History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 391 - 410

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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antelope, his father took charge of his team; and I, having had considerable experience since the incident related, which occurred on leaving Sweetwater, again took charge of the mule-team. I did not notice at the time of starting that the lines were entangled with the tongue of the wagon' and on coming to a point at the head of a very deep and precipitous ravine, where the road made a turn, the mules, by reason of the entanglement, became unmanageable, left the road, and would have rushed to the utter and inevitable destruction of all, but for the kindness of a gentleman, who, seeing our danger, rushed in ahead of the mules, and, disentangled them, turned them into the road. Thus, by a kind and merciful providence, teams, family and all were saved. This put a quietus upon our son's sportive element.

     "We continued our weary way over valleys, plains and mountains, the ascent of which in many instances was of such a character as to require us to double the teams, and then again to detach them from the tongue of the wagon and hitch them to the rear to prevent too rapid a descent, the men guiding, holding and, by the aid of the oxen in the rear, preventing the wagon from toppling or overturning; and thus finally we came to the Cascade Mountains, the climax of our rough and weary travel. We reached the point of our destination in Oregon on the 12th of September, 1847, having been traveling six months and six days since leaving Burlington, in the State of Iowa, now over forty-two years ago."

     These statistics, being made entirely upon the memory of this date, are necessarily imperfect.

     RICHARD JEFFS. - The subject of this brief sketch was born in Westchester, Westchester county, New York, December 27, 1827, where he was brought up, working on his father's farm until he was nineteen years of age. He then went to New York City, where he remained for eighteen months.

     In February, 1851, he started for California by way of Panama, arriving in San Francisco in March of that year. He started almost immediately for the mines, where he remained until 1858.

     During the great gold excitement of 1858-59, on the Frazer river, British Columbia, when thousands of people were rushing to the new El Dorado, Mr. Jeffs, with that spirit of adventure that has always characterized him, made his way to those then celebrated diggins, and remained there actively engaged in mining for about one year. In 1859 he removed to Whatcom, Washington Territory, where he went into the employ of Captain Henry Roder; and it was he who took to marked the first scow-load of lumber from that place. After working in different places until 1862, he purchased a farm of eight hundred acres on the White river, and followed faring until 1882. In that year the Hopgrowers Association was organized; and Mr. Jeffs was elected president of that association, and removed to Snoqualmie, Washington Territory, to manage their large ho ranch, perhaps the largest in the world, a view of which the reader will find in this work.

     Mr. Jeffs is one of the sterling business men of the day, noted for his sound judgment in business matters, and for his many sterling qualities of heart and head. The very fact of his having filled the position of justice of the peace in the precinct of Slaughter for over sixteen years, and his having been elected as a member of the territorial convention of Washington for the eighteenth district, is sufficient evidence of his popularity, and of the high esteem in which he is held by the people, marking him as one of the old pioneers, whose advent with others of his kind and stamp into this country heralded the growth and prosperity of the Pacific Northwest.

     Mr. Jeffs is a married man and has two sons. He lives in a beautiful home on the Snoqualmie, surrounded by every luxury and comfort, in the enjoyment of a happy and honorable old age, and of the respect and goodwill of all who know him.

     JOHN T. JEWELL. - Mr. Jewell is a member of the Cove Dairy Company. He is a native of Indiana, having been born in that state in1836. after receiving his education there and in Illinois, he was drawn west in 1859 by the Pike's Peak gold excitement. From that point he quite naturally came on to Oregon. His first  employment was at West Portland, supplying steamboats with wood. As early as 1863 he moved to the Grande Ronde, entering into business as a freighter. Two years later he located a beautiful claim at The Cove, Oregon, and has devoted himself to farming and stockraising. He now owns three hundred and nineteen acres of fine level land, an has substantial improvements and a dairy of fifty cows, and also has about one hundred head of cattle besides.

     In 1870 he was married to Miss Mary J. Richey of Portland, and is now living amid the comforts pertaining to the farm of the best class.

     MRS. HARRIET JEWETT.- A mournful personal as well as historic interest lingers about those who survived the dreadful affair at Waiilatpu in 1847. Many of these feel that those who died were the happier; and no sympathetic friend, as every reader of this book must be, will care to inquire more minutely than is given in the pages of the general history of this work. But all will be glad that these sufferers from Indian atrocity outlived their great sorrow, - the butchering of a husband or father or friend, - and have for all these years been useful and contented citizens.

     Mrs. Jewett was born in Lower Canada in1809, and at the age of twenty moved with her parents to the United States, where she was soon married to Nathan Kimball. The young couple removed to Indiana, and in1847 joined a company bound for Oregon. Mr. Kimball was ambitious, a good mechanic, and had considerable money. Purchasing an excellent outfit, two ox-teams, milk cows, and clothing for two years, the journey was undertaken with high hopes and good cheer. What extra money was on hand was sewed up in belts, and worn by the older members of the family.

     On the journey misfortune overtook the family (there were seven children) in the death of a girl of three and a boy of fourteen. On no place than the plains is death more gloomy. The loved ones must

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be buried and left. The graves must be guarded against the prowling of wolves on the scent of blood, and of Indians ready to rifle even the dead of their clothes. In this case the children were buried in the road; and the wagons were driven across the spot to obliterate all traces of the sepulture.

     Upon arriving at Doctor Whitman's in the autumn, the Kimballs were attracted by the pleasant mission station, by the school which the children might attend, and by the endless pasture of the hills. As the teams were worn and the weather was growing cool, and as Mr. Kimball himself had a chance to work on some buildings which the Doctor was erecting, he concluded to remain until the following spring, and then drive through to the Willamette, with what fatal result is but too well know. We will not here dwell on the dreadful scenes of the massacre, nor of the sorrows of the captives.

     Upon the release of the survivors in December, through the efforts of Peter Skeen Ogden, of the Hudson's Bay Company, Mrs. Kimball came to Oregon City. After a residence there of some time, she was married to Mr. John Jewett, who then removed to Clatsop Plains, where they lived for many years. They improved their place, and reared and educated their family, - the five children of Mr. Kimball, and two others born after their arrival.

     Mrs. Jewett survives her husband, who died some ten years ago; and, although in very advanced age, she enjoys good health. She has never been reimbursed for her losses in the Cayuse war, and feels that she has a just claim on the government. She certainly has suffered very severely from a massacre against which the government should have protected its citizens.

     Of her children, Mrs. Susa Wirt, who was born in 1831, is living with her husband, A.C. Wirt, at the pleasant village of Skippanon, doing a prosperous farming, gardening and merchandising business. Mrs. Munson, the wife of J.W. Munson, well known as a pioneer shipbuilder and light-keeper, resides at the government station at Point Adams, where Mrs. Jewett now lives. Mrs. Meglar is the wife of the well-known proprietor of the Occidental Hotel at Astoria, and of the salmon cannery at Brookfield. Nathan Kimball is a farmer in Clatsop county. Byron Kimball is likewise a prosperous farmer.

     DANIEL JOHNSON. - Among the pioneers of Oregon, no one bore a better reputation than the subject of this sketch, whose doors were always open to the homeless stranger, and whose memory will be fondly cherished by the many who have been sheltered and fed by him.

     Daniel Johnson was born in 1812 in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, and at ten years of age removed with his parents to Onondaga county, New York, remaining with them some thirteen years, and doing any kind of work he could get to do. However, during the latter part of this time, he labored at stone-masonry.

     Right here we cannot forbear citing the reader to one piece of labor performed by him. In 1883 H. Johnson, son of Daniel, while traveling through that section of New York, paid a visit to an old fashioned cobble-stone house built by his father in the year 1835, and which is really as firm and solid as when it was first completed, the couple for whom it was built still occupying it.

     In the year 1837, Mr. Johnson, leaving friends and home, struck out for the "old West." Arriving in Tippecanoe county, Indiana, he labored at masonry, plastering, as foreman in a large pork-packing establishment, and breaking prairie lands, until 1844, within which time he had accumulated property to the value of about seven hundred dollars.

     During the time he lived in Indians, he met and won the love of Miss Elsina Perkins, whom he married January 22, 1844. She was born in Cattaraugus county, New York, in 1828, and was the daughter of Eli and Sallie Perkins, who removed to Tippecanoe, Indiana, when she was four years old, living there until shortly after the above-stated marriage of their daughter, when they joined the company, of which the young couple were members that were preparing to cross the plains the following summer.

     All things being ready, they set out with ox-teams on the fourth day of Aril to seek new business and a new home on the Pacific coast. Many of the incidents of that journey have been related elsewhere; yet one may be added here; Taking a buffalo hunt with Joseph Smith, Barton Lee and John Perkins, Mr. Johnson came upon a herd of a thousand animals, following which they killed a cow and calf, but upon getting ready to return to the train disagreed as to the direction, and in consequence rode bout aimlessly, moving in a circle. Coming back to the carcass of the cow and being tortured by thirst, their tongues already beginning to swell, they scooped a hole in the body of the animal, and clarifying as best they might with buffalo grass the liquid which gathered, drank each two swallows. Being somewhat revived by this seemingly poisonous an disgusting fluid, they rode on and found the track, and soon came up with the train, which on account of the insistence of the wives of these men had waited a day. They were out two nights and three days, but found upon reaching the wagons that a buffalo herd had passed close by, and that the train was supplied with an abundance of meat.

     Reaching the Umatilla, Mr. Daniel Johnson went over to Walla Walla, and spent some weeks in working for Doctor Whitman, making the journey to the Willamette valley in the middle of the winter. At The Dalles he constructed a canoe for himself, and hired another with an Indian pilot. His own he lost in endeavoring to take it over the Cascades, but below the rapids constructed a raft, and at the mouth of the Sandy was accommodated with the Hudson's Bay Company's boats. It was the middle of February by the time they reached Oregon City. Early in March he returned to The Dalles for his teams, which he had left with Mr. Bush; and, ere he had reached Oregon City once more, he had passed fourteen months of outdoor life, never sleeping under a roof except a few weeks after first arriving at the falls.

     Once fairly in the valley with all his effects, Mr. Johnson and his wife went out to the picturesque hills and uplands at the riffles of the Yamhill river, and near the present site of Lafayette, Oregon, took

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up their Donation claim. This magnificent tract of land, they still own and have lived upon until recently, making of it one of the best of the "old places," and rearing there their family of eight children, - Hull, Melissa (deceased), Anna, Lilian, J.P., Effie G., Jennie and Maud. All but one are married and have homes in Oregon.

     Mr. Johnson, although now approaching old age, is still hale and active, and of unimpaired mind.

     FRANK JOHNSON. - The career of this well-known contractor is a clear case of the promotion of merit. He has acquired an enviable position in the business world from simple integrity and excellence of worth.

     He was born in Holland in 1844, and came with his widowed mother to New York in 1852. He went soon to Buffalo, and there began to learn the trade of a carpenter and joiner. The war breaking out, and an appeal being made to the patriotic young men of the city, he volunteered as a soldier and served gallantly until the close of the struggle, meriting and receiving special mention by the colonel of the regiment. He saw severe work both in the West and South and at sea, and was wounded in a skirmish on the line of the Mobile & Charleston Railway. Being mustered out at Albany in 1866, he returned home and continued his studies as architect with Frederick Scott, one of the master mechanics of the city. In 1874 he began business on his own of the city. In 1874 he began business on his own responsibility, and made a specialty of first-class work and of overseeing construction.

     Tiring, however, of the city, and desiring to try the real American life of the West, he came to Washington Territory in 1880, and took up a farm in the Palouse country, using his soldier's right to a claim of one hundred and sixty acres. He began  in earnest, fencing sixty acres, and plowing thirty the first year. But "his light could not be hid." A settler, who had made money in the cattle business, was wanting a house, and, hearing of Mr. Johnson, sent for him to do the work. Wishing to accommodate a neighbor, our architect lent a hand, and, feeling an interest in his old trade, set himself to make the best looking house that the circumstances would permit. With nothing but rough lumber to begin with, he matched and planed and joined, and even molded and made, rolled heads for the piazza fronts, constructing so elegant a house as to excite interest in all the region, and to spread abroad his fame.

     The railway authorities, hearing of his skill, persuaded him to take charge of work in the construction of depots along their line. He became foreman of this work and operated one year. This led to his receiving the appointment to build the United States quarters at Fort Spokane, then growing up, where he worked twenty-two months, overseeing from twenty-five to ninety-five men all the while, and building a considerable village of officers' houses and soldiers' barracks. From this time his place was assured. Although still trying to live on his farm, he was called away to build the Catholic chapel; and he finished the college at the Falls. He build the first business block in the place (Keith's), and made the plans and supervised the construction of the famous Wolverton Block. He also built Mr. Brown's magnificent residence, and has erected a very handsome dwelling for himself.

     Mr. Johnson is respected and well-nigh beloved by the people of Spokane Falls, Washington, where he resides, for his frankness, geniality, good fellowship, and neighborliness, as well as for his superior ability in his special line.

     JAMES JOHNSON. - James Johnson, a pioneer of 1844, son of James Johnson of Berkshire county, Massachusetts, was born on his father's farm in 1814, and as a child moved with his parents to a new home in Onondaga county, New York, living there until he attained his manhood. In 1836 he gave rein to the desire for change and adventure and freedom, which ultimately made of him one of the early pioneers of Oregon, going in that year with his brother Daniel to Tippecanoe county, Indiana, and engaging in work as carpenter near Lafayette. In the winters, when there was little building on hand, he gave attention to pork-packing, becoming an expert and commanding a good salary. In 1839 he began a substantial domestic life, marrying Miss Juliet, daughter of Eli Perkins of Tippecanoe county.

     During these and the following years, however, he was hearing much about the great new West, the land of Oregon; and his natural craving to form and enjoy a career unhampered by the restrictions of life in the older communities made him anxious to come to the Pacific coast. In 1844he was able to accomplish his purpose. In April, in company with his brother Daniel, and with John and Eli Perkins and Ruel Olds, he procured his outfit and proceeded to the rendezvous near Independence. There they found a considerable company assembled, among whom may be named Joseph Smith, Barton Lee, Colonel Ford, Captain Levi Scott, Captain Bennett and Captain Hedges. In all there were one hundred wagons; and Ford was chosen captain.

     It was late in May before the caravan moved. Owing to prodigious and continuous rains, and the consequent softness of the ground and fullness of the streams, their early progress was very slow; indeed, they had only reached the Big Blue by the Fourth of July. As they moved on, the company fell considerably to pieces, as was usual, for the better accommodation of stock. Mr. Johnson traveled in a detachment of nineteen wagons. Progress during the later stage of the journey was quite satisfactory; yet on the Snake river provisions were nearly exhausted; and horsemen were sent ahead to procure supplies at Whitman's. They performed their errand, and, on returning, met the train on Burnt river with a quantity of fresh cornmeal and peas. With their abundance of milk, the wayfarers managed to live thenceforth very comfortably on mush.

     Mr. Johnson left his team for the winter at The Dalles, and reaching Oregon City was employed by Doctor McLoughlin and others in work at his trade until November of the following year, when, after much examination for a location, he selected his Donation claim in Yamhill county, Oregon, near Lafayette, and made that his home until his comparatively recent removal to the town. In 1849 he

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made the trip to the California gold mines, but on account of sickness soon returned. In 1851 he examined the mines of Southern Oregon, but found that there was more money in working his farm and in contracting and building at Lafayette.

     In all his plans and labors Mrs. Johnson has been his faithful and sagacious coadjutor, making ends meet on the farm, furnishing motive and encouragement for his energy and industry, and also rearing to his name a family of eleven children, one of whom died in youth. They are as follows: Burr, Esquire (died at the age of twenty-seven), Julia A., Watterman, Wright, Viola E. and Iola E. (twins), James K., Gus E., Ellen and Clara. All are married and live in Oregon. Mr. Johnson and wife have twenty-four grandchildren. All but one are living.

     THOMAS JOHNSON. - The gentleman whose name appears above belongs to three towns on the east slope of the Cascades, - Goldendale, Ellensburgh and Cle-Elum; and it may almost be said that in the course of their development these three towns belong to him. At least, he has been a leading and constructive spirit in them.

     He is a native of Canada, where he was born in 1839, and came to this coast in search of the golden fleece at Caribou in 1862. The Province, however, detained him but a year; and he came down to Rockland opposite The Dalles, employing himself in running the ferry across the Columbia. Going to Canada in1866, he married Miss Connell, and after his return to his Rockland home made a number of rapid shifts. all of which advanced him on the road to fortune. He operated the ferry a year, was in the cattle business on the Klikitat two years, and bought sixteen hundred acres of land near Rockland and farmed three years. Going now to the site of Goldendale with the autocratic license of the king or frontiersman, he laid out the city, built the first store, built a gristmill, and followed this with a sawmill. In 1880 he established the bank.

     With the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad towards the Cascade Mountains, he went to Ellensburgh, reaching that point before the railroad, and took a contract for lumber, prosecuting also the mercantile business. A fire destroyed thirty-five thousand dollars' worth of his property; yet it did not seriously hinder his operations. He went to building again, this time a hotel, the Johnson House at Ellensburgh, then a sawmill at Sunday Creek and another at Cle-Elum, the former a forty-thousand foot mill, the latter with a capacity of sixty thousand feet per diem. The present wealth of the east side of the Cascade Mountains is very large. Mr. Johnson owns quite a part of the townsite. Being a man of large views and a strong hand, he seeks and applies many methods to build up that part of the state, and is one of its leading men.

     He has not shunned public duties, having been auditory and probate judge of Klikitat county, and city councilman and mayor of Goldendale. His business maxim seems to be to keep things moving, to employ men, to bring in families, and to keep up the life and monetary circulation which produces growth. He has four children, a wife in every way his companion, and all the home blessings.

     His home is at Cle-Elum, Washington.

     HENRY JONES. - The subject of this sketch is a native of Dodgerville, Iowa county, Wisconsin, where he lived until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in Company C, Twelfth Regiment, and served until November, 1864. He then moved to Iowa, remaining there until October, 1873, when he came to the Pacific coast, landing in Portland, Oregon, the same month.

     Mr. Jones married Miss Rosetta Sexton, granddaughter of the late James B. Stephens, of East Portland, on December 15, 1880, and has one son, Harry, who was born March 16, 1885. Mr. Jones was business manager of the late J.B. Stephens for seven and a half years, and now lives in his residence at East Portland, Oregon. He is a man of good business capacity, and is respected and esteemed by all who know him.

     JOHN E. JONES. - The second to locate in the beautiful Indian valley was the gentleman of whom we write. He was born in South Wales in 1818, and crossed the Atlantic to America in1850, removing to Salt Lake in the next year. Removing to Cache valley in 1859, he made some valuable improvements on his place; but, disagreeing with the Mormons, he removed to Soda Springs in 1863. The next year he removed to Deer Lodge valley, Montana, farming until a destructive invasion of grasshoppers. Meantime he has been making butter, which commanded a price of two dollars per pound, and selling hay at Butte at one hundred dollars per ton. After the grasshopper plague, he made a personal examination of California, Oregon and Washington Territory, finally, in 1871, selecting Indian valley, Oregon, as his home, locating near the present site of the town of Elgin. There he has since remained, farming and raising stock, and owning half a section of very rich land. He has brought up and educated a family of eight children, and has ten grandchildren.

     Mr. Jones is a veteran of the Ute war of 1853; and in 1863 was in the Beaver Lake valley, where a companion was killed at his side by Indians.

     NELSON JONES. - Mr. Jones, one of the largest stock-raisers of Eastern Oregon, having besides his interest at Heppner, Oregon, large holdings on the main Malheur, was born in 1840 in Fleming county, Kentucky.  Remaining there until 1849, he moved with his parents to Iowa, where he lived until 1858. In that year he left the paternal roof, and made the journey to Pike's Peak, but continued on to Shasta county, California. In that county he engaged in mining, but in 1860 sought a more tranquil life, coming to Polk county, Oregon, and engaging in farming until 1866. In the meantime he made several trips to the various mining camps, freighting and occasionally indulging in mining speculations of his own. In 1866 he made a permanent settlement at the forks of Butter creek, and began operations in sheep-raising, and has been engaged in the

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stock business from that time until the present, raising also cattle and horses. Of sheep he has now fifteen thousand head, and about five hundred horses.

     In a public capacity Mr. Jones has fulfilled his part, having been elected councilman of Heppner in the spring of 1889. He now fills that position with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. Although holding no landed estate, he has no less the interest of his country at heart, and is always relied upon as one of the most faithful and substantial men of that section.

     S.E. JOSEPHI, M.D. - Simeon Edward Josephi was born in the city of New York on December 3, 1849. His father, Edward Josephi, was a native of St. Petersburg, Russia, but left that country with his parents for England when a boy. He afterwards came to New York, where he embarked in the jewelry business, becoming a prominent wholesale jeweler of that city and San Francisco. Returning to New York from a trip to the latter city, he was lost in the burning of the ill-fated steamer Golden Gate in 1862. The mother of Doctor Josephi is a native of England. She is one of the Spanish Mandoza family, her father having emigrated from his native country prior to her birth.

     Doctor Josephi spent his early life in the city of his birth, and there received his literary education, chiefly in the public school. In 1863 he graduated from the grammar school. In 1863 he graduated from the grammar school and entered what was then known as the Free Academy (now the New York College) on Lexington avenue. After pursuing his studies there for a year, he accepted a clerkship in a mercantile house. Possessed with a desire to see the great West, he embarked for San Francisco on the steamer, Santiago de Cuba, via the Nicaragua route, arriving in California in September, 1866.

     In January, 1867, he came to Portland, Oregon, to accept the position of book-keeper at the Oregon Hospital for the Insane, at that time conducted by Doctors Hawthorne and Loryea. There he commenced his medical studies under peculiar advantages. At that time the only hospital in Multnomah county was that connected with the asylum, and occupying a separate and detached wing of the asylum building. This general hospital was also under the direct supervision of Doctors Hawthorne and Loryea; so that there was not only the benefit to be derived from the study of insanity by close and personal contact with the insane, but also much experience in general medicine and surgery to be gained by practical work in the hospital wards.

     In 1869, having prepared himself by close study, the subject of this sketch went to New York for the purpose of entering the Bellevue Hospital College. Here a question arose involving a sacrifice of convictions and principles on his part in exchange for financial advantage and the pursuance of his medical studies. He chose an adherence to his convictions, and thus lost the opportunities he had so long and earnestly looked forward to.

     Returning to Oregon under many harsh and adverse circumstance, he temporarily abandoned the study of medicine and accepted a position in the banking-house of Stephens & Loryea in 1869. In April, 1871, he married Miss Hannah M. Stone, daughter of Lewis E. Stone, of Wisconsin. By this marriage he had five children, four of whom are living.

     After his marriage he devoted a short time to reading law, but soon again resumed his medical studies, taking such leisure hours as he could obtain by rising very early and retiring late, and working at his desk during the intervening hours. Filled with a determination to obtain his medical degree, he toiled at study and work, saving little by little out of his salary, until finally he felt enabled to give up his clerical position with the Home Mutual Insurance Company (to which place he had been transferred upon the discontinuance of the banking business of Stephens & Loryea) and entered a medical college for his degree. This he did in 1876, matriculating at the Medical Department of the University of California; and in November, 1877, he graduated among the highest in his class. Returning to Oregon, he accepted the position of assistant physician at the Oregon Hospital for the Insane, under his old friend and preceptor, Dr. J.C. Hawthorne, in which and also in the general practice of his profession he continued until the death of Doctor Hawthorne, in February, 1881, when he succeeded his late chief as superintendent of the institution. He continued in charge until the discontinuance of the asylum in October, 1883, which occurred on account of the termination of the contract between the State of Oregon and the Hawthorne heirs, owing to the fact that the state was then for the first time ready to receive and care for its insane in its own building.

     He then entered into general practice again in Portland, and so continued until May 1, 1886, when he was unanimously elected, by the board of trustees of the Oregon State Insane Asylum, superintendent of that institution. In this position he continued, administering the affairs of the asylum with capability and success, and effecting many improvements in its general conduct until July, 1887, when he resigned owing to the expressed wish of the then Democratic board of trustees (the old board having gone out in January, 1887) to run the asylum upon political lines, and fill the position of superintendent from a member of their own party.  Realizing that, if the board were determined not to work in harmony with the superintendent, the usefulness of the institution must necessarily become impaired, he chose to sever his connection with the hospital rather than remain in charge under circumstances which would result in discord between the board and himself.

     Returning to Portland, he again entered into general practice, and has so continued to the present time. During the professional career of Dr. Josephi, he has occupied various educational positions. In 1879 he was elected professor of anatomy and psychology in the Medical Department of Willamette University.  In 1881, at his own request, he was transferred to the chair of obstetrics in the same college. At the reorganization of this college in 1887, he was offered the chairs of anatomy and obstetrics, but declined both. Later in the year 1887,the Medical Department of the University of Oregon was chartered; and Doctor Josephi accepted

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the professorship of obstetrics and psychology. At the final organization in the fall of 1887, he was elected dean of the medical faculty, to which position he has been re-elected each succeeding year, and which he now occupies.

     He is a member of the Oregon State Medical Society, of which body he was president in 1884; and he was also president of the Portland Medical Society in 1885.

     In 1885 Doctor Josephi was appointed by Governor Z.F. Moody one of the advisory board of pardons, his coadjutors being Honorable A. Bush and Reverend w. Hill of Salem. This position he filled until January, 1887, when he resigned upon the inauguration of Governor Moody's successor. Though of Jewish lineage, Doctor Josephi has been a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church since 1869. He is a member of the Orient Lodge and also of Ellison Encampment, I.O.O.F. He has several times represented his lodge in the state grand lodge, and was during 1883-84 one of the grand representatives to the sovereign grand lodge.

     THOMAS H. KAYLER. - Mr. Kayler, a gentleman of wide reputation, was born in Lenox county, Canada, in 1856, and resided on his father's farm sixteen years, and afterwards learned the drug business at Napanee. In the spring of 1876 he came to California, and made his first location in Sacramento, where he found employment in the drug store of Justice Gates & Co. The following year he removed to Santa Rosa, coming soon afterwards to Portland. The next summer, in company with Peter Graham, he drove with teams to the Palouse country, and located on three hundred and twenty acres half a mile south of the present city of Pullman, Washington, being among the first settlers in that vicinity. He followed farming until 1884, when he returned to his old business, opening a drug store in Pullman, and conducting it with various intermissions until the fall of 1888. In the above year he sold his first holding, and purchased two hundred and forty acres three-fourths of a mile north of the city. He also owns a large town property in Pullman, and is one of the responsible men of the place, being dealer in real estate. He was married in that city January 1, 1879, to Miss Della Layman. By this union they have two children.

     HON. WM. F. KEADY. - "The pen is mightier than the sword;" and the editor is greater than the captain. He is not simply a gossip and talker, but a thinker. The man who has grown up in a newspaper office can make his way in the world wherever a way is possible, and becomes a pillar in society.

     This is the case with Mr. Keady, who was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 1821. He learned the printer's trade, and entered the printing office of the Iroquois Journal at Middleport, Illinois, in 1852. Within six months he was half owner of the paper, and at length purchased the entire interest. He conducted this publication four years, until the formation of the Republican party, of which he became an active supporter. Having conducted his paper as a Democratic organ, he found it necessary now to sell it out, but continued living in Middleport until 1867. Entering the newspaper business once more, he purchased a half interest in the Kankakee Gazette, staying with it two years, and, after a short residence in Iroquois county, purchased a job office in Kankakee, Illinois, and published The Times continuously for twelve years.

     In 1881 he felt the drift towards the Pacific coast, and upon reaching Olympia, and observing its beautiful residences and extensive views, felt no inclination to go farther, but there set his stakes, and has since remained. He was elected justice of the peace soon after his arrival, and has held the office continuously. As school director he has interested himself deeply in educational matters. He has a delightful residence; and his situation is in all respects enviably comfortable. He is also deputy clerk of the district court, second judicial district.

     His first wife, Martha J. Patton, died in Illinois in 1853, leaving four children, George B., William P., now a prominent citizen of Portland; Mrs. Mary L. Burntrager; and Annie, deceased. In 1856 he was married to Miss Elizabeth Burntrager. They have two children living, - Mrs. Ida M. Bolton, of Vancouver, British Columbia, and Herbert C., of Olympia.

     JOSEPH B. KEENEY. - The railroads have largely spoiled the big, old stage-line routes; but still a few of them remain. One of these is that between Pendleton and Heppner, Arlington, Fossil, and from The Dalles to Prineville. This route is conducted on the old style, and by a man fully up to the old-time requirements. This is Mr. Kenney. He was born in 1841, in Indiana, and came to California in 1852, and on a steamer which required sixty-six days from the Isthumus to San Francisco. In the spring of 1860 he went to Arizona and, with others, built Gila City. We now find him moving around rapidly, now in San José, now at Moroville, Nevada, and again at Alameda in California, variously in the hotel business, mining, and as deputy sheriff at the last place. In Nevada he began the peculiar but very accommodating business of driving over the country, taking orders for whatever the scattered ranchers needed, and filling them at Placerville; and upon such trips he frequently carried passengers. He subsequently conducted a stage line from Helena, Montana, to Fort Benton, following this by driving stage from Salt Lake to Provost, and on the road from Bear River Junction to Boise City.

     In 1868 he took charge of Wells, Fargo & Co's business as agent, and followed this until the Union Pacific Railroad was finished. He drove the last stage between the two roads, the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific, the regular time for the nine miles being forty minutes. After this he had charge of the stage line from Kelton to Boise, and, in 1870, of that from Boise to Walla Walla and The Dalles. In 1878 he was elected clerk of Umatilla county, and served until 1882. He thereupon began stock-raising, and went into the livery business in connection therewith, until, in 1887, he put his horses

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upon the stage route mentioned at the beginning. This bare record presents but little of the hardihood, force and sagacity required for this business, and but little of the rough escapades and dangers met with by a stage driver, in a country overrun with Indians, and, much more, by the old-time Rocky Mountain "gentlemen of the road," once so famous.

     Mr. Keeney was married in California, to Miss Missouri F. White, in 1854. They have living two girls and two boys, now men and women. He makes his home at Pendleton, Oregon.

     DIETRICK KELLING. - The subject of this sketch, whose portrait also appears herewith, was born in Bremen, Germany, in 1831. In 1851 he came with his thousands of countrymen to New York. Two years later he "moved on" to California. He mined ten years in the golden state, whence he went to Idaho; and from the rocky wilderness in which he there was he came to Walla Walla, Washington Territory. He there invested in two blocks in the then embryo city. This was at that time a supply point for Idaho and British Columbia. In connection with his business there Mr. Kelling was in the habit of going to the mines in the summer time.

     He was one of the first to go to the Oro Fino mines, walking on snow shoes and carrying seventy pounds of provisions on his back, and barely escaping death by drowning. he was the first to erect a substantial building in those mines; and there he devoted two summers to merchandising with good success. In 1871 he settled down in Walla Walla. In 1885 he leased the Stine House, and proved to be a very good proprietor.  In that year, however, he met with an irreparable loss in the death of his wife; and three years afterwards, November 19, 1888, his own active and useful life was ended.

     The general esteem in which Mr. Kelling was held by his fellow-townsmen was well illustrated by the marked demonstrations of respect which accompanied his obsequies. The entire town may be said to have mourned at the grave of one so long and favorably known among them. The memory of both Mr. Kelling and his estimable wife will long be cherished by the people of Walla Walla.

     The business of conducting the Stine House, so successfully inaugurated by Mr. Kelling, is still conducted by his sons, the second of whom has special charge of the hotel, while the oldest, Henry, is city clerk of Walla Walla, an office he fills with satisfaction to all. Besides these two sons, the family contains three other sons and two daughters.

     DR. GEORGE KELLOGG. - Dr. Kellogg was born in Canada, April 6, 1814, and was the son of Orrin and Margaret Kellogg, and brother of Captain Joseph Kellogg of Portland. He was on of the most bold and original men that our state ever possessed, having that rugged and even combative disposition which finds its delight in antagonizing powerful and customary institutions and methods. Yet his genius was not destructive. It was simply seeking an opportunity to do constructive work that made him ready to give and to take blows; and underneath the shelter of his rugged front grew the choicest and most delicate plants of human character.

     His disposition to improve upon the past led him to study the botanic or physiomedical system of medicine. He had for his instructor Doctor Curtis of Cincinnati, and gained an extensive practice in Wood county, Ohio. In 1851 his desire to establish a new and better order of life led him to cross the plains to Oregon, where his father and brother were already doing yeoman's service in opening up the country. At Milwaukee, and soon in Portland, he began his system of practice, and gained a very wide reputation. His medicines, compounded by himself from the native herbs and trees of our state, were found to succeed in the performance of their intended work; and his sympathetic and penetrating mind, rendered acute by long years of practice, became preternaturally keen in diagnosis. On the one side he bore the rough winds of unfriendly criticism which seldom failed to strike the "irregular" practitioner; but on the other his life was made happy by the gratitude of many whose health he had restored, not a few of whom were too poor to pay for his services except in blessings.

     An intrepid thing that he did, well illustrating his bent, was the opening of Yaquina Bay. This was originally a part of the Indian agency; but, from the study of United States laws, Doctor Kellogg believed that a harbor could not be withheld from commerce, and determined to make the test at Yaquina. He met with opposition from the very first; - the steamboat inspectors tried to detain the steamer, the Pioneer, in which he was to go. He was obliged to slip down the Willamette and out of the Columbia with great caution in order to elude their espionage; and only by prolonging his journey on the water did he escape meeting an unfriendly party which was waiting for him at the bay. Even under his clearance from Astoria, allowing him to navigate the Pacific and Yaquina, and to fish here and on the weather shore, his little settlement at Pioneer, twenty-five miles from the bar, was attacked and demolished during his absence; and he got small comfort from the officers of the Indian agency or from the superintendent, and for a time bore the fame of a pirate or smuggler. Yet upon final appeal the government stood by him; and Yaquina is now an open port, and has been of vast service to the state.

     The end of this active life came in April, 1886; and the high esteem in which Doctor Kellogg was held was attested by the number of persons who attended his funeral obsequies, among whom were not only the many unknown whom he had befriended, but also the most distinguished citizens of our city.

     The following obituary notice of Doctor Kellogg, which appeared in a leading Portland daily paper, is so just an estimate of his character, and contains so accurate a résumé of his life, as to merit insertion here:

     "On May day were interred in Riverview Cemetery the remains of the well-known and popular citizen of Portland, Doctor George Kellogg.

     "Deceased was born at Caledonia Springs, Canada, April 6, 1814 and died April 28, 1886. At about

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the age of twenty-one he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he studied his profession under Doctor Curtis. After graduating he gained an extensive practice in Wood county of the same state. In 1851 he came to Oregon, where he has been a practicing physician, not only in Portland, but throughout the state and territories adjacent.

     "Doctor Kellogg's integrity as a man, and his skill professionally, made him beloved by his acquaintances, and earned the respect of the public to an extent seldom enjoyed by a professional man. He was exceeded by none in the desire to help the needy in the hour of distress. He not only gave freely of his means to the poor; but all the results of his genius were in every practicable way employed for the public good. These magnanimous characteristics endeared him to everyone. He was, perhaps, one of the greatest men young Oregon ever beheld, when, emerging from the ocean, white men came to behold her beauty.

     "Nor did his enterprising largeness of mental capacity confine his career to the practice of physics alone. With the craving intrepidity of the most skillfull navigator, he was the first man who took a steamboat from Portland across the Columbia river bar, examined the Oregon coast, and boldly entered Yaquina Bay, thus showing what commercial advantages lay in that direction. Last fall, when he again visited Yaquina, the people were not forgetful of his labors in their behalf. They turned out en masse to receive him. The greatest man of the age could not have been given an ovation more truly popular than that accorded him on the occasion mentioned.

     "He leaves a wife and four brothers to mourn his loss. In his youth he was baptized and became a member of the Methodist church. During his last illness he made a profession of faith in his Savior. He was attended by a minister of the Christian church, and exhibited great fervor as a Christian. He frequently called upon his wife to pray near him; and as the time of his departure drew near his faith became brighter and more earnest, until the happiness of sincerity and goodness accompanied him to death.

     "The funeral sermon was preached at the Christian church by Reverend J.W. Webb of Salem, assisted by the Reverend T.L. Elliott of this city. His pall bearers  were leading and distinguished citizens; Mayor Gates, Doctor Plummer, Judge Marquam, Mr. Hunter, Judge White, and Mr. Muckle of St. Helens. The funeral was very largely attended.

     MRS. DR. MARY C.E. KELLOGG.- Mrs. Mary C. Edwards Morand, who became the wife of Doctor George Kellogg in 1879, and is now continuing the work and manufacturing the remedies of her husband, was born in Illinois, and received her education in Pittsfield, and at the Jacksonville Seminary, of which Doctor Jaques was president. In early life she was much of an invalid, and for her own improvement read medicine, looking closely into the systems of allopathy and hydropathy, and taking also a course under the celebrated phrenologist, Professor O.S. Fowler, of New York, and afterwards studying with Doctor P.W. Shastid, of Pittsfield, Illinois. At the age of seventeen she was married to W.C. Morand, M.D. Of the two sons born of this union, one is Doctor W.E. Morand, now a physician in Portland; and the other is Elmer E. Morand, a farmer at Silver Creek, Washington.

     Coming to Oregon for her health in 1874, she was married five years later to Doctor George Kellogg, through whom she had received essential aid for consumption, from which she was suffering. She began at once the study of his system, and soon mastered the art of making his remedies. These medicines have gained a wide reputation on this coast, and are even in considerable demand in the Eastern states. The well-known home remedies, Balsam of Life, Family Liniment, Compound Cathartic Bitters, Golden Liniment for Catarrh, Golden Urinary Specific, Lung Balsam, and Cough Drops, are all compounded under her supervision, and are made almost exclusively from our native herbs and plants. Their great value has been recognized not only in a private way; but the management of the Mechanics' Fair of Portland bestowed upon them the blue ribbon, and awarded a diploma in 1886. It was the last wish of Doctor Kellogg that these specifics be kept in requisite quantity upon the market; and in this Mrs. Kellogg has most fully concurred.

     She lives in a delightful portion of the city of Portland, Oregon, commanding from the windows of her residence a bold view of the river and mountains, and has the substantial pleasures that come from active and beneficent employment. Her home is of rare attractions, and is adorned with artistic work of great beauty, deriving its interest not only from its unique design and construction, but from the fact that it is wholly her own. She prides herself that there is nothing else like it in the world, and that it is her peculiar invention. Being an extensive and enthusiastic traveler, with a penchant for gathering all manner of curiosities and mementoes from the places visited, she formed the idea of fashioning out of these materials designs so as to depict flowers and landscapes. One work of this kind is made wholly of shells, with a modicum of moss and miniatures of wild animals, and is a most entertaining souvenir of summer on the seashore. Another work of equal beauty is of crystal, the nucleus being beads which her children gathered long ago, and which she preserves in this graceful form. Another design is worked out in acorns, nuts, seeds, etc., another wholly in grasses, another in leaves, and various works in wax. All in all, this makes a most entertaining weft of the odd minutes of a very busy life, touching with beauty and art, and with the mystic attraction of the past, the entire home scene. The recreation thus suggested might be very well recommended to all lovers of the beautiful as something calculated to weave a thread of gold in the web of life, and to turn to brightness many minutes which might otherwise be given over to "the blues."

     JAY A. KELLOGG. - This gentleman is a native of Illinois, where he was born in Boone county, February 21, 1851. He is a son of Eli D. Kellogg. His mother's maiden name was Margaret J. Passage.

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When he was eight years old, the family crossed the plains to California and settled at Weaverville in that state. He there received the rudiments of his education at the public school, and continued his studies at St. Joseph College in Humboldt county.

     After a residence of ten years in Weaverville, Mr. Kellogg engaged in the lumber business in Humboldt county. In the general depression of 1879 in that line of business, he disposed of his interest, and in March of that year came to Washington Territory, selecting the thriving town of Dayton as his future home. He was there engaged in mercantile business for two years. Converting his business again into cash, he was occupied in various pursuits until his election as auditor of Columbia county in November, 1884.  The ability with which he discharged the duties of that position caused him to be re-elected in 1886. He has also been a member of the common council.

     Having full confidence in the future of his adopted home, his investments from time to tome have been in real estate. The rapid increase in population of the Inland Empire at large and Dayton in particular proves that his judgment was sound. The property he purchased for moderate prices is now very valuable. Mr. Kellogg is not only considered on of the substantial citizens of Dayton, but also one if its most active in all enterprises looking towards the advancement of its natural welfare.

     In 1882 he was united in marriage at Dayton with Miss Sina M. Coleson, also a native of the same county and state as her husband. Surrounded as he is by a pleasant and happy home, it is no wonder that the portrait found of him in this work looks so free from care.

     CAPTAIN JOSEPH KELLOGG. - The old People's Transportation Company of the Willamette has a record in the annals of early navigation scarcely less glorious than that of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company of the Columbia. Of this company, Captain Kellogg was one of the originators.

     The Kelloggs are of old revolutionary stock, the father, Orrin Kellogg, having been born at St. Albans, Vermont, in 1790. He was married to Miss Margaret Miller, in Canada, in 1811. In 1812 they went to Canada; and, the war between Great Britain and the United States breaking out, they as Americans were not allowed to return until after hostilities had ceased. While thus detained, their oldest boy Joseph was born, the day being June 24, or St. John's day. By action of Congress this child, in common with others in like circumstances, was still regarded as a native citizen of our Nation. After the war was over, the Kelloggs moved back across the border and settled near where Lockport, New York, now stands, but soon moved farther west to Ohio, and made a home upon the Maumee river. Here young Joseph grew up, and in 1844 married Miss Estella Bushnell, a young lady of noble character, who was born February 22d, - Washington's birthday, - 1818, at Litchfield, New York, and who moved to Ohio in 1820.

     In 1847, with his father's family, they set out for Oregon. They made arrangements to lie over one winter at St. Joseph, Missouri, completing the journey the year following. By May, 1848, they were off. When but a short distance out on the plains they met Joe Meek, the Oregon veteran and mountaineer, hastening East with the news of the Whitman massacre and of the Cayuse war. Somewhat sobered but not daunted by this intelligence, the emigrants continued on their journey, preparing, if necessary to fight their way through; but they reached Oregon without the slightest trouble of any kind. One of the pioneers of this year, and a member of this company was P.B. Cornwall, since known as a very wealthly man of California, and the principal owner of the old steamer Great Republic. He was brining with him a charter from the Masonic grand lodge of Missouri to establish a lodge of that order in Oregon; but, turning off at Fort Hall for California, he intrusted the document to Messrs. Orrin and Joseph Kellogg, who brought it through and established Multnomah Lodge, No. 1, the first Masonic lodge in Oregon. This fact makes notable the year 1848, and also the Kellogg company.

     Soon after reaching Oregon, Mr. Orrin Kellogg, Sr., took his Donation claim between Milwaukee and Oregon City, and, although then reaching advanced life, set about with great vigor to build a new home, and at length developed one of the best farms and handsomest places in the territory. He was one of the first to begin fruit-culture on a large scale, and put up one of the first tanneries in that section. He was a man of great liberality, and kept open house for all of his friends, nor even stinted his hospitality to travelers and strangers. It was said of him that his latch-string was always out; and he was among the number to give Oregon that reputation for hospitality which she still enjoys. He also gave attention to navigation on the lower Willamette and Columbia, being the first of the remarkable family of river captains bearing his name. Upon the opening of Yaquina Bay to commerce and navigation by his son, Doctor George Kellogg, he accompanied the expedition, and contributed very largely to its success. Taken all in all, he was a man of robust character of sterling uprightness, and that mental energy and virility which have been of the utmost value in the formation of our commonwealth.

     Having reached Oregon and examined its opportunities, Joseph Kellogg located a claim adjoining that of Lot Whitcomb at Milwaukee. Here he began at once that career of activity which has made him one of the foremost business men of the state. With Lot Whitcomb and Wm. Torrence he laid out the town of Milwaukee and built a sawmill. He also constructed for the firm a schooner which was loaded with produce from adjacent farms, which was taken to California. Selling schooner and cargo, the proceeds were used to purchase the brig Forest. Putting her on the lumber trade to California, a few trips sufficed to acquire purchase-money for the bark Lausanne, together with a pair of engines and boilers, and a complete outfit for a steamer, which were already upon the vessel; and, having secured this magnificent bargain, they began in the spring of 1850 the construction of the Lot Whitcomb, the first large steam craft built in Oregon. The launching of

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this boat on Christmas day of that year was the occasion of a general jubilee. But this was cut short by the explosion of a cannon, with which the people were celebrating, some of the fragments of which struck and killed Captain Morse, the master of a ship lying at Milwaukee, - a sad ending to the young city's rejoicing.

     As the years went by the business of the firm grew; a flour mill was also built and kept in operation, and two brigs kept plying with lumber to Sacramento. Lumber in those days was worth one hundred dollars a thousand on the Willamette; and freight to California added a hundred more. Withdrawing from the firm of Whitcomb, Kellogg & Torrence, he formed a partnership with Bradbury & Eddy, putting up the Standard Flour Mills, which were for many years the most extensive in Oregon. In 1863 he began the building of the steamer Senator, which was afterwards sold to the People's Transportation Company.

     Besides these private interests, Captain Kellogg took a deep interest in public measures for the improvement of the young state. In about 1857 or 1858 he took an interest in the telegraph line which was then to be constructed from San Francisco to Portland, - the first in our state; - and at his mill were sawed out the cedar posts for the section between Portland and Oregon city. An interest of twelve hundred dollars was also taken by his company for the old Macadam road between Portland and the White House, - the first road of the kind in the Northwest, and still the best drive out of Portland.

     About 1861, the People's Transportation Company was formed by a number of aggressive and active men whose object was to navigate both the Willamette and Columbia rivers; but, coming to an agreement with the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, they confined themselves to the former, leaving the latter to the other company. In the fall of 1864 Captain Kellogg united his interests with the People's Transportation Company. The most important work, after the formation of this company, was the building of the basin above the Falls in 1867 or 1868 to facilitate the portage. Captain Kellogg superintended this work; and its thorough construction, standing as it does to this day, is a master-piece of engineering. It was Captain Kellogg also, with Captain Pease, who began the navigation of the Tualatin with the little steamer Onward, and constructed the canal between that river and Sucker Lake, thereby making it possible to bring freight to Oswego and thence to the Willamette.

     In connection with this enterprise he bought and laid out the town of Oswego, and made an agreement with the Iron Works Company by which they were able to continue in business once more. The People's transportation Company sold out to Ben Holladay in 1870; and the Willamette Transportation Company, of which he was vice-president and a director, was organized, building the steamers Governor Grover and Beaver, whose construction Captain Kellogg superintended. But, soon selling out all his interest on the Willamette and Tualatin, he formed a new navigation company in partnership with his brother Jason and his two sons, placing his boats on the Columbia on the line to Washington and the Cowlitz. The two beautiful steamers Joseph Kellogg and Toledo, built by himself and commanded by his sons, are on the Cowlitz route, navigating that river far up into the heart of Washington, forty miles from the Columbia river to Toledo. This is one of the most popular and paying lines of the Columbia. It is incorporated as The Joseph Kellogg Transportation Company.

     The venerable Captain, although now in the white winter of his age, is still in perfect health,, turns off an immense amount of work, and is one of the leading citizens of Portland, Oregon.

     One of the pleasant and memorable occasions of the life in Ohio was his attendance at a great celebration, at which people from all parts gathered to the number of above thirty thousand to see General Harrison, then just returned from is presidential campaign of 1840. The captain well remembers the magnificent form and commanding manners of this hero of the West, and retains in pleasant memory the pressure of the hand which he is common with many others was permitting to take in the familiar citizen's grip of our country men.

     As to the Indian disturbances, Captain Kellogg recalls the excitement following the report that the Indians surrounding the Willamette valley were ready to fall upon all the settlements, and tells how he stood guard all night to protect his family.

     He had great faith in the advantages of Milwaukee as the metropolis of the state, and early became a pilot on the lower Willamette, performing the task of which no one else seems capable at present, - taking ships of deep draught past Ross Island to her dock. He now, however, regards the growth of Portland as on the whole most fortunate, since thereby the entire commercial interest of the lower river is massed at one point, rather than divided between some place above, as Milwaukee, and some point on the Columbia river, as St. Helens. Captain Kellogg, who began as a pilot of the river even before there was a pilot commission, and was one of the first to receive a license, is now the oldest river pilot.

     CAPT. ORRIN KELLOGG, JR. - This gentleman is the son of Captain Joseph Kellogg, and was born  October 16, 1845, in Wood county, Ohio. Coming as a child to Oregon, he received in this state the training and education which have fitted him for his career in business, and upon the navigation lines of the Northwest Pacific. His boyhood was spent upon his father's farm, and in attendance upon school at Milwaukee, rendering his father assistance in the meantime upon the farm and in the sawmill. Upon removing to Portland, he attended the Central School, and, desiring to fit himself for exact business, made preparations to enter the Portland Business College, at which he completed a course and become one of the first graduates of that excellent institution.

     From school he began the business of steamboating, operating on the Tualatin river, first as engineer and afterwards as captain of the steamer Onward.

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A few years later he purchased the dry-goods store of Mr. L. Patterson, of Hillsboro, and, laying in a large stock of merchandise, soon made it the leading retail house of the town. In the spring of 1874 he returned to Portland, Oregon, resuming his former occupation of steamboating, and has followed this to the present time, operating on the Willamette and Columbia rivers for the various transportation companied doing business there. Since 1878 he has had command of the steamer Toledo, of The Joseph Kellogg Transportation Company, a corporation of which he is vice-president. His operations in this department of river navigation have been of great value to the Cowlitz country, as well as contributing to a generally increased volume of business, and demonstrate in what manner freight tariffs for transportation may be kept at a minimum in our Pacific Northwest. His plan has been to accommodate every farmer or rancher reached on his route, giving each a landing, taking any and every sort of produce to market, disposing of it for the owner, and purchasing for the settlers any supplies or necessaries, from school books or a package of nails to household goods or farm machinery.

     He has moreover assiduously given attention to the improvement of the Cowlitz river, securing for it government aid, and even expending the means of the company in further prosecution of the work. In 1886 his plan for building wing-dams and clearing the river of snags by means of giant powder was conceded to be the best by the government engineers. As a result of this policy of the part of the company and his own steady prosecution of the same, his company has now exclusive control of the Cowlitz trade, and have so stimulated the settlement of the Cowlitz country that at Toledo, where there was only a calf pasture when the Captain first made a landing, there stands a fine young city of more than six hundred inhabitants. When we consider that there are over one hundred rivers in the Northwest, that by more or less improvement may be made to serve as well as the Cowlitz for navigation under the same sort of management, we begin to realize the value of our inland navigation, and see how easily railroad monopoly may be checked. To the company of Captain Kellogg must be given the credit of pioneering in this direction.

     He was married June 5, 1870, at Hillsboro, Oregon, to Miss Margaret Ellen Westfall, who was born May 30, 1850, in Des Moines county, Iowa, and is a daughter of Nathan Westfall of West Chehalem, Oregon. They have three children, Stella May, Ruby Ethel and Chester Orrin.

     CAPT. CHARLES H. KELLOGG. - Charles was the second son of Captain Joseph Kellogg, and was born October 1, 1846, in Wood county, Ohio. Coming as a child to our state, he spent his early years upon the farm of his father at Milwaukee, and learned habits of industry there and in the sawmill. His early education at the Milwaukee district school was further advanced at the Central School and Academy of Portland, and was completed at the Portland Business College, of which he was one of the first graduates. After a short apprenticeship under Captain Baughman, he took command of the steamer Senator, owned by the People's Transportation Company, plying between Portland and Oregon City, and kept his position until the company sold to Ben Holladay & Company.

     At the completion of the locks at Oregon City, he had the honor of piloting the first steamer, the Maria, through the locks. For a time he was captain of the Governor Grover for the Willamette Transportation Company on the Willamette river. He afterwards commanded various boats for the old Oregon Steam Navigation Company until the Joseph Kellogg Transportation Company was formed, of which he was a stockholder, and at one time vice-president, and afterwards treasurer, and had command of the steamer Joseph Kellogg until his death, which occurred August 7, 1889.

     He was on the water from early boyhood, and even in his youth was marked as exceptionally capable in handling a steamer, and received the praises of such old navigators as Captain Couch and other pilots. He became one of the most able and successful of the pilots that have ever run on the Lower Willamette and Columbia. His untimely death has not only been deeply mourned by his own family, but also regretted by the entire community. Men of his skill, breadth of mind and business calling are only too few in this state.

     He was married February 2, 1870, to Miss Emma E. Goode of Oregon City. He was married secondly in January, 1882, to Miss Mary Ellen Copeland of Scappoose, Oregon, and had by her two children, Pearl and Earl Joseph.

     William Harvey Kellogg, the third son of Captain Joseph Kellogg, was born June 22, 1859, at Milwaukee, Oregon, but died in infancy.

     NOAH S. KELLOGG. - This renowned prospector, whom Fortune has singled out as her favorite from among  many thousands, was born in Ohio in1829. In 1852 he began the journey across the plains, reaching Council Bluffs that year, and coming on to Portland, Oregon, in 1853. He terminated his trip at the Sound the same season. The next year he engaged in lumbering at Port Gamble, and continued in that business until 1870, spending one year, 1860, in the Boise basin.

     Since 1870 Mr. Kellogg has devoted the most of his attention to mining, traveling in British Columbia, California and Mexico prospecting and gathering mining information. In 1888 he went to the Coeur d'Alene country and became part owner of the Bunker Hill and Sullivan mines, which were sold in 1887 to S.G. Reed for the sum of one million, five hundred thousand dollars. Professor Clayton's report on these mines shows that, besides the twenty-five thousand tons of ore already taken out, there are now in sight above two hundred and fifty thousand tons. Mr. Kellogg is interested in several other mines which he has discovered prospectively of equal value, and is now actively engaged in developing them.

     There is nothing in recent mining history more interesting than the exploits and successes of Mr. Kellogg in the field of prospecting.

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     REV. CLINTON KELLY. - Reverend Clinton Kelly, one of the early pioneers of the Pacific Northwest, was born in Pulaski county, Kentucky, June 15, 1808. In January, 1827, he was converted, and commenced his life-work as a minister in the Methodist-Episcopal church, and ha since devoted his talents and energies for the benefit of his fellowmen, always denying himself the comforts and enjoyments of this life that he might the better assist others.

     In 1827 he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Baston, by whom he had five children, three of whom are still living, - good citizens of Oregon.

     His first wife died in 1837. He was again married in 1838 to Miss Jane Burns, to whom was born one child. She died soon afterwards, when he was joined in matrimony to Miss Moriah Crane; and to them were born nine children, Mrs. Sarah M., wife of Captain J.W. Kern, being the eldest.

     At the secession of the Methodist-Episcopal Church South from the mother church, he took up his relations in that church; but seeing, though far off, the terrible strife that would result from slavery, he longed to get away from its influences, and, hearing of this far-off land, took up his march in 1847 across the plains for Oregon, where he arrived late in the year of 1848, and settled about two miles east of Portland.

     By great industry and frugality he had surrounded himself and family with an abundance of this world's goods. Though so well situated in life, he ceased not to teach men of Jesus and the higher life they might live by squaring their lives by his laws. His especial efforts were devoted to the temperance cause. He had seen much of the ravages of the drinking custom during his lifetime, and worked to abate its dreadful power. He spared neither time nor money in this work; and earnestly he fought. He made no enemies; for all felt that love for his fellow-men urged him to his work.

     For forty-eight years he diligently served his God; and after a long life of usefulness, full of many sufferings and privations, he has gone to reign with Him. His last sickness was accompanied with most excruciating pain. For nearly a score of years he had been afflicted with a severe type of dyspepsia; and of late all food taken into the stomach seemed to turn to gas. It was found that his heart was diseased, the valves having become thickened from rheumatism, thus producing irregular action.

     The two diseases combined causing a smothering sensation; and for the last three months he was almost continually in an upright posture. The disease completely baffled the best efforts of his physicians. His strong physical system refused to yield; and the fight was long and terrible. But amidst it all his mind was calm and serene; and with pleasure he looked for the summons of his Master. He passed to his reward on Saturday, June 19, 1875. His life was an example of integrity; and his memory will long remain fragrant in the hearts of scores and hundreds who have known and loved him.

     HON. JAMES KERR KELLY. - Among the men of distinction in our state, none have held a position of eminence for a longer time than Senator Kelly. It requires stamina to stand for thirty years upon "the hard and wintry peaks of fame." We are the more assured of eminent qualities of the Colonel when we consider that he came to this coast and started upon bed-rock. Family ties, name, favoritism, may elevate men of no ability to high positions in older communities; but in the Oregon of an early day artificial conditions did not exist. A man came near being born again, or returning to his naked abilities, when he came to the Pacific coast.

     Of the men of power in our state, - Baker, Nesmith, Woods, Williams, Logan, Mallory, Lane, Applegate, - none have shown more mental grip and wear than Colonel Kelly. But the simple tale of his life carries with it its own commentary. Merit and service may go without veneer.

     He was born on a farm in Center county, Pennsylvania, in 1819. His was an old American family, although his great-grandfather came from the north of Ireland about 1720. His grandfather served in the Revolutionary war. Young James began his school-days at Milton, and thence went to Princeton College, graduating in1839. He immediately began the study of law with Judge John Reed of Carlisle, attending also lectures upon law delivered by the judge at Dickinson College, and was admitted to the bar in 1842. He commenced practicing at Lewistown, and was appointed prosecuting attorney by Governor Porter for Juniata county, and subsequently for Mifflin.

     Determining in 1849 to come to the Pacific coast, he chose the route via the Ohio river and New Orleans, proceeding thence to Vera Cruz, passing from the Gulf coast overland to the antique City of Mexico, and reaching the Pacific at San Blas. He there found a ship, and arrived at San Francisco in July. It was to dig gold that he came; and he spent the rest of the year at Murphy Diggins, in Calaveras county, washing the dust with a pan and rocker. Although moderately successful, he wisely concluded that there was more money in practicing his profession; and at San Francisco he opened his office, which he kept until, in 1851, he was burned out in the great fire. Pulling up is stakes once more, he came to Oregon, arriving on the 10th day of May of that year. Here he found a flourishing political field, and was almost immediately given legislative service and preferment. In 1852 and 1853 he was elected chairman of the board of commissioners to prepare a code of laws for Oregon. Judge R.P. Boise and D.R. Bigelow also serving on the commission. In 1853 he was elected to fill an unexpired term of one year in the council, and, at its close, to the full term of three years.

     When, in 1855, the Indian war broke out, Kelly was among the most active to spring to the defense of the young settlements. He organized a company at Oregon City, and led it over the mountains by the Barlow road to The Dalles. Here were the Oregon companies, each with its captain. Soon after the different companies had assembled at The Dalles, Governor Curry ordered an election to be

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held for general officers, at which election J.W. Nesmith was chosen colonel and Mr. Kelly lieutenant-colonel of the First Regiment of Oregon Volunteers. a few days afterwards Colonel Nesmith proceeded with five or six companies to the Simcoe valley to chastise the hostile Indians in that part of Washington Territory.

     Shortly after the departure of Colonel Nesmith, Lieutenant-Colonel Kelly was ordered by Governor Curry to proceed with the remaining companies of the regiment to the Walla Walla valley. With five companies under his command, he met the hostile Indians at the mouth of the Touchet river. The Indians were driven in a running fight from there to Dry creek, a distance of about ten miles, where they made a stand. The battle was continued for four days, a full account of which is given in the first volume of this work.  The victory of the Oregon volunteers was complete; and the hostile Indians were driven north of Snake river. This was about the middle of December; and the volunteers went into their winter camp near where the city of Walla Walla now stands.

     Colonel Nesmith having resigned his office soon after his return from Simcoe, Lieutenant-Colonel Kelly, by order of the governor, directed an election to be held to fill the vacancy cause by that resignation, but declined to be a candidate himself for the office, as it was his desire to go to Salem, to attend the session of the Legislative Assembly, of which he was a member. Captain T.R. Cornelius was elected colonel; and Kelly left for the capital for the purpose of aiding in such legislation as would be beneficial to the volunteers. After the close of the legislative session, he returned to the camp of Colonel Cornelius in Walla Walla valley, and from that time until late in the spring of 1856 was with the regiment under Colonel Cornelius, when it was mustered out of the service.

     Colonel Kelly again entered into active political life. In 1857 he was a member of the convention which formed the constitution of Oregon. Having removed from Oregon City to The Dalles in 1862, he was nominated in1864 by the Democratic convention, against his will, for member of Congress, but was defeated by J.H.D. Henderson, the Republican nominee. In 1866 he was again nominated by the Democratic party as its candidate for governor of the state, but was defeated-counted out as he maintains - by Geo. L. Woods. Having removed to Portland in 1869, he was elected United States senator in1870, having carried the democratic standard through ten of the most stormy political years of its history in the state to this final victory.

     Returning from Washington City in 1877 at the end of his senatorial term, he had scarely well set his foot upon the soil of Oregon before he received the appointment of chief justice of the recognized supreme court of Oregon. This was for the term of two years.  We may therefore name James K. Kelly "Colonel," "Senator" or "Judge" as best suits our mood. To the Indian war veterans he will always be "Colonel." Besides these high positions, he has served as mayor of Oregon City and The Dalles. This shows his popularity in his immediate home. He has ever been a Democrat since he cast his first vote for James K. Polk for President.

     In his student life he was associated with many who have since been eminent the nation over. Among his classmates at Princeton College were Gen. J.T. Boyle of Kentucky, Hon. H.M. Fuller, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania, Hon. N.S. Graham, Chancellor of Alabama, Hon. H.K. McCay, Judge of the Supreme Court of Georgia, Hon. Robert McKnight, Member of congress from Pennsylvania, Hon. Joel Parker, Governor of New Jersey, besides other distinguished in various pursuits in civil life.  Among his fellow-students at Judge Reed's law school in Carlisle may be named Andrew G. Curtin, Governor of Pennsylvania and Minister to Russia, Alex Ramsey, Governor U.S. Senator from Minnesota, and secretary of War, Carroll Spence of Missouri, Minister to Turkey, James H. Campbell of Pennsylvania, Member of Congress and Minister to Sweden, John C. Kunkel and M. Swartzwelder, Members of Congress from Pennsylvania, and N.B. Smithers, Member of Congress from Delaware.

     In 1863 he was married to Mary, second daughter of Reverend James P. Millar (deceased), who emigrated to Oregon from the State of New York in 1851. They have two children, a daughter and a son.

     HON. JOHN KELLY. - Prominent in almost every department of business and public life, Honorable John Kelly is known throughout the length and breadth of our state as a man of great abilities and irreproachable integrity. As a pioneer, none has a more deserving record, nor has sustained amore honorable part. Born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1818, he crossed the Atlantic to Canada in 1838, and in 1840 came to Franklin, Vermont. Three years later he began a career at the West, coming to Wisconsin, and there exercising his natural bent for business and capacity for organization, by which he has been distinguished, established a small woolen factory. But, finding the conditions unfavorable for a business of the dimensions that he desired to control, he sold out his interest and removed to St. Louis, seeking a wider opportunity.

     There he was led by his love of adventure to enlist for service in the Mexican war. In January of 1848 he was quartered with his regiment at Fort Leavenworth; and not until June following was the command ready to move to the seat of war. While en route, at Santa Fé, news was received that the war was over; and the regiment was ordered back to Jefferson Barracks. In 1849 Mr. Kelly received an appointment as wagon-master in the battalion of Colonel Loring to proceed to Fort Vancouver on the Columbia. Experiencing cholera on the plains of the Nebraska, and, as drover of the companies loose stock, to which he had been subsequently assigned, meeting with unreasonable treatment, he disconnected himself from the train this side of Fort Hall, and came with his own ponies to Oregon City.

     Being precisely the man to be attracted by the great enterprises in the California mines, he was ready in 1850 for a journey thither in company with Major Thorpe, Mr. Chambers and others; and his

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years of adventure in the mountains and valleys of Southern Oregon and Northern California, a recital of which would fill many pages of such a work as this, were a succession of upward steps towards a competency. Many of his experiences were very amusing, and were enjoyed at the time with all the hearty goodwill and pleasure of robust manhood, and a temper notably jovial. On Jump-off-Joe-creek, he had his clothes stolen by a "jewel" of an Indian boy, retaining only his elk-skin trousers and hickory shirt. By this misfortune, however, he was pleasantly - albeit humorously - introduced to General Lane and captain Phil Thompson, whom he found on Bear creek, and by whom his wardrobe was replenished. Captain Thompson moreover had a band of cattle that he was driving to California, but, desiring to return to the Willamette valley, was willing to dispose of them. Receiving the offer, Mr. Kelly felt unable to close the bargain for lack of means; but this was construed by the Captain, as no objection, and a personal note, without the indorsement of General lane, which was freely offered, was deemed amply sufficient.

     Continuing his journey southward, and crossing the Siskiyou Mountains with his cavalcade (for he had now some forty Klikitat and Mollala Indians as herders), a beginning in mining was made on the Klamath river; but the site was abandoned for a better said to exist farther south. While on the move occurred one of these incidents so often met with in frontier life, and which make us wonder that so many of the pioneers lived through the early days; Two of the best horses were stolen by Indian thieves at the noon lunch; and Kelly and four others started in pursuit. The way proved difficult; and just at dusk the trail entered a narrow, rocky cañon. Here, sending back the horses with one man to the camp, the four continued the journey on foot, tramping until midnight, and then from an eminence scanning the country for the sign of a flame or smoke; for they believed that the thieves would at length make camp, and, owing to the cool air, kindle a fire.

     At length, discovering a dull, red glare in the distance, they made towards it, and finally came upon a camp. Believing that they had overtaken the thieves they crept up close, with gun ready for use; but, not knowing how many Indians there might be, and not feeling ready to begin a promiscuous fight in the dark, they kept silent watch, waiting for the dawn. The brands of the campfire smoked; at last the starlight paled; and the gray twilight began to enter the shadows of the trees, disclosing the closely muffled forms of the doomed victims as they still lay by the ashes of their last night's fire. Kelly and his comrades crept nearer with guns in hand, and were just about to lay dead the miscreants who stole their horses. But, just at that moment, one of the "miscreants" raised his head and remarked in unmistakable Western English, "Well, boys, it is about time to get up and get breakfast." They were miners; and Kelly and his men were not sorry, even though they discovered themselves on the wrong trail for their horses. But if the miners had been happening to feel lazy that morning, and had waited to take a second nap, how shocking must have been the result. Of course a hilarious breakfast was enjoyed; and Kelly's party, having so far missed the thieves, gave up the chase and returned to their cavalcade. Sometime after, a similar incident occurred in the night-time after, a similar incident occurred in the nighttime, when Angel and Kelly got up one night to shoot a prowling Indian; and incidentally the former signalized his feat by giving the war whoop, and only saved himself from being shot by his startled companion by calling out "I've killed a Digger."

     It was not until the following spring that Mr. Kelly found a good opportunity to dispose of his cattle. During this season there was a great rush to the mines of the Trinity, Klamath and Scott rivers. In March, a very heavy snowstorm, such as sometimes visits Northern California, blocked all the trials, cutting off the supply of provisions; and the miners came out in great numbers on snowshoes, hungry, but well supplied with dust. Near the spot where Fort Jones was built somewhat later, Kelly with a partner named Brown had established a ranch, and there had his cattle corralled, and for a number of weeks butchered and sold his beef at a dollar a pound. During the following summer he was obliged to close out his interest, and returned to the Willamette valley in order to pay back the generous loan of Captain Thompson. His effort to re-establish a stock business proved unsuccessful, owing to the treachery of a man to whom he had paid five hundred dollars to hold his claim and build a corral, the man disappearing with the money, and leaving the site of the claim to another company, who were occupying it on his return.

     Coming up to Oregon again, he found no location that pleased him more than the beautiful Umpqua valley. And there, a mile and a half south of Roseburg, he set his stakes and made one of the fine, old places of southern Oregon. In 1853 he was married to Miss Elizabeth Parker, a daughter of the well-known Squire Parker, a pioneer of 1852. In 1861 he received the appointment as registrar of the United States land-office, and removed to Roseburg. In 1866 he removed to Lane county with a view of establishing an extensive business, but could not be relieved of his government position. President Johnson insisted upon his removal; but the Republican Senate refused to confirm a successor; and he was continued at the head of the Roseburg land district until the appointment of his successor by General Grant in 1869.

     The milling business which he had established in 1866 at Springfield in Lane county, with Messrs. Underwood & Pengra, was continued until the dissolution of the partnership in 1872, when Mr. Kelly received as his share of the effects the fine tract of land, a portion of which is included in the townsite of Springfield. In 1876 he received the appointment as collector of customs of Portland, Oregon, and during his four-year term performed the duties of his office with fidelity, dignity and ability. In 1882 he was appointed by President Arthur to inspect the section of the Northern Pacific Railroad between Clarke's Fork and Jocko.

     Mr. Kelly now makes his home at Springfield, Oregon, looking after the interest of his real estate, and improving the town by an addition. In this

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delightful village, in the midst of wealth and prosperity created largely by his own exertions, he spends the calm hours of a life of great activity and many high endeavors. He has eight children living: Mary L., wife of Hon. H.B. Miller; Thesara M., wife of  S. Jackson; John H.; Sarah M., wife of Judge A.H. Tanner; Abraham S.; Geo. H.; Elizabeth P. and Katy L. One child is deceased.

     PENUBRA KELLY. - The gentlemen whose name heads this sketch is the son of that Sterling old pioneer, Reverend Clinton Kelly, and of Mariah (Crane) Kelly, and was born in Kentucky in 1845. The first three years of his life were passed in that state, when he accompanied his parents across the plains to Oregon, arriving in Oregon City in the fall of 1848. In 1849, the family, which was quite large (Penumbra being one of fifteen children, six of whom were born to his father by former marriages), removed to a Donation land claim near East Portland; and since then Penumbra has resided there. Mr. Kelly was married in1875 to Miss Mary E. Marquam, daughter of Judge P.A. Marquam, a pioneer of 1851, and has three interesting children. In 1874 he was elected a member of the house of representatives form Multnomah county, and in 1876 was elected county commissioner of that county. He as again elected to the legislature in 1878, and since that time has been twice re-elected. He was elected sheriff in 1888 for a term of two years. Many times has Mr. Kelly's counsel and sound advice extracted the house form troublesome complications; and, as he was a deep thinker and able legislator, his services were greatly appreciated, both by the house and the country at large. He is a keen business man, and guards with zealous care the interests of those he represents. His genial disposition makes him friends every where; and it is a safe prediction when we say that he has just caught a glimpse of what Dame Fortune has in store for him when in due time she deals out her favors.

     DR. JOHN H. KENNEDY. - Doctor Kennedy was born in Iowa in 1850. His father, John K. Kennedy, was born in Tennessee in 1811, and figured in the Mexican war as well as in local politics. In 1862 the parents crossed the plains to Union county, Oregon. They had given their children the advantages of a good early education. In 1865 his father's house and personal effects were destroyed by fire; and the Doctor was obliged to assist his parents, as well as to care for himself. In 1871, having studied at Whitman Seminary and taken a course in the Medical Department of Willamette University, he received a diploma with first honors as M.D. Since then he has been practicing medicine in the Inland Empire, and has acquired a flattering reputation for success; although he is one of those whom notoriety must seek rather than seeking it himself. He has had his tribulations withal, having buried his first wife and three children all within one year, - in 1877. On April 25, 1880, he married Nancy A., daughter of William Stein, a pioneer of Salem; and there are three children as a result of this union, two girls and one boy; Faith, born February 10, 1881; Hope, born April 30, 1884; and Bliss, born August 19, 1888.

     While crossing the plains in 1862, near American Falls, as they were plodding their weary way westward, a horseman came dashing up to his father - the captain of the train - with the report that the company just ahead had been attacked by Indians and were in need of assistance. The captain immediately ordered a corral, and after posting pickets and guards took the available men and proceeded to the relief of the distressed. He found the train almost totally annihilated. Men, women and children were scattered along the road dead, dying, disabled, crying, pleading, or running back towards his train for refuge. The road at that point passed through a rocky coulée; and as the company hurriedly passed p they found other men, women and children secreted among the rocks, as well as a few of the Indians looking for more victims; while the majority of the Indians were engaged in driving off the stock from the train assailed. Captain Kennedy brought up his own train and encamped, having a strong guard out. The next morning, not having stock enough to haul the wounded and the little ones, as well as the supplies for the remnant of the train attacked, he took twenty-five men and went to reconnoiter and if possible recapture enough of the stock to pull the extra wagons. They were partially cut off from their camp and did some blooding fighting on their return, losing seven men killed, while the captain and five others were wounded.

     After graduating he located at La Grande, Oregon, where he followed the practice of medicine for two years, and in 1873 moved to Dayton, Washington Territory, where he remained until 1887; he then moved to Sprague, and from there again to Spokane Falls, coming from there to Weston, Oregon, where he now resides. The Doctor is building up a fine medical practice; and we predict a successful future to this man of worth.

     JAMES KESLING. - This gentleman is one of those large-hearted, kindly men who are loved by all the neighbors and by all the neighbors' children. His life embraces a wide range of interesting experiences, and covers a period of nearly forty years on this coast. He was born in Ohio in 1835, but moved with his folks to Indiana six years later. In 1852 he came with the family of Honorable Luther Elkins, now of Linn county, across the plains to Oregon. Reaching Portland, then a  town of shanties and but few good houses, in the woods, young Kesling and a boy companion undertook to turn a few honest dollars by cutting cordwood. Half a day of chopping, however, in the tough, resinous fir wood blistered their hands and determined them upon some more congenial labor. This hot half-day's work was near the Odd Fellows Hall of the present day. Going to Lafayette, then a city about the six of Portland (of 1852), the young man began blacksmithing, sharpening plows and showing horses until the autumn, and after that chose a home in Linn county, where he lived continuously, still blacksmithing, for twenty years. His next move took him to Old Yakima, where he began at once his favorite work, and was

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very successful. In 1885 he followed "the star of empire" to North Yakima, Washington Territory, where he is still carrying on his accustomed business, and has acquired real estate. He is also considerably interested in stock-raising.

     Mr. Kesling has also served in the capacity of justice of the peace. He is an enthusiastic lover of the Yakima country, believing it to be sure to become the garden spot of Washington territory. Its low elevation and warm climate give it the first great advantage. Its perfect adaptability for irrigation and the presence of unlimited water for the same purpose make the scarcity of rain no disadvantage, and prevent all failure of crops. The twenty feet of snow that falls on the Cascades and Shohatlins will always make green fields and immense root crops in the vales of Yakima.

     Mr. Kesling's domestic life has been happy, and has been blessed with all that a man can desire. He was married in 1853 to Miss Anna McMicken, a pioneer of Linn county, and has four boys and a girl, - Arnold L., Jay, Addison, Bella and Samuel.

     HARRISON RITTENHOUSE KINCAID. - This well-known journalist of Oregon, the emanations of whose pen have appeared either originally or as selections in almost every newspaper of the state, is the eldest son of Thomas and Nancy Kincaid, pioneers of 1853, and was born in Madison county, Indiana, January 3, 1836. At the age of seventeen he came with his parents to our state, and with them made his home in Lane county. Among his early labors was work on the mill-race at the present site of Springfield.

     In 1855 he made a trip to Southern Oregon to operate in the mines, but was soon after driven out by the Indians. he was led by this venture to a journey on foot to Crescent City and a voyage the next season to San Francisco in a little steamer known as the Goliah. The wandering life of the miner was hereupon assumed; and manual labor of all kinds was resorted to as a temporary means of support. The typography, general resources and society of California on the American Sacramento and Yuba rivers, and at length at San Francisco, were very thoroughly examined. From the Golden City he returned to his home in Oregon in 1857, and, being desirous of improving the home place, set to work logging with oxen, and thereby obtained from the mill sufficient lumber to build a house into which his father's family moved and made their home in 1860.

     In 1859-60 he attended what was known as Columbia College, which held its sessions in a stone building on a hill a mile south of Eugene. among his classmates were Joaquin Miller, W.H. Byers, J.J. Blevans, J.F. Watson and J.B. Matlock.

     His career as printer and journalist began during the breezy, political days of 1860; and his first work in type-setting was done on the People's Press, a Republican paper published at Eugene by Joel Ware. It was the recognized organ of the party throughout the county. In 1862-63 he entered the office of the State Republican as compositor, and also assisted in editorial writing. During the summer of the latter year he took a rough journey across the Cascade Mountains with a pack train, passing over snow ten feet deep on the north side of the Three Sisters, and at Cañon City made the acquaintance of Thomas H. Brents, since distinguished as delegate from Washington Territory to the United States Congress. Returning to Eugene in the autumn, he found work on a little paper, The Union Crusader, published by a man of radical opinions, a Universalist preacher, A.C. Edmunds. While employed at the desk, he also composed the political editorials of the paper, and in 1864, out of this as a nucleus, with the pecuniary help of others, he founded the Republican paper, the Oregon State Journal, a name known the whole state over. Of this journal he has been editor and proprietor for more than twenty-five years. During the first year he had Joel Ware as partner; from 1866 to 1869 he was assisted by his brother John S Kincaid as business manager, and thereafter until the death of the latter in 1873 as associate editor. He was also aided in his undertaking by his youngest brother, Geo. S. Kincaid, as publisher and associate editor, and received him into the business as partner in1882, but was also deprived of his companionship by death in 1885.

     In the political field Mr. Kincaid has been very prominent,  - one of the stalwart Republicans. He has several times represented the Republicans as delegate in the county and state conventions, and in the national conventions, - at Chicago in 1868, and at Philadelphia in 1872. In 1870 he was nominated for state printer over Henry Denlinger of the Statesman and H.L. Pittock of the Oregonian, and, although not successful, was beaten by the smallest majority of any on the ticket, - 493 in a total vote of 22,809. In 1866 he took a tour with Congressman Henderson and others to the Capital by way of San Francisco, Panama and New York, experiencing off Cuba the peril of fire on shipboard, from which the vessel narrowly escaped destruction. He spent the winter following at Washington, and in the autumn of 1867 visited nearly all the important cities at the east, happening also to be on the steamboat Dean Richmond, which was run into and sunk by the Vanderbilt on the Hudson. With the rest of the passengers he escaped with no loss but that of baggage.

     Attending upon the Republican national convention in 1868, he visited his old home in Indiana, and the next year was appointed, by recommendation of Senators Williams and Corbett, as one of the clerks of the senate, and retained that position for ten consecutives years, until the change of officers on political grounds. During that period he wrote editorials and letters for his own paper, and part of the time was regular correspondent of the Oregonian, and later of the Bulletin, of Portland, and of the Sentinel of Jacksonville. While thus at the national Capital, he had rare opportunities, such as are always enjoyed by men of culture, to visit points of interest in the United States, and spent as many as six vacations at his home in Eugene.

     He was married in Wichohat county, Michigan, in 1873, to Miss Augusta A., youngest and thirteenth child of Stephen and Diana Lockwood. In 1881 they returned to Oregon and have since resided at

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Eugene, where their first child, a son, was born September 19, 1889, in the house where the family has lived since 1860.

     JOHN FRANCIS KINCAID. - This gentleman is the oldest son of William and Nancy J. Woolery Kincaid, and was born in Marion county, Missouri, December 6, 1838. His parents were both natives of Madison county, Kentucky, and came to Missouri in1830. His mother died in1850; and in 1853 he left his birthplace, and in company with his father, three brothers and three sisters started with ox-teams to cross the plains to Oregon.

     They left home on March 25th, and had a large train, known as the Kincaid train, the first which came through the Nahchess Pass, and arrived in Steilveron about October 10, 1853. On January 1, 1854, Mr. Kincaid took up his Donation claim of one hundred and sixty acres, where the town of Sumner is now located, and was among the first settlers of the Puyallup valley, his notification on the claim being number forty-four after the formation of the territory. He built his residence where his orchard now stands, and began to clear the farm through a dense forest of underbrush and timber, and succeeded in making a beautiful home. Mr. Kincaid, senior, died at his home in 1870, full of faith in the future, and beloved by his family and friends.

     Our subject stayed at home until twenty-one years of age. On the breaking out of the Indian war, the family, having suffered the loss of their home, and all their effects, fled to Steilveron for safety, John F. being left with his brother William to look after the crops. They would undoubtedly have been killed but for the warning of a friendly Indian; and they also escaped to Steilveron. John then went to work as teamster for the government, and worked all through the Indian war until 1858, when he returned with his brother to where their comfortable home had stood, and found nothing remaining of all the improvements but a small chicken-house. With indomitable will they set to work improving again; and the following year the rest of the family returned to the home, where they have since lived. Mr. Kincaid afterwards laid out, on his father's old Donation claim, the town of Sumner, which he named after the statesman, Charles Sumner.

     He is a strong temperance man, and has incorporated in his deeds a clause prohibiting the sale of whisky in Sumner.

     In 1874 he engaged in the hop business, and has since followed that industry. He is a Republican in politics, but not an active politician, and is an influential and honored man in the Puyallup valley, where he now resides, surrounded by a happy family and enjoying the comforts of a beautiful home.

     His marriage to Miss Nancy A. Wright, a native of Missouri, took place in Steilveron July 5, 1868. They have had seven children, four of whom are deceased. Those living are Luella, Edna and William F.

     HON. ORVIN KINCAID. - Mr. Kincaid's life has embodied very much of the rough romance of an untamed and mining country, and in its entirety would read like a tail of Arabia. He is a native of the granite state, having been born in Grafton, New Hampshire, in 1821. His father, a man of powerful physique, a blacksmith of Scotch-Irish parentage, gave him a training both at school and at the forge, and took the boy with him on his removals to Massachusetts and Vermont.

     Upon reaching his majority young Kincaid spent eighteen months in Ohio and the old West, but returned to Vermont for a few more years in school. In 1844, together with his father and a brother, he came to Wisconsin, establishing a blacksmith shop at Beloit, and three years later at Portage City, and finished his life in that state as a farmer at Otsega.

     In 1852 the great impulse that brought so many men to the Pacific seized him also; and joining a train of eighty wagons he journeyed steadily westward, performing an average of twenty-two and one-half miles per day over the old emigrant road. At Soda Springs, near Fort Hall, however, he found it necessary to dispose of his interest in the wagon to which he was attached. Taking a few crackers and dried beef as provisions, and one blanket, he continued the journey on foot, walking nine hundred miles to Placerville. For two years he was mining variously in California, Nevada and new Mexico. His further movements were rapid, and extended over a wide space. In 1856 he was back in Wisconsin; in 1858 he was in Missouri and the Southern states; in that year he also came to Nebraska with the intention of taking a claim, but passed on to Pike's Peak. leaving the mines, he became a missionary among the Creek Indians, continuing his labors one summer. Going then to Texas, he continued westward on the Santa Fé trail, and came to Los Angeles, California. Following his old pursuit of mining, he was in California and the Rocky Mountains until 1862. In the autumn of that year he reached Puget Sound, and soon became the pioneer of the Skagit country. He built and occupied the first house on the Skagit river. Another long term of years was thereafter spent in mining at Virginia City; and in 1872 he came back to Skagit county, taking a claim on Baker river.

     His wanderings were here brought to a close. In 1881 he took an active interest in public affairs, with the result that he became the choice of his county as representative to the legislature; and in that position he was instrumental in procuring the division of Whatcom county, forming Skagit. This term was followed by another; and the people were fully satisfied with his services.

     Mr. Kincaid has selected Mount Vernon, Washington, as his final home. From the above brief sketch it may be clearly seen that he is a man of such character as to give substantial worth to any community in which he may reside.

     B.C. KINDRED. - The immigration of 1844, although on the track of that of 1843, had a much more troublesome time. Mr. Kindred belongs to that company. He is a native of Indiana, where he was born in 1818. His parents were early settlers of Kentucky, of the days of the historic Boone. In 1836 the young man found Indiana growing stale,

408                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

and went out to Iowa and in 1840 came onto Missouri. Here he met Miss Rachel Mylar; and the meeting resulted in their marriage.

     The Oregon fever was then devastating the land; and by 1844 Captain Gilliam was forming his company. Kindred was one of the number enrolled. There were about a hundred wagons, and twelve hundred or fifteen hundred head of stock. The start was bad, the weather being very rainy; and the progress of the first month was very slight. Many of those on the road would not for the life of them tell what brought them there, other than a frontiersman's impulse to go West; and it would have been the verdict half the way to the Rockies that they would all have been more comfortable on their fat farms in Iowa or Missouri. But the destiny of our state and nation was more truly interpreted by the unaccountable Western impulse than by any heartsick misgivings that overtook the pioneers on the way. That travel on the plains was an education which has made of the Oregonians an improved stock.

     Gilliam's company "fell out by the way," partly from the necessity of driving the cattle in separate bands, and partly from an edginess developed on the part of some which made division desirable. Captain Morrison led the column to which Mr. Kindred was attached. From the lateness of the season and the hard marches on this side of the Rockies, the company was much worn, broken into small parties, and nearly out of provisions. They were on short allowance from Boise to Doctor Whitman's. George Bush, the well-known mulatto and settler near Olympia, was very generous with his flour, of which he had a very liberal supply. Without this help Mr. Kindred's family must have suffered. At Whitman's they sold lean cattle for fat ones and obtained flour. The journey down the Columbia was accomplished during the month of December. It was Christmas eve that they came to their final camp at Milwaukee; and that night their second son, James, was born.

     Mr. Kindred discovered that there was iron in the hills at Oswego; but no one at that time supposed that the deposit was of any great value.

     In 1845 he took his family down the Columbia to live on the place at Clatsop which he now owns. On the way he stopped over winter at Cathlamet, working in Hunt's mill, his wife cooking for the company. About the 5th of November, 1846, they began making their home on Point Adams near Fort Stevens, Oregon. They have there raised a family of twelve children, all of whom but the two oldest were born on the place, and all of whom are living but one boy, who shot himself while hunting. Mr. Kindred's business has been farming and stock-raising, and also navigating on the Columbia with the canoes and bateaux of the early days, the scows and sloops of a later period, and the steam craft of modern times. He is there yet, possessing a comfortable fortune, and living out a green old age, and within a day's reach of any of his children. His youngest daughter, Sarah, is still at home conducting the affairs of the house with her parents.

     MRS. RACHEL KINDRED. - The experience of mothers in crossing the plains is one of those historical wonders which will never be forgotten. It adds much to the value of this volume to incorporate within its pages the story of one of these women, and to present her portrait.

     Miss Rachel Mylar was born in Kentucky in 1821, and is a grand-niece of Daniel Boone. While quite young she removed with her parents to Missouri, and there was married to Mr. B.C. Kindred in 1842.

     It would quite naturally seem that a mother with a child of a year old should not b obliged to endure the severe hardships of a journey across the plains but in making this trip there was no alternative. Thus on the lonely heights of the Blue Mountains, where the cattle were nearly exhausted, and the road was simply a rocky bed of a cañon, or wound around the stony ridges, it was necessary for her to perform the crossing of the divide on foot. Also at the Cascades, where everything must be transported, she was obliged to walk from the upper to the lower landing of the portage. Her clothing had grown thin and ragged, and her shoes were worn out. Hose were the only covering for her feet; and these were soon cut to pieces upon the rocks and gravel. The simple, ordinary, every day wear and tear of the trip, and the care and anxiety of mind, would seem astonishing enough; and numberless were her shifts to make scanty food and apparel perform the offices of necessity. Her boy, however, born at the end of the trip, the Christmas gift of 1844, seemed no worse for the time of his advent, - nor was his mother.

     After reaching a permanent home on Point Adams, near Fort Stevens, Oregon, her labors were not diminished. There fell to her a large if not the larger share of making a home. Her husband's business made frequent absences necessary;  and the care of a farm as well as that of the house were hers at such times. Many were her experiences there. The following was characteristic: Going down to the beach in front of her house one day, she found a soldier cast away on the shore and apparently about to die. She got the poor fellow to her house and recognized him as a discharged veteran who was then living with the Indians. He had been cast away by them in his sickness, according to their custom. Mrs. Kindred, however, nursed him back to life through a severe fever. He had no money, and gave her a shotgun as his only way of discharging the debt. Recovering, however, and going back to the Indians, he began to want his gun once more, and while his benefactress was gone from home entered her house and stole it. Incensed at this outrage and breach of gratitude, Mrs. Kindred upon her return took her little boy, and Mr. Schwatka's little girl, and with this escort repaired to the Indian camp, explained matters to the chief, and upon his requisition recovered the piece. The Indians highly disapproved of the soldier's way of doing.

     On another occasion, when the Woodpecker was wrecked on the bar, the flour and provisions with which the schooner was loaded were drifted by the tide up stream. Mr. Kindred being away, his wife put out with a rowboat, securing barrels enough of the articles to last her three years. Some of her

                                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                            409

neighbors, however, happening by with a wagon, supposed it was a "free haul," and helped themselves to a portion while the lady was still out in the stream getting more. This is not an altogether pleasant commentary upon the early times; but we may suppose that the neighbors made the seizure in full innocence of heart.

     It was amid the scenes of such a wild and solitary life, surrounded by good but not enchanting Indians, that Mrs. Kindred made her home, reared her family, and created the conditions for her husband from which a competency has been drawn. Women such as she have been the mothers of the state, and deserve no less credit than its fathers.

     CHARLES T. KINETH. - Mr. Kineth is a native of Washington, having been born near Coupeville, on Widby Island, November 3, 1855. His father, John Kineth, was a resident of Springfield, Illinois, when our martyred President Lincoln was studying his profession in that city. He moved to Oregon in 1848, and was a saddler at Lafayette during the Rogue river war, moving in the fall of 1852 to Whidby Island. The subject of this sketch was married to Miss Jessie Drake in 1879, and has two children, Jennie and Agnes.

     Having an ambition to be the architect of his own fortune, Mr. Kineth has refused all assistance from his parents, who are wealthy. He came to this valley in July, 1878, without means, but has now secured a nice home within about three miles of Ellensburgh. He has a band of stock, and is apparently on the highway to financial success.

     In December, 1878, he was one of five from the Kittitass valley to respond to the call for volunteers to go into the Big Bend country and assist in arresting the Indians who had massacred the Perkins family. This was a singularly reckless enterprise on the part of those five men. According to the report of his comrades, Mr. Kineth showed remarkable nerve during this expedition to the Indian stronghold.

     JOHN KINETH. - This pioneer of Oregon and of Whidby Island, Washington, is a native of Bavaria, Germany, and was born in 1828. At the age of ten years he came with his parents to American, and passed his early life in Springfield, Illinois, He there obtained the practical education of the West, and learned as his resource for the livelihood the trade of a harness-maker.

     As early as 1849 he felt the impulse to go West. Joining a company of emigrants at Springfield, he crossed the plains, arriving at Milwaukee, Oregon, November 3d. Seeing that there was an abundance of money in circulation, he worked at his trade at Oregon City, making from ten to fifteen dollars a day. In 1851 he removed to Lafayette and opened a harness and saddle shop, the first and only one on the west side of the Willamette river, meeting with good success fitting out miners; but, his health failing, he sought a new location, making final choice of a Donation claim on Whiby Island in 1853, some two and a half miles from Coupeville. This became his home for thirty-two years; and he successfully carried on farming during all that time, becoming an influential member of the community. He took a special interest in schools, seeing the essential value of education in our new Northwest. He finds it at present more convenient living in the town of Coupeville, and has for a number of years made his residence there.

     He was married at Lafayette to Miss Jane M. Carter, a native of Ohio. Her active and intelligent interest in his labors, has not only made for him a pleasant home, but has also established essentially his success. Of their family of seven children, one is deceased. The others are occupying honored positions in society.

     A.N. KING. - King's valley in Benton and Polk counties, and King's Addition to Portland, which embraces the beautiful city park, will perpetuate the name of the father of our subject and of Mr. King himself.

     The latter gentleman was born in Ohio in 1822; but as early as 1840 he removed to Missouri, operating a ferry across the Missouri river. A great flood destroyed his property; and in 1845 he was on the plains bound for Oregon. His father, mother, three brothers and five sisters were also in the company. The immigration numbered a hundred wagons; and it was early in May that they were under way. This company was memorable for the desperate trip through Meek's cut-off from the Snake river to The Dalles. Mr. King was much opposed to leaving the old road, but was out-voted, and concluded to remain with the company. After this well-nigh fatal experience, and final arrival at The Dalles, the usual voyage by canoes, bateaux and rafts particularly described elsewhere was undertaken. Mr. King's raft, constructed of pin logs hauled by the worn-out oxen from the hills to the river, was large enough to sustain ten wagons with their loads, and some ten persons. Only three of the men in this number were fit for duty; and one of Mr. King's brothers, with his wife, were very low with mountain fever, both dying at Wind Mountain, where they were buried on the shore. The cattle were passed as usual down the Oregon shore to this mountain, and thence crossed over and taken to Vancouver by the old trail. They were also used to effect the passage at the Cascades. The difficulties of the passage by a small schooner from the Lower Cascades to Linton were aggravated by the December storms.

     The first winter was spent at Forest Grove; and the next summer the family went on up the country to the beautiful valley now known by the name of King's, where the father and brother took claims. Mr. A.N. King, however, selected his Donation claim a few miles below Corvallis on the Willamette; but, having a foreshadowing of the future greatness of Portland, he came hither and bought a squatter's right to the magnificent hillside claim west of the city now forming a part of it. Apperson and Balance were the men from whom he made the purchase; and they had obtained it from Mr. Lownesdale, who had there erected a tannery. This business Mr. King continued twelve years, clearing off the timber and laying out his addition. An act indicating his public spirit was his sale of the forty

410                                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

acres for the public park at eight hundred dollars an acre, - worth ten times that sum.

     In 1846 he was married to Miss Melinda Fuller of the Tualatin Plains. They have had six children, four of whom are now living; Mrs. Nautilla A. Jeffery and Mrs. A. Lumsden, residing at Portland; Edward A. King, a resident of the same place, and Mr. N.A. King, a rancher in Lake county, owning some five thousand acres of land devoted to the rearing of horses.

     Mrs. King is no longer living, having died January 30, 1887. While the evening shadows begin to appear on the horizon of his life, Mr. King still meets its duties bravely, and conducts his business with vigor.

     GEO. W.KING, M.D. - The early life of Doctor King of Pendleton was made dark by the terrible days of the Rebellion; and the recital of his early efforts to work out the distressful circumstances into which he was thus thrown is full of pathetic interest.

     He was born near Glasgow, Howard county, Missouri, November 14, 1844, and when but a boy of five went with his parents to reside near St. Louis, Missouri, where he lived until the spring of 1854, when his father moved to Kansas Territory, then but a prairie wilderness.

     He settled on Pottawatomie creek, a few miles above where the town of Ossawatomie now stands, celebrated for once being the home of John Brown. Drought the succeeding summer drove the family back to Missouri; but in 1855 a second attempt was made to live on the prairie of Kansas. The following year was that of the Kansas war, between the Pro-slavery and Freesoil parties; and the father of the subject of this sketch, owning a number of blacks, was compelled to again return to Missouri, to save his slave property. All his other property was left in Kansas, and was at once confiscated by the Free-soilers. Returning in 1859, he settled on land bought form the Miami tribe of Indians, in what is now known as Linn county. He was scarcely well settled before the war of the great Rebellion broke out. His mother died in March, 1861; and his father, after taking his children to relations in Missouri, entered the Confederate army, never to return to his children.

     The circumstances of young George became very distressing. Although working for his uncle, he was not provided with clothing; and, upon asking for shoes to protect his feet while feeding stock, he was informed that he had not earned any, and that he had better go and work for them if he needed them. Acting upon this unkind and heartless suggestion of his uncle, the boy, with all his earthly possessions tied up in a handkerchief, bid a sad good-bye to two younger brothers, and started out to find friends among strangers. After walking all day through the slop and snow, and as he saw the sun nearing the tops of the western hills and the shades of night settling down around him, a corresponding gloom settled down upon his young heart, as he realized that he was alone in the world. Tears filled his eyes as he thought of his mother sleeping in a lonely grave in Kansas, and of his father who was in the midst of the perils of war. He prayed to God to guide and direct him - to someone who would give him employment. He remembers with emotion how he soon came upon a tall-roofed tobacco factory in a village, where he obtained work at twenty-five cents a day and board, and reckoned this as an answer to his petitions. It assuredly set him upon his feet financially, and gave him an impetus in the direction of self-support which was invaluable to him in after life.

     Entering the United States army two years later, he served to the close of the war, and was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in May, 1866. He then returned to Linn county, Missouri, and engaged in farming, but not finding it profitable went the next year to Texas, where he was taken sick, returning to St. Louis in the fall of 1873. He there resolved to educate himself, and entered the primary department of Central College, located at Fayette, Missouri. He attended school here for eighteen months, and engaged in teaching a school in St. Charles county until the spring of 1875, when he came west to California and located a pre-emption claim in Mendocino county. After proving upon his land, he sold it for eight hundred dollars, and finished his collegiate course at the Pacific Methodist College at Santa Rosa. He then came to Oregon in1878, and followed the profession of schoolteacher until September, 1881, when he returned to the East and took a course in medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore, Maryland, graduating, however, from the Medical College of Ohio in 1883.

     After receiving the degree of M.D., he returned to Oregon, locating at Weston, Umatilla county, where he built up a good practice. Not being satisfied with the location, he sold out his practice for one thousand dollars, and located in Pendleton, the county-seat, building up a large practice. In1885 he was married to Miss Nettie Powell, of East Portland, and now has a delightful home. The success and good fortune of his mature life have made up to him, in a measure, the losses of his early days, leaving gaps, however, that time can never fill.

     SARAH FAIRBANKS KING (Mrs. S.A. King). - The annals of Oregon women, who performed the hard duties incident to pioneer life faithfully, patiently and well, contain no name more justly honored, or more tenderly cherished, than that of Sarah Fairbanks King.

     Mrs. King was a native of New York, having been born in Potter, Cayuga county, October 12, 1834. While yet in her infancy, she was taken by her parents to Michigan, then scarcely more than an outpost of Western civilization. Here she grew to womanhood, developing traits of gentleness and devotion to duty that were the distinguishing characters of all of her life.

     She was married on the 1st of November, 1851, to Mr. George Olds, and with him in the following spring started for Oregon Territory by the usual mode of conveyance in those days, - wagons drawn by oxen. She crossed bleak and dreary deserts, forded dangerous streams, scaled high and precipitous mountains, encountered hostile Indians, endured

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