History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 411 - 430

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP


                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                 411

 the burning heat of summer on vast and cheerless plains, and was constantly surrounded by dangers seen and unseen. The journey occupied seven months; and her first daughter was given to her arms during the tiresome trip.

     Arriving in Oregon in the late autumn, her husband located on a Donation land claim near Middleton, Washington county; and there they lived for nine succeeding years, the pioneer home echoing the voices of children, and attesting daily the blessings that a loving and gentle woman can bring to a habitation in a comparative wilderness and amid the most primitive surroundings. She began life in Oregon where nearly all old-time immigrants did, - at the very foot of the ladder of worldly fortune. But, with a brave heart and cheerful temper, she faced the future courageously, and moved right onward in the path of womanly, wifely, motherly duty to the conquest of that future. On the 12th of April, 1862, she was widowed by the sudden death of her husband, five children being the heritage of the marriage.

     On Christmas day, 1863, she was married to Mr. Samuel W. King, and removed first to Marion and afterwards to Yamhill county, where her husband was engaged in teaching school, she being in this, as in all things else, his valued assistant. They subsequently removed to Portland, Oregon, where she continued to reside until her death, which occurred suddenly on the 19th of January, 1887. Seven children survive her: Mrs. Helen Jolly, Mr. J.C. Olds, of the firm of Olds & Summers; Mr. W.P. Olds, of Olds & King; Mrs. Clara Summers, Mrs. Mary Southworth, Charles W. King and Ralph King.

     The record left by Mrs. King - whether enduring the hardships of a wearisome journey across the continent, encountering the privations incident to pioneer home-building, or battling with poverty; whether in the schoolroom in the capacity of teacher, or in a home of refinement enjoying the fruition of her labors and the full meed of reward for her early toils - is one of uniform consecration to duty, of gentleness in her home and of devotion to its inmates. She erected a monument to her own memory worthy of the purest, the noblest and the best.

     She died without warning, of heart disease, her husband and sons returning to their home in the evening to find that the gentle presence that they had left there at noontime had forever departed. In a grave in one of the most beautiful locations in Riverview Cemetery, three miles above Portland, were consigned all that was mortal of this loving wife, tender mother and gentle woman; and there, "after life's fitful fever, she sleeps well."

     E.M. KINNEAR. - The mercantile house of Mr. Kinnear is one of the largest and most patronized in this part of the territory. Its owner and founder is a native of Ohio, where he was born in 1856. He came to Washington Territory in 1871 and located on the Touchet, engaging in merchandising. From 1878 to 1880 he was in business at Colfax, but removed in the latter year to Sprague for his permanent home. There he has bought quite a property, conducts a large business and is one of its most prominent citizens. He has served as city councilman one term. His business is that of dealing in general merchandise and farming implements of all descriptions.

     ROBERT COUCH KINNEY. - Oregon will always treasure with respect and admiration the memory of the men and women who came in the days when the Pacific Northwest was the home of savage tribes, mountain men and a few traders, to plant homes and lay the foundation of an empire on the waters of the Columbia. They dared much when they accepted the roll of pioneers to the Pacific. Some became notable for success, and developed character that gave standing to the new state; for the constitution and early legislation of Oregon showed statesmanship seldom equaled in the erection of a commonwealth.

     Among those who preceded the gold excitement was Robert Couch Kinney, who illustrates the capacity of a new country to develop character and insure success. He was the son of a pioneer and nephew of another who went in early days to Illinois and inherited qualities necessary to success in a new country.

     Mr. Kinney was born in St. Clair county, Illinois, July 4, 1813. At the age of twenty-five he married Eliza Lee Bigelow, who survives him, and moved to Burlington, Iowa. He went boating and afterwards ran steamboats on the Mississippi with success, then conceived the idea of founding a city, and located and helped build Bloomington, now the prosperous city of Muscatine, Iowa. He engaged there in milling, and acquired a knowledge of that business which he afterwards put to good use in Oregon. Early circumstances had not been favorable to education above the grade of the common schools; and circumstances here favored him. By arrangement with his partner he was off duty half the time, and employed the spare time in study and reading that gave him a general knowledge of law and literature. He made himself familiar with ancient history and the classics, and became familiar with writings of ancient days as well as with the literature of our own time. He studied the principles of commercial law with Judge Hastings, so well known later in California.

     The banks of the Mississippi being unhealthy, he became interested in Oregon by correspondence with Barton Lee, the early pioneer, who so eloquently told the advantages of Oregon that in 1847 he and his brother Samuel and their families joined the company of General Palmer. They had a prosperous journey, and the same fall located the Donation land claim in Chehalem valley that will always bear his name. He lived there many years, always recognized as a man of character and judgment. When the constitutional convention was held, he was elected as a delegate from Yamhill county. His energy overcame difficulties that defeated others. He procured sheep from Doctor Tolmie of the Hudson's Bay Company; so he possessed flocks and herds when only the fur company and mission were supposed to have them. He cared for his stock so as to realize all they could yield him. He saw the value of the country for fruit production, and set out sixteen hundred trees that in a few years yielded



412                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 large returns. He procured a good work on horticulture, and mastered its contents, adopting the methods laid down in his orchard work with entire success.

     He laid great stress on the value of education, and in 1857 moved to McMinnville to take advantage of the schools. His wide reading and conscientious regard for right principles and knowledge enabled him to be of use in those formative times. In the constitutional convention he was influential, though not officious, and made a specialty of three points. One was against slavery, another was to provide public schools, and the other to prohibit large state indebtedness. By the influence of men like him, these provisions were incorporated in our fundamental law. His progressive spirit was seen in railroad affairs, as he was one of the first to attempt corporate organization. What was then the Oregon Central and is now part of the Southern Pacific system was organized by his help. The first meeting was at his house; and his son Marshall was its secretary in 1868.

     As years went by and his sons grew up, Mr. Kinney's enterprise took broader shape. In 1862 he bought in and run a flouring- mill opposite Portland, and in 1863 started a business house at Umatilla to help the flouring-mill. In 1867 he moved to Salem, having bought an interest in the Willamette Woolen Mills. That move started there at an early day. The same company owned a large flouring-mill in upper town; and, as Mr. Kinney realized that the future of this mill was more certain than that of the factory, he traded his bulk of stock to the company for stock in the mill company, and became its manager.

     Mr. Kinney now had a large and prosperous business, and found room for all his business sagacity. Assisted by his sons in the Salem Flouring Mills Company, he built up an immense trade in flour and grain. They had branches at Portland, San Francisco and Liverpool. They shipped many cargoes of flour to Europe; and the first full cargo of Oregon flour was sent by them to Liverpool.

     In March, 1875, Robert C. Kinney died from the effects of an accident that occurred while visiting his ranch in Eastern Oregon. He had a powerful physique, was rather tall, and very large and heavy. Great size distinguishes the family. When working some farm machinery, he received a fall that did not seem dangerous; but he never recovered. His kindly face was no longer seen on Salem thoroughfares; and for weeks and months he kept to the house. One day the news spread that "Rob Kinney" was dead, casting a shadow on the hearts of thousands. as to the writer of this, that so kind a friend and so good a man had left us, we felt that he was "not lost, but gone before."

     We have shown Robert Couch Kinney as a man of affairs who had risen from common life to affluance and high standing. There was seldom failure in his plans; because he planned with judgment. He was cautious while he seemed bold; for he understood the situation. Few men are so balanced in mind and capable to plan and execute as he was. But there is a pleasanter phase to his character than even the possession of ripe judgment and the realization of success, a phase that all who love his memory will dwell upon with warm appreciation. We will now look on the traits that make his memory precious to many, and leave no trace of rancor in any human soul.

     R.C. Kinney was kindly by nature, and was always ready to assist the needy. In his charities and kindly acts, as in his business life, he was prudent and sagacious. He was a manly man, and admired true character. He was not apt to waste means on the unworthy, but was a sincere friend of religion and education, and did his part to maintain public and private charity. He felt no sympathy with immoral lives or vulgar traits; for he was essentially a man of pure life, a Christian in word and deed. He assisted many while he lived, and was unfriendly to none. He was original in mind, and had a foresight that came from study and observation. He was in almost every respect equal to his opportunity, which can be said of few mortals.

     The stone that marks his grave was procured from Scotland, a massive, polished shaft of Aberdeen granite. One side bears imperishable testimony of the love and reverence of his children in the single word, "Father." After his death the business was conducted by his sons. The eldest, Albert, resided in charge in Salem, where he died in 1881. It answers the full need of his deservings to say that he was the worthy son of such a father, and possessed in an eminent degree the traits that marked the life of his sire. It is not easy to say more, and not just to his memory to say less.

     Mrs. Kinney survives to a kindly old age to share the devotion of her children. Of the survivors, Mary J., the widow of J.H. Smith, resides at Harrisburg, Oregon. August Couch, a graduate of Belleville College, New York, is a practicing physician at Astoria. Marshall Johnson, who has been distinguished for business sagacity, is engaged in Salem in the canning and milling business, and is in other business at Astoria. Alfred Coleman, who is a surgeon by instinct and a successful physician, practices his profession at Astoria. Josephine Florence Walker is the wife of a business man in San Francisco. William Sylvester carries on extensive lumber manufacture at the mouth of the Columbia. Eliza Lee is the wife of Doctor John Payton, and lives at Drain, Oregon. All bear testimony in the character of their lives that they came from a sterling race that leaves the world the better for their having lived and labored in it.

     SAMUEL KINNEY. - Samuel Kinney, a brother of Robert C. Kinney, was one of the founders of our early society in Oregon, and a man of unusual force and of marked worth. He was born in 1810 in the State of Illinois. He was brought up on a farm, acquiring nerve and muscle and an intrepid spirit, and gained the education of the times in his native district. He was early married to Miss Ann Maria Porter, who was also a native of Illinois, where she was born in 1814. Soon after his marriage, about 1832, he removed to Iowa, locating at Bloomington, now Muscatine, a city founded by his brother Robert. Here he was engaged for a time in



                                                                                                    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                        413

teaming, and also with his brother in operating Vanetta & Deshler's sawmill.

     His wife's health being poor, however, and being himself possessed of an enterprising and adventurous spirit, he determined to find a new home in Oregon, and in 1847 made the trip across the plains. Little difficulty was experiences on the journey; and there was no trouble from the Indians except that near the Umatilla the Cayuses were found to be impudent, among other things making request to buy some of the girls, and even threatening to steal them. One saucy fellow went so far as to ride up and seize the eldest daughter in order to drag her from her horse, and appropriate her. Mr. Kinney, however, was on the spot instantly, and with his whip-stalk knocked the Indian from his horse into the dust. The emigrants - the train was now divided off from forty to five wagons - were much alarmed on account of the incident, and made every preparation for a fight. But the Cayuses in general took no umbrage at the unfortunate result of the Benedict's endeavor, and no trouble followed.

     Upon reaching Oregon, the first winter was spent at Oregon City, and next season a Donation claim was selected at West Chehalem; and there, in a quiet and beautiful valley, the new home was made, and the remainder of our pioneer's life was spent. He gave early attention to cattle-raising, when the Spanish stock was still the prevailing type; and some considerable portion of the evening's stories around the fireplace consisted of accounts of being chased by ferocious animals, or even whole bands, of this sort of cattle. Women and children did not cross the fields alone; and men preferred to be on horseback.

     The house was located on the main Indian trail from the camps of the Calapooias to the trading-post; and the savages often used to come back drunk, making night hideous with their yells, and frightening the children. The manner of an early election in the precinct is also memorable as illustrating the quaint ways of the people. It was at the election of delegate, when General Lane and Judge Pratt were candidates. The voters of the precinct were assembled; and when all were ready those for Lane were stood off in one row, and those for Pratt in another; the men in the two rows were counted, and the result recorded and the returns set up. Mr. Kinney used also to go occasionally to the post and bring back, among other purchases, a coil of trail rope tobacco tied around the pommel of his saddle, that being also something distinctive of early days, as only in that form was the weed known in the territory.

     While not accumulative nor ambitious of great wealth, Mr. Kinney always had ample means, and lived in comfort and gave his children good advantages. Although no politician, he was a firm Democrat, and was active in disseminating his views. He had a family of eight children: Mary, the wife of Mr. John Brisbain, of Yamhill county; William (deceased); Rebecca Ann (deceased); Andrew Christie (deceased); John La Fayette, living on a part of the old homestead at West Chehalem; Lyman, of Astoria, part owner in the Clatsop Mills Lumber and Box Manufactory, an establishment of such magnitude as to disburse about forty-two thousand dollars per month; Sarah Elizabeth, the wife of Mr. Frank H. Laighton of the Seaside; and Ora E., - Mrs. James Rogers of West Chehalem.

     Mr. Kinney died in 1875, a man much esteemed and thoroughly trusted of large ability, and great fidelity to duty. Mrs. Kinney, who is still active and well preserved, with mind and memory unimpaired, lives at Astoria, in the elegant home of her son Lyman.

     J.P. and H.A. KINNISON. - These two brothers, who have united their fortunes through life were born on the Mississippi river about one hundred miles below St. Louis in the years 1838 and 1840, respectively. They received a common-school education, and, developing a riving disposition, crossed the plains in 1853. San Mateo, California, was their first home, and stock-raising their business until 1862, when they came to the Powder river valley, and were the first to break the ground of that beautiful region. They have been engaged in agriculture and stock-raising every since, and consider themselves fairly successful.

     In 1876 they drove a band of a thousand cattle across the plains to Wyoming, and sold them to advantage. The brothers now own eighteen hundred acres of choice agricultural land six miles west of Baker City, upon the site of their first location. They now have residences in Baker City, Oregon, and are in the full enjoyment of life, having accumulated sufficient means, as a reward for their perseverance, to take life easily.

     Mr. J.P. Kinnison was married to Miss Mary Chandler in 1864. In 1884 this companion died; and his present wife, formerly Mrs. N.W. Hannah, conducts his household, caring for her own tow girls and her husband's five boys.

     Mr. H.A. Kinnison married Miss Mary A. George in 1867. They have one boy and a girl now living.

     T.J. KIRK. - It is pleasant to see that the oldest pioneers, who bore the brunt of the settlement of the country, are now the most prosperous.

     Mr. Kirk came to Oregon in 1846, being at that time but a boy of seven. He lived with his father in Linn county until 1871, when he made his home in Umatilla county near the pleasant city of Centerville. Here he has been in the horse and cattle business and a pioneer in raising wheat on the uplands. He now owns a farm of fourteen hundred acres consisting of the best land in the region, from which he harvests thirty bushels of wheat per acre. He also owns a considerable share of town property.

     In the political arena of the county, he has taken quite an important position, having been elected as representative to the state legislature in 1888. He met with this success on a Republican ticket. This indicates his popularity; and the secret of this is his deep and intelligent interest in all matters pertaining to the prosperity of his county.

     Mr. Kirk was married to Miss Ann Coyle in October, 1860. Mrs. Kirk is a native of the state of Illinois, and emigrated with her parents to Oregon in 1851.



414                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     JOSEPH E. KIRKLAND. - Mr. Kirkland was born in 1831 in Illinois. He was the son of a farmer who removed in 1832 to Arkansas, where he gave his children the advantages of a common-school education. In 1851 the family crossed the plains with oxen to Lane county, Oregon, the journey occupying four months. They took a Donation claim, and worked in the Southern Oregon mines from 1852 to 1857, perfecting, in the meantime, their title to their Donation. At the time of the Indian disturbance, Joseph Kirkland and his father owned pack trains; and, when the volunteers bivouacked on Table Rock, they ran the gauntlet and came through the Cow creek country in safety.

     He was mining on Althouse creek when the Indian hostilities of 1855 commenced on Rogue river, and came out with John Cox from Kerbyville to Vannoy's ferry in the night, and there found Robert Williams with a squad of miners organized but poorly armed. The next day Thomas Elef came rushing down, reporting that Flem Hill had just returned from Cow creek, where the Indians were killing and burning. Kirkland joined a squad of twenty, who went to the relief of those possibly besieged men. They found, at Smith's on Cow creek, several families forted up; and upon the porch of the house lay the dead body of Hall Bailey, who had been killed on his wagon a mile or so from the house while enroute to Yreka with a load of chickens and a drove of  hogs. The Indians killed his oxen while they were hitched to the wagon, and strewed the ground with butchered hogs.

     Proceeding up the valley, they found at Bates' farm Quartermaster Johnson lying dead on the porch of the house, while several more families were barricaded within, one man being severely wounded. That night Kirkland and William Stannos carried a message from Lieutenant Stone, who commanded the pass, back to Captain Williams on Rouge river. Not being successful in obtaining weapons, Kirkland came to the Willamette valley. The next spring he joined Keith's company of Lane county boys, and entering stayed with the war to its close. One day, while the company was drawn up in line on the bank of Rogue river, Old John, the Indian chief, and some of his braves, saluted them from the opposite bank with a shower of bullets, severely wounding Clay Houston, and strewing a hail of lead among the party. Some of the boys soon found an old canoe, and, hurriedly crossing the river, rushed to the spot from which the fusillade had come, finding only one Indian, who rose form his hiding-place in the brush and fired upon the command at very short range. They charged upon him with shouts and yells; and when he jumped into the water they filled his body with bullets, and then drew him out of the water, awarding him to Perry Skinner, who claimed the dead shot.

    In 1857 Mr. Kirkland was married to Miss Mary Standefer, a cousin of Jefferson Standefer. In 1865 they moved to the Walla Walla valley, and have made it their home to the present time. Mr. Kirkland now practices law at Milton, Oregon, and owns a nice fruit ranch on the edge of town.

     HENRY KLIPPEL. - Mr. Klippel has been intimately connected with the public business and measures of our state, particularly in Southern Oregon. Like the most of our successful men, his progress has been by hard labor, and even by hard knocks; that is, he has, out of the capital of his own hands and brain, gained point after point, and succeeded in stamping his mind and character upon public affairs.

     He was born in Hesse Darmstadt in 1833, and came to American five years later. After an industrious and active life in the old West, - losing his father by death at the age of fifteen, and making a new home for his mother in Missouri, - he crossed the plains to Oregon in 1851, finding a few months' employment at Oregon City on a ferry boat, and afterwards driving an ox-team to Yreka. This introduced him to the mining life which he had been contemplating since 1848, and from which he has never wholly withdrawn.

     His operations at Jacksonville in1852 were cut short by the Indian trouble; and, under Colonel Lamerick, he took a hand in quieting the savages, and again became an Indian fighter in 1853 and again in 1855 and 1856. After this he took up whatever offered the prospect of bread or money, not drifting, but working for sea room. In 1866 he was able to undertake the hardware business in Jacksonville, Oregon, and was introduced to political life by his election as sheriff of Jacksonville in 1870. In 1872 he was appointed by Governor Grover as one of the commissioners to build the state capitol. In 1874 he was elected by the Oregon legislature to succeed himself as capitol commissioner, and resigned before the expiration of his second term. In 1876 he was intimately connected with the Tilden campaign, being nominated one of the electors on the Democratic ticket.

     Mr. Klippel was the pioneer of quartz mining, having built the first stamp mill at Gold Hill, Oregon, in 1860; and in 1880 he engaged in hydraulic mining on a large scale at Squaw Lake. He was also elected county clerk in that year. Upon his retirement form this office in1884 he entered extensively into stock-raising in Lake county, which, together with farming, mining and his real-estate business, keeps him actively occupied. He was the first recorder of Jacksonville. He was married at that place in 1860 to Miss Elizabeth A. Bigham, a lady who was born in Missouri. They have one daughter and four sons.

     SEWELL M. KNAPP. - Mr. Knapp is a native of Penobscot county, Maine, where he was born July 19, 1853. He was raised on a farm, and remained at home until he was twenty-three years of age.

     In August, 1875, he came to California, where he remained but a short time, when he left for Puget Sound, coming direct to Snohomish, finding employment at first in driving a team. Next he worked for about six years in the general merchandise stores of Blackman Brothers, after which he entered into the teaming business on his own account, starting a livery stable at the same time, which business he still owns and runs.



                                                                                                        BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                415

     In the fall of 1876 he was nominated and elected on the Democratic ticket to the office of county treasurer, and in May, 1888, was appointed city treasurer, which office he now fills. He owns a farm of one hundred and sixty acres one and one-half miles from Snohomish, Washington, and also city property in that thriving town.

     Mr. Knapp was united in marriage in Snohomish to Miss Florence Scotney, where he still resides in a happy home, surrounded by many friends, and enjoying the confidence and respect of all who know him.

     HON. JAMES H. KOONTZ. - It is a mistake to suppose that all the fortunes are made in the large places. Many of the most considerable competences on the coast have been gained from trade in the small towns. The career of Mr. Koontz is to the point.

     Born in Belmont county, Ohio, in 1830, young James, upon coming to his physical strength, learned the trade of a carpenter and joiner, thereby acquiring a foundation for a life of independence. Living a time at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, he joined the Ellis train, and in 1862 came across the plains to Oregon, settling the following year at the little town of Umatilla on the desolate shore of the Columbia, - a heaving, driving bank of sand upon the rocks. The place has improved since the old times. Mr. Koontz had but seventy-five cents in his pocket on his arrival; and the stories which he now relates of his first days of work and semi-starvation seem curious and amusing.

     By diligent application to his trade, fining employment for a time with George L. Hibbard, he soon had money and built a store at Umatilla, buying for a site ten feet of frontage for two hundred and fifty dollars. Here he remained seventeen years, doing a large forwarding and commission business. In 1864 he was appointed postmaster, and held that office seventeen years also.

     In 1880 he established a branch store at Echo, Oregon, and built a large hotel at the same point in 1883, transferring all his business thither. In 1886 he made a further enlargement by building a gristmill of a capacity of eighty barrels of flour per day. This, however, was burned in1886 with three hundred barrels of flour and thirty-two thousand bushels of wheat, at a loss of nearly forty thousand dollars on a n insurance of twenty-three thousand dollars. Although thus unfortunate he was not seriously crippled, but still conducts his tore and hotel with accustomed energy, and follows up the interests of his real estate. He owns a thousand acres of land near the town. Mr. Koontz hopes to rebuild his mill, and is already forming a stock company to that end.

     His first wife, Elizabeth Williams, dying at Pleasant Plains, Iowa, he is now living with Cynthia N. Hyatt, whom he married in 1856. They have three children, - Mrs. Elizabeth A. Hendley, Mrs. Flora B. Malcom, and Miss Echo L. Mrs. Koontz merits much of the reward reached by her husband, since it was by her help that his prosperity has been attained.

     HON. JOSEPH A. KUHN. - Judge Kuhn has long filled a position of such prominence in Washington that the details of his life will be of public interest. His career illustrates once more the fact that the brawn and brain of the East needs but to touch the earth to spring up in double vigor at the West.

     He is the fourth in a family of six sons, resident in Pennsylvania; and the year of his birth was 1841. His mother belonged to an old American family of large reputation; and his father enjoyed the rank of colonel, and was for two terms judge of his county. At the age of eighteen our subject left home for Calvert College, Maryland, but before finishing his course determined to begin life for himself at the West. He reached Omaha, Nebraska, in June, 1860, and accepted the arduous and adventurous business of freighting, or driving "prairie schooners" to various points in the Rocky Mountains, - Denver, Salt Lake, Bannack and Virginia City. He followed this occupation six years with the exception of a time spent in the army during the Rebellion.

     He rose in his frontier avocation, becoming master of the Red Line train to Salt Lake; but, finally taking a mule-train, he came through to Stockton, California, and in the autumn of 1866 sailed up to the Sound. He stopped off at Port Townsend, Washington, where he found his brother, Doctor Louis de Barth Kuhn, formerly a well-known practitioner at Port Townsend, now of Brooklyn, New York. Here, the new resident began running a milk ranch, but, feeling himself capable of a wider and more influential field, entered the office of Judson & McFadden and studied law. He was admitted to the bar in1870, and became a member of Kuhn & Burke.

     His activity and ability soon attracted attention; and it was seen that he embodied the necessary qualities for political life. In 1872 he was elected to the legislature of Washington; and his public services have since been continuous. In 1866 he became a member of the council, and in 1881 and again in1`885 was returned to the house. Three times he was chairman of the very important judiciary committee. In 1877 he was also elected probate judge of Jefferson county, and was re-elected in 1879. For four years he was commissioner of immigration.

     As a Democrat he has held a high rank in his party in the capacity of a leader. He has been a member of every convention in the territory since his entrance upon public affairs, and has been honored by selection as a delegate to the Democratic national convention of 1884, and in 1888 by appointment as member of the national committee.

     As a Mason Judge Kuhn has received the thirty-second degree, and in1882 was elected grand master of the lodge of Washington, and was for seven years master of Lodge No. 6 at Port Townsend.

     GEORGE BENSON KUYKENDALL, M.D. - This gentleman, one of the foremost physicians of Eastern Washington, was born near Terre Haute, Indiana, in the year 1843. When three years old



416                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

he was taken by his father's family to Wisconsin. In 1852 the family set out on the long, hard journey to the Pacific slope. That was the sad year of cholera and pestilence. Being somewhat late in starting, the Kuykendall family followed in the wake of sickness and death, the mournful evidences of which were most vividly impressed on the mind of the boy who afterwards became the man here described. many an abandoned wagon, many a dying animal, and many a hastily hollowed grave, did they pass. They themselves plodded wearily on, keeping double vigil, - on the sick and dying within, and the prowling savages without.

     When the train reached Snake river, they crossed in the hope of finding better grass. Here the father was taken sick with typhoid fever; and for many weeks he was draggled helpless and seemingly at the point of death, over the dusty and dismal wastes of Southern, Idaho. Finally, nearly all the family stock having died, the wagon was abandoned; and the family was put into the wagon belonging to a brother, who was sharing with them the difficult journey.

     Reaching at last the welcome Dalles, they gladly exchanged their broken-down wagon for an open flatboat, and set sail on the majestic flow of the Columbia. The father had not yet recovered; and a young sister yielded up her innocent life near the wild heights of the Cascades. There, in those most savage of Nature's scenes, they buried her; and none of them to this day has ever been able to find her grave. As may be readily supposed, these stern experiences thus early in life inured the body and spirit of our subject to hardship, and taught him, as they did so many of our pioneer boys, the fundamental lessons of life. Reaching Oregon City on the 19th of October, the family remained there throughout the winter, and in the following fall located in the Umpqua valley near Roseburg.

     The Doctor had, even in his childhood, a great taste for reading, a taste which a kind father encouraged. Thus aided he read with great delight all the works on travel, biography and history which he could get hold of; and as he approached manhood he became very fond of metaphysical reading. Unlike most of the boys of his acquaintance, he would spend days in poring over the mystical pages of Kant and the profound philosophy of Hamilton, Abercrombie and Stewart. Becoming at a later time interested in medicine, he devoted himself to it with his usual assiduity, and soon acquired a theoretical knowledge of materia medica and therapeutics. His father being at that time dangerously sick, and despaired of by the family physician, he devoted himself to the case with such success that his father recovered and still lives in a good state of health.

     Going a few years later to the Willamette University, he graduated, at the head of his class, from the medical department, and entered at once upon the practice of his profession. He was soon afterwards appointed to the post of government physician at Fort Simcoe on the Yakima Indian Reservation. There he had a large practice outside of his government work. There, too, he devoted much time to microscopic and chemical research, particularly to toxology and medical jurisprudence. He became noted for skill in the use of the microscope, and now has one of the finest collections of specimens in the Northwest. During this same period of his life he began a study of ethnology of the natives of the North Pacific coast. In connection with these researches he prepared a number of articles for publication in the West Shore of Portland.

     Tiring of the government service, he went to Pomeroy, Washington Territory, in 1882, and established his profession. He has become justly noted as a physician, as well as a friend of education and every form of progress. He has two brothers equally distinguished with himself, one as a physician at Eugene, Oregon, and the other as a Methodist preacher in California.

     He was married in 1868 to Miss E.J. Butler, a daughter of Judge Butler of Pomeroy. He now has an interesting family of five sons and three daughters. In his marriage the Doctor was peculiarly fortunate. His wife is a lady of marked intelligence and practical good judgment.

     Dr. Kuykendall has had an extensive acquaintance with almost all the prominent men of Oregon and Washington. Father Wilbur was one of his most intimate friends; while Honorable Binger Herman, Judges J.F. and E.B. Watson, and Judge Rice and Honorable P.Z. Willis of Portland, were schoolmates of his in his old home in Southern Oregon.

     In addition to his professional attainments, the Doctor has an enviable reputation as a writer both of prose and poetry. For an example of his ability, we refer the reader to the chapter in this volume entitled, "The Indians of the Pacific Northwest."

     LOUIS LA BRACHE. - Mr. La Brache was born in Illinois in 1847. His father was at that time a partner with Stephen A. Douglas in the lumber and wood business, taking large contracts. In 1862 he became a citizen of Washington Territory, locating at Walla Walla, and engaging in freighting to the mines. Three years later he was packing from Wallula to Montana. In 1866 he accompanied his father in a tramp throughout the mining districts of Eastern Oregon, and the next year was engaged as government packer in a Nez Perce war. He also served the government in 1878 as packer with Howard's command in the Bannack war, and remained in that desperate campaign all the season. He continued his arduous calling as packer and miner until 1880, when he married Miss Maggie depot and made a permanent home on a farm near Centerville, Oregon, where he now resides.

     JOHN R. LADD. - The stories told to the children of the generation hence of the abundance of gold and the immense profits of the early pioneers will fire their imaginations and set them on wild, and perhaps profitable, trips to the Andes or to Alaska.

     Mr. Ladd's career will be thus exciting to his descendants, and to all who see this sketch. He was born in the Empire state in 1838. He came to



                                                                                                        BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                            417

California with his father in 1852, but returning East married Miss Rachel Knapp in Illinois. Here might be mentioned as a remarkable coincidence, that Mrs. Ladd was born on October 7th and Mr. Ladd on October 25th. They were married October 12th; and Mr. Ladd died October 14th.

     In 1862 he set forth to the Salmon river mines, but turning aside from the road came on and made a home at Ladd's cañon in the Grande Ronde. Here they built a cabin, and being on the direct route to the mines kept a hotel, feeding sometimes a hundred men at a meal, and taking the usual price of a dollar each. The year 1865 was spent in Walla Walla; but, returning to their old home in the shadow of the Blue Mountains, Mr. Ladd followed freighting about five years, after which he engaged in farming and stock-raising.

     In 1867 he bought one hundred and sixty acres of land for three thousand dollars, which one freighting trip to Idaho paid for, and took one hundred and sixty more of government land. In 1877 he put on a stage line from Wallowa to Grande Ronde, and in after years owned several other stage lines in other East-of-the-Mountains regions.

     His real estate had increased by 1887 to forty-five hundred acres, all in the valley. His business more recently was conducting a livery stable, stock-raising and handling large flocks of sheep. In addition to his interests there, he had large town property in La Grande and Pendleton.

     His death occurred in 1887. He has been mourned not only by his family; but his loss is deplored by all the citizens of the place. His widow is still living at his late home in Island City, Oregon, and has the care of his estate. His daughter Eva is the wife of M.D. Andross of Island City; and his son, C.W. Ladd, is a stock-raiser and farmer of the Grande Ronde.

     WILLIAM SARGENT LADD. - Of the gentlemen who came to Oregon with the purpose of forming here not only a settled social and political, but also a determinate business order, there is none to-day more prominent than W.S. Ladd. Our state has often invited comparison between her leading men and those of other parts of the nation, not at all fearing that she should suffer even if the investigation and analysis were carried to the extreme. But, in the case of the gentleman before us, such a comparison would never be thought of, since he has long been reckoned among the most wealthy men of the nation even in this age of colossal fortunes. But although thus able to take his place in the line of those who control the financial operations of the United States, the solid, common sense of Oregonians, the most of whom have worked from the ground up, pays but little respect to wealth apart from character. It is therefore a matter of much congratulation that the man who might, most justly of all, assume the name of "Money King," has other claims upon their respect and recognition which make his wealth seem but adventitious. He is as one of the plain, hard-working builders of our state, who has been earnest for the social and moral as well as financial progress of the Northwest, that his name appears here. "Woe to that land whose prince is a child." Equally ill for it when its social and business leaders are men of pleasures and immorality. It has been well for Oregon that her prince on 'change has been one whose social, religious and domestic relations have stimulated and honored the highest of her people.

     W.S. Ladd was born at Holland, Vermont, October 10, 1826. As a boy he grew up tall and slender, active of mind and body, and was impelled by a quiet but intense ambition. In his father, Nathaniel Gould Ladd, a physician, and of a family that came to America in 1623, he had a guide and an example of every manly virtue; and in his mother, Abigail Kelly Mead, he found the stimulus to industry, and the life of mental effort. Both his parents were Methodists, and gave him the sort of instruction and training which usually lead to success. Like other New England boys, he went to school and learned to work, and furthermore developed the romantic idea of life on the sea, which was never brought to realization. His parents moved to New Hampshire, and found work for him on a farm, and afterwards bought a piece of fifteen acres of very rough, rocky and wooded land which the youth brought into cultivation by his own personal exertions.

     At the age of nineteen, he found a somewhat wider scope for his abilities in teaching a public school at Loudon, New Hampshire; and, although this was one of those districts where the teachers and pupils had pitched battles, he was successful in subduing his impudent pupils at the first encounter, and moreover kept them awake by the use of bright methods, and questions for them to think about.

     After the cessation of his duties as pedagogue, the Boston, Concord & Montreal Railway was running its line past Sanbornton Bridge, now known as Tilton, at which place he was residing; and he sought and obtained a situation in the freight house which was established there, and continued in this and other work connected therewith, thereby gaining practical business ideas that became of great service to him thereafter.

     For some years after reaching independent life, he had felt an interest in the Pacific coast, having learned of the peculiar products and exports of California; but, upon the discover of gold in1848, he became impressed with the belief that not the region out of which the gold was dug, but that from which supplies and products were obtained for the mines, would obtain the greatest permanent wealth. Finding that the Willamette valley in Oregon bore this relation to the mines of California, he was attracted towards it as a promising field. These abstract considerations were much intensified by conversation with a Mr. Carr, who had been to the Pacific coast, and who, from business operations at San Francisco and at Portland, had laid by something of a fortune, and had returned to the village in which Ladd was living. Determining thereupon to make Oregon his home, the young adventurer, now our banker, made preparations and set sail from New York February 27, 1851.

     Arriving at San Francisco, he there found Mr. Chas. E. Tilton, an old school friend, engaged in



418                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

selling consignments, which he was receiving from New York, to jobbers; and he proposed to him to go into business and thereby sell the goods themselves. To this Tilton did not accede; and Ladd came on up to Oregon. He found our state still exceedingly crude, although, under the administration of Governor Gaines, affairs were taking form. But at Portland all the beginnings were slow and difficult. He carried on a small business in selling out a few articles that he brought with him; but his affairs reached at one time so low an ebb, that he was glad to save paying his six dollars road tax by digging out and burning up a couple of fir stumps in the street in front of his store, which was opposite the ground now occupied by the Esmond Hotel.

     Soon afterwards he found an opportunity to close out the goods brought in a vessel to Portland by W.D. Gookin, who had known his father in New Hampshire. By this transaction he cleared a thousand dollars, and immediately reinvesting this sum in articles of ready sale was enabled to prosecute his mercantile business with vigor and increasing profits. Here, indeed, he got the hold and made the beginning of his present great business, which from that time to this has never suffered a retrograde movement. In 1852 he was conducting an independent business, operating, however, with Gookin, who by a successful venture in a vessel with a cargo of lumber to San Francisco had made twenty thousand dollars. Later, Mr. Ladd went to that city to make arrangements for a future mercantile business, and on his return brought up for his friend sixty thousand dollars in coin.

     His business habits of this time are remembered as most exemplary, - promptly at his place, often being at hand as early as four o'clock in the summer mornings to help off his customers with their wagon-loads in the cool of the day. He economized his strength, avoided saloons, spent his nights in sleep, not in carousals, - and made it a point to observe the Sabbath by attendance upon public worship. He was a shrewd trader, meeting loss and profits with equal equanimity. Not easily excited, he could view business affairs with coolness, and make the most advantageous moves in the hours of opportunity. Thus, once, upon receiving word from Tilton that turpentine was running low in the San Francisco market, he made a shipment by the steamer General Warren, which was an old vessel. Striking upon the Columbia bar as she went out, she went to pieces. The morning the news of the wreck reached him, Ladd purchased in a few hours all the available turpentine in Portland, and had it in his store. This brought ten dollars a gallon at San Francisco, the profits more than covering his former loss.

     In 1852 his business was strengthened by a partnership with Tilton, and in 1853 by the arrival of his brother Wesley. In 1854 he was united in marriage to Miss Caroline A. Elliott, of New Hampshire, a young lady of excellent mental endowments and acquirements, and of a noble character, with whom he had been acquainted since school days. In 1858 steps were taken with Tilton for the formation of a bank; and in 1859 the institution was ready for operations. This is the bank, located at the corner of First and Stark streets, in which so large a part of the monetary business of Oregon has been transacted. It was started on a limited scale; but in 1861 its capital was increased from fifty thousand dollars to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The earnings, however, which were returned to the business, brought the capital up to one million dollars. Thereafter dividends were ordered; and, when the partnership was dissolved in1880, bills receivable amounted to upwards of two million, five hundred thousand dollars. It has always done a sound and select business, and has followed the policy of keeping below current interest, as rates have become less and less, asking for instance loans at two and one-half percent per month, when from three to five per cent was readily obtainable. So secure has this bank been that Oregonians have depended upon it as certainly as upon the sunrise or the rainfall. When it made its statement in 1888, there was less than thirteen hundred dollars outstanding, although over one hundred thousand dollars which had been previously charged to profit and loss had been collected since 1880. It is still operating with the same success as formerly.

     But while his old store and his bank have occupied his close attention, and have been the principal means of making his fortune, Mr. Ladd has branched out into a large number of other ventures, chiefly of a public interest. He is one of the greatest farmers in the state, owning three farms of his own, and five in partnership with S.G. Reed. He conducts these partly for amusement and recreation, but very much also for the sake of discovering and introducing the most improved methods, testing machinery and importing fine livestock. he has been lavish of his means if these particulars, and has done the state substantial good thereby. He has rigidly followed what he believes will lead to public utility, and for that reason has eliminated from his régime the breading of fast horses. It is understood that he controls about three-fourths of the entire flouring-mill business of the Pacific Northwest. He is identified with the Oregon Iron and steel Company, at Oswego, and has been a controlling stockholder of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. He owns lots and buildings all over Portland, and permits in them only respectable and legitimate businesses.

     His residence on Jefferson street, built as early as 1859 from drawing of a house which he and his wife saw while on a visit to the South and East at Bangor, Maine, has long been an ornament to Portland. His interest in school matters and public education has been deep and continuous; and he has given his own time to their furtherance. He has been a friend of churches and public charities; and his gifts have been munificent. It is said that an appeal for sufferers, if worthy, has never been refused by him, nor by any member of his family. With his workmen and employés he is easily master, but nevertheless a friend and favorite; and his remembrance of all in his pay every Christmas is a sort of touch of human kindness that makes kin to him the laboring masses. He believes in fairness



                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                    419

to all who work, and that their rights and liberty be respected, and denounces the iniquity of combinations of capital which would deprive trade or labor of its freedom. It is for these qualities that he is looked upon with favor and pride by the people of his city and state; and he suffers as little from envy as any rich man in the nation. There are few, indeed, who realize more fully the idea of a man of great wealth and power holding his means as a public trust, and sincerely striving to return all his dollars to the use of society, and to the advantage of his fellow men.

     Perhaps nothing shows more fully his unquailing spirit, and the predominance of his will, than his steady and persistent application to business since the infirmity came upon him, by which he has been rendered incapable of physical activity. His uninterrupted application to business and development of great plans is an example of how little the operations of a great mind and spirit depend upon the completeness of these temples of clay in which the soul spends its earthy life.

     To his wife he ascribes a great portion of his success, saying: "I owe everything to her. Through all she has been to me most emphatically a help-meet, in the best and highest sense a noble wife, a saintly mother to our children. I can place no adequate estimate upon her help to me in building up our fortunes in this state. Always patient, thoughtful, and courageous, she has cheerfully assumed her part of whatever load I have had to carry. We both started together at bed-rock; and from then until now we have taken every step in harmony."

     In his children, Mr. Ladd has special cause for satisfaction. The eldest son, William M. Ladd, inherits much the same vigor of body and intellect and will as have lived in his father. He has been furnished the best of educational advantages, having traveled in Europe, and being an alumnus of Amherst College. He was married in 1885 to Miss Mary Andrews, of Oakland, California. He is a present a partner in the bank. The second son, Charles Elliott, is also a man of fine tastes and scholarly instincts, an alumnus of Amherst College, and is now at the head of the large flouring business. He was married in 1881 to Miss Sarah Hall, of Somerville, Massachusetts. The eldest daughter was married in 1880 to Henry J. Corbett, son of Senator Corbett. The second daughter was married in 1880 to Charles Pratt of Brooklyn, New York, a gentleman well known in the business world as being largely interested in the Standard Oil Company, as well as other large manufacturing interests located in the Eastern States.

     Another says of our subject: "No one ever can read the history of W.S. Ladd without being impressed thereby. During his mercantile career, he never misrepresented in order to sell an article. On the street, his word was as good as another's bond. His gifts and donations have been munificent. He endowed the chair of practical theology in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary in San Francisco, in 1886, with fifty thousand dollars, and gave several scholarships to the Willamette University. Throughout a wide extent of country, few churches have been built without aid from him. The bank is a liberal instituti8on, as well as an aid to progress. The Library Association of Portland, has alwa6ys felt his fostering care, having for twenty years occupied, rent free, the second floor of his bank building. It has been his custom from the first to set aside one-tenth of his net income for charitable purposes. It is a principle of his business never to go to the law, except as a last resort."

     A life lived upon so high an aim as the above has been of vast service in our state hitherto, and will still be of use in stemming the tides of social, business and political toils that are so fast coming upon us.

     JUDGE COLUMBIA LANCASTER. - Judge Lancaster, one of our earliest and most eminent judges, was born at New Milford, Litchfield county, Connecticut, on the 26th of August, 1893. His father was of Quaker descent, and settled in Ohio at an early date. Columbia read law under Whittlesy & Newton in Ohio. The Whittlesy of the firm was the honorable Elisha who was a long time in Congress, and afterwards held office in the auditor's department under both Whig and Democratic administrations with no charge of his political sentiments. He though almost as much of his student Lancaster as of his own children. When the young man determined to go West, Mr. Whittlesy gave him letters of recommendation to prominent men, among others to the governor of Michigan, Lewis Cass.

     Having gone to Michigan (which was then out West) Mr. Lancaster was kindly received by General Cass and entertained by his family. The governor urged the young lawyer to remain in Michigan; but he, desiring to see Chicago before settling down, remained but two weeks, and then started for that embryo city. He was, however, suddenly taken sick near White Pigeon in St. Joseph county, and during the long sickness which followed there was treated with such kindness that he determined to locate himself there permanently. he accordingly established himself there in his profession at Centreville, which afterwards became the county-seat. There he became known as an active and successful lawyer.

     His mind was clear, bright and strong. His constitution was powerful, and his friendship war and enduring. His wit and sarcasm were wonderfully keen. He was a good neighbor and citizen, and honest and conscientious in all his dealings. His temperament was such that he required considerable active exercise. This he was wont to obtain by hunting and fishing, of which he became exceedingly fond. He served the people of St. Joseph county as a legislator, as prosecuting attorney and otherwise, and was active in securing statehood for Michigan.

     His practice extended into other counties; and when he attended court in Branch county he boarded with the father of Anson Burlingame, afterwards of "Burlingame Treaty" fame. Mr. Lancaster liked the boy Anson, and frequently took him hunting, and finally persuaded the father to send him East



420                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGONAND WASHINGTON.

and educate him. Anson accordingly received a liberal education in Massachusetts, married an accomplished girl of considerable wealth, and was elected to Congress with the knowledge that he knew how to shoot and did not scare, facts which, as the world knows, came out with startling distinctness in connection with the unspeakable infamy of the Brooks assault on Sumner.

     In 1836 Mr. Lancaster returned to Ohio and married Rosannah Jones, a charming girl whom in her childhood Mr. Whittlesy had often held in his lap and arms. On the 4th of March, 1841, Mr. Lancaster and wife and one child, Adam Van Dusen and wife, and A.E. Wait, left Centreville for Oregon. They crossed the Mississippi on the 4th of April, the Missouri on the 4th of May, and Green river on the 4th of July. Nearly every river after leaving the Missouri was crossed by ferrying the wagon-beds over, and was accomplished without serious accident or sickness. The party arrived at Oregon City about the middle of September. Soon after his arrival Mr. Lancaster was made judge of the supreme court under the Provisional government, and performed his duties ably until the Provisional government was superseded by the organization of the territory.

     Like many of the Oregonians, the judge went to California to take out some gold with his own hands. He was tolerably successful in the mines; and his good friend Peter H. Burnett desired him to remain there and practice law; but he preferred to return to Oregon. In 1850 he settled on a land claim of six hundred and forty acres on Lewis river, which was then in Oregon, but is now in Washington. While securing the title to his land, he divided his time between law practice and farming and stock-raising.

     Judge Lancaster was the first delegate to Congress from Washington Territory. At that time he accomplished more for the territory than has ever been accomplished before or since by any other delegate for any other territory in so short a time. But this is to be partly attributed to the good help he had. Generally, if he wanted help in some great undertaking, it came to him. His needed help came to him in Congress. His former friends, General Cass and Mr. Whittlesy, were glad to see him. His old friend Charles E. Stuart was in the Senate, and Ben Wade and Joshua R. Giddings were in the House and anxious to aid him. The President invited him to a dinner where he met a number of the Senators; and after the dinner he told them that delegate Lancaster would need much legislation for his territory, and as he had arrived in the middle of a term he would want all the aid he could to accomplish the necessary legislation; and so he asked their special assistance; and they gave it.

     When Anson Burlingame heard that Judge Lancaster was in Washington as a delegate from Washington Territory, he hurried on to the Capital and labored diligently and effectually in securing needful action for the distant territory. He was anxious to pay what he deemed a great debt; and he did so to the entire satisfaction of the judge. Before Judge Lancaster's bills had been finally acted on in the House, similar bills had been considered and passed by the Senate and sent to the House; and the House speedily concurred in them. Thus it was that Judge Lancaster was enabled to accomplish so much for the territory in so short a time. He worked hard and wisely, and with the efficient aid of his friends succeeded beyond his most sanguine hopes, and was happy.

     The first patent issued by the government under the Donation Land Act was issued to Judge Lancaster and his wife, and was presented to them by their friend, Honorable T.H. Hendricks, afterwards vice-president. The improved and best half of the claim was, with the approbation of the judge, set off to his w2ife. The married life of this now aged couple has been very happy, - a continued courtship. A few years ago, owing to impaired health, they sold their lands and stock on Lewis river and settled at Vancouver, Washington Territory, where they have sufficient means to make them permanently comfortable and independent. They have three living children, Sarah, Hannah and Wait, and several grandchildren, all of whom reside in Oregon and Washington; and they can and do point with affection and pride to Judge Lancaster and his excellent wife.

     HON. FREDERICK W. LANDER. - This gentleman, who was a civil engineer, first chief justice of the supreme court of Washington Territory, and brigadier-general of United States volunteers, 1861-62, was born at Salem, Massachusetts, December 17, 1822, and received his education at Dummer Academy, Byfield, Vermont, and studied civil engineering at the military academy, Norwich, Vermont. Having practiced for several years his profession in his native state, in 1853 Governor Stevens appointed him estimating engineer on the Northern Pacific Railroad survey. After having crossed the continent, he formed the opinion that the first practical and economical solution of the problem of transcontinental railway communication would be found in a grand trunk line westward from the Mississippi river to and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, thence diverging by two lines in the form of the letter Y, one by the valley of the Columbia to Puget Sound, and the other to San Francisco. To determine the feasibility of such routes, he employed, at his private expense, the necessary parties and made the surveys. He afterwards surveyed the route for the great overland wagon road, and acted as superintendent in its construction. His party, consisting of seventy men, was attacked in 1858 by a large war party of Pah Ute Indians, who were repulsed with considerable slaughter.

     Upon the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1861, he visited several Southern states on secret service. He joined the army in the capacity of volunteer aid on General McClellan's staff, and was present at the capture of Phillippi, and at the battle of Rich Mountain. He was commissioned, May 17, 1861, brigadier-general of volunteers, and in July was assigned an important command on the Potomac river. Apprised of the disaster at Ball's Bluff, he hastened to Edward's Ferry, and held that point with a single company of sharpshooters, but in the action received a severe wound in the leg. Before



                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                     421

 the wound had healed he reported for duty, and on the 5th of January, 1862, at Hancock, repelled a greatly superior Confederate force. On February 14, 1862, he made a dash against the enemy at Blooming Gap, who retreated before the Union cavalry. In the pass the Confederates made a stand and checked their pursuers. Lander then called for volunteers and dislodged them. By this time his would greatly annoyed and debilitated him, and compelled him to ask for temporary relief from duty. Before that had been granted, and while preparing for an attack upon the enemy, this gallant officer died on the 2d of March, 1862, of congestion of the brain.

     General Lander was a poet of considerable merit, as is attested by a number of poetic effusions during the war. He was an able writer, especially in the line of his profession. Dashing as was his brief but brilliant war records, distinguished though he was as a railroad engineer, perhaps he will be best remembered for his characteristic management of the Pryor-Potter duel, in 1860.

After a bitter personal debate in Congress, in which John F. Potter of Wisconsin and Roger A. Pryor of Virginia had participated, General Pryor challenged Mr. Potter. Colonel Fred Lander acted as Potter's friend. Potter, being the challenged party, by Lander's prompting selected bowie knives as the weapons. Pryor's friends protested against the use of such a weapon, but Lander was inexorable; and the fight, as Lander had predicted proved a fiasco. At the time fixed for the duel to have occurred, it is said that both parties were absent from the House at roll call. Upon Potter's name being called, one of his friends answered, "Gone to meet a pryor engagement." Later on, Pryor's name being called by the clerk, the answer was given from among Potter's friends, "Gone to be made potter's clay."

     COL. HENRY LANDES. - The subject of this sketch is prominent and noteworthy, even among the foremost self-made men of the great and growing Pacific Northwest, - a section so progressive and promising that it has attracted the most vigorous minds and the ablest men throughout the country. He was born in a small town in Germany on the 8th of October, 1843. In 1847 his father and family emigrated to Kentucky, Henry being then four years old. There the boy grew almost to the years of manhood, and developed in a marked degree the spirit of adventurous ambition which led him on the 1st of October, 1861, to break away from the restraints of school and enlist in a Kentucky Federal regiment of infantry, being then but eighteen years old. In that regiment he served his country faithfully and well for over three years, covering nearly the whole period of the war of the Rebellion, and participating in all the principal battles from Shiloh to the capture of Atlanta. He was honorably mustered out of the service of the close of his term.

     The close of the war left him with his love for adventure intensified; and, like many another young man, he started out to seek fame and fortune single-handed, without prestige or assistance, but with a courage and industrious determination that amply equipped him to grapple with fortune. Naturally enough he turned his face towards the new El Dorado of the West. Arriving on the Pacific coast, he proceeded to the gold fields of British Columbia, then famous and alluring. There he delved laboriously but unsuccessfully as a miner. Returning to Washington Territory in 1870, he was appointed Indian trader for the Makah tribe of Indians at the Neah Bay Reservation, which position he held for nearly six years.

     In 1876 he returned with his family to Port Townsend, Washington Territory, where he established himself in business and became, naturally enough from the start, one of the leading citizens and most enterprising business men of the city. Elected president of the Port Townsend Board of Trade at its organization, he has held the position eve since by unanimous re-elections each year. He served four years as a member of the city council, during which period he was many times acting mayor, and was always industrious and painstaking in the discharge of his public duties. He was the moving spirit of the city government while a member thereof, and, although neither visionary nor moss-backed, was at once safely conservative yet enterprising and progressive. He served three years as city treasurer, and three years as member of the public-school board. During his incumbency of the last-named position, a marvelous transformation took place, largely through his efforts, in the public-school, - the old building giving place to a magnificent new one, and the school itself becoming graded nearly to an academic standard.

     In June, 1884, Colonel Landes was appointed by Governor William A. Newell to the important position of member of the board of commissioners to locate the new territorial penitentiary. he performed the delicate and difficult duties of this position with his usual practical sagacity, and with entire public satisfaction. In March, 1885, he was appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury a member of the board of commissioners to locate Port Townsend's present government buildings. In September, 1885, he was commissioned by Governor Watson C. Squire a member of the governor's military staff, as assistant adjutant-general with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In February, 1886, he was appointed by Governor Squire a commissioner to select a suitable site for the deaf mute, blind and feeble-minded youth of Washington Territory, the duties of which position were performed in the usual satisfactory manner. He was one of the incorporators, and was elected treasurer, of the Port Townsend & Southern Railway Company, which was organized in1887 with a view to building a road from the strait of Fuca to Portland. On April 29, 1889, he was commissioned by Governor Miles C. Moore, quartermaster-general, with the rank of colonel, of the National Guard of Washington Territory, and holds this honorable position at the present time.

     Colonel Landes' greatest achievement, however, was in founding and successfully establishing the First National Bank of Port Townsend, of which he is the largest stockholder, and is also president. The institution was organized in March, 1883.



422                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

Located in its three-story stone building, it is the pride of Port Townsend. Under the conservative and able management of its president, it has no peer on Puget Sound.

     Personally, Colonel Landes is prepossessing, with a commanding presence. Genial, broad-minded and energetic, he is the complete type of the cultivated gentleman. He has large property interests in Port Townsend, Seattle and various other places in Washington, and is a director in several corporations. He is a natural leader, and is instinctively foremost in all local public affairs. His pleasant home and family are surrounded with all the comforts of refinement and ease.

     GENERAL JOSEPH LANE. - Joseph Lane first saw the light of day in North Carolina, December 14, 1801. He was reared in Henderson county, Kentucky. At the early age of twenty he was married to Miss Polly Hart, soon afterwards settling in Vanderburg county, Indiana, where he followed the humble life of a farmer for twenty-five years. While in the pursuit of this occupation, he was prominent as a leader in all matter of enterprise in the county. He soon drifted into politics, and was chosen to represent the county in the state legislature. He was continued in the same trust as long as he resided in the county.

     When the Mexican war began, the state senator resigned his seat, and prepared to enter the hostilities, when he was elected colonel of the Second Regiment of Indian Volunteers, and was ordered to report for duty at General Taylor's headquarters at Brazos, Texas, which was then the seat of war. It was just prior to the battle of Buena Vista that General Lane was actively employed; and he took an active part in the glorious victory achieved by the American troops, commanding the left wing of Taylor's army. During this engagement he was severely wounded by a bullet in the left shoulder; but, nothing daunted, he remained upon the field at his post of duty, suffering great pain, until the victory was assured. This act distinguished him for his unfaltering bravery. He was lauded by his commander; and he immediately attained a position in public estimation second to no other officer in the service.

     At the expiration of the time of enlistment of his brigade, he accompanied it to New Orleans, where the men were mustered out. General Lane then returned to General Taylor's army, but was at once ordered to join General Scott in his celebrated march from Vera Cruz, Mexico. In this march General Lane led a brigade composed of the Fourth Ohio and Fourth Indiana Volunteers, with several independents, altogether numbering about three thousand men. They set out to reinforce the American army then valiantly fighting its way, step by step, from Pueblo to the City of Mexico. His duties were arduous in the extreme; for the route was lined with guerillas and beset by organized bodies of Mexican troops, who resisted every advance; and it was only by hard fighting and determined effort that the road was covered. At Haumantla, on October 9, 1847, a decided victory was gained over the enemy. At Atlixco, on the nineteenth of the same month and at Tlascala on the twenty-ninth, grand victories were scored. On the 22d of November, Matamoras, fifty-four miles from Pueblo, was taken by assault; and on the 14th of December the headquarters of General Scott were reached. Afterwards General Lane and his soldiers were engaged in the closing battles of the war, and in wiping out guerrillas.

     This "Marion of the Mexican war" remained active in the field until its final close, when he returned to his peaceful home in Indiana, there to enjoy the comforts of his fireside; for, having won military honors enough, he longed for the quiet, inactive life of the obscure civilian. But no sooner had his sun set in the military horizon than it appeared in the first gray streaks of morn in a political life. He was surprised on learning that he had been appointed to the governorship of the then newly organized territory of Oregon. Equal to the emergency to which duty called him, he set out for the Pacific slope by way of New Mexico and Arizona, accompanied by a military escort.

     Arriving in San Francisco in February, 1849, he took passage to the Columbia on a sailing vessel, and arrived at Oregon City, on the Willamette, March 2, 1849, and issued his proclamation the following day as governor of the territory of Oregon. General Lane was her first and by far her most distinguished executive. He faithfully and assiduously discharged the duties of his new office until the following August, when a new political party was formed in the territory, which appointed his successor. He then commenced mining in Northern California, and afterwards participated in Kearney's campaign against the Rogue river Indians in 1851. In the latter part of that year he was chosen as a delegate from the territory to Congress.

     In the year 1853 he again distinguished himself in the military line during the Rogue river war, and received a severe wound in the battle of Evans creek. The treaty which followed with those Indians was largely due to his exertions. From that time on until the territory was admitted as a state the General continued to serve the people in Congress. In 1857 he was elected by the people of Oregon as United States senator, which position he held until 1861. In 1860 the Democratic convention then in session at Baltimore nominated the general and United States senator for vice-president of the United States, on the ticket with John C. Breckenridge. The details of that campaign are still fresh in the popular mind, although over a quarter of a century has elapsed.

     The General's natural inclination, sympathy and belief, guided by the highest sense of justice and right, led him to favor the South in the great impending war between the two sections; and he quit the field of politics and returned to his home at Roseburg, never again entering public life. His remaining years were spent on his farm and in the solace of home comforts in the family circle. He waived all thought of further public life, and studiously bent his energies n the experiments of agriculture, in which he was as equally successful in after years as he had previously been in politics and war. His early education having been somewhat neglected,



                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETHCES.                                                            423

and possessing naturally an inquiring turn of mind, in after years the General set about at self-study, and in the course of a few years had procured a store of knowledge in all of the branches of literature, art and the sciences. The remaining years of his life were gradually brought to a well-rounded close in the heart of his family, surrounded by his children, grand-children and the next near of kin, each and all holding him most dear, and revering him both for what he actually had been and was, and for his mature age. After a life well spent, with no regrets to recall, this good and noble man slowly but surely felt the ebbing tide of life going out; and in April, 1881, he forever closed his eyes to all things earthly. Among the very few who so grandly distinguished themselves during the Mexican war, General Lane was favored with the longest lease upon life, and was the last of the surviving heroes to depart.

     There is much in the life of General Lane to the close student. He was a man of unswerving integrity. The truth to him was always foremost; and it has been said by those with whom he was intimate in life that there was no condition, circumstance nor occasion which would induce him to depart therefrom. On the field of battle he knew no fear. In political life and official capacity he was clean-handed and clear-skirted, with the most good to the largest number. At home he was the idol of his family and the honored neighbor of life. In business matters he was always prompt, decisive and reliable. In his demise the country lost a valuable defender, the state a noble representative, and the people a beloved and honored and revered fellow-citizen; and it may well be said that the world was made better for his having lived in it.

     JAMES H. LASATER. - Mr. Lasater was born on the 19th of October, 1823, in McMinn county, Tennessee. Having reached manhood in his native state, he went to California in 1850. After a short stay there he returned East, taking up his abode in Illinois. While there he devoted himself to the study of the law, and in October, 1853, came to Oregon. Pursuing his law studies, he was admitted to the bar in 1855 at Salem. In the following year he was married to Miss Emily Lendder.

     In April, 1863, he removed to Walla Walla, Washington Territory; and there he has made his home since, being throughout these twenty-six years one of the most active and useful citizens of that pleasant city. As a politician Mr. Lasater has been on the losing side, being a Democrat. None the less stoutly, however, has he battled for the principles of his political faith; nor has his fairness and integrity failed to win the respect of even his political foes. He has, in spite of the general adversity of his party, served in the territorial legislature (1869), and has borne a prominent part in the councils of the territory and town.

     He had been an extensive land-owner, but a few years ago deeded the greater portion of his lands to his children. He now lives in a beautiful home on a spacious plot of land near the business heart of Walla Walla. Having lost his wife in 1875, he was married in October of the following year to Mrs. Jane Jacobs. His children are: Wiley, born in 1858; Julia, 1862; Harry, 1865; Alice M., 1867; James H., 1878.

     LAWYER. - With the exception of the Joseph war of 1877, the Nez Perces have almost uniformly been the friends of the Whites. Even in that conflict they were human enough to abstain form scalping their captives, and even went so far as to give them water to drink when they found them wounded and alone. On many occasions they have saved hundreds of lives and thousands of dollars worth of property. When the "great audit is made up," it may prove that these Indians have done vastly more for the conquerors of their land than they have received from them. Prominent among the friendly chiefs of this great tribe was lawyer. He appears on the pages of historians from the time of Parker (in 1836) down. He was at that time a young man, famous for his natural eloquence and lawyer-like keenness, form which fact he received the name by which he has since been known. He was a son of the chief who had met Lewis and Clarke in so friendly a manner, and had cared for their horses during their stay down the river.

     Throughout the entire history of settlement, Lawyer was a friend of the Whites. He was especially prominent in the negotiations with Governor Stevens after the great war of 1855. He threw the weight of his great influence in favor of the treaty, which established the existing reservations and confirmed the Indians in the property which they now hold. Though opposed in his peace policy by Owhi, Kamiakin, Peu-peu-mox-mox and Joseph, the persistence of Lawyer and the numerical strength of his people turned the scale in favor of the treaty. The benefit to the settlers by this event can scarcely be overstated. As was just, the astute chief was ever afterwards held in great favor.

     In person Lawyer was a typical Indian. Though not of large stature, he was exceedingly straight and well-built with the eye of an eagle and the nose of a hawk. He has had few equals in general intelligence among his people.

     HON. ALPHONSO FOWLER LEARNED. - Mr. Learned, whose travels and services abroad have taken him extensively over the world as an able representative of the American nation and flag, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1838. He spent a precocious boyhood in the schools of that city, - "The Athens of America," - and at the age of sixteen was an alumnus of Comers College. Preferring the sea, however, to further bookish confinement, he became cabin boy on a full-rigged ship, returning as able seaman.

     In 1857 he came on the clipper ship Sierra Nevada to San Francisco, and as mate on the bark Goldhunter, sailed to Port Townsend, Washington Territory. There he entered the mercantile business with his uncle, E.S. Fowler, but in 1862 went to Shanghai as superintendent for the large tea importers, Russel & Co. He returned in 1871, and continued in business with E.S. Fowler until the death of the latter in 1879. Much time was spent after this in San Francisco in the newspaper business, and six



424                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

years in the internal revenue department. Coming back once more, he accepted a position as bookkeeper for the Alaska Mill & Mining Company; but the offensive climate induced his speedy return. He thereupon opened a real-estate and insurance office, and conducts a large business in this line.

     In the political world, Mr. Learned has been a prominent figure. He has held a position on the city council. He pushed Judge Hastings to the narrow majority of one vote as candidate for treasurer of Jefferson county. Six years he held the position of consul to Nicaragua, and was master of the first Masonic lodge in China, and has also filled the same office at Port Townsend.

     He was married in that city to Miss Isabelle, a daughter of Doctor Samuel McCurdy, an old resident of the port. She is a lady of culture and refinement; and they have a fine family of children, three girls and three boys.

     HON. JOHN C. LEASURE. - Mr. Leasure needs little introduction to the people of Oregon, having become universally known as an elector on the ticket for Blaine in 1884, and more recently as vice-president and attorney for the Oregon & Washington Railway. This road, which has commanded much popular interest, particularly in Eastern Oregon and Washington Territory, skirts the whole Umatilla and Blue Mountain foothills country, traverses the great Inland Empire wheat belt, and having a western terminus at tide water is able to complete actively with the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, thus reducing transportation tariffs to the minimum.

     Mr. Leasure has, moreover, ever enjoyed a wide reputation as a lawyer, being especially versed in criminal practice; and scarcely a case of any importance of this character has been brought to trial in Umatilla county without his attendance. His standing and popularity in his own city is shown by his election as mayor of Pendleton, Oregon, in1855, by a majority of ninety-three on the People's ticket. During his term he made his presence felt by carrying through to completion the system of water works, and by a marked improvement in streets and sidewalks.

     Mr. Leasure is a native Oregonian, having been born in Marion county in 1854, and received his education at Philomath College, having received his diploma from said institution in 1877. He first made his way in the world as a school teacher, studying law at the same time, and in 180 ran the gauntlet of an examination. Passing the critical point with great success, he removed immediately to Pendleton, and there achieved the results then anticipated.

     Mr. Leasure is purely a self-made man, and is noted for determination and great will power. His wife, Anna L., daughter of James Blakely, a pioneer of 1847, is a lady who is no les influential in her own circles than is her husband in the business and political world.

     REV. JASON LEE. - Jason Lee was the pioneer of pioneers. It is not possible for any other name to take precedence of his, whether we speak of the time of his coming to this coast, or of the power he exerted over the beginnings of civilization and christianity here. In these conditions he was first and mightiest.

     Jason Lee was born in Stanstead, Canada East, in 1803. Though born in Canada, he was of New England parentage, and had in him no trace of foreign blood; so that he was a thorough American. His early life was spent in the labors of the farm and the adventures of the forest, where he acquired that hardihood of body, and independence and vigor of mind, that so well prepared him for his providential work. When he was twenty-five years of age, he entered Niltraham Academy, Massachusetts, then under the care of Doctor Wilber Fisk, where he spent some years in acquiring an education. Returning to Canada he offered himself to the London Mileyan Missionary Society for work as a missionary among the Indians of that province. Pending this offer, a clearly providential call came from beyond the Rocky Mountains for missionaries among the Indians; and Doctor Fisk turned to Jason Lee as "the one man" - to use his own words - to answer that call. The missionary board of his church ratified the selection; and on August 19, 1833, Mr. Lee left his home in Stanstead to prepare for his journey westward.

     April 20, 1834, he arrived at Liberty, Missouri, near which place the trading company of Mr. Nathaniel Wyeth was outfitting for a journey to the Columbia river. Mr. Lee, attended by his nephew Daniel Lee, Mr. Cyrus Shephard and Mr. R.L. Edwards, joined himself to the rough cavalcade of the adventurous trader, and spent the entire summer of that year in the weary journey to Oregon.

     On their route Mr. Wyeth stopped to build a trading-post on Snake river, which he called Fort Hall. There, on Sunday, July 27, 1834, Mr. Lee preached the first sermon ever preached west of the Rocky Mountains, to a congregation, as he says in his manuscript journal, "of Indians, half-breeds, Frenchmen, etc., very few of whom could understand the exercises." He reached old Fort Walla Walla on the 1st of September and Vancouver on the seventeenth. In the few weeks following that date he traveled somewhat extensively over the Willamette valley, and finally located his mission station on the banks of the Willamette river, about twelve miles below the present site of Salem.

     Mr. Lee devoted himself with great energy and singleness of purpose to the work assigned him among the Indians until the spring of 1838, when it seemed necessary to him, and his fellow-laborers, that he should return to the States and secure a large reinforcement for the mission. Accordingly he left the Willamette mission on the 26th of March, bidding adieu to his wife, to whom he had been married but a few months, and the lonely mission family, from whom he hardly expected to hear until his return to them, and took up his dreary eastern pilgrimage over the same desert route he had traveled four years before. He crossed the plains safely; but, on the very first night after he had reached civilization, a letter which had been sent by express after him was put in his hands, conveying the intelligence that his wife and her infant son had been put in the first grave of a white woman or child in Oregon.



                                                                                                    BIOGRAPHICAL  SKETCHES.                                                                425

     Mr. Lee spent the following winter and summer in organizing his reinforcement for the mission work in Oregon, and in addressing large audiences in all the principal cities of the Eastern states in favor of the work. He sailed at the head of this band of missionaries (the largest that had ever been associated in missionary work) from New York in October, 1839, and reached Oregon in June of 1840. He was superintendent of the mission, and as such visited Umpqua, every part of the Willamette valley, Clatsop, Nisqually and The Dalles, devoting himself most conscientiously to his vast and important field. In 1843 he again returned to New York in the interest of his mission, going by sea to Honolulu, and thence to the coast of Mexico in a small Mexican schooner, thence overland via the City of Mexico to Vera Cruz, thence by sea to New Orleans, and by steamer and stage to New York.

     Such had been the trials and exposures of this stalwart pioneer, that he was unable to bear up under their burdens longer; and, in a few months after his return to the States, he repaired to Stanstead, the place of his birth and the home of his childhood and early manhood, and soon after died in his early maturity. Physically he was a strong man, six feet two inches in height and well proportioned. Intellectually he was clear, discriminating and reliable; morally he was without a spot.

     In the qualities of a pioneer, Mr. Lee was the peer of any man in his church - so universally and justly known as "The Pioneer Church" - ever sent to any field. Oregon, which was so eminently blest in its pioneers, never had one more capable, broad-minded, strong-handed and true-hearted than Jason Lee. Few really know all that Oregon, and country at large, owe to this first pioneer in organizing the influences and furnishing the information that finally resulted in securing Oregon to the United States, and, in the Provisional government, establishing law and order over the coast. In1830 he was often consulted by the Department of State and leading senators and representatives in Congress on the "Oregon question," and also, after his second return to the States in 1843-44. His opinion, formed after so many years of careful observation on the ground, went very far in influencing legislation and determining cabinet councils on that question. If Oregon owes a debt of gratitude and recognition to any one of her noble pioneers above another, that debt is due to Jason Lee, the real pathmaker for civilization and christianity to the shores of the Pacific.

     HON. JOSEPH D. LEE. - It is natural for the observing student of mankind to speculate upon the effect which radical changes and new environments have upon a coming generation; and consequently the inquiry has arisen in thinking minds as to what type of manhood and womanhood will spring from the hardy and bold pioneers who peopled these shores in the forties and early fifties. Surely with such heroic and sturdy parentage, growing up under the influence of our grand and magnificent scenery, and breathing in youth the pure air from the balsamic pines, we might expect a fine mental and physical development. We have the pleasure of presenting to our readers, in the subject of this sketch, what we might call a typical Oregonian.

     Joseph D. Lee was born in Polk county, Oregon, in the proverbial log cabin, about one mile northwest of where the city of Monmouth now stands, on the 29th day of July, 1848. His father, Nicholas Lee, was born in Pike county, Ohio, February 11, 1818, and was distantly related to the patriotic Lees of the Revolution. His mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Hopper, was a native of Virginia, and was exactly one year younger than her husband. They were married in Ohio in 1840, and five years later moved to Iowa. In 1847 they determined to cast their lot in new pastures and came to Oregon via the Southern route, wintering near the present site of Eugene City, and the following year (1848) moving to Polk county. During the year, 1849, he settled on the Donation claim two and a half miles south of Dallas, where were born to them six other children, one son and five daughters, all of whom are living. The son, George W. Lee, resides in Portland. The daughters reside as follows: Mrs. Albert Odell in Yamhill county, Mrs. J.E. Smith in Dallas, and Mrs. Guyun in Benton county, Oregon; Mrs. Dr. J.W. Bean in Ellensburgh, and Mrs. Orville Butler in Cheney, Washington.

     In 1862 Mr. Nicholas Lee moved into Dallas to obtain better educational advantages for his children, while he engaged in the mercantile business. In1870 he took his son Joseph in partnership, and to him sold his interest, in1876 returning to the old home, where he died July 11, 1879; and two years later Mrs. Lee followed him to that "country from whose bourn no traveler returns." This worthy couple were highly respected and esteemed, Mr. lee being prominent in religious and educational enterprises. He was one of the original incorporators of La Creole Academy, and remained a trustee until the day of his death.

It will be observed that Jr. Joseph D. Lee was born under the old Provisional régime, as the United States did not extend its jurisdiction over the vast territory of Oregon until in August of the year 1848. His boyhood days were spent on the farm; and after entering school he oversaw and partly tended to the carrying on of the same until his twenty-first year. He completed a partial course in the La Creole Academy of Dallas, and after that sometimes assisted in the store at the same place, sometimes on the farm, and sometime steamed between Dallas and Portland. In 1870 he was appointed postmaster at Dallas, but resigned the position after serving three years. On May 19, 1872, he was joined in marriage to Miss Eliza Alice Witten, a true and noble lady of many accomplishments, and possessing with them good sense and sound judgement.

     In the year 1874 he made his first visit to San Francisco, by way of steamer, to purchase goods. In the fall of 1878, in company with Mr. G. Hubbard, of Smithfield, he erected a grain warehouse at that point. At the June election of that same year he had been elected representative to the legislature on the Republican ticket, and in 1880 was elected state senator of Polk county, which office he held for four years. During the same year he was



426                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

exerting his energies to secure the extension of the narrow-gauge railroad to Dallas, and was a leading spirit in accomplishing that end. In 1882 he erected his commodious and elegant residence in Dallas, Oregon; and the following year he and Mrs. Lee, in company with about six hundred Oregon pioneers, took a trip to the East over the Northern Pacific Railroad.

     After serving the people of his county for six years in the legislature, he was elected joint senator of Benton and Polk counties for a term of four years, at the close of which that office was discontinued, having been abolished by the new apportionment. Thus it will be seen he served for ten years continuously in the state legislature; and of the large number of bills introduced by him many have become fixed laws. Perhaps no other man in Oregon has represented his native county for a full decade in the legislature; and his record is without a stain or blot. He is a man well fitted to fill all positions of trust, as he is one strong in the courage of his convictions, true to his constituency in public, a friend of the masses, and broad in his views. He is progressive without being extravagant, hating demagogy, and by his perfect and immovable honesty made his influence felt in the legislature.

     In 1886 he was succeeded in his mercantile business by Fenton & Truitt, and in the fall of 1888 removed his family to The Dalles, Oregon, hoping to benefit his daughter Lorene's health, as she was suffering from asthma. He has since employed himself in various ways, operating to some extent in real estate. He has ever taken a lively interest in public affairs, especially in educational matters, and is at present a trustee of the La Creole Academy and also of the Willamette University, and is noted for his fine mental equipoise and analytical mind. He is also a practical speaker and writer, putting his thoughts and convictions in a pointed, forcible way, which, while they command admiration, also demand thoughtful consideration.

     Since moving to The Dalles he has taken a most decided interest in horticulture, and is now president of the Pomological Society of that place. Mr. Lee is well known throughout the state as an honest politician, whose services could not be bought for any sum while serving the people and holding public trust; and wherever his tall, erect figure is seen he is sure to be greeted by true friends to whom his genial, kindly disposition has endeared him. Yet, with all his high attainments, Mr. Lee is practically an every-day man, who loves the quiet of his home and the company of his family, of which he possesses one most interesting, consisting of four children, i.e., Lyman Marshal, Aimée Lorene, Joseph Roscoe and Althea Eleanor, ranging in age form sixteen to six years.

     Mr. Lee is a member of the Masonic order and also the Odd Fellows, and is a devout and consistent member of the Methodist church. At present he is engaged in some business enterprises which so closely occupy his time that he does not give much attention to politics, except enough to keep posted on the affairs of the times. Although a comparatively young man, he has had a varied experience, and has led an active life. He has never been a slave to ambition, but is sensible to the honors he has received, and wears them with becoming modesty. When, in the history of Oregon, all politicians and aspirants to public positions shall reach a par with his record, our beautiful state will be the city on a hill which cannot be hid.

"Then like queens shall be the daughters,
And the sons to heroes grow,
Limbs be fair and joints be supple,
Highest thought the faces known,
And the white flame of the spirit
in a holy temple glow."

     Mrs. Joseph D. Lee is a graduate of the Willamette University, and prior to her marriage taught successfully in the University of Washington, located at Seattle, and in other schools in Oregon. Besides guiding the household, she has found time to engage in charitable and reformatory work, and in every community where she has lived has left her impress for god. Their domestic life has been most pleasant; and together they are treading life's rugged pathway, each striving to lighten the burdens of the other.

     W.J. LEEZER. - Mr. Leezer, one of the most active of all ourcitizens, was born March 21, 1846, at Rushville, Illinois, where he received a common-school education and learned the tinner's trade. In 1870 he crossed the plains, locating at Umatilla Landing, and working for his brother, J.M. Leezer, who was then doing a tin and hardware business at that point. A year later he bought the establishment and conducted the business for himself, until in 1880 he closed out his interests there and moved to Heppner, Oregon, where he has established and carries on successfully a mercantile business to the present time.

     He was married in 1873 to Miss L.A. Wilson of Umatilla, and has three children, Emory J., Mabel A. and Willetta. He was appointed treasurer of Morrow county in 1885, and served a full term. In March, 1889, he was elected city treasurer,and fills the position at present. He is one of the representative business men of Heppner, of sterling worth,and respected by all who know him.

     REV. DAVID LESLIE. - David Leslie was a contribution of the spirit and the life of the new England of half a century ago to the development and civilization of the Pacific coast. Though so much of his life was spent in the newer and ruder conditions attendant on a pioneer work in this distant west, he never forgot the carefulness and precision induced by his early training, nor widely departed from the habits and modes of thought characteristic of his Yankee origin. He was a native of New Hampshire, where he was born in 1797, and was reared among the White Mountains, partaking so much of the spirit of his native hills that he ever seemed as indurated and solid as their own granite bases.

In 1822, when he was twenty-five years of age, he was admitted as a preacher in the New England conference, in which he continued until 1836, when he was appointed a missionary to Oregon. He was the first missionary to bring a wife and family to this coast; and to him and his wife belong the



                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                    427

distinction of having set up the first christian home west of the Rocky Mountains. his wife was of a family eminent in New England life, being of the Pierce family, and sister of B.K. Pierce, D.D., long one of the most eminent preachers and authors of Massachusetts. She died many years ago.

     Mr. Leslie sailed from Boston for the Columbia river January 7,1837, and landed in Oregon September 20th of the same year, and entered at once upon the work to which he had been assigned.

     In 1838, when Jason Lee returned to the States for his large reinforcement to his mission, he left the superintending of the mission with Mr. Leslie; so that for nearly two years he had charge of all the work of his church in Oregon.

     In the organization of the Provisional government of Oregon, Mr. Leslie took a leading part. Coming from New England, a state of society where every man was a law unto himself was intolerable to him; and so he threw the whole force of his character and influence in favor  of the organization of the only form of lawful order that seemed possible in the then condition of the country.

     He was also among the foremost in the work of founding the Oregon Institute, so long the only educational light and hope of the country, and now rejoicing in its fuller powers as the Willamette University. He was president of its board of trustees for twenty-five consecutive years, and as such wielded a controlling influence on its destiny. For many years also he presided over the Oregon Bible Society; and his venerable form, with its crown of silver hair, was both an ornament and an inspiration to its annual gatherings. Thus in establishing order, and founding educational and christian institutions in Oregon, David Leslie won an honorable standing among the most worthy of our pioneers. His work being mostly done in the center of the Willamette valley, in and about Salem, where he had his residence for nearly thirty years, there was les of adventure in it than in the work of several of his fellow-laborers; but it was done well, and has left a record that can never be effaced. He died in Salem, March 1, 1869, full of years and full of honors.

     ELISHA H. LEWIS. - This well-known gentlemen was born in new York in1824. He was raised on a farm, and received a common-school education at his home on the slopes of the Catskill Mountains. In 1845 he went to Chicago and thence to Wisconsin, where he worked as millwright until 1849. Coming in that year by the Isthmus to California, he was mining in several camps with the usual checkered luck of those days, making a return to the "States" for a visit. In the spring of 1852 he returned by water to California, and in the fall of the same year came on to Oregon, locating at Portland and engaging as carpenter with Porter & Carson. In 1853 he removed to Rainier, continuing in his work as carpenter and builder. In January, 1855, he was married to Miss Harriet L. Barlow of Cowlitz county, Washington Territory, who crossed the plains from Michigan in1852.

     In 1854 they removed to Vancouver, where he operated as contractor for six years. In 1862 he sought a new and more permanent location in Eastern Oregon, and laid the claim where the town of North Union now stands. In1863 he moved his family and effects to the new location, and together they have seen the town of Union grow from one log cabin, constructed by themselves, into a beautiful town embowered with beautiful fruit and ornamental trees, and boasting of a population of one thousand people. Mr. Lewis has identified himself with the development of the place in many ways, having not only erected the first log cabin and the first house built of lumber, but also inaugurated many enterprises for the improvement of the place, and now owns much property in the city and a farm near by.

     Five children have been born in this pleasant family, of whom two, a son and daughter, are living. They also have four grandchildren living.

     They relate with much pleasue and interest their many hard and exciting experiences in the early days; and Mrs. Lewis recalls how, at the age of eighteen, she stood in the door of her home at Ranier and saw her husband cross the billowy Columbia when the waves were running high, and no one else would dare to take a Bellingham Bay coal hunter across to the territory; and to the writer the pleasant old lady observed that this was a foolhardy adventure, and that she fully expected every moment as she stood and gazed to become a widow.

     HAMAN C. LEWIS. - This dauntless pioneer of the earliest times in our state was born in New York City January 31, 1803, and was the son of a ship carpenter. He early was apprenticed to learn the trade of a cooper, but while only a boy of fourteen went to sea, serving six months as cabin boy, and later was apprenticed to the ship carpenter. At eighteen he went as sailor - or perhaps more strictly speaking as "fillibusterer" - to the Gulf coast, taking service on a Mexican privateer. For a number of years he followed a most adventurous life, engaged in many rencontres with the Spaniards, and at the ports of Mexico, the West Indies and Yucatan saw all of life in the hot and riotous portions of North American. He took an excursion into Alabama, and in that state enjoyed six months schooling, - all that he received, - and became there very deeply imbued with Southern views and principles. At Mobile, in Texas, and in New Orleans, and again on the Spanish main, he undertook and carried on many doubtful adventures, which required resource, address and courage, - all bravely concluded, but without the monetary results that he hoped for; for, in all these chances and hazards, he was seeking for a fortune in order that he might go to his native place and buy a home and begin life with the girl he loved best.

     In 1830, and for some six years thereafter, he followed life on the Mississippi steamboats as carpenter. In1836 he became an itinerant merchant and in 1839 was married to Miss Mary Moore, making a home on a farm in Northern Missouri. This business not proving very profitable, and the conditions of life in that state being hard, he was ready, therefore, in1845, to join a company bound for Oregon. The journey across the plains to The Dalles was not



428                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 in his case unusually severe; but at that point his family of wife and two little children were attacked with mountain fever; and thenceforward, even through the damp and dark winter in the Willamette valley, matters went hard enough, culminating in the death of the youngest child.

     He spent the first winter in our state in Washington county, finding a smoke-house as the only shelter. In 1846 he moved up into Benton county, placing his cabin south of all the settlers then on the west side. Here he met with little opposition or trouble from the Calapooia Indians. They were occasionally saucy, and at one time had a "law" that all settlers must give them toll, or rental, in the shape of beef, for occupying their land. Lewis refused to accede to their demand; and upon their arrival in force at his farm, with threats to shoot him through the cracks of his cabin, he stood them off with his shotgun, and satisfied them with the gift of a little flour for a sick child in their tribe. For the offense of besieging his house, he with other settlers went to the Indian camp and flogged the chief and interpreter. Lewis also once found an old French Chippewa half-breed carrying the hide of one of his heifers, but, restraining his first impulse to shoot the supposed thief, found upon investigation that this hide had come into the half-breed's possession by a white man's killing the heifer, taking a quarter, and giving the rest to the Indians. In such way did he learn that many of the thefts or knavish deeds of the savages might be traced to white men.

     Going to the mines of California in1849, he was soon turned back by the rumor that the Cayuse Indians had broken out, and had crossed the cascade Mountains to massacre the families in the Willamette valley. In hot haste he made his way with a number of other married men to his home, exhausting provisions, cutting up tents and wagon covers for clothes, and marching even bare-headed from the loss or destruction of hats. He found the valley serene; but his provisions and means were exhausted; and he went down to Oregon City, obtaining employment in making desks for the primitive state house. Returning home with five hundred dollars, he build and loaded with a cargo of flour a flatboat, and took it down the Willamette river, disposing of her to good advantage at Oregon City. In 1851 he sold cattle to the amount of four thousand dollars, single animals bringing as much as one hundred and ten dollars apiece. In1853 he took a pack-load of wheat to the Rogue river valley, selling it for seed at twelve dollars per bushel. In1855, in a similar expedition to Southern Oregon, he fell into the Indian war, and escaped only with his life.

     In the more tranquil years succeeding, he devoted himself to farming, stock-raising and dealing in lands and cattle or horses, and was usually successful in his ventures.

     Mr. Lewis was a member of the state constitutional convention, and served in the legislature from 1857 to 1860. He was a Democrat in politics; and in 1861, when the war broke out, he made no secret of his sympathy with the South. In 1869 he drove a band of cattle and horses to California, and spent about a year there, but after his return to Oregon remained upon his old place, which he had settled upon in 1846; and it was there that, at a ripe old age, he died April 17, 1889. He left his aged wife, whom he had married as  a girl of sixteen in 1839, and who had borne him six sons and seven daughters, six of whom, three sons and three daughters, are living. He left an estate worth about forty-five thousand dollars.

     The spirit of adventure manifested throughout the entire life of this rugged old pioneer was a prevailing characteristic of the man who broke the trail and led the van of civilization to the sunset sea. He was a type of the class of men who, by their unconquerable perseverance and unwearied exertions. He was far more than an ordinary man. Born to poverty and obscurity, unassisted, unheralded, and relying solely upon his own ability and personal effort, he bore himself bravely through the strife, and up the thorny pathway of earlier life. Although his early education was limited, he had read much; and his travels and contact with men gave him a fund of general information possessed by few; and, when a convention was called to frame a constitution for his adopted state, he was elected to assist in laying the foundations of the prosperity of the state he had helped to establish. He was a man of pronounced convictions, and outspoken on all subjects, brave, generous and hospitable, a good neighbor and a true friend.

     SAMUEL I. LISLE. - Mr. Lisle belongs to the earlier comers to our state. He was born in Ohio in 1843, and after a few years in Iowa made the journey with his parents to Oregon. The father, John G. Lisle, made his home on Sauvie's Island; and Samuel was there raised on the farm, and enjoyed opportunities for education and business at Portland. In 1865 he turned his attention to mining, making various stoppages at Granite and Olive creeks and on the north fork of the John Day. In 1868 he closed out those interests and located a claim near the present site of Echo, Oregon, investing in cattle. As his means increased, he purchased large tracts of valley land, and has them under high cultivation. He retains his cattle, following the policy of letting them out on shares to rangers. A band of thirty full-blooded Holsteins, however, imported by himself, he keeps at home.

     Mr. Lisle's Indian experiences include the barricade or "fort up" on Sauvie's Island in 1856, while his father was absent purchasing supplies for the volunteers. His father is now living with him in hale age. The first Mrs. Lisle died in 1884, leaving three children. His present wife, Nancy E., daughter of Reuben Stansbery, is a native of Iowa, and a lady of education and marked social qualities.

     DAVID LISTER. - David Lister of Tacoma, Washington, belongs to that class of men who have done so much for the material prosperity of our country by being the first to go into new places and build up new industries.

     He was born in England in 1821, and came to New York in 1847. He worked for steamboat companies in that city until 1854, when he went to



                                                                                                        BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                429

Philadelphia and connected himself with the Delaware Canal Company, where he remained ten years. He then went to Pestico, Wisconsin, a town located among the pineries on Green Bay. In that place he established a foundry and machine shop, and conducted it successfully until October 8, 1871, when his establishment was burned in the great fire that traversed the whole township, destroying every house, and causing the death of more than eight hundred people. This fire left Mr. Lister penniless; but, with the help of William B. Ogden of Chicago, he started in business again in the same place, and continued there until 1874.

     The winter of that year was so cold that he determined to seek a milder climate, and came direct to Tacoma, locating there in 1875. At that time it was a place of about thirty inhabitants, but Mr. Lister was confident, from its superb location and natural advantages, that it was destined to become a great city, and in 1876 built a foundry and commenced business. In 1881 he began to turn large jobs for the Northern Pacific Railroad Company; and from that time his business has increased very rapidly. In 1882, at Wilkinson, seven miles from Tacoma, he successfully inaugurated coke-making in Washington Territory, of which articles he uses in great quantity. He thinks this coke superior to that made in any other country.

     Mr. Lister does all the repairing of steamers running to and from Tacoma; and his business has assumed such magnitude that he has been compelled to erect large repair and machine shops on the docks. Although sixty-five years of age, he retains the entire control of his business, and attends to all its details.

     The conception of coke-making, and the successful carrying out of that idea, with coal essentially different in character and composition from the coal of Europe and the Eastern states, is enough to entitle Mr. Lister to distinction. Upon the plentiful and inexpensive supply of this article the industrial future of the Pacific coast quite largely depends; and the discovery of the process of making it from tertiary coal is a great invention, and the inventor has become thereby a benefactor of the entire slope.

     LOT LIVERMORE. - Mr. Livermore is one of the best-known residents of Eastern Oregon, and, as a business man, from the earliest times has been highly instrumental in developing the country.

     He was born in Marietta, Ohio, in 1835, but the year following came with his parents to Illinois, and in 1851 crossed the plains to Oregon, finding a home in Polk county. Some of the experiences on the plains were exciting, such as a fight of an hour and a half with the Snake Indians on the Snake River. It was the Harpole company with which they came.

     In 1866 Mr. Livermore came to Umatilla Landing, and for three years operated in general merchandise in the firm of Bushee Livermore & Co. In 1869 he removed to Pendleton, Oregon, engaging in merchandising under his own name until 1878, when he accepted the office of postmaster, and also became Wells, Fargo & Co's agent and stage dispatcher. In 1886 he entered into the general merchandise business with Mr. Morehouse, but has now made arrangements to retire from active operations.

     The high esteem in which he is held by the people of Umatilla county and of Pendleton is indicated by his political career. He is a Republican; and, as the community has usually been Democratic, this fact was much against him. Nevertheless, he was elected county treasurer by a majority of one hundred and fifty-nine, turning by so much the ordinary Democratic majority of two hundred and fifty. He was elected the first mayor of Pendleton, and was re-elected, running both times against very popular men, and in the latter case turning a usual Democratic majority of fifty to a majority of nineteen for himself, and his opponent was a man who had, in a previous election, received as candidate for councilman every vote in the city except one.

     Mr. Livermore was married at Umatilla in 1869, and has two children, Bushee and Della. He was married secondly at Pendleton to Mrs. Ellen Switzler, a pioneer of this country, and who was born at Vancouver in 1852. They have one child, Lotta.

     Since he first arrived in the Inland Empire, its advance has been so marked as to impress Mr. Livermore profoundly with its inevitably great future; and to this consummation he looks with a personal interest, as to a certain extent embodying his own hopes and the product of his own labors.

     EDWARD LONG. - Edward Long was born June 3, 1817, in Columbus, Franklin county, Ohio. His ancestors were Puritans, and emigrated from Londonderry (now Derry), New Hampshire, in 1721. The emigrants who settled that town were Presbyterians of the John Knox school, and are called Scotch-Irish, being descendants of a colony which migrated from Argyleshire, Scotland, and settled in the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland about the year 1612.

     Soon after the evacuation of Nova Scotia by the French, about the year 1763, a  large number of families, among whom were the grandparents of Edward Long, moved from New Hampshire to Truro, a small town at the head of the bay of Fundy in the province of Nova Scotia. His father, Matthew Long, and mother Margaret Taylor Long, emigrated from Nova Scotia in the year 1800 to Chillicothe, Ohio, where they remained until 1809, when they removed to Columbus, Franklin county, Ohio, where Matthew Long followed the trade of carpentering until 1822, when he died , leaving a wife and four young sons to mourn his loss. The second son, Edward, the subject of this sketch, was but five years old at his father's death; and his mother not being able to support all four of her sons, he was adopted by his uncle David Taylor, and lived with him until he was twenty years of age, being occupied most of the time driving stock to the Eastern market. He then moved to Iowa, then a frontier Western territory, where he remained farming and stock-raising until the spring of 1847.

     On the 19th day of January, 1846, he was married to Martha J. Wills, and on the 4th day of April, 1847, started for Oregon. The company, consisting of about one hundred persons, was made up at Oskaloosa, Iowa, and was called the Oskaloosa company.



430                                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     After being on the road a couple of months, they overtook another company bound for Oregon, who had lost twenty yoke of their cattle, and consequently could not proceed without help. Feeling that they could not leave them at the mercy of the Indians, and with a limited supply of provisions, the Oskaloosa company divided their teams with them, thus adding to the already many hindrances of a quick trip. They were delayed several days on the Platte river by their teams stampeding, breaking up several wagons and killing one child. The only trouble had with the Indians by the Oskaloosa company were their persistent efforts to steal horses; but, being well organized and guarded, their loss thereby was very small. They arrived at The Dalles the following October, where the company disbanded, some wintering there, others crossing the Cascade Mountains by way of the Indian trail; and a few, among whom were Edward Long and family, made a raft of logs which carried them down the Columbia to the Cascades, and from there made their way in a large rowboat (bateau) belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company and run by Indians to Fort Vancouver, arriving there late in October, 1847.

     Procuring a small house near the present site of East Portland, he moved into it and spent his first winter in Oregon cutting hoop poles for the Hudson's Bay Company.

     In the spring of 1848 he formed a partnership with George and Jacob wills, and built a small sawmill on the present site of the furniture factory at Willsburg. They experienced no difficulty in disposing of all the lumber they could make for one hundred dollars per thousand at the mill, most of which was sent by schooner to the San Francisco market.

     In 1849 he bought of Seth Catlin the claim right to what is now known as the Edward Long Donation land claim, lying south of and adjoining the city of East Portland. That being the principal thoroughfare connecting Portland and the Willamette valley, many a weary traveler found food and shelter under his hospitable roof; and never was application made in vain, however poor the applicant. Most of his time while on the farm was occupied in raising fruit, he being for many years one of the most extensive growers in the state.

     On the 21st day of November, 1855, his wife, Martha J. Long, departed this life, leaving the husband and four young daughters, Sarah J., Mary E., Margaret E. and Adelma M., without the care of a kind and affectionate wife and mother. The following year he was united in marriage to Avis M. Creswell; and to them were born two sons, Henry and Edward E., and one daughter, Avis E. On the 24th of April, 1863, the family was again bereaved of a loving wife and mother. After a time he was joined in wedlock to Nancy L. Chase.

     For over fifty years he had been more or less afflicted with rheumatism, and several times during that period was confined to his bed for months with that painful disease, which in a great measure broke down his strong constitution. Early in December, 1888, he began failing rapidly, and it soon became evident that the end was near. The best medical aid furnished but little relief. His trouble proved to be valvular disease of the heart; and, after lingering until the 20th of February, 1889, he passed peacefully across the dark river to join those who had gone before.

     A devoted wife, who had been his constant companion for twenty-five years, four daughters and one son survive him. They are Mrs. S.J. Rinehart, of Shedds, Linn county, Oregon; Mrs. M.E. Croft and Mrs. A.M. Elkins, of Portland; Mrs. M.E. Frazier and E.E. Long, of East Portland.

     Edward Long was a man endowed by nature with a strong and vigorous intellect, combined with energy and a love of justice and right, and was as close a practitioner of the Golden Rule, as can be found in this day and age of the world. Having spent his whole life on the frontier, his education was necessarily limited; but he was, nevertheless, well read and posted on all the current issues of the day. He always took great interest in public schools and was director twelve successive years in District No. 2, Multnomah county. He delighted in working for temperance, and was a thorough prohibitionist. He lived an exemplary christian life, for many years having been a member of the First Baptist church of East Portland. Highly respected and honored by all who knew him, dearly loved by his family, and leaving a name long to be remembered, he passed peacefully from a life of success and usefulness to his reward of "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."

     JACOB LONG. - This venerable pioneer, the first to settle in the north end of Indian valley, and whose seventy-four years have but little bent his frame, was born in 1815 in Pennsylvania. At the age of nine he became a pioneer of the West, moving with his parents to Ohio. At the age of seventeen he took his flint-lock rifle and made a tour of the woods and prairies of the old West, visiting the French and Indian trading-post of Chicago, and spending a winter on the Elkhart river in Indiana, with Schomack, the chief of the Pottawottamies.

     Returning home he learned the trade of a blacksmith, and in 1840 went West, spending five years hunting and trapping in Indiana. Marrying, and entering a tract of land, he cleared and improved a farm, until in 1854 he made a removal to Iowa. In that state he made two farms, also working at his trade.

     Ten years later he took the final jump, coming to Oregon in 1864. He lived successively in Multnomah and Polk counties, but in 1871 sought once more a home in the wilds, where the indigenous animals were still living in abundance. This was Indian valley; and he was the first settler in the northern part. He has indefatigably hunted the elk, deer, bear, cougar and wolf; and his catch of wolverines, lynxes, wild cats, catamounts, beavers,


Page 431- 450

Back to Volume II Index