, he making periodical trips in 1863,'64 and '65 to Gray's Harbor and up the coast, where he secured for the company in those years nearly all the skins of the sea otter that were killed in that section. He sometimes obtained as many as fifty or sixty of those handsome skins, paying for them from forty to fifty dollars each. He also made trips down the Sound and up the rivers, and was quite successful in obtaining furs. In 1867 Mr. Huggins was ordered to take charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's trading establishment at Fort Kamloops, in British Columbia, but preferred to and was permitted to remain at Nisqually.

     In 1869 the United States government purchased from the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies the rights they claimed under the Treaty of 1846 in Washington Territory; and in May of 1870 Mr. Huggins made the formal transfer of the property belonging to the companies in Pierce and Lewis counties to the United States. The business being closed in the territory, he was ordered to take charge of a fort in British Columbia; but he adopted the other alternative; - he quit the company's service and remained in this, the country of his adoption.

     In 1857 he had already become an American citizen. On the retirement of the company, he took the place, part of the old Fort Nisqually, as a pre-emption claim, and has owned it ever since. He has gradually added to the extent of the old farm adjacent to the fort by the purchase of contiguous lands. As an American citizen, he has identified himself with every enterprise for the benefit of his adopted home. He long followed farming and stock-raising, and, when opportunity offered, continued to trade in furs. These occupations engaged his attention till his election in1887 to the position of county auditor of the county of Pierce, which office he still holds to the entire satisfaction of his fellow citizens, this being his second term.

     Since March, 1887, he has resided in Tacoma, Washington. He has also served three terms as county commissioner of Pierce county, two terms of which he was chairman of the board. He is now in the prime of life, and is universally esteemed as a man. In county affairs he is thoroughly informed; and that methodic education he acquired in his long clerical service in the Hudson's Bay Company renders him most efficient and useful as auditor, accountant and financial officer of Pierce county.

     ORLEY HULL - The experiences of the early pioneers were severe almost beyond belief; and, were it not for the fact that their hardships were intermitted by times of peace and plenty, it would have been scarcely possible for them to have gotten through. Mr. Hull is a pioneer of 1850, and in crossing the plains, and in the early days of Southern Oregon and Northern California, saw times and circumstances as hard as were to be found.

     He was born in New York in 1821,and when a young man went to Missouri, but was deterred from making a home there by the fact of slavery. Going to Iowa, he was a resident of the now populous Iowa county when there were but three men above the required number for jury duty. At Iowa City he became acquainted with and married Miss Mary



386                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

Clark, the plucky and patient companion of his trials.

     They crossed the plains in 1850, the year in which the emigrant trains were scourged by cholera; and the air along the route was infected with the stench of dead bodies of animals. Mrs. Hull fell a victim to the disease, but recovered. The meat and tallow of the three buffaloes which they killed at the Black Hills gave out long before they had crossed the rocky, alkaline stretches of the Snake; and bacon was the sole subsistence until, in the Grande Ronde, they purchased a few potatoes at six bits a pound. A terrific wind near the Cascades brought their boat into great peril; and it was with difficulty that the portages was made.

     After reaching Portland, Oregon, Mr. Hull left his family on a farm near by, and went to Yreka, California, where he remained a number of years, mining, prospecting, trading and picking up whatever offered, even fiddling for a time in a gambling house, and finally bringing his family thither and going into the hotel business. In a short time the Indian war swept over Southern Oregon; and the settlers were obliged to protect themselves by stockades. Mr. Hull on one occasion running bullets while her husband was cutting portholes. He took an active part in the campaign that followed, more than once coming within a few inches of an Indian's tomahawk or bullet, until the final battle at Big Meadows.

     After leaving Yreka, Mr. Hull made a home on the Coquille; but the great flood of 1861 swept his house away, compelling him to put his family aboard a scow and live upon a knoll in a cluster of trees for five days, until the storm subsided. This disaster determined him to return to Iowa; but upon arriving in the beautiful and productive valley of the Walla Walla, Washington Territory, he decided to make it his residence. There he has remained as one of the most active farmers of the country, breaking the railway monopoly, and reduce the freight from six to four dollars per ton to tide water. Under his lead, freight to the amount of two million bushels of wheat has been pledged to any competing line; and from this largely results Hunt's railway.

     GEORGE HUMPHREY. - Mr. Humphrey was esteemed by everyone as an honorable gentleman, a man of large brain, and of an excellent capacity and understanding. Although in his youth he suffered from poverty and the lack of educational facilities, he nevertheless succeeded in obtaining a large property and an honored and enduring name. His estimable wife, Cynthia A. Humphrey, was "one of the best of women," so described by all who knew her and were allowed to make the acquaintance of her great mental intelligence and vigor, and to know of her benevolence and christian character.

     Mr. Humphrey was born April, 1, 1807. While a young man he resided in the State of New York and Canada. In the latter region he was married in 1835 to Miss Cynthia A. Bristol. He subsequently emigrated to Illinois and to Iowa, in the latter state engaged in mercantile and agricultural pursuits, transacting a large financial business. In 1853 he came to Oregon and settled in Lane county, and in a few years established a permanent home at Eugene, Oregon. Upon his death in 1883, he devised his property to his widow, and to his six sons and two daughters, named respectively Albert, James, Thomas, William, H. Clay, Norris, Emily (now Mrs. A.G. Hovey) and Caroline ( now Mrs. H.B. Roach.)

     HARRISON H. HUNGATE. - The large horse ranch of this gentleman is situated eleven miles east of Walla Walla, Washington, and contains twenty-five hundred acres of land in the beautiful Spring valley. Any visitor to Walla Walla will be abundantly repaid by a trip to this farm, not only for inspecting the stock, but also for the fine scenery surrounding. Although his ranch is some distance from Walla Walla, Mr. Hungate lives in town, having one of the most costly and beautiful of many fine residences.

     Mr. Hungate is a native of Illinois, where he was born in 1836, coming to Nevada in 1864. Not suited with that state, he moved on to California in the Willow Springs, and at length taking up some desert land at the north of Cache creek, where he remained seven years. Hearing now of the bunch-grass hills, of Eastern Washington, he came hither in 1873, engaging largely in sheep-raising, finally turning his farm into a horse ranch. He thinks this county equal, if not superior, to any other in the world for the production of all sorts of grains and fruits, and that it simply needs people to live upon it to be the finest of regions.

      As a public servant, Mr. Hungate has had a full share in county offices, and was a representative to the territorial legislature in 1881. In both public and private life he is prompt and efficient, and is well known throughout his section.

     J.T. HUNSAKER. - This pioneer of 1846, one of the most substantial and upright men of one state, who has borne his full share of the burden and heat of the day in building up Oregon, was even from the first upon the advanced wave of American civilization, having been born at Jonesboro, Illinois, in 1818, and having assisted in laying the foundations of that giant state of the old West. He began domestic life in 1837, marrying Miss Emily Collins of the same state, and devoting his energies to the development of a farm.

     He was moved, however, by the attractions of the more distant West, and in 1846 joined the train of Captain Keith bound for the then almost fabulous Oregon. The company was found to be so large as to travel best in detachments; and the journey was safely performed across the mountains and deserts, and happily ended at Oregon City September 13th.  Mr. Hunsaker located his first claim on the Molalla, and raised a crop in 1847, but soon abandoned this site for another at Scappoose, where, in addition to agriculture, he had the opportunity to engage in lumbering. In 1849 he sold the mill erected there, and resided a short time at Oregon



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City, but soon established a more permanent business in the lumber line at La Camas. His operations, there were terminated by a destructive fire, which consumed his lumber in the yard, and all but destroyed his mill. by the great loss thus entailed, - since there was no insurance in those early days of our state, - e was obliged to abandon milling. Returning to Oregon City, he purchased near that town the old McGruder place, and developed there one of those Willamette valley fruit farms which have become the envy and wonder of the immigrant and traveler. There he lived until 1881, taking an active part in all public enterprises, and rearing a large family of sons and daughters, who stand among those younger Oregonians that the state feels justly proud of. Their names will be recognized as of honorable and enterprising people, and may here be stated as follows: Horton (deceased), Josephine (deceased), Mary A., Araminta (deceased), Jacob, Sarah, Lycurgus, Katherine, Martha C., Alice, John and Emily. Of those still living, all are residents of the Pacific Northwest.

     Mr. Hunsaker's wife dying in 1873, he was married, secondly, in 1878, to Mrs. M.A. Campbell of Eugene, and some years since made a new home at Woodburn, Oregon, buying the Lander farm one mile south of that pleasant village, whose location at the junction of the Oregon & California and Willamette Valley Railroads insures for it a prosperous future.

     There, upon one of the handsomest and most productive farms in the state, the old pioneer is passing the autumnal years of a busy and fruitful life, enjoying the results of his early industry, and having the full confidence and respect of his community, and indeed of the whole state. He is one of those men whom Oregon will always remember and be glad to honor.

     Mary Collins, who became the wife of J.T. Hunsaker, was born near Louisville, Kentucky, October 3, 1820, and in 1836 emigrated with her father's family to Illinois, and on the 7th of December of the next year was united in marriage to Mr. Hunsaker, coming with him to Oregon, as narrated above, and performing with great cheerfulness and devotion the duties that fell to the lot of the wife and mother in the early days of our state. It was the women even more than the men who made Oregon; and their names like those of the upright of old are to be kept in everlasting remembrance.

      CHESTER D. IDE. - This prominent citizen and real-estate dealer of Spokane Falls, Washington, was born in Vermont in 1830. His first home in the far West was in Wisconsin, where he lived thirty years, and came to the Pacific slope in a  wagon, following the line of construction of the Union Pacific, and being four and one-half months on the way. At Dayton, Washington Territory, he found work at his trade as carpenter and builder, and the next season took up a claim at Mondovi, then a wilderness, now a flourishing village. He remained four years on his farm, but, seeing the future of Spokane Falls, removed thither, interesting himself in its business and chiefly in its real estate.

     A few years after his arrival, he built an elegant house on a commanding site, which, however, tempted the lightning, a stroke of which ignited and consumed it. Immediately rebuilding he has now a still finer residence, one of the best structures in the city, defended, we presume by a lightning rod. He has recently been engaged in the real-estate business on a large scale, having made two additions to the city; and latest of all he has, with Mr. Coffin, bought fifty acres within the city limits, which have now been on the market seven years. He has also been building stores for the use of those who enter into business there. The pressure for business accommodation has been so great as almost to leave many without a roof.

     Not only in a private and business way has this gentleman been successful, but in the matter of public beneficence he has been at the front. He helped the Spokane College by the gift of fifteen acres of land, which soon realized eighteen hundred dollars, greatly assisting the institution. He has also devoted large sums to the Baptish church, which is now comfortably established in its fine edifice. Mr. Ide's faith in Spokane Falls is justified by its past remarkable growth, and with men of his character for citizens, its future cannot but be bright.

     JESSE IMBLER. - A native of Kentucky (1842), Mr. Imbler as a boy came west to Iowa, and in 1853 continued the journey to Oregon, being all this while with his father, who made his home near Eugene. Upon the appeal made for soldiers to quell the Rogue river Indians in 1855-56, Jesse then but sixteen, joined his two older brothers at the front, where, on account of his youth, he was assigned to the supply department, and remained with it to the end of the war.

     Returning home he accompanied his father and brother to The Dalles, and engaged with them in extensive cattle operations. In 1868, however, a removal was made to the Grande Ronde; and in that magnificent valley each voter in the family located a claim and engaged in stock-raising. Mr. Jesse Imbler still owns his first homestead. In addition to this he has swelled his land-holding to an aggregate of a thousand acres, all of which he supervises personally and keeps in cultivation. He has pleasant surroundings, and has made special effort with improved stock, owning some one hundred and twenty high-grade Hereford and Durham short-horn cattle and a considerable number of high-grade Norman Percheron horses, imported by himself, and the first of the kind in this section.

     In 1867 he was married to Miss Esther Massiker, of Yamhill county. They have a fine family of four children. Mr. Imbler has not shirked public duties, having twice served in the onerous position of county commissioner.

     JAMES  J. IMBRIE. - Among those who have sketches of their lives in these pages, there are but few spoken of who, like the subject of this memoir, were "Webfoot" born. He first saw the light of day at his father's farm on Tualatin Plains, January 29,1852. During his earlier years he learned



388                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

the rudiments of his education at the log schoolhouse long since a thing of the past. Later on he attended and continued his studies at Pacific University at Forest Grove, and in June, 1877, graduated with high honors from the Willamette University at Salem. Removing to Portland he engaged at clerical work for about two years, and then went to Eastern Washington and devoted his energies to stock-raising, which he actively and successfully followed until 1882, when he located in North Yakima and opened a hardware store, leaving the care of his stock to others.

     During the winter of 1882-83 his losses through severe weather and horse-thieves left him with nothing except his store. In the fall of 1883 he disposed of his interest in the hardware business, and removed to Ellensburgh, Washington Territory. there he engaged in the machine and implement trade, which he followed until 1887, when he began operating in real estate. In this business he is now engaged. Mr. Imbrie was married to Miss May Swetland, of Vancouver, Washington Territory, in 1882. By this union three children were born all of whom are deceased.

     HENRY PERRY ISAACS. - Like many old settlers. Mr. Isaacs is so fully identified with Walla Walla, Washington, that the place would not be itself in his absence. In matters of public interest, such as schools, churches and general business enterprises, he has always had a leading part, and as the pioneer in the erection and operation of flour mills "East of the Mountains" deserves lengthy mention.

     He was born in Philadelphia in 1822, of English and Scotch parentage. There he was educated, and absorbed with eagerness the great lessons of that time. he commence business when only seventeen years of age as an importing stationer; and in which he continued four years with success; when twenty-one he went out West to Indiana. As a thoughtful and impressible young man, he was deeply stirred by a great speech delivered by General Cass, at Fort Wayne, upon the opening of the Wabash and Erie Canal in 1843. Cass was one of the great spirits of the West; and he was among the first to foresee the gigantic strides soon to be made in our national development. He was acquainted personally with the Northwest; and he and Thos. H. Benton of the Senate were the foremost defenders of the American claim to Oregon. Young Isaacs must have gained from them much of the Western spirit.

     In 1850 he went to Minnesota, but, not liking the climate, determined to push westward, even to the Pacific. In 1852, a year when gold hunters were going West in swarms, he crossed the plains, accomplishing the journey in ninety days, and made his first home near Salem. The "Webfoot" climate not precisely suiting him, and Indians bringing him glowing reports of gold mines in the interior, he started off the next year for the Upper Columbia. His trip was by canoe; and it is hardly necessary to add that he did not find the mines. The Indians deceived him or themselves, and knew nothing of precious metals. Being one in the country, however, and delighted with its climate, he determined to remain and await developments, establishing a trading-post meanwhile at The Dalles. He was successful, and continued in business until 1860.

     That was the eventful year of his life; for it was then that he was married, his bride being Miss Lucie Fulton, daughter of Colonel James Fulton. He then went home to Philadelphia with the intention of settling down and remaining. But the West had gained too strong a hold upon his mind. The Eastern climate seemed to him unaccountably disagreeable. He came back to The Dalles in 1861, and in 1862 went to Walla Walla. there he put up a flouring mill, the second in the country, and opened a store. In these enterprises he has been successful. Like all the prominent business men of his section, he has multiplied his business, establishing himself at various distant points. In addition to the mill in Walla Walla, he built two others in Boise valley, and one in Colville valley, two hundred miles to the north. He also built the large mill at Prescott, in Walla Walla county, thus hastening the development of the country.

     Mr. Isaacs is also a pioneer in the culture of grapes, and thinking that they can be grown with great success, even of as fine a quality as in California. He is enthusiastic in his praise of the climate in its beneficial effects upon bronchial troubles. He has seen many severely affected coming from abroad, who were cured simply by living at Walla Walla, breathing its healing air, and drinking only its pure, delicious water.

     Of a fine and commanding figure, still erect and firm in his sixty-sixth year, and as able as ever for all active pursuits and business, Mr. Isaacs is one of the pillars of society in the city of his pride, and is regarded by all with the affection and esteem due one of such a worthy character and career. He has been selected for positions of public trust, being president of the Board of Trade for several years and a member of the legislative council in 1865, where he made himself known as strongly in favor of all public improvements, and as firmly in favor of woman's suffrage and local option.

     CAPTAIN JACK. - The famous warrior, more correctly called Keintpoos, was born about the year 1840. Little is known of his early history. His fame rests upon his desperate fighting in the lava beds in the winter of 1872-73. In some respects the most extraordinary warrior in the annals of Indian fighting, it is yet a very difficult matter to decide whether Keintpoos is to be regarded as an accident or a veritable Indian Hannibal. The location of that war was so singular, the forces of the Indians so small in comparison with those of the Whites, the slaughter of the latter so great and so unaccountable. The deliberate treachery of the Indians towards Canby and Thomas so coldly diabolical, the cost of exterminating the little band of savages so vast, and the final execution of Jack and his men so coolly and laconically met, that the attention of every read of history has been enchained; and, even with the execration which we must all



                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                     389

 feel for the atrocities of that savage band, we cannot avoid a lurking admiration for their amazing energy and daring.

     At the time of his execution Jack was apparently thirty-four or thirty-five years old, small of stature, with a large head, shaggy hair, and restless, piercing eyes. There was little in him to show his tiger blood, though the remark that he made to one of the commissioners early in the war showed the philosophy which guided his life. Refusing to go to the reservation to starve, as he said, he added; "Not hurt to be killed with gun. Hurt much to starve to death!" He seemed to have thought that the war would not end except in his death.

     HON. ORANGE JACOBS. - Hon. Orange Jacobs is a son of new York, a state which is the first in wealth, population, trade, manufactures and commerce, and first in the number of her sons and daught4ers who had gone out to make homes in other regions, and to develop their resources with New York brain and brawn.

     Virginia claims the proud distinction of being the "Mother of Presidents;" and New York could claim the prouder title of being "the mother of States and Territories." In 1880 the Empire state had more than one million two hundred and fifty thousand sons and daughters who had made homes in newer countries. It is beyond human power to calculate what these armies of New Yorkers have done to found and build up our empire in that vast country west of the Alleghany Mountains.

      The subject of our sketch is one of the most honored, distinguished and useful of these Empire state children. He was born in 1829, a rugged era of American civilization, which produced and developed rugged and heroic men and women. From New York he removed in early life to the frontiers in Michigan, where he was educated, and where his character was molded. At twenty-three years of age he joined the migratory masses that were moving towards the setting sun; and, following the "Oregon Trail," he crossed the plains and the continental divide, and reached the tides of the Pacific Ocean. His home was first made in Salem, Oregon; but later he removed to Jacksonville, Jackson county, where he pursued the practice of law for a quarter of a century.

     In 1867 he was appointed associate justice of the supreme court of Washington Territory, and in a short time was made chief justice. On the expiration of his term, Judge Jacobs was offered a reappointment by President Grant; but he declined the position to accept the nomination for delegate to Congress from the Republican party. He was elected to this office for two terms, and declined the nomination for a third term, returning to the practice of law. In 1880 he was elected mayor of Seattle, and served on term, declining a renomination for a second term. In 1884 he was elected to the senatorial council, where he did good service for the people of Washington Territory. Among the many measures he was instrumental in passing may be mentioned the change in the exemption laws, and the appropriations for the territorial penitentiary, insane asylum and university. The appropriations for the university were the largest in the legislation of that territory; and the results of the outlay will be felt to the remotest time.

     Judge Jacobs is now a member, and the treasurer, of the board of regents of the University of Washington. While living in Oregon he came within one vote of a nomination, which would have been equivalent to an election to the United States Senate. While chief justice of the supreme court of Washington Territory, he made a decision in a case that became celebrated, as it involved the question of the national jurisdiction to the Island of San Juan. Judge Jacobs is decidedly opposed to alien and servile labor, and as strongly in favor of free American labor; but he deprecates violence and lawlessness in the solution of the question. He believes that it is a question of national importance, and that the non-employment of Chinese would result in their removal from this country.

     Judge Jacobs is a man of large stature, commanding presence, positive views, has the courage of his convictions, but is liberal and tolerant. He has filled a prominent place in the public affairs of Northwest America as a pioneer, lawmaker and judicial officer.

     MRS. SARAH H. JEFFERS. - The following reminiscences of the journey across the plains, prepared by the above venerable lady, will prove of very great interest to all our readers, giving details of the journey not always distinctly remembered or related.

     At the request of Elijah C. Jeffers, of Clatsop county, his mother, Mrs. Sarah H. Jeffers, writes the following history and incidents of travel across the then wild and uninhabited region of country, from the point of rendezvous near Saint Joseph, and on the west shore of the Missouri river, to the territory of Oregon:

     "On the 6th of March, 1847, my husband, Mr. Joseph Jeffers, and I, with our family of three children, left Burlington, Iowa, for the aforesaid rendezvous to join the company of emigrants to be organized and escorted under the direction of a young man by the name of Albert Davis,  who had before traveled the said road to Oregon and the Pacific coast. For the sake of protection from the depredation and savage barbarity of the Indians on the way, the company, consisting of forty-two wagons and attendants, drawn by teams of oxen, was systematically organized; and, being thus arranged for travel, who took up the line of march from the place of rendezvous, and with oxen speed wended our way westerward to the point of destination, - camping in circle at night, the cattle being turned loose to graze and rest, and guards being stationed around the camp to protect the cattle and the camp from the hostilities of the savages. These were relieved by others at midnight. All having rested for the night, and taken their morning repast, we resumed the tedious journey.

     "Traveling and camping thus each succeeding day for four or six weeks, we came to Fort Laramie, being a distance of about five hundred miles traveled from the point of egress. There was nothing remarkable or worthy of note at this point, except



390                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

that it was occupied by a white man associated with an Indian squaw for a companion, and hence raising a family of half-breeds. After resting for two days, we resumed the line of march from this point on the North Platte river, and traveled thence up the rough and rugged Black Hills or Laramie Range until attaining the Wind River Range about the last of June, where was exhibited the remarkable and beautiful feature in nature of a snow-clad mountain, and at its base beautiful and fragrant flowers with green grass, upon which all of us, for the time being luxuriated, - the teams upon the grass, and the men and women upon the snow and flowers, as we camped at a creek near by named Sandy.

     "On the following morning, the 1st of July, we resumed the toilsome way, the company dividing, a portion going by the way of Fort Bridger and the others taking what was called the Greenwood cut-off. We, taking the latter, experienced the terribleness of that cut-off. characterized by a continuous travel day and night without wood, grass or water, and through a dense cloud of dust, the teams becoming well-nigh famished, and the company suffering from great thirst. In the morning, coming in sight of Green river, for some time before reaching it the teams became so frantic that they were scarcely manageable; and, such was the intensity of their anguish, that on reaching the river it was exceedingly difficult to release them ere they plunged with all into the water, and then had to be closely followed and guarded to prevent drowning. Having surmounted the dreary scene and wilderness desolation, and reached this point on the Green river the 2d of July, 1847, and being refreshed by its cooling waters and the usual repast and rest, the next question to be determined or devised was the means of transit to employ for the safe ferriage of the company and their effects to the opposite shore. A raft of logs was constructed; but, the rapid stream being too strong for those in custody, it was swept away, they barely escaping from its dangers. The next means employed was the calking and pitching of one of the wagon beds; and by this means all, in detached and small quantity, were in due time safely crossed.

     "At this point on the 3rd day of July, and while the men were engaged in providing the means for crossing the river, the women, inspired by the feelings of nationality engendered by the near approach of the day of our national anniversary, as they might not be able to do so on the Fourth, prepared a special dinner for all, in honor and celebration of the day of our national independence. This work and celebration occurred on the Sabbath, a seeming violation of the injunction to "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy;' but, being now observed by the entire line of emigrants, the circumstances compelling constant labor and travel were pleaded in extenuation therefor.

     "Having succeeded in crossing all with safety, and in setting up the wagons, repacking, etc., we resumed the anxious and tedious way, traveling over unknown mountains, the descent of which, in one instance, was so great that it became necessary to take the teams from each wagon and then hitch one yoke of oxen to the rear end of each to prevent too rapid a speed in their descent, the men holding and guiding the wagons, and thus guarding against danger and damage, succeeding in a safe descent to the valley of Ash Hollow, where, finding pleasant camping quarters, we camped near its cooling stream of water, and released our teams to graze upon the abundant grasses for the night and succeeding day and night.

     "A feeling, already engendered, foreign to the spirit of love and kindness, was here developed; and it was of such a character that it divided the company into three separate and distinct branches; and each branch, independent of the other, subsequ3ently traveled and camped under their own care and supervision. Leaving this point of encampment, and resuming the tedious way, we finally came to the beautiful plain adorned by those grand and natural developments in architecture known as the Courthouse and Castle, and the Chimney rock, each extending far into the heavens, and of such a character as to command the attention and admiration of all.

     "The next objects of interest that came in our way, commanding the attention of the whole company, were the natural Soda,  Steamboat and Hot springs. The first was used and enjoyed by appeasing a strong thirst; the second was admired for its tremendous rush and force of waters, which created a sound resembling that of the escapement of a steamboat's high-pressure engine; and the third provided us with hot water, with which he made the tea for lunch. the next point of special interest was that of Independence rock on the Sweetwater river, where we camped and remained for two days, enjoying its scenery and grazing the teams. This rock is remarkable, not only for its magnitude in size and height, but for its isolated relation to all other peaks or mountains, being entirely surrounded by the Sweetwater plain, hence the name Independence. Upon its surface many names are inscribed; and on its summit is said to be quite a lake of water.

     "On leaving the vale of the Sweetwater, my husband, desiring to stop a moment with others to review the scenery, I was intrusted with the lines of the mule-team, consisting of a span attached to the family wagon. This trust resulted greatly to my disadvantage; for while crossing a small stream, the banks of which were precipitous, I placed my foot on the tongue of the wagon for support, which suddenly rose in the ascent and caught my foot between it and the bed of the wagon, putting me to great pain and suffering, and rendering me unable to walk on that foot for some time. I could only move upon my hands and knees while preparing food for six in family; but finally I recovered enough to meet the necessity.

     "The next point attained, and of very striking remembrance, was Fort Hall. There we were introduced into a great cloud of most tormenting mosquitoes; and hence we hastened from that encampment with the agility of mule and oxen speed, and next came to Fort Boise, where we obtained and enjoyed the first salmon. On leaving camp, our son, who drove the ox-team, being inspired by a sportive element to hunt and possess the


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