History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 431 - 450

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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otters, fishers, martins, minks and coyotes has furnished pelts, the sales of which have kept his family in comfort. He has many stories to tell of sharp encounters with such fierce animals as the cougars, and is one of those very interesting characters of our borders. The valley around him has settled and is thriving since his first advent, and his own family of nine children are among the prosperous.

     L.A. LOOMIS. - This is the man who, perhaps more than any other, has opened up Pacific county to the business and pleasures of the interior. The southwest corner of Washington is by no means the least of her Western counties. It does not border upon the Sound; but three deep bays - Baker's, Shoalwater and Gray's Harbor - all give it inlets from the sea; and the peninsula extending twenty-one miles from Cape Hancock to the entrance of Shoalwater Bay, whose sea border is known s North Beach, will always be a popular seaside resort. The proximity of Shoalwater Bay on the eastern side, whose warm, quiet waters invite boating and bathing, and whose flats are deep with oysters and the delicious exotic clam, will always be attractive to those making a summer trip to the coast.

     Mr. Loomis was among the first, if not the very first, to conceive of the best way to make this delightful region accessible to the people of Portland and of the interior. His efforts in this line have moved with great precision; and the success of each movement has opened the way to the next. In 1873 he put a stage line on the route from Ilwaco to Oysterville. In 1874 he organized the Ilwaco Steam Navigation Company, which in 1875, built the staunch little steamer General Canby to connect with Ilwaco and Astoria. This company has since put upon this route the swift and commodious steamers General Miles and Dolphin. In 1881 Mr. Loomis organized the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company, which built the Montesano, the first steamer of importance put on Gray's Harbor. They have built since this the Garfield and the GovernorNewell.

     This company, however, dissolved in     1886, and sold off their steamers. From Astoria to the head of Gray's harbor was now a steam route with the exception of the stage from Ilwaco to Oysterville. From five to ten thousand visitors were coming to the beach every summer; and the whole circuit had quite a respectable permanent traffic. The next step was to supply this "missing link" with steam. The Ilwaco Steam navigation Company therefore enlarged its powers, becoming the Ilwaco Railway & Navigation Company. A stretch of sixteen miles of rails north of Ilwaco was projected; and in 1888 five miles were completed. The rest is now also in running order.  Mr. Loomis has been the leading spirit in this enterprise.

     As might be expected, he is an old Oregonian. He first came to this coast in 1852 and mined on Bear river. Three years later he came to the place which has been successively called Pacific City, Unity and now Ilwaco, meeting a brother who had been living there five years. News of the rich mines on Lake Pend d'Oreille penetrated to that city and carried off nearly all the leading citizens, i.e., the two Loomises and a man named Caruthers. This move led them into a world of adventures. Putting themselves and their goods into that style of boat known in that part as a dinghy, they took the pathway of the waters up the Columbia, camping by night on the shore. Ten days of hard rowing brought them to The Dalles; and there buying ponies they pushed on across the great plains as far as Spokane Falls. Here word came to them simultaneously that the mines were a failure, and that the Indians were beginning a promiscuous killing of settlers and travelers.

     This turned them about; and their trip back to the Des Chutes was amid sullen savages, whose only reason for not massacring them seemed to be the fact that they were unarmed, and had plenty of Indian trinkets which they offered for sale. The soldiers guarding the fords of the river informed them upon their arrival that they had been lucky to get through safe. At The Dalles they joined the mounted volunteers, just then organizing, and served through the war, participating in the battle at Walla Walla, which lasted four days, and being present at the capture and death of Peu-peu-mox-mox or Yellow Bird of the Walla Wallas.

     After the war closed, Mr. Loomis was employed by the quartermaster in work on Fort Dalles and Fort Simcoe. In 1857 the death of his father in New York laid upon him the filial obligation of returning East, and caring for his mother. In 1864 he went South, and had charge of a construction car in building and repairing railroads for army movements. After the war he went to Michigan form his New York home. He remained in that state until 1872, engaged in business; but the spell of life on the Pacific coast had never withdrawn its influence; and in that year he returned to his home at Ilwaco, on Shoalwater Bay, Washington Territory, improving his farm and building a handsome residence, - deemed the finest place in the county, - and entered upon the enterprises which have made him influential and wealthy. He is a wide-awake man of sterling qualities, and who does not long live in a place without his presence being known.

     The wife of Mr. Loomis is a daughter of Philip Glover of Marion county, Oregon. She is a lady well calculated to be the companion of her husband in his arduous undertakings, and to make happy his domestic life.

     HON. WM. P. LORD. - Judge William P. Lord of the supreme court was born in the city of Dover in 1838. He was carefully trained for his education in the private schools of his native place until his twentieth year, when he matriculated in Fairfield College, New York. In less than three years he graduated from that college with the highest honors, being the valedictorian of his class. he at once began the study of the law in his native city; but, before he had time to complete the course of study necessary to his admission to the bar, the Civil war was upon us. The young student found that his devotion to the Union was stronger than his desire to early acquire that knowledge necessary to fit him for the discharge of those duties which his chosen profession

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would devolve upon him; and, acting on the impulse of his patriotism, he volunteered "to fight his country's battles."

     Soon after his enlistment in a battalion of Delaware cavalry, which was in the spring of 1862, he was elected captain of the company to which he was assigned, which rank he held until the great campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, whither he was sent for duty, with the rank of major. he served with gallantry and distinction to the close of the war, actively participating in many of its most important battles.

     Endowed by nature with a strong, vigorous, physical constitution, he came out of the service without any visible evidence of injury, save such as the tragic events of war are liable to leave impressed on the body of the soldier. During the period of his first enlistment he reported for duty at Baltimore as judge-advocate under command of General Lew Wallace, of literary fame. The ability and impartiality with which he discharged the duties of this high office made him the recipient of frequent expressions of favor at the hands of his superior officers.

     At the close of the war he eagerly resumed the study of law at Albany Law College. In due time he graduated form that institution with the intention of beginning the practice of his profession; but, being offered by his old army comrades a permanent lieutenancy in the regular army, he accepted, and was assigned to the Pacific slope. He first reported for duty at Alcatraz, and subsequently at Steilacoom. It was form this latter point that he was sent to Alaska, being in the command that took formal possession of that immense territory for and in the name of the United States government, the purchase thereof from Russia, having been consummated but a short time previous.

     When he had performed this duty, he carried into effect his early intention of resigning from the army and taking up the practice of law. In looking for a location, he met at Salem his old classmate and companion-in-arms, Colonel N.B. Knight. The latter gentleman being also a lawyer, the two formed a partnership for practice in the Capital city. The partnership lasted until Judge Lord's accession to the bench, and was highly successful. It was in this field that Major Lord, as he is still familiarly called by his many friends in and around the place he is pleased to call home, won the respect and esteem of the men who discovered and asserted his qualifications and fitness for places of the highest honor and responsibility. His career as a practitioner was the supreme period of his life. His gentlemanly deportment on all occasions; the natural grace and dignity with which he appeared before court and jury; the deference with which he treated his adversaries; the patience and able consideration he gave to the cause and interests of his clients, - brought him reputation, and opened to him new fields of honor and usefulness.

     In 1878 he was elected to the state senate from Marion county, as a Republican, to which political organization he has always adhered with faithfulness and consistency. He served one session as senator, and resigned on receiving the nomination of the Republican state convention for judges of the supreme court, to which office he was elected by the people in 1880. This was the first election of judges under what is known as "the act providing for the election of judges of the supreme court in distinct classes." Under the act the judges then elected cast lots for the long, intermediate and the short terms, which were for six, four and two years, respectively. The short term fell to the subject of our sketch; and he thereby became chief justice. The same year he went to Baltimore and married Miss Juliette Montague, and returned with her to their home in Salem. They have three bright and promising children. In 1882 he was nominated by his party as his own successor without opposition, and received a clear majority of the votes cast, and took his seat as the junior member of the court for the term of six years. At the expiration of Judge Waldo's term, he again became chief justice, and presided as such until his third election, which took place in June, 1888. At this, his last candidacy, he received the greatest number of votes ever cast for a candidate at a single election in Oregon.

     Personally, Judge Lord sustains a deserved reputation for probity and candor. He is affable and polite to his friends and acquaintances, but never yields the character which nature and his early training gave him, for the sake of popular favor, or to gratify the wish or serve the personal interest of his dearest friend.

     A man of such decided characteristics must have indeed incurred animosities and hostilities of a personal nature; but, while his personal critics are few; they do not asperse him with motives derogatory to his usefulness in the public or private walks of life.

     As a judge, his writings are his best recommendation, and will serve to portray the character, and the legal and literary acumen of the man who, by his untiring efforts, has placed himself high in the estimation of his fellows, and associated his name with the permanent history of our young and growing commonwealth. As a law writer, Judge Lord is seldom equaled. He is terse and pointed in his diction, always stating the substance of the facts before him, to serve as a thesis for his argument. The reader thus comprehends at a glance the appreciation of each and every sentence used by him bearing on the subject under discussion. The grammatical construction of his sentences, and the orthographical arrangement of his words, prove his scholarly attainments.

     The value of his opinions to the profession of which he is a pillar and an ornament is known from the fact that his accession to the bench of this state marked a new era in its jurisprudence, and also in the repute in which the decisions of our courts are held in the older states of the union. His logical analysis of the subjects, and clear application of the principles of the law to the cases he has decided, make his opinions very frequently selected form among those of the leading judges of the country, by competent critics who have made those selections for publication, as the select and leading cases in our American jurisprudence.

     The incumbency of his present term will expire July, 1894.

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     A. LAWRENCE LOVEJOY. - The subject of this memoir was born in Groton, Massachusetts, March 14, 1808, and was the third son of Doctor Samuel and Betsey Lawrence Lovejoy, descendants of good English families. His mother, Betsey Lawrence Lovejoy, was a cousin and adopted sister of Amos and Abbot Lawrence of Boston. When quite young he moved with his parents to Townson, Massachusetts, where he was a pupil of the Reverend David Palmer until the age of sixteen, when the death of his mother made it necessary for him to reside with an elder brother in Boston, where he engaged in the mercantile business for a short time. Subsequently he gave up the business and entered as a student at Cambridge College; but, finishing his course at Amherst, he read law with Judge Seth May, of Maine, and was admitted to the bar in that state.

     Being imbued with the spirit of migration he started west, came to Missouri and opened a law office in the town of Sparta. In the spring of 1842 he joined Doctor Elijah White and a party of one hundred and twenty-five emigrants to cross the then unexplored region of the vast plains and Rocky Mountains to Oregon. This journey was attended with much hardship and danger. While engaged in carving his name on the face of Independence Rock, he and L.W. Hastings were captured by a large body of Sioux Indians, but were ransomed by Doctor White and party for a few trinkets and tobacco.

     While traveling across the plains with Doctor Elijah White, who had spent three years in Oregon connected with the Methodist mission, and listening to his glowing description of the wonderful country beyond the Rocky Mountains, with its large rivers and magnificent forests and beautiful and fertile valleys, Mr. Lovejoy had become very much interested in the future settlement of the country on the Pacific coast; and he was anxious to see it settled and held by Americans.  When he arrived at Waiilatpu he met Doctor Whitman, who was anxious to go East, as he had received notice that the Board of Missions at Boston had decided to discontinue the mission at Waiilatpu. The Doctor was very unhappy at the prospect of losing his mission, and often talked with Mr. Lovejoy in regard to the feasibility of a trip across the mountains in the winter. Mr. Lovejoy thought with a good guide it could be accomplished; and in a few days he and the Doctor had arranged to undertake the journey, with the understanding that Dr. Whitman, who had letters of credit, would buy fresh animals if needed, and that they would travel together until they reached the frontier settlements. Accordingly, on the third of October, 1842, they started from Waiilatpu, and had traveled but a few miles when they were met by a large band of Cayuse Indians, who were very hostile and refused to let Doctor Whitman leave the country before he had fulfilled the agreement and promise he had given them to build a gristmill to grind their wheat and corn. After considerable delay and a great deal of parley, and after the Doctor had promised to build the gristmill when he returned, the Indians consented to let him proceed on his journey. They started again, and entered boldly upon a trip they knew would be attended with many hardships and much suffering.

     Doctor Whitman was anxious, with earnest christian desire, to reach Boston and try and save his mission. Mr. Lovejoy, with patriotic zeal and love of country, desired to visit the Western states and induce a large emigration of Americans to Oregon the following spring, to settle and hold the country west of the Rocky Mountains and defeat the British scheme to colonize it with emigration from Red River.

     When they arrived at Fort Hall they changed from a direct route to a more southern one, via Salt Lake, Taos and Santa Fé. After many narrow escapes form hostile Indians, sleepless nights and dinnerless days, living on mule and dog meat or any animal that came in their way, they arrived at Bent's fort, on the headwaters of the Arkansas river, with their animals, all of which were worn out, with the exception of one mule. Doctor Whitman declined to use his letter of credit to buy any fresh animals, but took the mule that was able to travel and continued his journey via St. Louis with a party of mountain men.

     Mr. Lovejoy's horse being worn out and completely exhausted, he, with great reluctance, was compelled to give up his scheme to visit the Western states, and remained at Bent's fort until spring. He then went with a party of trappers to Fort Laramie, where he learned that a large party of emigrants were on their way to Oregon. He wished to join and return with them; and, to procure means to enable him to do so, he accepted a proposition from Father DeSmet, and engaged to dispatch of letters and money for the Catholic missionaries situated among the Flat Head, Coeur d'Alene and Pend d'Oreille Indians. He was provided with a good horse, some provisions and a trusty old Indian named Enos for a guide. He had instructions from Father De Smet to go to a certain camp in the Yellowstone country known to old Enos his guide. If none of the Mission people were there to meet him, he was to remain at the camp three days; and then, if none of the Mission people came, he was to deposit the dispatch under a certain large stone.

     Arriving there, he waited three days, and, no one coming, made the deposit under the stone as directed and replaced the sod, leaving signs so that the Mission people would know that he had been there. This trip was a hazardous undertaking, as he had to pass through a hostile Indian country. To elude the Indians he traveled by night and kept quiet during the daytime in some recess or niche in the forest or hills, where he and his guide rested, one watching while the other slept.

     He had accomplished his mission and started to return to Fort Laramie when he was intercepted and taken prisoner by a war party of Snake and Blackfeet Indians that was traveling south. They kept him nine days, during which time they had little to eat; but on the ninth day the Indians killed a young buffalo, and that night had a great feast and war dance. The next morning, when Mr. Lovejoy awoke, he and old Enos were alone, his captors having all left in the night. He was free; but his guide said that they had traveled so far south that he

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could not return to Fort Laramie, but thought he could guide him to the Green river. They traveled as rapidly as possible, and succeeded in reaching Fort Boise in time to join the emigration for Oregon. He arrived in Oregon City in November, 1843, opened a law office and commenced the practice of law, and from the first had a lucrative business.

     In 1844 he was elected a member of the legislature, and was re-elected in 1846, serving as speaker of the house. In 1844 he became attorney-general for Oregon. In 1845 he was elected mayor of Oregon City. In the summer of 1845, with F.W. Pettygrove, he laid out the city of Portland. In 1845 he was nominated by the People's party for governor of the territory. In 1848 he was appointed chief justice of the courts.

     When the news of the massacre at Waiilatpu was received in the Willamette valley, the settlers rose en massé to chastise the Indians; but they had neither arms nor ammunition. the legislature appointed Jesse Applegate, A.L. Lovejoy and G.L. Curry as a committee to negotiate a loan for the purpose of securing munitions of war, etc. They went to Vancouver and sought to procure the funds form the Hudson's Bay Company. On applying to Sir James Douglas, the chief factor of that company, they were refused, as the security offered was deemed insufficient. Mr. Douglas, however, loaned Messrs. Lovejoy, Applegate and Governor Abernethy a thousand dollars on their joint note; and soon a company of men were equipped and on the way to the scene of the massacre. Mr. Lovejoy was appointed adjutant-general, and did good service in the war.

     In August, 1848, at Oregon city, he, with Colonel Jennings, Peter G. Stewart, Captain Orrin Kellogg and a few others, met and organized the first Masonic lodge ever established on the Pacific coast. In the summer of 1848, Oregon, as was the rest of the world, was startled with the news that California was one solid gold mine. With a large party of Oregonians, Lovejoy started for the great El Dorado, and was absent from his home about four months. In 1849, when the United States extended her laws over Oregon and organized a territorial government, he was elected to the legislature, and served from time to time in the house of representatives. In 1852 he was a member of the constitutional convention. In 1858 he was a member of the constitutional convention. In 1859 he was appointed special mail agent for Oregon; and in 1860 he was appointed receiver of the land-office and depository of public money at Oregon City.

     In 1862-63 A.L. Lovejoy, D.P. Thompson and William and John Dement organized a company and built a line of steamboats to run on the Willamette river, and a rail tramway around the falls at Oregon City.

     In 1867 he built a house and made his home in Portland, where he took an active interest in the public schools, serving as director for years, and using his influence to establish the High School. In 1871 he was among the first to enter into the project of building a railroad from Oregon to California.

     He spent his summers at his farm near Oregon City, where he took great pleasure in setting out and cultivating an orchard of choice fruit-trees. He was a life-long Democrat, but from the firing on Fort Sumpter was a firm friend of the Union. He was a supporter of religious institutions, and favorable to all efforts to promote morality. He was a firm believer in Oregon, and an enthusiastic admirer of her beautiful landscape and mountain grandeur. Few if any of the pioneers have done more to entitle them to celebrity that General A.L. Lovejoy. His name and acts deserve to be indelibly stamped upon the pages of Oregon history.

     He was married on the 4th of March, 1845, to Miss Elizabeth McGary, a young lady possessed of many personal attractions, refined manners and accomplishments. She was the daughter of James and Martha McGary of Madisonville, Kentucky, and came to Oregon with her mother and brother with the emigration of 1843. Her ancestry was Scotch and English. In subsequent years she was much admired for her energy and kind hospitality. For the interest and prosperity of Oregon, she was a co-worker with her husband.

     General A.L. Lovejoy was a true type of a New England gentleman. With a kind and generous heart and liberal hand, he dispensed charity and hospitality, furnished his home and family with all the comforts and luxury that could be obtained in Oregon, and gave freely of his means to establish and maintain religion, the ministers and bishops of the various denominations being received and kindly entertained at his home.

     He died in Portland, on the 11th of September, 1882, leaving his wife, two sons, two daughters and one grandson. He was buried in the Masonic cemetery at East Portland.

     DANIEL H. LOWNSDALE. - Mr. Lownsdale, the son of one of  the earliest settlers of Kentucky, was born in Mason county, of that state, April 8, 1803. As was the custom in those days, he was married quite young - at the age of twenty-three - to Miss Ruth, the youngest daughter of Paul Overfield, the head of one of the most prominent families of Northeastern Kentucky. In obedience to the venturesome spirit inherited form his father, who had abandoned the comforts of civilization in his youth to become one of the conquerors of Kentucky, young Lownsdale, with his young wife, immediately removed to Gibson county, Indiana, which was then almost on the frontier. There he had the misfortune to lose his wife, who died in 1830, leaving him three children, one boy and two girls. Soon after this, making suitable provision for his children, he went south, remaining for a time in Georgia, engaged in mercantile pursuits.

     His health failing, he accepted the advice of physicians, and embarked in 1842 on a voyage to Europe, remaining abroad, visiting various countries, until 1844. Returning to the United States in that year, he found the country excited over the Oregon question; and, without parleying, he joined one of those devoted bands that crossed three thousand miles of hostile Indian country to settle our title by actual occupation. He arrived on the present site of Port-

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land late in 1845, and appears to have realized the importance of the position, since he took a claim (now the Amos N. King claim) adjoining that of Lovejoy and Pettygrove, and soon thereafter formed the desire to acquire the river front.

     The opportunity offered in 1848, when Mr. Lownsdale purchased the site of Portland from F.W. Pettygrove, for what must then have been considered an extravagant price, - five thousand dollars. This enterprise, now having energy and foresight to steer it, began that advance which will never cease until some revolutionary invention shall change our methods of transportation, or man shall lose his gregarious disposition. With foresight that has been proved by events, he staked his fortune on the issue that Portland was destined to become, what she now is, the metropolis of a great commonwealth. Resting in this faith, he looked constantly towards the main point; and to his energy Portland largely owes the victory she gained over numerous rivals, that seemed to have heavier backing and better chances.

     In the spring of 1849, Mr. Lownsdale, feeling the need of assistance in his enterprise, disposed of a half interest in the Portland claim to Mr. Stephen Coffin, then a resident of Oregon City; and, in December of that year, the two disposed of an interest to Colonel W.W. Chapman. Being a man of great energy and nerve, he was not dismayed by obstacles, but kept his ends steadily in view, and surmounted them. As a reward for his faith, he lived to see Portland's supremacy acknowledged by all, and to see Oregon on the road to that degree of prosperity that he had predicted for her.

     In 1850 he was married to Mrs. Nancy Gillihan, widow of William Gillihan. By this second marriage he had two children, one boy, M.O. Lownsdale, and one girl, now Mrs. Ruth A. Hoyt, a resident of Columbia county. Of the children of his first wife only one, J.P.O. Lownsdale, of Portland, now survives.

     Mr. Lownsdale occupied several public positions, having been United States postal agent during the administration of Fillmore, and having represented his county in the legislature. He was always known as a public-spirited citizen, ever ready to forward any enterprise that promised good to the city or state, and always ready to lend a helping hand to those in distress, as many early immigrants who arrived in destitute circumstances can testify. In the Indian wars of 1847 and of 1855-56 he bore his part, serving in the latter with the regiment of Colonel Cornelius in the capacity of regimental quartermaster, and performing his very difficult duties to the satisfaction of his superior.

     He died May 4, 1862, and was buried in Lone Fir Cemetery, near Portland, a neat monument marking his last resting-place.

     J.P.O. LOWNSDALE. - There are few business men more favorably known in the metropolis of the Pacific Northwest than the gentleman of whom we write. His operations in real estate have ever been of the most reliable character; and the services that he has rendered the city in calling attention to her advantages have been very great. In his personal character he has maintained not only an integrity worthy of the highest commendation, but worthy of the imitation of young men.

     He was born at Princeton, Gibson county, Indiana, January 1, 1830, and is the son of D.H. Lownsdale, the early owner of the central part of Portland, Oregon. At the age of sixteen he operated with his uncle in a dry-goods store in his native place, and at the age of twenty-one (1851) came at the request of his father via the Isthumus to Portland. He was here engaged in merchandising until, in 1853, he embraced the opportunity to return East via the plains route, on horseback, with Captain Hiram Smith. It required four months to make the journey. On his return, he entered into partnership with his uncle in Indiana, the business proving very successful to all parties concerned. He was married in 1854 to Miss Sarah R. Milburn, and during his residence at his old home was honored with various public trusts and offices in the town and county.

     In the spring of 1862, however, learning of the failure of his father's health, and desiring to see him again, he undertook once more the journey to our state by the Isthumus route; but, reaching San Francisco, the news was received that the father had died at about the time the journey was begun. The duties of administrator now devolved upon Mr. Lownsdale, and made necessary a protracted stay at Portland. But in due course of administration, notwithstanding many complications, settlements were made to the full satisfaction of all interested. In the meantime Mr. Lownsdale had become a citizen of Portland, and in 1863 was elected to fill a vacancy in the city council. He was afterwards elected to a three-year term, and at the close of this was but narrowly defeated by Thos. J. Holmes for mayor. The city was  then Democratic, while Mr. Lownsdale ran on the Republican ticket. This election will be memorable for the sudden and startling death of Mr. Holmes the day succeeding the election, - a demise due to the excitements of the campaign. Mr. Lownsdale was appointed upon the board of county commissioners to fill the position left vacant by the election to the Untied States Senate of the incumbent, Hon. H.W. Corbett; and he held the office a second term by election, declining further preferment.

     He continues his real-estate business with unabated interest and success. His family consists of his wife and four grown children. The eldest, a daughter, is the wife of Mr. E.M. hall, who is operating extensively upon claims in the Coeur d'Alene mines. The two elder sons are in successful business of their own.

     In Mr. Lownsdale we find exemplified that sturdy devotion to business and progress which have not only realized all that the state is at present, but which contains the promise of a flourishing future.

     JAY P. LUCAS. - This enterprising gentleman, whose early grip on public affairs augurs well for still greater things in the future, in a "native son," having been born in June, 1856, at Monmouth, Oregon the son of the well-known and able A.W. Lucas. He grew up on a farm, developing his fine

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 physique, and receiving his education at the Christian College in his native town, graduating in1880. He remained with his parents, having a partial business interest with his father, until 8n 1882 he undertook operations for himself, securing and conducting a farm on his own account. He was also, in the same year, married to Miss Katie Frazier. The next year he closed out his interests in Western Oregon and moved to Lone Rick, then in Wasco county, now include3d in Gilliam. He established there a merchandise business, which he operated for two years.

     In 1885 he received the appointment as clerk of the new county of Gilliam, serving in that capacity until 1886, when he was elected to the same position, and in1888 was re-elected, receiving thereby a most hearty and satisfactory indorsement of the manner in which he had served the people. This office he now fills; and he has become closely identified with the interests of this section, of which he is one of the most respected citizens. He was chairman of the Republican county central committee in 1886087, and became a member of the state central committee in 1889. In June, 1889, he was elected captain of Company B, Third Regiment, O.N.G., which position he now fills.

     PROF. HORACE LYMAN, - Few among those who came as missionaries to our state have held a more honored position, or have accomplished more genuine good, than professor Lyman.

     He was a new Englander of an old family, whose first American members crossed the ocean from England to Connecticut as early as 1639.His parents were plain farmer folks living at East Hampton, Massachusetts and in that town he was born in 1815. Of his five brothers, two went to college and prepared for the ministry. As a boy and young man, he was ever thoughtful and extra-ordinarily energetic, with a taste for mercantile life; but upon attaining his majority he turned his attention to collegiate study, and upon graduation took up a course in theology. After finishing, he began preaching in Connecticut; but being sought by Rev. G.H. Atkinson, then under appointment as home missionary to Oregon, he consented to become his associate, and in 1849 made the voyage around Cape Horn. He had further prepared himself for this work by a course of medical study at Castleton, Vermont. He was married at that place to Miss Mary Denison, whose father, William Denison, was a man of large influence.

     The time of leaving New York was November, 1848; and it was not until the following April that they made port at San Francisco. The old bark Whitton, Captain Ghelston, was the trim vessel in which they came. Notwithstanding the immense excitement in California over the discovery of gold, and the report that Oregon would be depopulated by the rush of its inhabitants to the mines, Mr. Lyman come on to the Columbia the next autumn in the bark Toulon under Captain Hoyt, and after a tedious trip of six weeks reached Portland. This place was then still in its early infancy; and the first winter, very wet and dreary in the woods, was spent in a rude shanty built for a stable.  Nevertheless, educational and religious work as at once undertaken, and the Congregational church formed, - the first in the place. The next year saw enlargement; and the fourth year was celebrated by the completion of a church building. Much of the manual labor bestowed upon this structure was performed by Mr. Lyman himself, such as the burning down and up of the immense fir trees on the lot, and the superintendence of construction. In 1854, however, it was determined to seek a new place for pioneer work; and a site in Polk county saw selected near the town of Dallas; and three years were spent there upon a farm. Educational and religious work was not neglected; and a church was organized and a school taught which has since developed into La Creole Academy.

     The location, however, from the heavy sea-breezes that came through the hill gaps, was proving unfavorable to the health of his family; and upon invitation of Doctor Marsh he accepted, three years later, a position as Professor of mathematics in Pacific University at Forest Grove. This was an institution established by Reverend Harvey Clark with the essential aid of Doctor Atkinson, and the active co-operation of Reverend E. Walker, A.T. Smith, T.G. Naylor and others. S.H. marsh, who was now made president of the institution, soon left it in the hands of Professor Lyman and went East, and for two years was very successful in soliciting funds, which made the university financially independent, and enabled it to support one of the ablest faculties in the West. During this time Professor Lyman carried on the school with great acceptance, making of it one of the most popular educational institutions in the state. For twenty years thereafter he held a professorship there, filling towards the close of his work the chair of rhetoric and history. His instructions were ever clear and faithful; and he had the rare faculty of kindling the enthusiasm of his students, and stimulating their minds to their best exertions.

     During the greater part of his labor in the college, he also carried on religious work, preaching much for the church of Forest Grove and throughout the surrounding neighborhoods. For a year he was deputy collector at Astoria, where he also was earnest in church enterprises.

     Professor Lyman was essentially a man of culture, of fine feeling, of unselfish aims and great energy. His fidelity to his chosen work was remarkable; and he deliberately let the best of opportunities for acquiring a fortune slip by because he would not withdraw from his proper field the time necessary to attend to them. The memory of his just and generous deeds, however, counts far more than many fortunes. He passed to the other world in February, 1887. His wife preceded him by some twelve years. Their four children, Miss Sarah I., E.D., H.S. and Mrs. Mary F. McCoy, are now in the active affairs of the Northwest.

     J.C. MacCRIMMON. - The rugged character of the Scotchmen has impressed itself everywhere upon our country. In the gentleman named above we find a native of the famous Isle of Skye, where he was born in 1848. He lived upon his native

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health, or cliff, only until 1851, and as a child was educated at Glasgow.  There he remained, going to school until he was a lad of thirteen, and at that tender age went to seek his fortune on the shores of California, coming via Rio de Janeiro. The tediousness of the trip to San Francisco was relieved by a visit to the Island of Juan Fernandez. After reaching his destination on the Pacific, and remaining three years at the Golden city, he moved on to Victoria, finding employment as messenger for Wells, Fargo & Co., between Esquimalt and the city.

     As he attained his eighteenth year, he began the true romance of Western life by going to the mines. He struck out for Caribou, prospecting on Cunningham creek all one summer, but drifted down again, reaching as low a latitude as Portland during the following spring. There he remained for a time, engaging with H.C. Strong in the grocery business until 1869; but the attraction of mining again drove him north taking him to Cassiar, on the Arctic slope. In those high latitudes, where a man can work twenty hours by daylight, he spent his summers, returning for his winters to Victoria, like a bird of passage, until 1880, when he came to the Cascades and joined the railroad force under J.H. Hallett. After finishing his share of railroad building on the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company's division of the Cascades, he took contracts on the Northern Pacific, being called in 1883 to the difficult and responsible work of superintending the grading of the Cascade division on that road.

     In 1884, feeling the desire to have a fixed home and social interests, he stopped at Yakima, Washington Territory, entering the general merchandise business, and in 1885 was appointed postmaster. In that year he also joined in the general removal to North Yakima, and was married to Miss Tillie F. Klippel of Portland, a noble woman, of whose companionship Mr. MacCrimmon was deprived by her death in 1886. In the same year he engaged in the crockery, glassware and grocery business, having for his partner the efficient merchant, Matt Bartholet. In February, 1888, he sold his interest in that firm, and turned his attention to the real-estate and fruit business, in both of which he is eminently successful, having a farm of eighty acres three miles west of North Yakima, forty-five of which are in fruit. His present wife was Miss Martha Wadham of Wisconsin, a lady of education and elevated character.

     Mr. MacCrimmon is one of the sterling men of Yakima; and his business covers a wide territory.

     PIERCE A. MAHAFFEY. - To all those traveling in the older times across the rugged Blue Mountain range, the Blue Mountain House is a well-remembered spot. Its ample dimensions, its bountiful far, its genial good cheer, and its generosity and hospitality, made it a welcome relief from the toil of the road. The untimely death of this well-known gentleman has now cast its shadow over the place.

     Mr. Mahaffey was born in Park county, Indiana, January 25, 1841, and was educated in Iowa, whither he removed in 1850, where he was engaged in farming until 1862. In that year he crossed the plains to Oregon and went to Salem, where he remained for five years thereafter. The business of freighting drew him past La Grande, Oregon; and in 1867 he removed thither, locating his family, which then consisted of his mother and sister, now Mrs. L.O. Sterns of Baker City, Oregon. After two years in the drug business, and also a time spent in the brokerage business, be bought the Blue Mountain House and conducted it successfully until his death, February 14, 1888, nine years later.

     He was married in 1875 to Miss Lou McWaters, daughter of William McWaters, a planter of distinction in Southern Kentucky. His children are Maggie D. and Ernest P.

     Mr. Mahaffey was a very active man in a public capacity, ever at the front in all improvements, and was constantly sought for public positions. He was a justice of the peace eight or nine years, and was a councilman of the city, taking an active part in all matters relating to the welfare of the town. He invested largely in farming land, and at the time of his death, in the forty-eighth year of his age, owned forty-seven hundred acres. His death was universally deplored. It can be said of him, which can be said of few men of his age, that never a year passed that he did not visit his mother, for whom he always retained the most ardent affection, as well as every member of his family.

     JOSEPH MALLETT. - The proprietor of the Penobscot Hotel, in Snohomish, Washington, indicates the place of his birth in the name of his house, Penobscot county, Maine, is his native place; and the year of his birth was 1855. At the age of twenty he came to the Pacific coast with a brother, and after a short stay in California continued the journey to the Sound, locating first in Tacoma, and after a few months finding employment at Port Gamble. At Snohomish he began by logging, and increased his means by clerking for Mr. Cathcart. Returning to the logging business on an enlarged scale, he formed a partnership with S.H. Cyphers; and the practical avails of his operations have been ninety acres of land a mile from Snohomish, and a nice residence in town. In 1888 he built the hotel of which he is manager. He is married and has two promising children.

     C.M. MALLORY. - Mr. Mallory, a leading merchant of Heppner, Oregon, is recognized as also a representative man of his section. He was born October 18, 1851, in Steuben county, New York, receiving in his native district a substantial, practical education. In 1868 he acted upon an enterprising impulse, and sought the newest side of the new world, coming via the Isthmus to Oregon, and selecting first a location near Salem.

In 1870 he sought a still newer and fresher field in the Inland Empire, laying a claim near the present site of Heppner. While waiting for a city to grow up near him, he followed the life of a stock-ranger, and made himself active in public matters and in the politics of the neighborhood. Coming to Heppner, he was appointed postmaster in 1878, and in connection with attendance upon his office carried a stock of confectionery, and a length developed

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that into a drug business. In 1880 he reconverted his goods and business location into livestock, resigned his office, and assumed the life of a sheep-rancher; but in 1881 he returned to the city and entered once again upon business as a druggist. That he followed successfully until 1888. In that year he was able to sell his drug store to advantage, and to set up a flourishing business in the line of furniture, which he at present conducts to his own profit and to the advantage of the public.

     In 1882 Mr. Mallory was married to Miss Mary Davis, of Union, Oregon. They have one daughter, Maud.

     HON. RUFUS MALLORY. - Mr. Rufus Mallory, one of the most prominent members of the legal fraternity in the State of Oregon, is of New England stock, his parents having been born and raised in Connecticut. Our subject himself was born on the 10th of  June, 1831, at Coventry, Chenango county, New York, from where he moved with his parents in the fall of that year to Alleghany county, and six years later to Steuben county in the same state. In the latter place he resided until 1855, when he went to New London, Iowa, where he remained until 1858. In September of that year he started for Oregon, reaching Jacksonville on the 1st of January, 1859. From there he proceeded northward as far as Roseburg, where he remained until the fall of 1862, when he moved to Salem, having in the meantime married, June 24, 1860, Miss Lucy A. Rose, daughter of Aaron Rose, founder and proprietor of the town of Roseburg. From 1862 until December, 1887, he maintained his residence at Salem, when he moved to Portland, Oregon, and has since made that city his home.

     Having thus given a brief outline of Mr. Mallory's career, it will be most interesting to go back to his earliest days and follow his life through its devious windings up to the present time. That portion of New York to which his parents moved from Connecticut was new, rough and heavily timbered, offering but little opportunity for anything but hard work. There was but small chance for schooling; but such as there was our subject took eager advantage of, and after he was fourteen years of age attended the Alfred Academy in Alleghany county three terms in as many years, one of the terms lasting an entire year. The winter he was sixteen he taught a country school for a short time with such success that he was employed the next winter at the same place for a longer period. About 1851 he went to clerking in a small store in the little town of Andover, and there found an opportunity to gratify, in a small way, his greatest ambition.

     It had always been his desire to study law; but his parents were not able to educate him for that profession. Neither were they much inclined to do so if they had been able; for they were quite impressed with the idea that a lawyer's chance for honor was much less favorable than if he followed almost any other profession or trade. However, at the store where he was clerking, he found a copy of Blackstone's commentaries. He also found that one of the partners in the store was a learned lawyer; and under his directions, and by the aid of his instructions, he applied all his leisure moments to reading law. When he went West he followed teaching during the season schools where carried on, and worked at whatever he could find to do when not teaching, and in the meantime read law whenever opportunity offered itself.

     Upon his arrival at Roseburg, Oregon, he engaged in teaching, which avocation he followed for fifteen months. It was at Roseburg that he met Hon. S.F. Chadwick, afterwards governor of Oregon, who, learning of his desire to prosecute his law studies kindly tendered him the use of his office, and books to read. The offer was gladly accepted; and in the spring of 1860 he was duly admitted to practice in the district court. In June of that year he was elected prosecuting attorney of the first judicial district, embracing Douglas, Jackson and Josephine counties. In 1862 he was elected by the Union party to the legislature from Douglas county.

     The legislature of which he was thus a member was the one which elected Hon. B.F. Harding United States senator; and Hon. J.G. Wilson was made judge of a new judicial district which was formed of the counties east of the Cascade Mountains. Harding and Wilson were practicing law at Salem, having the leading law business there at that time. Wilson was prosecuting attorney for the third district, composed of Marion, Linn, Polk and Yamhill counties. The election of Mr. Harding to the Senate, and the appointment of Mr. Wilson as district judge, not only broke up the law firm, but made a vacancy in the office of prosecuting attorney. Messrs. Harding and Wilson thereupon offered Mr. Mallory their legal business; and Governor Gibbs offered him the office of prosecuting attorney if he would move to Salem. The two offers were accepted; and he was soon installed as the leading lawyer of the Capital city. In 1864 he was elected to the office which he had so acceptably filled by appointment, holding the position two years longer.

     In 1866 Mr. Mallory was elected, as a Republican, to represent the State of Oregon in the lower house of Congress. He served the state faithfully and well, and returned to Salem in 1869 to resume the practice of his profession. His political life had not ended, however; for in 1874 he was appointed by President Grant to the office of United States district attorney for Oregon, and was reappointed in 1878 by President Hayes. In 1882, after his second term as district attorney had expired, he was appointed special agent of the Treasury Department to go to Singapore, India, on some business connected with that department. he found when at Singapore that he was nearly half way around the earth, and so kept on traveling westward until he navigated the globe in just four months' time. His actual traveling time was seventy-eight days.

     On his return he resumed the practice of his profession in Portland, and brought his family to that city from Salem in 1887, where he is still engaged, composing one of the law firm of Dolph, Bellinger, Mallory & Simon.

     Of his political faith, Mr. Mallory says: "As long ago as I can remember anything of politics, I was a

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Whig. My first vote was for General Scott for President in 1852. Since the overthrow of the Whig party, I have acted with the Republican party."

     HON. P.A. MARQUAM. - Judge Marquam is one of our most substantial citizens, whose faith in the Pacific Northwest, and in Portland in particular, has been rewarded by a fourfold recompense. A genial gentleman, adding to his native force of will and business sagacity refined literary tastes and love of natural beauty, he is now, in his hale, ripe years, a man most delightful to meet, and whose acquaintance or friendship is a valuable possession. His further claims, which are numerous, upon the recognition of society and history, will appear as this sketch proceeds.

     His father, Philip W. Marquam, a cabinet-maker, came from England at the age of twenty, and settled in Maryland, marrying Charlotte Mercer Poole, a daughter of the wealthy planter upon whose manor now stands Pooleville. It was near Baltimore that our subject was born, February 28, 1823. By sickness and financial misfortune the father was induced to seek a new home  at the West, locating first in Ohio, but soon afterwards in Tippecanoe county, Indiana. There he entered an eighty-acre tract of government land, which was "just as God had made it," - nowise despoiled of tree or bush. But father and mother and the ten children, of whom Philip was the eighth, went to work with vim and discretion, and pressed back the woods from about the cabin, bringing at length as much as half of the farm into cultivation.

     As the children grew up they began to press out into the world, feeling after a career. The daughters, of whom there were six, received fine educations, married and settled near their old home and in adjoining states, and enjoy the reputations of being leaders both socially and morally in the respective communities in which they reside. Of the sons, William became a farmer in Missouri. Alfred learned chair-making and house-painting, and gradually worked westward, halting at Liberty, Missouri, but in 1845 crossed the plains and made a home in Oregon, in Clackamas county, at the place now known as Marquams, where he died in 1887. Henry P., who was robust, was designed for a scholar, and became a physician of note.

     Philip being the youngest son, and very rugged, was reserved as a sort of home guard to run the farm and take care of the parents and other members of the family. But in him the fires of ambition and the love of a broader life burned no less than in the others. Without repudiating his home duties, he contrived the way while performing them to gain mental training, and to unlock the stores of the world's thought. He followed the plan of studying and working at home, by a regular system, being laborer an hour, and then transforming himself into a student for an hour, keeping up the two lines of effort alternately the whole day. In time he found that he was doing as much farm work as a good "and," and as much studying as any pupil in the schools. And he is a strong advocate of the system of combining labor with study as the true method of education. In this manner he acquired a good English education, and made such progress as to readily translate Latin phrases, and to gain a considerable view of general literature, which he found to be of inestimable value to him in his law studies.

     He was early attracted towards the legal profession; and his spare money he saved up to purchase a library of elementary works, and began reading while still driving the plow. He followed a regular three-year course at home, under the direction of the late Honorable G.S. Orth, for many years a member of the United States Congress, and at one time minister to Russia. The savings of his labor now enabled young Marquam to attend the law school at Bloomington, Indiana, from which he passed his examination, and was admitted to practice before the bar of that state. He first located at Wabashtown, but after some months removed to the county-seat of  Jasper county, and there gathered up a very considerable practice, remaining until the spring of 1849.

     But the attraction to the gold fields of California had now become sufficient to lure him away from the quiet life of the old West; and with three comrades he set out across the plains with an ox-team. After a hot and fatiguing trip, the little squad of dusty and sun-burnt hoosiers found themselves upon the west slopes of the Sierra, looking back upon the snow-capped mountains that swam in the summer haze, appearing wonderfully distant and to them inexpressibly strange. The clear, inviting waters of the Sacramento, by which they were soon traveling, the mellow airs, the softness and luxuriousness of the climate and scenery, and the strong mountain peaks, were much at variance with the climate and scenery of the Mississippi country, making them feel that they had entered into a new world.

     The details of the journey to the mines and the adventures in connection with gold-digging, particularly some sharp skirmishes with the Indians, although of great interest, must here be passed by with this bare hint of their occurrence.

     Repairing early in the spring of 1850 to Frémont, then the county-seat of Yolo county, Mr. Marquam resumed the practice of his profession, and the same spring, at the first election under the new state constitution, was nominated for judge, and was elected. Much labor fell upon the county officers in organizing the counties; and in this, an din the work of state organization following, the judge rendered important service.

     In August of 1851 he began to think of returning to his Eastern home, but, desiring to see his brother then in Oregon, sailed up to Portland. He was much impressed with the freshness, verdure and beauty of our state, insomuch that he determined to make it his permanent residence. Returning in the autumn of the same year to settle up his business in California, he came back to Portland and engaged in the practice of his profession. He soon acquired a large and lucrative business. As he was furthered in this regard, and as opportunity offered, he invested his means in real estate, relying upon the future growth of the city. He acquired, among

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 other properties, a Donation claim on the east side of the Willamette some four miles distant, and a block in Portland bounded by Morrison, Alder, Sixth and Seventh streets, upon which is now being erected the Marquam Grand Opera House, covering almost the entire block, and which for substantial construction and architectural beauty and design is unsurpassed by any edifice of like nature on the Pacific coast, and would be an ornament to any metropolis of the union. In 1858 he purchased three hundred and ninety acres on the hill south of Portland, which now bears his name. Upon a portion of this he resides, and is gradually improving it as his permanent home, cultivating some twenty-five acres.

     He was early identified with public movements in the city, being known as an earnest supporter of schools. Throughout his entire life and period of activity here he has been known as a man of progressive ideas, of great energy, and one who pursues his objects with inflexible tenacity of purpose and clearness of view. In 1853 he was narrowly defeated by Doctor Ralph Wilcox as councilman to the Oregon territorial legislature from Washington county, then including Multnomah to the Willamette. In 1862 he was elected judge of Multnomah county, and, after having served out his term of four years, was re-elected. At the expiration of his second term he refused further nomination. Indeed, he has ever sought rather to avoid than to court political favor. During his judicial labors, he performed all duties with signal ability and fairness, dispatching business with celerity and exactitude. Formerly a Whig, he has been an earnest supporter of the Republican party since its organization, and in 1882 was elected on the Republican ticket to the popular branch of the state legislature. In that important position he proved himself earnest and active, advocating measures of importance to the state.

     In his domestic relations he has been singularly fortunate. He was married in 1853 to Miss Emma, a daughter of the pioneer, William Kern, from Peoria, Illinois. She was a young lady of refinement and education, and has proved a true helpmate to her husband in every particular. He accords a large part of his prosperity due to her industry and economy, and her entire devotion to his interests and that of their family. Their union has been blest by a family of eleven children, as follows: Mary E.,; Philip Augustus, Jr.; William W.; Charlotte C.; Jessie L.; Sarah S.; U.S. Grant; Janie H.; Katie L.; Willametta, and Thomas Alfred. These have all been afforded the best of educational advantages, and have been trained also to labor. Several of the older ones are already holding responsible positions in the community.

     DAVID MARSH. - This excellent gentleman and popular public officer, whose untimely death of recent occurrence was widely noted in the papers of this coast, exemplified in a large measure the frank and amiable qualities which make life happy; and to these he added the rugged force of character and keen intellect which served to make a community prosperous.

     He was born in East Tennessee in 1844. When a child of two or three years, his parents removed to Iowa, in which state his aged mother now resides. In 1862 Mr. Marsh, having reached the age of eighteen years, joined one of the many wagon expeditions across the plains, and landed in the Walla Walla country, where he spent some eight or nine years in teaming and freighting from Umatilla and Wallula landings on Snake river into the interior as far as Boise City, Idaho. In 1871 he returned to Iowa, remaining in that state a little over a year. It was during this visit home that he met and married Miss E.J. Larwood, sister of J.J. Larwood, the auditor of Whitman county. With her he lived in happiness and contentment until the time of his death. In1872 Mr. and Mrs. Marsh returned to the Walla Walla valley, residing there until 1874, when they removed to this county and settled on a homestead near Almota, where they resided until the winter of 1880-81, following the peaceful occupation of farming.

     In 1880 Mr. Marsh became the choice of the Democracy of Whitman county for sheriff. He was elected, and for the two ensuing years filled that office with honor and credit. His ability as an officer, and the qualities he possessed as a man, won for him a host of friends among the people of the county. In recognition of his work, the Democracy again in 1882 placed a renomination in his hands, which he carried to a triumphant success at the polls, with an increased majority. Again, in 1884, he was renominated and re-elected, thus filling that responsible office for three successive terms, - six years.

     Since he removed to Colfax, Washington Territory, he was a constant resident and one of the most worthy citizens of the city. For two years, he was in the livery business with Thomas Baker. He left a wife and three children, who are still living in Colfax, three brothers on this coast, and two brothers and his mother who reside in Agency City, Iowa. By his death, his family lost a true husband and loving father, and Whitman county an upright citizen.

     S.P. MARSH. - This leading citizen of Vancouver, Washington, was born in Ohio in 1826. At Cleveland he received his education and learned the trade of a blacksmith. At the age of twenty-four the stories of fabulous wealth on the Pacific, and an invitation from a special friend, started him across the continent for Oregon. He was in the great emigration of 1850, when it is said one hundred and eighty thousand persons were on the plains.  Heavy luck struck his party on the Platte. Not far out they were surrounded by a thousand Pawnee Indians, and were given ten minutes to surrender all they had. They had a captain who is described as "not afraid of the devil." He asked the company if they would fight or give up. They replied they would fight; and he therewith gave the Indians preemptory notice to leave within five minutes; and fifty leveled rifles enforced his demands. The Indians began to whimper and beg for "muck a muck," - a sure sign that they were cowed. A second order only was needed to send them flying.

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     On the Upper Platte the scourge of cholera broke out; and Mr. Marsh fell under the ravages of the disease. His case was approaching the last stages, - the ice water; and the terrible pains just before the fatal cramping were beginning. Lying in his tent, and within reach of his chest of  medicines, the suffering and well-nigh dying man thought only of escaping his tortures, and finding a phial of laudanum, rained the glass, and upon this, minded by some instinct, drank a half pint of brandy. The two powerful poisons neutralized each other, their effect allowing his vital powers to rally; and he recovered. This scourge was frightful on the plains. Mr. Marsh counted eighteen hundred graves by the roadside, and then quit enumeration long before the whole number was passed. One pitiful sight was that of a many crazed with grief starting on the journey home eight hundred miles with the dead body of his wife.

     Not far out from Fort Hall occurred as sanguinary, an incident as has ever been recorded. The wife of one of the emigrants started ahead with his team, their two children being also in the wagon. As she reached the stream, a short distance from the train, two Indians came from the roadside and asked her for food. She refused them. One produced a knife, and drew the back of it across the throat of one of the children as a threat. The mother seized an axe, and, without a moment's hesitation, split open the head of the savage. The husband, coming up at this time, drew his rifle and with a true aim dropped the other Indian to the earth. Resulting from this summary work was an attack upon the train by the Indians at Powder river, in which one white man, a Mr. Fisher, was killed.

     Arriving at Portland, Mr. Marsh engaged in blacksmithing, but after a year found employment as engineer on the steamers of the Pacific Mail Company on the route between Portland and San Francisco. Two years more were spent as engineer on the steamer Willamette, plying between Portland and Astoria. At the end of this time the Willamette, a river steamer, was taken to San Francisco, and on the ocean was overtaken by a heavy northwester, which drove her eleven miles an hour without a stroke of the wheel; and the waves were so violent as to necessitate cutting away the guards. Reaching Benicia, a year was passed on the Sacramento.

     In 1853 Mr. Marsh returned to Oregon, and in 1856 went East, there marrying Miss Elizabeth strong of Ohio, a young lady of rare attractions. They have reared a family of six children, two of whom are deceased. In 1856 Mr. Marsha accepted employment as blacksmith at Fort Vancouver, and was there during the exciting times of General Harney's difficulty with the Hudson's Bay Company on San Juan Island. As a pioneer, the gentleman of whom we write built the first blacksmith shop in Portland, Oregon, and in Vancouver, Washington Territory. Since 1860 he has been living in the civil quarters of the latter city, and has adopted the plan of erecting buildings to induce business and to enlarge the place. He has thus put up some sixteen structures, one of which is the theater, which cost some seven thousand dollars. By this policy he has done very much for the city.

     Mr. Marsh is not a politician, and has ever refused all entanglements in official positions, yet he consented to serve some nine years on the city council. His liberal spirit is worthy of all commendation. His shipment of twenty-nine tons of iron via Cape Horn in 1856, for the sake of supplying at low price an article needed in every blacksmith shop, and from which he received but small profit, is an example of his unselfish business methods.

     BEDFORD L.MARTIN - In the features of Mr. Martin we see another of those who passed through the fire and hardships of our Civil war. Born in Arkansas in 1847, he was bereft of both parents at the age of four years, and was taken to Indiana and brought up by an uncle. At the age of seventeen he enlisted in Company A, Tenth Indiana Cavalry, and served in the hard campaigns subsequent to 1863. at Hollow Gap he was in the charge where two hundred and fifty men were shot down from his regiment. At Nashville, he was taken prisoner, and spent four months and a half in Andersonville and other prison pens, being finally paroled at Lake City, Florida, so reduced in flesh as to weight but seventy-two pounds. After a month in the Union hospital at Jacksonville, and another at Annapolis, he was stationed at Fort Chase, Ohio, and was honorably discharged in August, 1865.

     After the war he led a wandering life for some years, seeking the best state in the union for a permanent home. He was stock-raising in Kansas, and was also in California, Georgia and Colorado. By the year 1871 he had passed through Portland to Puget Sound, locating a  homestead at Steilacoom. In 1872 he was at Olympia, and afterwards at Seattle, but found a suitable location with J.C. Conner of La Conner, Washington Territory.

     In 1874 he accepted a position as agent of the Puget Sound Lumber company of Utsalady, and became one of the first prospectors for coal on the Skagit. In1877 he took charge of the Puget Sound Mills Company at Utsalady, and remained until 1880, making a tour of the Kittitass valley in that year. But the superior attractions of La Conner again drew him thither; and he is now at that city, one of the most respected members of society, and engaged in a very successful mercantile business of his own. He has there acquired a considerably property, a pleasant home, and has a family of wife and two children.

     CAPT. WILLIAM MARTIN. - Captain Martin, of the first real immigration, that of 1843, is still living in a hale age at Pendleton, Oregon. He was born in West Virginia in 1822, and came west to Missouri in 1841. In 1843 he joined a company coming to Oregon, being intimately associated with Daniel Waldo. Reaching Oregon after the vicissitudes of that eventful march, he took up a claim at Howell's Prairie, working for Waldo at ten dollars per month, although wages were sixty dollars. But the former figure was his pre-agreement with Waldo; and he would not dishonor it. In 1848 he enlisted in a company of a hundred and fifty men that went to the Walla Walla to punish the Cayuses for the murder of Doctor Whitman.

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 After the Indians were defeated at Sand Hollow, he was left in charge at Waiilatpu to protect the immigrants coming through remaining there nine months.

     In 1849 he went to California, and, although successful in digging gold, found that his rifle, with which he was an excellent shot, was nearly as profitable as a gold mine. There was a good market for venison at seventy-five cents per pound; and in three weeks he secured and disposed of eleven hundred dollars' worth. Provisions in general were worth three dollars per pound. This was on Trinity river. In 1850 he began the business of buying cattle in Oregon, and driving them to Yreka and other Northern California towns, and mining during the interims. This he continued until 1862, when he was lured away to Idaho by the great reports of gold discoveries at Florence. He was stopped midway, however, by discovering gold on the John Day river, and there remained thirteen years, still retaining an interest in quartz mining at that point.

     After ranching at Camas Prairie, and raising sheep and cattle on Stewart creek, he moved to Pendleton in 1880, making that his home since. He has seen the most of the growth of the place. Mr. Martin has been justly honored with official trust. He was sheriff of old Champoeg county, sheriff of  Siskiyou county for two years. In 1880 he was elected sheriff of Umatilla county by a majority of a hundred and twenty-two. He ran on the Republican ticket; and the county was strongly Democratic on a strictly party vote. He was re-elected in 1882, and again in 1884, but declined to run in 1886. He was elected, however, mayor of Pendleton in that year. In1888 he was successful as candidate for county judge.

     He found his wife in Siskiyou county, California, and has lived with her a happy life. A man of whom the state is proud, whom we cannot help liking, and who has born the burden and heat of the day in every toil, and in exposure to the elements, and who has battled with the Indians; - such is Captain Martin.

     ALLEN C. MASON. - The well-known fact that a city presents, as a whole, the characteristics of the individuals who compose it, finds no better illustration than in the city of Tacoma, Washington. It is wide-awake, enterprising and progressive, and is such not only because of its unrivaled location and its commanding position as the terminus of the great Northern Pacific Railroad, but because its business men are themselves possessed of a spirit of progressive enterprise, are thoroughly imbued with confidence in the great destiny of their city, and are united in their efforts to promote its welfare. Prominent among these public-spirited men, standing at the very front of progress, is Allen C. Mason, to whom Tacoma is largely indebted for its widespread reputation, and for the moneyed interest so many people have taken in it.

     Since he settled in Tacoma, Mr. Mason has done more to advance its interests than any citizen within its limits. He has had the handling of more real estate, has caused the investment of more money, has more extensively advertised its advantages, and has induced more people to cast their lot in the Terminal city, than any other of its enterprising citizens, of whom there are many. He has seen the city grow, from a few board shanties scattered among the trees and stumps, to its present grand array of brick and stone structures; and this marvelous growth, the work of but a few years, he expects to see continued until Tacoma becomes the largest city in the Northwest, to take rank with the leading commercial cities of the United States. In this future growth, as in that of the past, Mr. Mason himself will be no inconsiderable factor. A brief sketch of his life will be an index of his character and business methods.

     He was born in Polo, Ogle county, Illinois, on December 22, 1855. His earlier education was received at the State Normal University, located near Bloomington, Illinois. He took a full collegiate course at the Wesleyan University, located at Bloomington, graduating therefrom in 1875. During the last year of his course in college, he was a tutor in the preparatory department. In 1876 he had charge of the Litchfield High School, and continued for three years as the superintendent of the schools at Perry, and four years thereafter was superintendent of the English training school at Jacksonville, Illinois. While engaged in this educational work, he published a system of arithmetic, geography and history, and also a manual of pedagogies entitled, "One Thousand Ways of One Thousand Teachers," which ran through four editions in a very short time, and which can now be found on the desks of practical teachers in every state of the union.

     Mr. Mason's reputation as a teacher was based on the fact that he enthusiastically believed in practical education. He believed it was the duty of the state to give to pupils receiving instruction at the expense of the general public a thorough and practical understanding of the fundamental branches of an English education. he believed that a pupil who was able to read with readiness, to write a clear and legible hand, with every word spelled correctly, to solve any practical example which might arise in the mathematics of every-day life, to understand the geography of his country and the history connected with it, was fitted for the duties and responsibilities of citizenship. with such practical instruction in the ordinary branches of an English education, he believed that pupils would be fitted for all the ordinary requirements of active business life; and that if, after having received this education, they desired a course of instruction in the higher mathematics, sciences or languages, they could and would get that education from the private schools.

     In 1878 Mr. Mason was united in marriage, in Bloomington, Illinois, to Miss Libbie L. Lawrence, who is a classical graduate of the Illinois Wesleyan University. They have been blessed with two interesting children. His sister, Lettie A. Mason, Now Mrs. Doctor William E. Quine, of Chicago, was the first medical missionary in Central China. She was sent out by the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, and established the first medical dispensary at Kiukiang.

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     In June, 1881, Mr. Mason was admitted to the bar of the supreme court of the State of Illinois, standing second in a class of over fifty who passed examination at that term of court. Believing that the West offered greater opportunities for a young man than the East, Mr. Mason resigned his position at Jacksonville, Illinois, and early in the year 1883 removed to Tacoma, with the determination of making it his home and becoming a factor in the growth and development of the place. He engaged at once in the real-estate and loan business. During the time he has resided in Tacoma, his business has extended generally throughout the whole territory.

     By means of his extensive acquaintance in the East, and by the care and attention he bestows on business intrusted to him, he has placed loans on Washington Territory real estate amounting to over two million dollars, in upwards of eighteen hundred loans. During the time he has been in business he has had but nine foreclosures of mortgages; and in every case the property brought more than the principal, interest and costs of foreclosure. No one who has made an investment through him has ever lost a dollar in principal or interest. Mr. Mason's offices are located in the south half of the second story of the Mason Block. He has, perhaps, the most handsome and complete offices of the kind to be found in Washington. In looking after the details of his extensive business, Mr. Mason is assisted in his office by seven clerks.

     The high estimation in which Mr. Mason is held by the business community is evidenced by the fact that he is expected to take a prominent part in all movements for the general welfare. He is a man of sound judgement, strict integrity, careful attention to the details of business, with a liberal and broad education, and endowed with great force of character.

     HON. CHARLES H. MASON. - Mr. Mason was born at Fort Washington, on the Potomac river, Maryland, in 1830. At the age of seven, with his widowed mother, he removed to Providence, Rhode Island. He graduated in1 850 with distinguished honors at Brown University, and was admitted to the bar of Rhode Island in 1851. On the election of President Pierce, he was recommended by the Rhode Island bar for the office of United States district attorney for that state. On the declination of the secretaryship of Washington Territory by Major Farquaharson, in September, 1853, Mr. Mason received the appointment and arrived in the territory in October, and continued in office until his death.

     It was, however, as acting governor of the territory through several critical periods that he distinguished himself, and endeared himself to our people. His first gubernatorial services were from March 26, 1854, to December 1st of that year. Again, when Governor Stevens went to the Blackfoot Council at Fort Benton, from May 12, 1855, he acted as governor until January 19, 1856. It was during this time that the Indian war was inaugurated; and his administration during the trying months of October, November and December was marked with energy, decision and wisdom. He immediately called for volunteers. He wisely and promptly separated the friendly from the hostile, humanely treating all Indians as friendly who were not arrayed with the hostiles, or had not broken out into actual hostility. He proclaimed the country from Olympia to the Snohomish river on the eastern side of the Sound as war ground, and established the friendly Indians upon the islands and the western shore upon reservations in charge of agents. In other parts of the territory the same segregation was made, the same policy pursued. An Indian found in the war limits after due notice had been given was an enemy, and was treated as such. He also endeavored to conciliate the disaffected; but, against those who took the field, his course was vigorous war.

     Early after Governor Stevens' return (January 19, 1856) Governor Mason repaired to Washington City to assist in securing congressional aid. Co-operating with Colonel Anderson (Washington's delegate) and General Lane (Oregon's delegate), an appropriation of three hundred thousand dollars was secured to restore and maintain peace among the Indian tribes of the Pacific coast. This enabled the territorial authorities to feed the Indians; and their friendship was secured, peace continuing while the rations lasted. As the fund was sufficient to outlast the war, that timely appropriation greatly lessened the number of hostiles in actual operation in the field.

     Upon Governor Stevens' election as delegate (1857), Secretary Mason again acted as governor until the arrival of Governor McMullan. On the return of the latter (August, 1858) to the States, he was again governor until the arrival of Governor Gholson (July 5, 1859). He died after a brief illness at Olympia, July 22, 1859. Brilliant talents, learning and distinguished administrative abilities entitled him to popular regard; but those who were admitted to his personal friendship will treasure him in memory for genuine and uniform amiability and evenness of temper, loyalty to friends, his conviviality and generosity, his child-like frankness, genial social qualities and his perfect accessibility to all, regardless of rank or condition of life.

     W.H. MASTIN. - As a lien upon the gratitude of his fellow-men, one writes a book, another opens a mine, a third builds a house. Each one may do the work for himself, but nevertheless, in recognition of the wants and needs of others, suiting his operations to their tastes and necessities, and finding his chief satisfaction, not so much in the profit that he reaps from his industry, as from the position which he fills in the world of business and society, making himself, his skill and his work, a necessary part of the great whole. It is in this way that businessmen become such great worshipers of the city or region in which they dwell. They have dollars and cents invested there, it is true; but, much more, they find there the real spring of public and fellow feeling which makes civilized life possible. This public interest and love of the community is what makes the difference between enterprise and avarice, between the business man and the miser.

     Mr. Mastin has enriched and enlarged Colfax,

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Washington, by the building of the Thielson House, the fine hotel in the city. He is a native of Knoxville, Illinois, where he was born in 1840. A worker, harness-maker by trade, he was already earning his bread when, at the age of eighteen, he left the old hearthstone for Pike's Peak, but changed his course so as to arrive at Walla Walla in 1859. Cutting poles in the timber for that mushroom town; making saddles and harnesses for Captain Ingalls, and for his own disposal at Vancouver; merchandising at Walla Walla with Mr. Fisher in 1861; packing to the Powder river mines, and freighting with prairie schooners to Lewiston in 1862; spending a winter in Portland, and in the spring, going to the Boise basin merchandising until 1867; at Steilacoom the next year, where he was married; - this was his checkered life up to 1879. In that year he went to Colfax, engaged in trade, built a store, but was burned out in 1881. He built a brick store to replace the old one, but was burnt out again. He built a third time; and that is the Thielson House, which still stands. Mr. Mastin is its proprietor. It is needless to add that he is a successful man and a good citizen.

     EDWARD K. MATLOCK. - This young gentleman, a leading druggist of Mount Vernon, Washington, was born in Ohio in 1858. His father was a Methodist minister. The son traveled with him extensively; but at the age of eighteen, beginning to do for himself, he went South and found employment at a sugar refinery at Bellevue, Louisiana, and there, and at another sugar town, spent four years. The Southern climate, however, becoming disagreeable, he determined to try the famous atmosphere of Washington Territory. Coming as far as San Francisco on his way, he stopped at the metropolis of our coast a few months, employed in the store of Richardson Brothers. Falling ill there, he purchased a ticket for the sound, arriving in Skagit county in 1881. He made a start towards independent business by clerking for Clothier & English, of Mount Vernon, until 1887. Early in that year he opened a drug store in Mount Vernon, which he has since been successfully conducting. He has followed the policy of investing his surplus earnings in lands in the county of his adoption. He has been the recipient of public honors, twice having been elected to the position of county treasurer.

     E.L. MATLOCK. - This successful merchant and respected citizen of Heppner, Oregon, was born August 25, 1844. He came to Oregon in 1853, and located in Lane county, near Eugene. There he engaged in farming, stock-raising and mining. He was with his father when he died at Bannack City in 1863, and laid to rest all that was mortal of that good man and beloved parent. Returning to the home near Eugene, he conducted his father's affairs there until 1866. In January of that year he was married to Miss E.J. Bennet of Lane county. After that event he engaged in agriculture, conducting a farm for himself until 1869. In that year he engaged in sheep husbandry, and follow3ed the business in Lane county until, in1872, he decided that he might find better pasturage in the Inland Empire, and consequently drove his flocks across the Cascade Mountains, choosing a location near Weston, in Umatilla county. The following winter he lost all his stock by the severity of the season.
     In the fall of 1873 he located a claim on Butter creek, and made a new attempt in the sheep business, meeting with good success, and conducting his operations until, in 1878, he was able to close out to good advantage and return to Lane county. He then entered into partnership with his brother, J.W. Matlock, in the general merchandise business at Goshen. Not being wholly satisfied, however, with the slow Willamette valley country, and still looking with fondness to the East-of-the-Mountains district, he returned in 1880 to Eastern Oregon, locating at Heppner, and establishing a business for himself. He has been residing there till the present time, doing an extensive trade, and building up the country. He was elected councilman of Heppner in March, 1889, and has filled that office to the satisfaction of all. He lives in a home of comfort and refinement, and has five girls and one boy, - Flora, S.J., M.A., May, Lesley, Minnie and Bertha.

     Mr. Matlock is a man well respected, active, progressive and upright. He is of great service to the new region in which he lives, and as merchant and owner of a band of some two hundred fine horses has a handsome property.

     THOMAS G. MATLOCK. - This well-known citizen of Heppner, Morrow county, Oregon, who devotes himself to the improvement of our stock of horses, was born in Dade county, Missouri, March 4, 1849, and came with his parents across the plains to Oregon in 1853, locating with them near Eugene, where they engaged in stock-raising, and remaining until the death of the father at Bannack City, Idaho. He was buried on Buena Vista Bar, July 1, 1863.

     Thomas received a common-school education, and worked on the farm. His father having been a fancier and producer of fine horses, our subject went in 1871 to Umatilla county with the intention of continuing in the same business, and has remained there ever since, developing one of the finest bands of horses and also one of the neatest herds of stock to be found in the state. There also live his brothers, C.J., E.L., W.F. and J.W.  J.D. lives at Eugene, where he is successfully engaged in the mercantile business.

     Thomas was married in 1871 to Miss Mary E. Larkin, and has three boys and three girls. His mother is now seventy-four years of age, and makes her home with her only daughter, Mrs. Greenwood of the Wallowa. She is a woman still in good health and of unclouded mind. -

     D.A. McALLISTER. - Mr. McAllister is a pioneer among the horse-breeders of Eastern Oregon, and has animals in his band of three hundred easily worth four thousand dollars each. He sells colts at from five hundred to six hundred dollars each. It is not always noted, but it is nevertheless a fact, that the value and service of stock of all kinds ins multiplied rather by improving the quality of the animals than by increasing the number of

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those of inferior grade. In one particular Mr. McAllister is peculiar among horsemen. He despises gambling, and trots or runs only for establishing the reputation of his stock. He has a mare, Leona, that trots a mile in 2:23, and a horse, Blond, which covers the same ground in 2:42, at two years old. The three-year-old Baymont is surprisingly fast; and Centershot of his stable has a wide reputation among horse-fanciers. His animals are Mambrino Chiefs, Hambeltonians, Almonts and Pilot Juniors, - all trotters, and from the best Kentucky strains. His start in this line was made in 1869 by bringing eight animals from the Bluegrass state to the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

     His ranch is one of the finest in the Grande Ronde, is situated three miles east of La Grande, Oregon, and contains six hundred and eighty acres. The climate, feed, etc., of this section is well adapted to producing a wiry, nervy and intelligent horse.

     Mr. McAllister came to this country in 1862, and is of a frontiersman's family of Illinois. In crossing the plains he experienced more or less trouble with the Indians, but escaped with only a few brushes. George Geckler, Samuel Williamson and George Harpool, now residents of this region, were of his party, of which Joseph Yount was captain. His uncle, Harvey McAllister, was also in the immigration, and brought some fine stock, of which our subject was drover. His first work was with this uncle in the performance of odd jobs; and it was not until 1867 that he began ranching on his own account with stock purchased with his earnings.

     His wife, Nancy Moe, in every way his compeer, is the daughter of Peter Moe, a pioneer of 1864 from Michigan. They have nine children, - Frank, Allison, Mollie, Lulu, Charles, Cleveland, Melvina, William, Reese and Ada.

     Mr. McAllister showed his courage in 1878, during the Indian scare, by refusing to go to the fort. He is one of the men to whom the state looks for its energy and capacity for improvement.

     JAMES McBRIDE, M.D. - The representative pioneer is born, not made. If we glance over the history of the state-builders of the Northwest coast, we will find that not only were they pioneers in fact, but pioneers by descent, the sons and grandsons of those who laid broad and deep the foundations of the earlier communities of this republic.

     Doctor James McBride was in this sense a representative pioneer. He was descended from patriotic revolutionary stock. His grandfather, James McBride, was one of the patriot soldiers of the Revolution; and his grandmother, Mary Crawford, was a sister of the mother of Andrew Jackson, and a woman of more than ordinary ability and force of character. After the Revolution his grandfather, the first of a race of pioneers, was the first white settler in Tennessee; and there the subject of this sketch was born February 9, 1802, near the city of Nashville. His father, Thomas Crawford McBride, was a farmer and clergyman, and in connection with Alexander Campbell and Barton W. Stone, and other men of views rather in advance of their clerical associates, was active in founding what is known as the Christian or Disciple church, now one of the leading and influential denominations of the country.

     Actuated by that spirit of enterprise and discovery that everywhere distinguishes the true pioneer, the father of the subject of this sketch removed in 1814 from Tennessee to the neighborhood of St. Charles, Missouri; and there James McBride was reared and educated. He studied medicine in the city of St. Louis, and at the age of twenty-two entered upon the practice of his profession in Franklin county, Missouri. At about the same age he was ordained an elder in the Christian church, and as such preached christianity with great earnestness and eloquence during the whole of his active life. His services as a minister were always rendered gratuitously, and from love of the cause of religion and a desire to benefit his fellow-men. In his declining years no part of his career gave so much pleasure, in retrospection, as that which he had thus dedicated to god and humanity. He soon rose to eminence in his community as a physician, and during what was known as the Osage Indian war was commissioned, by Governor Boggs, surgeon of Missouri volunteers.

     He was married June 20, 1830, to Miss Mahala Miller, whose devotion to her husband and children, as well as her good words and works in the community, made her life revered by her family and friends, who tenderly cherish her memory. She was a worthy member of that noble group of pioneer wives whose piety, benevolence and love of home and humanity were the strength and moral support of the orderly civilization that distinguished the early settlements of Oregon. She survived the loss of her husband but little more than a year, and departed this life February 23, 1876.

     Of the children of Doctor McBride and his wife, twelve are now living, and are prominent and influential members of the communities in which they reside. The eldest son, John R. McBride, was a member of the constitutional convention of Oregon and of the first Senate of the state, and in 1862 was elected representative to congress. He served afterwards with distinguished ability as chief justice of Idaho Territory, which office he resigned to enter upon the practice of the law at Salt Lake City, where he still resides. The second son, Thomas A. McBride, is also a lawyer of ability. He has served in the state legislature, and is now prosecuting attorney of the fifth judicial district of Oregon. He has been chosen to this position for three consecutive terms, each time by an increased majority; and at the last election the opposing party declined to nominate a candidate against him. Another son, Doctor James H. McBride, of Wisconsin, was for several years superintendent of one of the principal insane asylums of the West, near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and is eminent as a specialist in nervous and mental diseases. The youngest son, George W. McBride, is well known to the people of Oregon, having been speaker of the house of representatives in 1882, and being now the secretary of state of his native state, the first native Oregonian elected to that important office.

In 1843, moved by the same enterprising and

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 adventurous spirit that had impelled his father and grandfather before him to enlist in the advance guard of civilization, Doctor McBride removed with his family to Texas, but soon becoming weary of the unsettled and lawless condition of society, and disgusted with the prospect that the newly acquired territory would be used to extend the area of human slavery, which, like John Wesley, he regarded as the "sum of all villainies," he returned again to Missouri. In 1846 he came with his family to Oregon, settling in Yamhill county. There he devoted his time between the duties of his profession and the cultivation of his farm. He took an active part in those stirring events which resulted in preserving Oregon and Washington Territory from the dominion of Great Britain.

     In June, 1850, Doctor McBride was elected a member of the territorial council, where he established the reputation of a wise, safe and conservative legislator. He was appointed superintendent of public instruction, in which capacity he served the people acceptably for a term of two years. His antipathy to slavery early led him into the Freesoil ranks; and he was one of the founders of the Republican party in Oregon. He was a member of its first state convention; and from that date until the close of the war of the Rebellion he was an active participant in politics both as a writer and public speaker.

     As a fitting recognition of his political services, he was in 1863 appointed by President Lincoln, minister resident to the Hawaiian Islands. At the time of his arrival at his post of duty, the little kingdom to which he was accredited was greatly under English influences, and it was then feared would shortly become a dependency of Great Britain. By a wise and conciliatory policy, and by holding out hopes, which were afterwards fulfilled, of ultimate reciprocity of trade between the United States and the Sandwich Islands, the hostility and distrust with which our government had been regarded was overcome, and this nation attained the paramount influence in Hawaiian affairs which it still retains.

     During his official sojourn at the islands occurred an incident which at the time seemed likely to result in a serious international complication. Shortly after the arrival of a British training ship at Honolulu, several of its officers, who were young Englishmen of rank, while ashore one night, tore down the coat-of-arms of the United States from the gate in front of the official residence of the United States minister, and carried it aboard their ship. Here was an insult that the little American colony in Honolulu were little disposed to brook, and yet which any attempt to avenge would be likely to involve our government in a dispute with a foreign power already seeking an excuse for aiding its Southern friends. But Doctor McBride was not a man to hesitate when the flag of his country was insulted. He had advices that in a day or two a United States man-of-war would be due at Honolulu in quest of the Rebel privateer Florida, which was then destroying the Pacific whaling fleet; and he also knew that the British man-of-war was in no condition to go to sea. He therefore called on the British commission and the captain of the man-of-war, and notified them that the young officers who had stolen the coat-of-arms must return and replace it, or he would arrest them civilly and deal with them as common thieves.

     The captain and the British representatives expressed their willingness to have the property returned, and to make an ample apology, but they urged that, as one of the offenders was a British lord, heir to one of the oldest peerages in England, to require him to submit to the humiliation of putting the coat-of-arms in its usual place, and doing the work of a carpenter, was not to be thought of.  But Doctor McBride was firm, and the Englishmen finally yielded; and beneath a broiling tropical sun, and in the presence of half the population of Honolulu, the young officers were compelled to labor for an hour and a half replacing the ornament they had torn down. As the effigy of American's bird of freedom was finally fixed in its accustomed place, cheers from thousands of throats rent the air. One patriotic American captain was heard to exclaim above the din, "Boys, there's a bird that can't be plucked."

     The scene was photographed and reproduced in Harper's Weekly; and the incident awakened interest throughout the country, Americans everywhere being delighted at the action of their patriotic representative. One of these young Englishmen, whose hands then wielded a hammer for the first and last time, is now a British peer, an authority in England on naval affairs, and an honor to his Queen and country. For his prompt and wise action in this matter, Doctor McBride was warmly thanked by Secretary Seward, who, among other things, said: "Your action was eminently wise. Had you done more, serious complications might have resulted. Had you done less, the honor of the government would not have been properly vindicated."

     During Doctor McBride's stay at the Islands, a Russian fleet under command of Captain, now Admiral Enquist, was stationed at Honolulu, with the purpose - as was then believed - of affording substantial aid to the United States n case England and France should interfere on behalf of the Southern Confederacy. He had lately been stationed at Alaska, stood high in the confidence of his government, and knew that Alaska was an undesirable possession to Russia. Convinced by frequent conversations with this officer that Russia was anxious to dispose of its American possessions, Doctor McBride set himself to the task of convincing the State Department of the desirability of purchasing. He wrote several letters calling Secretary Seward's attention to the matter. From the Russian officers he procured specimens of gold and other valuable minerals then known to exist there in uncertain quantities. He procured affidavits and statements of whalers, and other persons who had frequented the Alaskan coast, as to the extent of its fisheries, and its value as the principal source from which was obtained the world's supply of furs.

     Nor were his efforts wasted. In Secretary Seward he found a statesman capable of sympathizing with his patriotic desire to extend the area of his country;

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and, as soon as the storm of the Civil war had spent its force, the purchase was consummated, and the greatest acquisition since the Louisiana purchase added to our national domain. It may be fairly said that Doctor McBride was the author of the Alaska purchase; and, though neither he nor the great statesman who negotiated it lived to see the result of their labor estimated at its true value, they both died feeling sure that future generations would recognize it and properly honor the foresight and patriotism which by peaceful negotiation added a great country, imperial in extent and resources, to our national domain.

     In 1867 Doctor McBride resigned his office and returned to Oregon, making his home at St. Helens in Columbia county. There, in prosperity and comfort, dividing his time between his books and social intercourse with his neighbors and friends, he lived, universally esteemed, until his final summons to a better world. He died on the 18th of December, 1875, in his own words, "without fear and without regret," happy in the consciousness of a well-spent life and in the hope of a happier existence in the eternal future.

"Life's labor done, as sinks the day,
Light from its load the spirit flies;
While Heaven and earth combine to say,
How blest the righteous when he dies."

     JOHN MARSHALL McCALL. - Among the substantial and favorably known residents of Southern Oregon, none have occupied a more useful place in the upbuilding of the state since the days of its infancy than the gentleman whose name is the heading of this brief memoir. His is one of those aggressive, go ahead dispositions that is an example of that time-honored adage, that "God helps those who help themselves;" and his whole life has bristled with instances of this belief. A man of strong convictions and honest prejudices, scorning hypocrisy in all things and in his dealings with friend, foe or the world at large, all his actions are guided by fairness, honesty and affability. Being of such a nature, success has come to him, and also a popularity among those who have had the good fortune to become acquainted with him. By birth he is a Pennsylvanian, having been born in Washington county in that state on January 15, 1825.

     In 1840 he became with his parents a pioneer to the then territory of Iowa, settling in Louisa county. From thence he emigrated "the plains across," via the ox-team route to Oregon. His headquarters during the first winter after his arrival was at the old capital, Oregon City. From there he made excursions to different parts of the valley, and made inquiries relative to locations not visited. The result of his observations was the choice of a mining claim in Jackson county, where, with Jacob Wagner, he operated in the creek since known by the name of his partner. During the Indian war of 1855-56, he took up arms in defense of his home, and in the subjugation of the savages. On the termination of hostilities, he was mustered out and began merchandising on Gallice creek in Josephine county, and in 1859 purchased an interest in the Ashland Flouring Mills.

     The year 1861 will ever be memorable by reason of its being the beginning of the great civil conflict between the Northern and Southern sections of the Union. In consequence of such regiments loyal to the nation were raised in many portions of the coast. Among those raised was the First Oregon Cavalry; and our subject was among the first to enlist. He was commissioned second lieutenant of Company D. There being a necessity for the keeping of troops at home to look after the Indians by reason of the withdrawal to the South of the regular troops, the volunteer forces were assigned to duty at Camp Baker until 1862, when he was transferred to Vancouver. In 1865 he was promoted to a captaincy, and in 1866 was honorably discharged.

     During his absence from Ashland, Oregon, he retained his interest in the milling enterprise, and upon his return began again with increased fervor the development of his adopted home. In 1867, together with others, he established the Ashland Woolen Mills, which at once became and has remained one of the prominent features of the Pacific Northwest. In 1873 he began and has successfully carried on a mercantile business on an extensive scale. Aside from these interests named, he has other property holdings which are considered very valuable. In politics he is a thorough-going Republican. He was a member of the legislature in 1876, and in 1883 was brigadier-general of the state militia.

     General McCall has been twice married, - the first time on April 30, 1868, to Miss Theresa R. Applegate, a daughter of Mr. L. Applegate, an old pioneer, and secondly on July 4, 1876, to Mrs. M.E. Brown, née Anderson. He has a family of three children, two daughters and one son.

     REV. JOHN McCARTY, D.D. - The Reverend John McCarty, D.D., reached the Pacific coast first in January, 1853, as chaplain of Fort Vancouver. For a time he also had charge of Trinity church, Portland. It was with great difficulty, oftentimes, that he met his appointments at Trinity. There were no easy and frequent communications between the two places then; and he generally walked from Vancouver to Portland. This was no easy matter when the Columbia river was swollen and had overflown the lowlands. It is related of him that he did more than once, when he found the water too high to wade in with simply his shoes and stockings off, take off all his clothes, put them on his head, and proceeded to wade through to the other side. When over he would dry himself, put on his clothes, and proceed on his journey. This was certainly performing duties under difficulties; but it was characteristic of the man. In October, 1854, he removed to Fort Steilacoom, on the Sound, where he remained about a year. While there, he did not confine himself to his duties at the fort, but held church services in the town of Steilacoom, at Olympia and other places.

     In November, 1855, he went on a visit to the Atlantic states, but returned in April, 1856, and resumed his chaplaincy of the fort and his charge of St. Luke's church, Vancouver. From that time until April, 1868, he remained in charge of the

448                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

church, when he resigned it because of the growing infirmities of old age. It was a sad day to his people when he resigned, and a sadder day still when he finally moved away from Vancouver and took up his residence in Washington City. Never were a people more devoted to their pastor than were his. He was so kind and bright and cheerful and fatherly, that they all looked upon him as a benediction when he came into their homes, or met them on the streets or taught them from the sacred desk.

     Doctor McCarty was closely identified with the early work of the Church in Oregon, and at a meeting of clergy and laity at Oregon City, before it was known that the Church in the East had made any provisions for a bishop for this field, the convocation wrote on and suggested that he be elected and appointed for the same. This shows in what high honor and esteem he was held by his associates. he attended all the early convocations of the Church, and took an active part in the deliberations. he was greatly missed when he ceased to attend them; and his happy face was seen, and his cheerful voice heard, no more.

     The Doctor died in Washington, District of Columbia, May 10, 1881, at the advanced age of eighty-three years. His funeral was held at St. Mark's church, Capital Hill, Thursday, May 12th.

     Thus rests one whose life was good, wise and useful.

     J.W. McCARTY. - Mr. McCarty, whose phenomenal success as a hop-grower in the Puyallup valley is well known, was born in La Porte county, Indiana, in 1833, and lived with his parents until 1852. As a young man of ambition and sterling qualities, he, in that year crossed the plains to Oregon in company with George Belshaw, now of Lane county, Oregon, and his two brothers. With his brothers he went to Puget Sound in October, 1853, assisting himself to the beginnings of a fortune by working in logging camps and in the sawmills. In 1854 he secured the claim on the Puyallup which he has since so highly improved, and which he owns at the present time.

     In 1855 he was married to Miss Ruth J., daughter of William M. Kincaid, a pioneer whose biographical sketch appears in this work. The outbreak of the Indians in the October of the following, which resulted in the massacre of McAllister, Miles and Connell at Connell swamp, compelled Mr. McCarty to seek refuge at Fort Steilacoom; and, leaving his young wife there, he joined Captain John Cassen's company of rangers, with whom he served three months. He suffered the loss of his house and barn, of all his crops, and most of his stock.

     After the war was over, he returned with fresh energy to his farm and began its systematic cultivation, setting out a large orchard, and of late years raising hops and hay. He has three sons and three daughters, all of whom are living on this coast. His wife died in 1881 in Seattle, whilst undergoing a surgical operation. He lives at present at Tacoma, Washington, on the rental of his farm and the incomes received from his city property at Tacoma. For the most part he makes that city his residence, but is so free from business cares that he can enjoy life wherever he cares to live.

     He was married secondly, in 1883, to Miss S.A. Westbrook of Tacoma, formerly of New York, and enjoys a very happy domestic life.

     MRS. JULIA A. McCARVER. - Julia A. McCoy was born November 19, 1825, in St. Charles county, Missouri. Her parents died before she was three years old; and she was brought up by her grandfather and grandmother. At an early age she was married to Garrett Buckalew, and thereafter lived in the State of Illinois until the spring of 1847, when, with her husband and two children, and the families of eighteen neighbors, she started across the plains for Oregon. At St. Joseph, Missouri, they joined a host of other emigrants, the combined party including ninety families, who continued their journey to its destination under the guidance and command of Captain Joel Palmer, who had already twice crossed the continent, and was then after his family. Mrs. Buckalew lost her youngest child on the plains; and, while crossing the Blue Mountains in Eastern Oregon, her husband contracted a cold from which he died in a few days at Philip Foster's place on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains.

     In 1848 she married general M.M. McCarver, who had crossed the plains in 1843, and whose letters to other friends in Illinois induced the Buckalews to come to Oregon. They took a Donation claim near Oregon City, the then chief town of the North Pacific region, where they made their home for eleven years. In the spring of 1849, Mrs. McCarver followed her husband to California, going by sailing vessel from the Columbia river, and returning by sailing vessel in the fall, by way of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts of Fort Victoria, Fort Nisqually, and the Cowlitz valley. In 1859 General McCarver's family settled in Portland. In 1864 they moved to Idaho, and then returned to Portland, where they remained until 1868, when they came to Puget Sound, locating on the site of the present city of Tacoma, Washington, where her husband died five years later.

     Mrs. McCarver was the mother of nine children, - all daughters. At the publication of this volume she continues in good health, and seems likely to round off, many years hence, a long life of peace and good works.

     GEN. MORTON MATHEW McCARVER. THE FOUNDER OF BURLINGTON, IOWA, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA AND TACOMA, WASHINGTON,- General McCarver was born near Lexington Kentucky, January 14, 1807. Of an independent, roving spirit, determination, courage and enterprise that knew no bounds, he quit his home at the age of eighteen years and went to Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, and not finding anything congenial to his tastes returned and settled in 1830 at Galena, Illinois, where he was married to a Miss Mary Ann Jennings. He served in the Black Hawk war, and after the surrender of the great chief of the Sacs and Foxes, and as soon as the treaty between Black

                                                                                        BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                            449

Hawk and the United Sates had been drafted in 1833 (by the terms of which the valuable territory now the State of Iowa was to be ceded to the United States), and before the treaty was signed, he left his home in Illinois in view of locating a city which would one day become one of the great commercial centers of the West, towards which the tide of emigration was rapidly setting.

     McCarver, then twenty-six years of age, journeyed down the Mississippi to a point then known as the Flint Hills; and in the evening, before crossing from the Illinois shore, he found shelter beneath the hospitable roof of a pioneer settler named George Buchanan, whose wife, during the night, gave birth to a son, who, before McCarver departed, was christened George Buchanan, after his happy father. Early the next morning McCarver crossed the Mississippi, and, before noon had located at the top of the Flint Hills, and, had proceeded to erect a log cabin and found a home. But the Black Hawk treaty had not yet been ratified, and the Indians complained to the government that the Whites were encroaching upon their lands. Accordingly the Secretary of War ordered that all trespassers be summarily removed. Lieutenant Jefferson Davis, then stationed at Fort Snelling, was ordered with his command to evict the squatters, and at once proceeded down the river to order the Whites out of the forbidden territory. His soldiers, without the orders of the commanding officer, set fire to McCarver's cabin and burned it to the ground; and McCarver was forced to leave his new home, but only for a short time.
     Upon the 19th of June, 1834, the Black Hawk treaty was ratified, and the coveted territory thrown open to the white settlers. He immediately returned, founded a settlement and engaged in trading with the Indians, carrying the mail and speculating in lands;, and, during nine years of residence, he retained his prominence as the leading citizen of the place which grew to be the prosperous city of Burlington. He was a leading member of the convention which formed the Iowa state constitution, was one of the men who went from St. Louis to attend the first public sale of lands at Chicago, and the only one of the parties who had the courage and foresight to make an investment on the muddy shores of Chicago creek at that time. It was during his residence in Iowa that he acquired his title as general, having served as quartermaster-general in that state.

     Early in the spring of 1843, having listened to the glowing descriptions of our then only possessions on the Pacific coast, given by the eloquent Doctor Lewis F. Linn, Senator from Missouri, and other adventurous spirits who were then turning their eyes to the far West, he emigrated to Oregon and settled on the Tualatin Plains. Later on, in company with Peter H. Burnett, afterwards governor of California, he projected the town of Linnton (named in honor of Senator Linn). They soon became convinced that they were in the wrong direction; and General McCarver shortly removed to Oregon City, where he engaged in farming, and was there elected a member of the Oregon Provisional legislature, of which body he was elected speaker. There his wife died in 1845. He participated in the Cayuse war in 1847, and in 1848 married to Mrs. Julia A. Buckalew, who still survives him.

     About that time the news came of the discovery of gold in California; and in May, 1848, together with Mr. D.B. Hannah, he started overland for the new El Dorado, arriving at the Feather river in August. There General Sutter had laid out a town; the location of which did not suit McCarver, who decided on a location upon the present site of Sacramento City. Having formed a partnership with his former associate, Governor Burnett, he negotiated for the purchase of the site; but Governor Burnett bought the land on his own account; and General McCarver turned his attention to other enterprises. he formed a partnership with D.B. Hannah, and embarked in the real-estate and general merchandise business, building their house with their own hands. In 1849 Hannah bought the General out; and the latter was elected a member of the Monterey state convention, which framed the original constitution of California; and under which it was admitted as a state.

     In December, 1849, Hannah returned to Oregon, bringing with him Mrs. McCarver, who had followed her husband to California. In order to show the difficulties of traveling at that day, let us follow them on their journey. They left San Francisco on the bark John W. Decatur, bound for the Hudson's Bay Company's station at which is now Victoria. Upon arriving off the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the wind failing, the bark was obliged to stand off to sea until the next day, when getting a fair wind she stood in and took a squall at the entrance of the strait which carried away her rudder, made a hole in her stern, and stove in her timberheads. After duffing about in a rough sea for twenty-four hours, some control of the vessel was regained by cutting away the mizzenmast. An entrance was finally effected; and, having got inside, she was forced to let go anchor and wait for the flood tide, when she drifted up the strait, anchoring in the night and on ebb tide. The second night inside, an alarm of "Indians" was given; and everyone was ordered on deck armed. Upon their approach within hailing distance, the supposed savages proved to be Captain Scarbrough, a pilot from the Hudson's Bay Company's station, who, sighting the vessel in distress, had engaged a crew of Indians and come to its relief. He was warmly welcomed by the storm-tossed people aboard the bark. They arrived at the Hudson's Bay Company's station after a passage of thirteen days; and thence they traveled three days by canoe to the Nisqually river, thence two days horseback to the Cowlitz river, and thence by canoe down the Cowlitz and up the Columbia, four days to Oregon City, arriving January 1, 1850, having been twenty-seven days on the passage.

     General McCarver having prospered in California, returned in 1851 by sailing vessel, bringing with him the hull and machinery for a steamboat, which he put together upon his arrival, this being the first steamboat on the Columbia river. He afterwards built another above the falls of the Willamette, and ran her from Canemah to Corvallis. All this time

450                                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

he was running a nursery and orchard in Oregon City, and took the first premium for his fruits exhibited in California; and so scarce was fruit at that time that he once received the sum of eighteen dollars per bushel for apples.

     After the Indian war of 1855-56, General McCarver went to Washington City to secure the payment of the claims of himself and a number of his neighbors for services and supplies; but the General was defeated through the misrepresentations of General Wool. Some of the claims remain unpaid to this day. He returned and located in Portland in 1858; and in 1862, upon the outbreak of the Idaho gold excitement, he went to The Dalles and established a general merchandise store. He afterwards went to Auburn and Idaho City, where he remained until 1864, during which time he had accumulated quite a fortune. He then went to New York, where he was the first man to engage in selling quartz mines on the market. During his absence in New York, his buildings and other property in Idaho City were burned and his business destroyed.

     He returned to Portland in 1866 with but little of his fortune remaining; and formed a partnership with L.M. Starr, President, and Jas. Steele, Cashier, of the First National Bank of Portland, and engaged in buying up war claims. He succeeded in making enough out of that to enable him to embark upon an enterprise which had occupied his attention, - the location of  a town at a point upon Puget Sound which would be so favorably situated as to eventually become the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, an enterprise which at that time was beginning to loom up as a future trans-continental highway. In 1868, being then sixty-one years of age, General McCarver, having formed a partnership on equal shares with Messrs. Starr and Steele, mounted his horse and left Portland with the purpose of locating at Commencement Bay the town that after a careful study of its geographical position he had decided upon as having the best harbor facilities, and being so located as to make its connections with the interior easily accessible by railroad. This location he thought would eventually commend itself to the managers of the great railroad line as the best site for the western terminus of their road.

     General McCarver proceeded to Olympia, where further examination of the maps of the surveyor-general's office and the land-office strengthened his determination to locate at the site of Old Tacoma; and he proceeded at once to that point, stopping over the night previous to his arrival at Commencement Bay at the house of a farmer a few miles from the present location of the city of Tacoma. Thirty-five years before, upon the night before General McCarver crossed the Mississippi river to locate the site of the present city of Burlington, he stopped for the night at the house of George Buchanan. During the night, as hereinbefore stated, a son was born, who was christened George Buchanan. The night before General McCarver reached the site of the future city of Tacoma, which eh was journeying to found, he stopped over night with that identical George Buchanan who was born thirty-five years before on the banks of the Mississippi river opposite the site of Burlington. That night, as General McCarver tarried on his journey to Tacoma, a boy was born, who was named after his father, George Buchanan.

     That remarkable incident, recalling recollections of the bright fortunes which had attended his memorable journey in 1833, had much to do with inspiring General McCarver with hopes that it was prophetic of as grand a success as his former enterprise had been, and when before noon he had climbed to the top of the bluff, and stood gazing upon the placid waters of the Sound, he might have said that he saw a forest of spars and miles of docks and railroads without having been guilty of an inexcusable flight of fancy. At that time there were only two settlers at Commencement Bay, - a man by the name of Galliher, who was running the old sawmill at the mouth of the creek of that name, and Mr. Job Carr, who some five years previous came form Iowa with the idea of settling at the point which would one day become the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Carr, upon arriving at Olympia had been told that the city was eventually to be the terminus; but he thought differently. Being out of funds he went to work at Olympia; but after a few months, having saved enough to enable him to explore the surrounding country, he started for Seattle, the location of which not suiting his ideas he returned to Olympia, procured a canoe and commenced exploring the sound to find a harbor suited for the future port of commerce.

     Following the coast, he came to Commencement Bay, and being pleased with its harbor facilities landed, and explored the country and shores of Tacoma, it being to his mind the best location for a large city, owing to the easy approaches by land and water, besides having plenty of fresh water near enough to be available for city needs. The land at that time being unsurveyed by the government, he located a squatter's claim, and two years later succeeded in getting the land surveyed by the government, paying two-thirds of the expense himself in order to get it done, after which he filed a pre-emption claim a little more than a year previous to the time when General McCarver arrived. The General immediately negotiated with Carr, for all but five acres of his claim. After concluding this bargain with Carr, the General located a claim in his own name, and shortly afterwards left for Portland, having selected as a name for the proposed town, Commencement City.

     Upon his arrival in Portland he stopped over night at the residence of his son-in-law, C.P. Ferry. Speaking of the proposed name for the town, Mr. Ferry raised the objection that it was too long, and suggested Tacoma. The following day, at a meeting held at the First National Bank of Portland, several names were discussed; and eventually, at a meeting held at the Tacoma mill, Mr. Atkinson proposed Sitwill, the name of the chief of the Puyallup Indians at that time; but Tacoma was finally adopted. A short time afterwards the General moved his family, consisting of a wife and three children to Tacoma; and they took possession of a log cabin which the General had erected in what was afterwards known as Old Woman's gulch,

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