History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 471 - 490

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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found among the first exhibitors of fine fruits and improved breeds of stock. It was probably at his house that the first Farmers' Club ever formed in Oregon met in 1853. It was on his farm that three prominent families of the world-famous Merino sheep were brought together in 1860 and interbred, nearly one hundred years after their departure from Spain. The French and American improved Spanish families came to Oregon by importation from Vermont; and MacArthur's Australian descendants of the royal gift of the King of Spain to King George III. of England came via Sydney and San Francisco. In the particular line of breeding of sheep he deemed the best adapted to Oregon, Minto has been prominent since he first owned sheep in 1849, and has given his experience most freely to others. While making sheep-breeding for improvement of wool-growing flocks his own chosen specialty, he has been broad enough to take cognizance of other lines of improvement;  so that, in the management of the Oregon State Agricultural Society, his counsel was always valued, its most successful years being the two years of Mr. Minto's secretaryship. During that period the society paid all premiums and running expenses, and, besides putting down a large number of driven wells on the fair grounds, paid over two thousand dollars in experimenting with an artesian well. They also printed a pamphlet of over one hundred pages descriptive of the resources of Oregon, for the purpose of inducing immigration, at a cost of fifteen hundred dollars, and gave a bonus of sixteen hundred dollars to the publishers of the Willamette Farmer, on condition that the board of directors select the editor for the first year. Mr. Minto was elected to that position.

     In other lines of action he has not flinched a citizen's duty. Though very poor, and but recently married when the war with the murderers of Doctor Whitman was forced upon the pioneer settlers, he joined the company of Levi Scott, which was detailed to attempt to pass to California in the winter of 1847-48 as escort to Honorable Jesse Applegate, who was sent by Governor Abernethy to make the condition of the settlements of Oregon known to the United States through the commandant of the United States troops then operating in California, and to get ammunition, if possible, with which to prosecute the war, the Hudson's Bay Company having refused to sell to the settlers. The effort failed by reason of deep snows in the Siskiyou Mountains after a portion of the company who volunteered to pass on snowshoes, of whom Minto was one, suffered some sharp experiences. During the raid of the Snakes and Piutes in Eastern Oregon in 1878, Minto left Salem with a half dozen repeating rifles sent by friends of parties at Heppner, and an order on Judge Savage for twenty stand of needle guns with ammunition for the settlers on Rock creek, who were right in the line of march that General Howard's order, published in the Oregonian of July 4th, said the Indians would take. Members of his family were there exposed; and Minto had been in the settlement the previous summer when Joseph's raid began in the Wallowa country; and he knew that the people needed more than anything else arms to defend themselves.

     In relation to one other subject, Minto's name may be mentioned, namely, the discovery or re-discovery of the natural pass over the Cascade Range now adopted as the line of the Oregon Pacific Railroad east from the Willamette. In following the waters of the North Santiam river to their sources, at the summit of the range, Minto proved himself, says Chief Engineer Eccleson of the Oregon Pacific Railway Company, " a natural engineer," and discovered the best natural railroad pass yet known across the range. It was done in obedience to the order of his (Marion) county authorities; and if the name given to a certain grass-covered mountain overhanging the railroad line, and immediately south of Mount Jefferson, should be permanent, Mr. Minto will have a grand natural monument transmitting the memory of his mountaineering. At the age of sixty-seven he still takes interest in every means of developing the resources of Oregon, from the summits of her mountains to three leagues at sea. Mr. Minto's home is at Salem, Oregon.

     FRANK MITCHELL. - This gentleman is a brother of Mr. Matthew Mitchell, mentioned elsewhere. Born in Missouri in 1839, he was one of the ten children who crossed the plains with the parents and made their home in the lovely Looking Glass valley, Douglas county. Removing with his father in 1863 to The Cove, he assisted him in keeping the ferry, and later, the toll-bridge on the Ruckle road. The young man brought a few head of cattle of his own, and by good management soon had a fine herd. In1869 he drove three hundred animals to Nevada, and in 1878, with his brother, drove a band of five hundred to Cheyenne.

     In 1879 he made his residence upon his farm at The Cove, Oregon, having a neat cottage and other perquisites. He owns also a hay ranch of three hundred and twenty acres, with a large number of cattle and other stock. In1888 he was married to Miss Malinda Lynch, of Yamhill county. He has an honorable record as member of the Home Guards during the Indian war of 1855-56.

     JOHN H. MITCHELL. - Honorable John H. Mitchell, United States senator from the State of Oregon, was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, to which locality his parents had removed when he was two years old. Bright and apt, and giving signs of marked intelligence, his parents determined that he should be given an opportunity to gratify his thirst for knowledge. So he was sent to the Witherspoon Institute, an establishment ranking high among the educational institutions of the State of Pennsylvania. Diligent in his studies, and ambitious to take advantage of the opportunities thus afforded him, young Mitchell became, as was to be expected, the leader of his class, and in due time graduated with high honors.

     Choosing law as the profession to which he desired to devote himself, he entered the office of Honorable Samuel A. Purviance, then the leading

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attorney of that portion of Pennsylvania of which in those days Butler was the center. Mr. Purviance, who was subsequently attorney-general of the state, was at the time Mitchell entered his office a member of Congress, and was a man of national reputation. Under the instruction of Purviance, who took a great interest in his pupil, the young student made rapid progress in overcoming the intricate windings of the subtle law. To read law is one thing, to read and understand it another. Young Mitchell was not satisfied with the mere reading. His nature was such that he could not content himself with memorizing. He must comprehend his subject, - in other words, make it part of himself. This thoroughness which marked him as a student of the law has remained one of the strongest characteristics of the man, and has had much to do with his success in life. Admitted to the bar in 1856, he soon afterwards removed to the Pacific coast, - an inviting field for self-reliance, genius and ambition.

     A remarkable set of men were those who laid the foundations of constitutional liberty on these far-off shores; and the commonwealths they created are the best monuments to their ability, energy and indomitable will. They were of a superior race, the flower of the youth of the older states, - men of caliber, will and expanding thought. And in this connection it may be well right here to call attention to a fact not generally recognized, that it was from among this body of men that came the leaders who successfully waged the battle for the Union. Grant passed his early manhood on the Pacific coast; and the lessons he there learned, and the persistency which was characteristic of the type of manhood of which we are speaking, he carried into the war. The same spirit which overcame the perils of the desert, and laughed at the obstacles of towering mountains, and reduced the savage to abject fear, conquered the Rebellion. Sherman was a banker in San Francisco, Phil Sheridan a lieutenant in Oregon, and Joe Hooker a civil engineer among the wilds of Rogue river in Oregon. Baker, the orator, soldier and statesman, was preaching the "doctrine of the new crusade" in the land of the Argonauts. Brave, generous men! A grateful country recognizes their worth, and does homage to the memory of those who have passed over to the majority. A man of small ideas and petty purposes could make no headway in a current of humanity like this. That Mitchell succeeded amid such surroundings is the best evidence as to the quality of his manhood.

     His first conspicuous public appearance was at the formation of what was known as the Union party in Oregon. There was a sentiment on the Pacific coast at the outbreak of the war of the Rebellion in favor of the establishment of what was to be known as a Pacific coast republic. Lovers of the Union were aware that if this scheme were successful the fate of the nation was to be despaired of; and that this peril, though insignificant in comparison with others which then threatened its existence, would be sufficient to hasten and bring about the success of those who elsewhere were determined upon the destruction of the Union. It was at this juncture that Mitchell first came to the front as a political leader; and his voice and influence were on the side of the Union. The welding of the Union sentiment into a political organization stood as a menace to the schemes of those who were plotting the establishment of this Pacific republic; and in the face of this organized protest the plotters were compelled to abandon their proposed project. Thus was a great national calamity averted. As the representative of the Union party, Mitchell was in June, 1862, elected to the state senate of Oregon, and was chosen presiding officer of that body. Growing in popularity he soon became the recognized leader of his party, and in 1866 (although not a candidate in the meaning of that term) came within one vote of the caucus nomination for United States senator.

     In October, 1872, he was elected to the United States Senate for the full term commencing March 4, 1873. He was assigned to the Committee on Privileges and Elections, then one of the most important committees of that body, and was also given a place on Railroads (of which he afterwards became chairman), Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Claims and Commerce. During the struggle which followed the presidential campaign of 1876, Mr. Mitchell was the acting chairman of the Committee on Privileges and Elections, then composed of fifteen of the leading and most influential members of the Senate. Governor Morton, the chairman, was incapacitated from serving owing to his being a member of the Electoral Commission. The duties thus devolved upon him were onerous and grave, as much depended upon the course of that committee as to what would be the outcome of a contention that contained within its environments the horrid specter of another civil war. A mistake, no matter how trifling, would have precipitated upon the country a struggle, the result of which was beyond human ken, and the contemplation of which even at this distant day causes one to shudder. That Mitchell met the responsibilities imposed upon him with excellent judgment is evidenced by the result. The preparation of the Republican side of the case depended largely upon the results of the investigations that were being pursued by the Committee on Privileges and Elections; and so thoroughly were these investigations conducted that it was made manifest that truth and equity were on the side of the Republican contestants. Public sentiment acquiesced in the judgement of the committee; and the decision of the Electoral Commission, based in a large measure upon the labors of that committee, safely seated in the presidential chair. Mr. Mitchell prepared the report of the committee in the Oregon case, and was unanimously chosen by the Senate to orally argue the case before the Electoral Commission, which he did to the entire satisfaction of the Republicans of the Senate and the country.

     The same indomitable energy that marked Mr. Mitchell's conduct on this occasion is also typical of his efforts in behalf of the interests of his state. The Columbia river, a majestic stream, second only to the "Father of Waters," and draining a country richer by far than the famous valley of the Nile, is obstructed at several places, particularly at The Dalles, where the immense volume of water rushes through a narrow gorge at lightning rapidity, and

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at the Cascades, where the waters tumble and dash over countless boulders of immense size, creating eddies and swift currents, so that navigation at those two points is impossible; and as a result portages have to be made and a trans-shipment rendered necessary. To overcome these obstacles and make the Columbia a free river (for it is apparent that those who control the portages also control, or, perhaps, what is a better and truer expression, own the river); has been the prayer of the people of Oregon for years. Various project to overcome these obstructions were from time to time presented and discussed, and finally laid aside, as such projects usually are unless backed by some earnest man. Among the first steps taken by Mr. Mitchell soon after his election to the Senate was to secure the aid of the national government in removing these obstructions. After countless difficulties he finally succeeded in obtaining an appropriation for the construction of a system of locks at the Cascades; and this work, though not progressing with the activity that its importance demands, but still with the same sort of activity that marks all enterprises under the supervision of the government, will be finished in a year or two. In the meantime he did not relax his efforts to get the government committed to some plan for overcoming the obstructions at The Dalles; and so persistent and energetic have his efforts been that, at the first session of the Fiftieth Congress, the Senate passed his bill for a boat railway, for the commencement of which five hundred thousand dollars are appropriated; and when this work is completed, and the last obstruction to the free navigation of the Columbia is thus removed, "a mighty river will go mingling with his name forever."

     At the close of his first term, the Democrats had succeeded in getting control of the legislature; and it is claimed that their success was brought about through the instrumentality of a company that controlled the navigation of the Columbia river, and was opposed, as a matter of course, to any effort to rend that stream from the grasp of a soulless and selfish monopoly. Be this as it may, the Democrats were successful. In 1882 the Republicans again being in majority in the legislature, Mr. Mitchell received the nomination for senator, two-thirds of the Republicans in the legislature voting for him in caucus. For forty days the legislature balloted without result, Mitchell during most of the time receiving within from two to four votes necessary to elect. This failure to elect was brought about by a bolt of a few malcontents, actuated by personal motives and aims. Seeing that his election was impossible, Mr. Mitchell threw his influence in favor of his former law partner, J.N. Dolph, who was elected in the closing hours of the session. In 1885 the legislature failed to elect. During this struggle Mr. Mitchell was not a candidate, and was absent from the state. At a called session Mr. Mitchell, though not a candidate, was elected by the votes of both Republicans and Democrats, receiving on the second ballot in joint convention the votes of three-fourths of all the Republicans, and one-half of all the Democrats in the legislature, it being almost universal wish of the people of the state that he be returned to the Senate. In the present Congress he is chairman of the Committee on Railroads, and is a member of the Committees on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Claims, Postoffice and Postroads, and Mines and Mining.

     As a lawyer Mr. Mitchell is clear headed, and quick to appreciate and apprehend a point. His legal arguments are perspicacious and marked by thoroughness and research. In the debate in the Senate on the Interstate Commerce Bill he took a position as to the proper construction of that measure, which has been followed by the courts when called upon to construe the law; and the decisions of the Commission have been on a line with his argument, - an argument, too, which was at the time contravened by some who have the reputation of being able lawyers, but who in this instance appear to have misconceived the scope and purposes of the bill.

     True to his friendships, Mr. Mitchell has the largest personal following of any political leader on the Pacific coast; and this following is by no means confined to Republicans. His admirers are to be found on the other side of the party wall, and are no less enthusiastic in their praises of him than those of his followers who are of the same political faith as he. The future has much in store for him; for it is hardly to be supposed that ability, energy and sincerity are to be overlooked. The country must ever rely upon its earnest men, - men of deep convictions, courage, sincerity and honesty of purpose; and such a man is John H. Mitchell.

     MATTHEW W. MITCHELL. - This representative man of Eastern Oregon was born in Missouri in 1843, and with his parents crossed the plains to the Pacific Northwest in 1852. The first winter was passed by the family at Portland; and the year following a Donation claim was selected and a home made at Looking Glass, in Douglas county. Our subject was there raised, and at Roseburg received his education. In 1866 he was so far equipped as to begin school-teaching, and for some years followed that as a profession. In 1870 he was united in marriage with Miss Josephine Stevens, of Looking Glass, and the same year removed to the Grande Ronde. He there engaged in stock-raising and farming. He became prominent in the political circles of that region, being elected in 1876 as representative from Union county to the Oregon legislature.

     His first wife having died in 1871, he was married secondly in 1882 to Miss Jessie Ritchie, of Multnomah county, who is also deceased.

     Mr. Mitchell is still engaged in farming at The Cove, Oregon, owning two hundred acres of excellent land, and also devotes much attention to the rearing of graded stock. He is a man of recognized worth, and of wide influence.

     PAUL F. MOHR. - Perhaps to no man is Spokane Falls under so deep a debt of gratitude for the early completion of the diverging lines of railroad, tapping the richest parts of the surrounding territory, as she is to Mr. Paul F. Mohr. To this gentleman's persistent efforts, coupled with a thorough knowledge of his undertaking, is directly attributable the completion, in the year 1886, of the Spokane

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& Palouse and the Spokane & Idaho Railways, both of which roads will exert a powerful influence on the future of the city.

     Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, June 28, 1849, Mr. Mohr is now in all the prime and vigor of manhood. After receiving a classical and scientific education in this country, at nineteen years of age he went to Germany to take the course of civil engineering at the renowned Polytechnic Institute of Stuttgart, and afterwards went to Hanover, Germany, and to Heidelberg, to perfect himself in special branches of his profession. After three years of study and travel, Mr. Mohr returned to the United States and entered the service of the Pennsylvania Company, in the P., C. & St. L. Railway, as assistant engineer. In 1872 and 1873 he made the survey for the Texas Pacific Railway Company through New Mexico and Arizona, returning to Cincinnati when the latter road was stopped by reason of the memorable panic of 1873. He thereupon entered into a partnership with his father, who founded one of the oldest and largest manufacturing concerns in Cincinnati. Young Mr. Mohr soon became prominent in many business undertakings, was a director of the Cincinnati & Portsmouth Railway, also a director of the Chamber of Commerce of that city and of the Board of Trade; and in 1882 he became a delegate to the National Board of Trade, and was placed upon some of the most important committees of that distinguished body.

     In 1887 he became a member of the executive committee of the National Distillery Association, with headquarters in Washington, District of Columbia, where he formed many important associations and friendships with distinguished men of this and other countries, among them the Hon. A.M. Cannon, of Spokane Falls, who, recognizing his talents and ability, induced him to come to Spokane Falls. There, together with Mr. Cannon and others, he organized a company to construct a line of railway into the rich and fertile Palouse country; and, aided by his professional training, Mr. Mohr selected a route which controlled so completely the wheat area of this country of practically unlimited resources that it was that it was with comparatively little effort that such well-known capitalists as C.B. Wright, of Philadelphia, August Belmont of New York, and other large moneyed men were induced to invest in the bonds of the company, and to receive the indorsement of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company.

     Mr. Mohr became a director of this branch road, which has since been built and is now being operated by the Spokane & Palouse Railway Company. Mr. Mohr has also been the engineer in charge of construction; and the remarkable short time it has taken to organize, locate, construct and place the road in running order testifies strongly to his skill and energy. Collaterally with the construction of the Spokane & Palouse Railway, he has been a director and was engineer in charge of the construction of the Spokane & Idaho Railway (commencing at Spokane Falls and ending at Coeur d' Alene City). This latter road was located and completed in the remarkable short space of less than thirty day. The location was commenced in the latter part of September of this year, and by October 23d trains were running over the entire road.

     On the completion of the Spokane & Palouse Railway, he was tendered, by the management of the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway, which flattering offer was accepted in March, 1888. This line of railroad is considered the most important within Washington. The western terminal is located at Seattle, running from thence eastward to Spokane Falls, having branches from a point near Waterville to the Salmon river mines, and from a point on the Okanagan river to Medical Lake and Colfax, and from Seattle up the Snoqualmie river to the famous Denny coal fields, and from Snohomish Junction, situate on this latter-named branch to a junction with the Canadian Pacific Railway at the international boundaries comprising at present in all a system of about seven hundred miles of road.

     Mr. Mohr in this enterprise solved the problem of crossing the Cascade Mountains by selecting the Cady Pass, the only practicable route across the range, with light grades. This very important factor in the matter of construction for a time seemed as if beyond solution, on account of the inability of the company to locate a feasible and accessible crossing of these snowclad mountains; and the project came very near being abandoned, confidence only being restored by the presentation of the pans of Mr. Mohr. At the last meeting of the directors of the corporation held in New York, he was unanimously elected vice-president, and was vested with the sole management of the affairs of the company at Seattle.

     Having the greatest confidence in the future development of Washington, and seeming more clearly where the most advantageous investments were to be made, he quite extensively interested himself financially in various portions of the territory. This was at a time when property was to be had at mere nominal prices. His foresight and action thereon has brought him in large returns; for the influx of population, and the consequent pouring in of money during the last two years, has enhanced his holdings to such an extent that he can now be considered one of the affluent men of the commonwealth. Mr. Mohr has all the requirements, both by his ability and experience, to make him a most valuable addition to the population of the territory. With a splendid education, great energy, a large range of experience in commercial and industrial pursuits, an intimate knowledge of the methods of legislative bodies, close friendship with the prominent statesmen and business men of the United States, and possessed of rare executive ability, he is bound to achieve a most prominent place among the representative men of the North Pacific coast.

     HON. Z.F. MOODY. - Zenas Ferry Moody, ex-Governor of the State of Oregon, was born on the 27th of May, 1832, in Granby, Massachusetts. His father was Major Thomas H. Moody. His mother was Hannah M. Ferry, an aunt of ex-Senator T.W. Ferry, of Michigan, formerly vice-president of

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the United States. Governor Moody comes of good old New England Revolutionary stock, his grandfather, Gideon Moody, having borne arms as a soldier during the Revolutionary war. He has proved himself worthy of his lineage; and the principles which he imbibed on New England soil have been the guide of his whole subsequent life. The sturdy virtues of that stock are too well known to require comment; they have become historical. The public men of New England have led the van in every reform, and have taken a most prominent part in molding all of that history of which the American people are most proud. New England ideas have been infused throughout the whole of our national life; and we have come to expect from men of New England ancestry those sturdy qualities which have contributed so largely to our happiness and prosperity as a people.

     Mr. Moody's childhood was spent in Granby. January, 1848, he removed to Chicopee, Massachusetts, where he remained the ensuing three years. On the 14th of March, 1851, he sailed from New York to Oregon by way of the Isthumus with a company, among whom was Honorable Samuel R. Thurston, the first delegate to Congress from the territory of Oregon. He came direct to Oregon City, then the principal town of Oregon, landing there on the 21st of April, 1851. From that time until 1853 he was engaged on the United States surveys as one of the "Freeman party," so called after James E. Freeman, who stuck the first pin in the United States surveys, in Oregon, establishing the initial point of the Willamette meridian, and extending this meridian to the Canyon Mountains. He was for a number of years subsequently engaged in United States surveys. In 1853, Mr. Moody removed to Brownsville, Oregon, where he engaged in the mercantile business.

     In the fall of 1853 he was married to Miss Mary Stephenson, his present wife. Four sons and one daughter constitute the family group. In 1856 he was appointed inspector of United States surveys in California. Prior to going to California he turned over from his own resources a large amount of stock and supplies for the use of the Indian department. After completing his duties as inspector in California, he went to Illinois, where he remained four years, during a portion of which time he was the surveyor of Morgan county. He happened to be on his way to Washington, District of Columbia, when Fort Sumter was fired upon in 1861; and, being in Washington when the Seventh Massachusetts was attacked in the streets of Baltimore, he enrolled as one of the company formed to protect the city until the arrival of the regular troops. In the year 1862 he removed to The Dalles, engaging there in the mercantile business.

     In 1863, though still continuing his residence at The Dalles, he removed his business to Umatilla, the development of the Boise mines having contributed towards making that an important business point. There he remained in business until the fall of 1865. In the spring of 1866 he built the steamer Mary Moody to operate on the Pend d'Oreille Lake, and afterwards aided in organizing the Oregon & Montana Transportation Company. This company built two other steamboats, constructed portage roads, established Cabinet Landing, and projected other enterprises with the object of securing the trade of the Kootenai and Montana mines, and diverting, if possible, the trade of Montana towards Portland. The route selected by Mr. Moody in 1866 is the same as that over which the line of the Northern pacific Railroad Company now runs. That venture, however, was in advance of the times, and resulted in heavy financial loss.

     In the fall of 1867 he engaged in the mercantile business in Boise City, where he remained for two years. In 1869 he disposed of his business interests there and returned to The Dalles, where he took charge of the extensive business of Wells, Fargo & Co. In the fall of 1873  he resigned that position, and in March, 1874, was awarded the contract for and carrying the United States mail between Portland and The Dalles. In connection with that contract, he established a line of steamers to operate between the points named. In 1875 he withdrew from the management and control of the transportation line, and in the following year resumed business at The Dalles, where he resided until called to the executive chair. During his incumbency as governor of the state, his extensive business interests at The Dalles were under the control and general management of his sons, who have since shared with him in the management.

     Prior to the late Civil war, Governor Moody was a Whig. Since that time he has been an active and pronounced Republican, his first presidential vote having been cast for Abraham Lincoln in 1860. While always active in the Republican ranks, he has not sought office; though he has for many years been prominent in the Republican councils, and has been frequently urged for high stations to be filled by the state conventions of that party. In1872 he was nominated by the Republicans in the Democratic county of Wasco for state senator, and after an active canvass was elected by an undoubted majority. His election, however, was contested by his democratic competitor, whose party friends, having a majority in the state senate, awarded him the seat.

     In 1880 he was nominated by the Republicans of Wasco county for representative; and, although the county was Democratic by an average majority of nearly two hundred, Mr. Moody was elected by a majority of one hundred and fifty. At the session of the legislature immediately following that election, he was chosen speaker of the house of representatives. So satisfactory was his discharge of the duties of this position that his name was from that time forth prominently mentioned in connection with the nomination for the governorship. The next Republican state convention was held in Portland in April, 1882; and on the 21st of that month, just thirty-one years from the day upon which he first landed in Oregon City, he was nominated for governor of the state. On the 5th of June following he was elected governor over his Democratic competitor, Honorable Joseph S. Smith, by a majority of fourteen hundred an fifty-three votes, although his opponent was one of the strongest and most popular Democrats in the state. On the 13th of September, 1882, just thirty-one and one-half years form the day upon which he sailed from New York for

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Oregon, he delivered his inaugural message as governor of the state.

     In the administration of this office, Governor Moody displayed a business capacity and an executive ability which had already been tested by man years' experience in the management of an extensive wholesale business in Eastern Oregon. He brought to the executive office a well-trained mind, exact business methods, and a keenness of perception in financial matters, which made him at once a successful and popular executive. Since retiring from the governorship, Governor Moody has held to political office, although he was sent as a delegate from this state to the national Republican convention. He went as an earnest friend of General Harrison, the only original Harrison man in the delegation; and, in an interview published in the Oregon Statesman just prior to his departure for the convention, he announced his preference for Harrison and Morton, and predicted their nomination.

     Since leaving the executive chair, Governor Moody has been absorbed with his duties as the president of The Dalles National Bank, and as the head of extensive business enterprises in The Dalles and at other points in Eastern Oregon.

     Governor Moody combines with discrimination and firmness of purpose a courteous manner, that prompts him to accord a respectful bearing to al. Physically he is of a splendid type. He is of compact build, with a handsome, ruddy face that indicates sound health, a keen, sparkling eye through which is displayed a cheerful and sociable nature, determined to extract all good things from life consistent with sobriety, and an elastic step and a rapid movement that bespeak the busy man of affairs. He is one who lives well, and appears well, and in the discharge of all his duties, public and private, redeems his promise of doing well.

     His career, both as a public servant and as a private citizen has been successful; and this gives assurance of success in any undertaking which he may engage in in the future.

     HON. MILES C. MOORE. - The gentleman whose name gives title to this brief memoir was born April 17, 1845, in the little village of Rix Mills, Muskingum county, Ohio, where his well known and widely respected parents resided. When he was twelve years of age, the family removed to Wisconsin, where for six years he attended school at Bronson Institute, a seat of learning conducted under the auspices of the Methodist church.

     Inspired with a spirit of adventure, through a perusal of the explorations of Bonneville, Frémont and others, and desiring to better his fortune, he resolved to brave the dangers and hardships incident to a trip across the plains and come to the Pacific coast. Accordingly, in 1863, he joined a party en route to the newly discovered gold fields in Montana. After a few weeks spent in the mines, he continued journeying westward until he reached Walla Walla. There his finances gave out. Being among strangers, the situation was not the most pleasant to contemplate. Without giving it much of a review, he sallied forth with the endeavor to secure employment without other recommendation than that which his face and general bearing would portray. Messrs. Kyger & Reese, to whom he applied, believing they recognized in him a worthy young man, gave him a clerkship in their mercantile house. So well did he fulfill his part, and so firmly did he gain the confidence of the public, that he was enabled not long thereafter, at the age of nineteen years, to embark in business on his own account. His successful career affords an illustration of what can be accomplished by any young man combining the attributes of pluck, perseverance, honesty and intelligence.

     While he affiliates with the Republican party, he has never been an office-seeker in the general acceptation of the term, and when a candidate for political preferment, it has been at the instance of his friends. Prior to 1877 he served two terms as a member of the city council of Walla Walla, and in that year was elected mayor. In March, 18889, he was appointed governor of Washington Territory. This high honor was not bestowed upon him through his own solicitation, but by the general desire of those who knew his worth and popularity. His administration of the office has proved him to possess ability of high order; and his every act has met with the hearty commendation of all, irrespective of party. In the selection of the last chief executive of that commonwealth under territorial conditions, a more fitting one could not have been made. The following comment from the Tacoma Ledger voices the common sentiment concerning his administration: "Of all the able governors this territory has had, beginning with Isaac I. Stevens, who was a distinguished soldier, engineer and political leader, no one has brought to this office more intelligence, grace and dignity, than Governor Miles C. Moore."

     In 1873 he was united in marriage to Mary E. Baker, daughter of the late Doctor D.S. Baker of Walla Walla, a pioneer of 1847, and well known and widely respected as one of Washington's most able and enterprising citizens. With their three bright boys they live a tranquil life in their beautiful suburban home at Walla Walla.

     ROBERT MORAN. - Among the many who have risen to prominence in the Pacific Northwest, the Empire state furnishes a considerable proportion, one of the number being the subject of this sketch. He was born in New York City January 26, 1857, and in that metropolis secured his education, and also mastered the trade of a machinist. In 1875 he concluded to come West, and following up the idea found himself in San Francisco in the fall of that year. Not seeing any opening then for a man possessed with no capital but integrity and push, he soon left that city for the Sound. He arrived in Seattle without a cent, and was among strangers, but this fact did not deter him from making an effort to build himself up, and upon soliciting was given employment as engineer on one of the vessels which ply the waters of the Sound as well as those of Alaska.

     In 1882 his mother and brother Peter came to Seattle; and he quit steamboating, and together with his brother started a small machine shop,

                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                             477

 locating it on Yesler's wharf. Their capital at the beginning was only about a thousand dollars; but, by efficient management and master workmanship, their business quickly grew to large proportions, they now employing a force of eighty men in their shops. In the great fire of June 6, 1889, their entire plant was destroyed, losing very heavily in consequence; but hardly had the smoking embers cooled before they had commenced to rebuild their establishment on a larger scale. Mr. Moran is also vice-president and general manager of the Seattle Dry Dock and Ship Building Company, which employs about a hundred and fifty men. In 1887 the citizens of the fourth ward induced him to accept the nomination for the city council, and upon his acceptance elected him by a very handsome majority. In that position he made such a commendable record, and gained so many friends, that he could not well decline to run for mayor in 1888, which he did, and was elected, and again re-elected to the same position in 1889.

     In the material welfare of the "Queen City," Mr. Moran has taken a deep and very active interest; and all enterprises tending towards its advancement have met with encouragement from him. At the time her business portion, including Mr. Moran's interests, were in ashes, he gave no thought to self, but devoted his entire time to the affairs of his office, and in devising ways and means for the protection, assistance and rebuilding of the stricken city. During this great trial the executive ability displayed by him was remarked and favorably commented upon by all who knew or read of what the situation was, and what he had to contend with. In the rebuilding and remodeling of the streets, his ideas of what should be done were generally adopted; and through such Seattle enjoys much better thoroughfares than ever before, and which would be a credit to any city on the coast.

     In politics Mr. Moran is a Republican, but as an office holder his thought is not for party, but rather for the best interests of the community at large, irrespective of party affiliation. He intends to eschew "public trust" on the expiration of his present term as mayor; but it is doubtful if his many friends will admit of his retirement, and may push him forward to higher honors. His part as a man of tact, and his ability in the management of his business affairs, well portend to what extent they will grown, and point out a coming millionaire.

     Mr. Moran was married in his adopted home to Miss M. Paul in 1882. The fruits of the union are two children.

     REV. JESSE MORELAND. - But few, if any, stand higher socially, morally or in the estimation of their neighbors and friends than the grand man whose name calls forth this brief pen-and-ink sketch. We do not attempt to give the likeness of the man drawn from opinion. Our purpose is to sketch what he is in a few selected facts from his life. With this intention, what we have essayed to give to the public will furnish an instance of the influence of piety and industry, united with sound common-sense, in giving a noble character a distinguished position and eminent usefulness. His name is a synonym for all that is true and honorable in a man.

     The early settlers of Oregon, as well as others of more recent date, honor the name of Jesse Moreland for his liberality, hospitality, and absolute and uncorruptible integrity. His clear and discriminating mind, impartial judgement, strong, practical good sense, and a profound and instinctive sense of right and wrong, patience in investigation, and a sincere, earnest desire to reach just and correct conclusions, lead to the inevitable conviction that, had he sought position in public life, he would have been pre-eminently a christian statesman; and a christian statesman is the glory of his country.

     We find him like many of America's noblemen, - rising from a humble origin, without artificial aid, and with many hindrances to success, by the force of his own worth, form the retired position of a farmer's son to be named among men as one whom God delights to own and bless; and one who shall stand before kings shall not stand among mean men.

     Jesse Moreland is a native of North Carolina, and was born January 1, 1802. In his childhood his parents removed from North Carolina, stopping in Kentucky several years, but ultimately settling in Tennessee. There he lived during his youth and early manhood, following the severe habits and duties incident to the farm-life of a pioneer in a new and rough country. Inured by his labors, and nerved by the bracing air of that new and unsettled state, he grew up to more than usual height, the embodiment of health, with a perfect physique and an iron constitution, apparently able to endure, any amount of toil, and the most protracted fatigue.

     He is a fitting representative of a self-made man, - a pioneer of the pioneers in Kentucky, Tennessee and our own Oregon. In 1825 he married Miss Susan Robertson; and to them were born nine children. Five of the number were taken away by death. The four children remaining, Mrs. M.M. Owens, Mrs. F.W. Robinson, William Moreland and J.C. Moreland, are all residents of Portland.

     In 1848, in view of the baleful influence of slavery, Mr. Moreland moved to Illinois with his family. There, in a free atmosphere, he spent four years at the end of which he started westward for Oregon. After six months of weary journeying amid the perils and dangers incident to crossing the plains with ox-teams, they reached the land they sought. Toil worn, and well nigh destitute, he with a brave heart began a home in the wilds of Oregon. Taking a Donation claim in the southern part of Clackamas county, he resided there until the death of his wife in 1859. After her death the farm was given up; and for a time he engaged in the mercantile business at Needy.

     He married Mrs. Avarilla Waldo in 1863; and for many years his home was in Salem. In 1883, desiring to be near his children, he removed to Portland; where in contentment and peace he now lives with his aged companion.

     He united with the Methodist-Episcopal church in early life, and ever since has been a most devoted Christian. In 1820 he was licensed to preach; and, while he never entered the itinerant work, as opportunity offered, or duty called, he was in his place to

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 do the Master's will. In all circumstances his exalted views of what a true christian life means has led him onward and upward towards the perfect life. What a testimony to the truth of man's spiritual destiny is his life! It is the Kingdom of Heaven within the soul, giving peace and rest under all trials and seeming ills. His commanding appearance, fine presence, courtly dignity, and at the same time his gentle, unassuming, winning manner attract all hearts to him; and, as you look into his kindly face, you realize that you can trust him with unfaltering faith.

     I count it among the felicities of my life, that I am permitted to know him and enjoy his friendship. Wherever he is placed he is an unswerving friend; and his friendship is a true, his reputation as spotless, as a child. The crowning glory of his character is, after all, best exhibited at home. All know the sweetness of his face. One is reminded of the remark of Sidney Smith, speaking of a college friend: "He seems to have the ten commandments written there." He is a devoted husband and father, a kind and generous neighbor.

     No suffering household, no orphan child, no broken-hearted wife or mother, ever calls upon him in vain. Their wants are his wants, their suffering in vain. Their wants are his wants, their suffering his suffering. In sunshine and in rain, in sickness and in health, by tender and sympathizing counsel, and by active and efficient effort, he ministers to their relief; and we can truthfully say of him: "When the eye saw me, then it blessed me; where the ear heard me, it gave witness to me; for I delivered the poor that cried, the fatherless, and him that had none to help him. The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me; and I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy." Like the Master in whose footsteps he loves to tread, his chief joy is to do good. Among his circle of intimate friends, his name is spoken in terms of the most affectionate homage, and with a spontaneous overflow of love and honor. It is the example of such men, the impress of such lives, that brings the future life so near to poor humanity that the actual life fades before the light of immortality, as tapers pale before the sun.

     This brief and imperfect sketch of Jesse Moreland, my life-long friend, is the outspoken sentiment of one who had been aided and encouraged by his unselfish christian life, by his unassuming dignity, greatness of heart and graciousness, which prove in what a rare degree a perfect life is possible in the actual life of one whose life is hid with Christ in God.

     EDWARD B. MORELOCK. - Mr. Morelock was born in Missouri in 1845. While but a child of two years he suffered the loss of his father, who, as sheriff of Sullivan county, was killed by the owner of property that he was selling under execution. Upon the outbreak of the Rebellion, Edward, a youth of sixteen, joined the Missouri state militia, and in 1863 and enlisted in the Forty-second Missouri Volunteer Infantry, wherein he served until the end of the war.

     In 1865 he crossed the plains to Oregon, locating near Summerville in Union county, where he took a claim and farmed and raised stock until 1881. In that year he sold his realty and located in the town of Summerville, engaging in the agricultural implement business, in which he still continues. He has been city marshal ever since the incorporation of the place in 1885. He has also acted as deputy sheriff, and has served in similar capacities in connection with his regular business. During the Nez Perce trouble of 1877 he was a member of Captain William Booth's company of Grande Ronde volunteers. He was also a lieutenant in Captain Morant's company of volunteers during the Bannack war of 1878.

     He was married in Missouri in 1864 to Miss Rebecca, daughter of Joseph and Mary Ann Harris, of a noted family in that state.

     J.H. MOORES. - Among the immigrants who came to the Sate of Oregon in 1852 was Honorable John H. Moores, the subject of this sketch, who deserves more than passing mention for the service rendered by him to the commonwealth during an active business career in the state extending over a period of twenty-eight years.

     Among the older residents who played a prominent part in the earlier development of the state was his father, the late Colonel I.B. Moores, Sr., whose love of novelty and adventure brought him as one of the first pioneers to Oregon, where he located in Lane county. He was a man of great energy and activity, and had seen considerable military service, having served in the Seminole Indian war in two campaigns with Jackson in Florida. He also commanded a regiment in the Black Hawk war in 1831, and afterwards in 1846 enlisted for the Mexican war. He came to the Sate of Oregon in 1852, locating near Eugene. He represented Lane county in the legislative assembly, and afterwards in 1857 in the state constitutional convention. He was afterwards, a Republican candidate for state senator from the county. He died in 1861, and is buried in the Odd Fellows Rural Cemetery near Salem.

     John H. Moores was born on the 21st of June, 1821, near Huntsville, in Lawrence county, Alabama, where he remained until 1825, when his father, owing to his intense aversion to the system of slavery, and prompted by the pioneer spirit which characterized his whole life, removed from the State of Alabama to Danville, Illinois, where was spent the boyhood and early manhood of his son John H. During that time the subject of this sketch had prepared himself with a view of taking a thorough course in Wabash College, then, as now, a flourishing institution located at Crawfordsville, Indiana. Subsequent events, however, modified his course; and soon after attaining his majority he determined to leave the home roof and his native town and seek his fortune elsewhere. With this end in view he finally located in Benton, Missouri, where he remained for the ensuing seven or eight years engaged in the mercantile business, returning but once in the meantime to Danville, where, in May, 1847, he was united in marriage to Miss Virginia L. Lamon, who survives him.

     In 1851 he disposed of all his interests in Missouri and returned to Illinois. There he found his father - who had been an officer under Jackson, and who

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had seen service in the war of 1812, and in war with Indians upon the frontier - again restless with the desire of change and adventure. In early life he had been a friend and companion of "old Sam Houston;" and that celebrated character, when he became governor of Texas, had urged him to remove to that state, making him very advantageous offers. This had led him to dream of Texas; and for many years his eyes were longingly turned in that direction. But his dislike of the system of slavery, which years before had driven him from the State of Alabama, finally overcame his desire to remove to the Lone Star state; and the subject of our sketch, upon his final return from Missouri, found him burning with the Oregon fever, and at his earnest request joined him in the formation of a party to come to Oregon.

     Their plans were soon put into execution; and in March, 1852, the large party organized by them began its tedious eight months' journey across the plains. Among the number who comprised this train were the late Captain Charles Holman and Joseph Butchel, ex-Sheriff of Multnomah, both of whom valiantly wielded an ox-goad upon that eight months' trip, without doubt the most memorable one of their lives. After enduring the hardships always incident to the overland trips of that day, this train reached The Dalles late in the fall. Their hardships did not end there; for they were three weeks making their way down the Columbia from that point to Portland, at which place they arrived late in November, 1852. There the party spent the winter of 1852-53.

     In February, 1853, Mr. Moores removed to Salem, where he spent the remainder of his life. He immediately began business as a merchant, associating himself with his brother-in-law, Judge R.B. Lamon, now of Washington, District of Columbia. After a  few months this partnership was dissolved, Mr. Lamon returning to the East. Mr. Moores, in company with another relative, Mr. J.N. McDonald, then purchased a stock of goods owned by the late Honorable Joseph Holman, and continued the business under the firm name of Moores & McDonald until the death of Mr. McDonald in 1855. By reason of that event Mr. Moores entered into partnership with his brother, Hon. I.R. Moores, Jr., who was associated with him during the ensuing ten years. During that period the firm built the brick block known as Moores' Block, on a spot which at that time was the extreme north end of the business part of town. In 1865 that firm was dissolved. Mr. Moores subsequently purchased the South Salem Flour and Lumber Mills, and continued that business until the year 1876, when he disposed of those interests and connected himself with the Capital Lumbering Company. He was connected with that company as secretary and manager from that time until his death, which occurred December 15, 1880.

     During the whole time of his twenty-eight years' residence in Salem, - save the last few years, when his health was so poor as to preclude him from active duties, - Mr. Moores was one of the most active and enterprising citizens of the Capital city, especially so in the work of the sanitary cause during the years of the Civil war. The institutions of Salem and the state at large found no warmer nor more liberal supporter, in proportion to his means, than John H. Moores. The confidence of his fellow citizens in his capacity and his integrity was shown by the frequency with which they called him into public service. During his earlier residence in Salem he acted as its postmaster for a long period. He was afterwards, for several years, treasurer of the county. He served the city of Salem for several years as councilman, and for four terms as its mayor.

     In 1870 he was nominated by the Republicans of Marion county for the position of state senator, and served in that capacity for four years. In conjunction with Rev. Dr. Geo. H. Atkinson, he served as state commissioner, and in that capacity secured for the state the grounds now occupied by the State Penitentiary, and the State Insane Asylum grounds. He was one of the founders of the Oregon State Agricultural Society, and acted for many years as its treasurer, and was one of it s most active promoters. In the promotion of educational interests he was ever active, performing for several years thankless work as one of the directors of the Salem public schools, and acting for nearly a quarter of a century as a member and officer of the board of trustees of Willamette University.

     He was always actuated with the belief that it was the duty of every citizen to bear a share in serving the public, and to have, and act upon, well-defined opinions upon every subject of public interest. It was this that prompted him, as one of the last acts of his life, to leave his room, - as it proved, for the last time, - without the knowledge of his physician, to cast his ballot for Garfield and Arthur for President and Vice-President of the United States. That was the last public act of his life. From the performance of that act he returned to his home and bed, never to go forth again until borne to his last resting-place by the hands of his brothers of the fraternity of Odd Fellows. He died remembered and lamented as a man who during a long and active life had always endeavored to do his whole duty, - one who had not aspired to the highest station, but had accepted and conscientiously discharged the duties of humbler places, where the emoluments were nothing, the honors light and the burdens heavy, and where too often the capacity and responsibility required were equal to that demanded in the highest places.

     We can close this sketch in no more appropriate way than by repeating the words of another: "He believed in deeds more than in words. As a business man, not one blot rests upon the name of the departed. Kind, affable, accommodating, honest, he won friends everywhere. As a husband and parent, he was the same kind, considerate, loving man, deeply and constantly devoted to the interests of his family. He leaves a wealth of example, a heritage of love, better than all the gold of California."

     LEE MOORHOUSE. - It was some years before the Inland Empire realized its own wealth. The hills were formerly accounted worthless. Mr. Moorhouse was among the first to dissipate that notion.

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The Prospect Hill farm, of four thousand acres, eighteen miles west of Pendleton, of which he was superintendent, during his incumbency of four years, produced two hundred and fifty thousand bushels of wheat.

     The Moorhouses were from Iowa, Lee having been born there in 1850. They came to Oregon in 1861, locating in Umatilla county, near the present site of Pendleton, and when the country was so sparsely settled that no more than fifteen families could be found within a radius of twenty-five miles of that point. The father bought a squatt4er's right near Walla Walla; and Lee, at the tender age of fourteen, set off for a tour of the mines in Idaho and British Columbia. Despite his youth he met with fair success.

     Returning home he attended school at Walla Walla for some years, and studied civil engineering under Horace Hurlburt on the Oregon & California Railroad. Coming to Pendleton, he was appointed county surveyor by a Democratic board of commissioners, although he was himself an ardent Republican. Four years passing away, he engaged in business with the pioneer merchant, Lot Livermore, and subsequently with John R. Foster at Umatilla. The Bannack outbreak of 1878 now required his services; and he received the appointment of assistant adjutant-general of the Oregon state militia, with the rank of major, holding that commission for four years.

     In the meanwhile a company of Portland men - John R. Foster, H.W. Corbett, C.H. Lewis, T.A. Davis, J.H. Kunzie, Charles Hodge, and Lee Moorhouse - had formed a company of buying and running a large grain farm. The Prospect Hill farm, already mentioned, was bought and equipped, and was run at a total expense of one hundred thousand dollars, but with a large profit. Moorhouse was the superintendent until 1883, when he re-entered the merchandising business with Lot Livermore at Pendleton.

     He has been a very active member of the Republican party, having been a regular delegate to the convention since he was twenty-two. He is now chairman of the county central committee, and a member of the state central committee. He was mayor in 1885, and was city treasurer up to the time he entered upon the duties of Indian agent upon the Umatilla Indian Reservation, to which he was appointed by President Harrison in 1889. He is an enthusiastic believer in the future development of Pendleton, believing that it will have ten thousand inhabitants in the near future.

     In 1876 he was married to Miss Ella, the daughter of William Willis, a pioneer of 1852, and a wealthy farmer and prominent politician of Umatilla county. There are now four children in the family, - Lessie, Gussie, Mark and Lavelle. The career of Mr. Moorhouse, although highly flattering to himself and useful to his community, has not yet reached its perihelion.

     CAPT. HENRY E. MORGAN. - This well-known pioneer of 1849 is a native of Groton, Connecticut, and was born October 30, 1825. He moved with his parents to Meriden, in the same state, residing there until April, 1849, when he set forth for California in a bark via Cape Horn, arriving in San Francisco the following September. A short time afterwards he began a sea-faring life, and for fifteen years sailed the ocean. During that time he entered nearly all the noted foreign ports, and later purchased a vessel of his own and followed a coasting trade. In 1858 he located in Port Townsend, Washington territory, and after quitting the sea began to till the soil, and followed farming for six years. In 1863 he was elected representative from Jefferson county, and ably filled that office for two terms. In 1879 he was appointed inspector of hulls for the Puget sound district.

     He has invested from time to time in real estate in Port Townsend, and is now one of the largest property owners of the city, and after the buffetings of many years is safely anchored in a happy home, esteemed by his acquaintances and honored by the citizens of the town in which he lives. His family consists of a wife and one daughter.

     HON. HIRAM D. MORGAN. - This gentleman, whose portrait appears in this history, and who is so well known up and down the Sound, has had a varied pioneer life since 1853. He is a native of Ohio, having been born at Mount Ayre in 1822. During his boyhood, his parents moved to Marion and other portions of the state; and in the course of his development he learned the carpenter's trade, which has ever been a great reliance to him.

     In 1846 he came out to Oskaloosa, Iowa, and in 1853 became one of the Davis party to cross the plains to Oregon. At Salmon Falls he left the train and came on to Fort Boise, and with all his possessions on his shoulders walked down to The Dalles, and at the Cascades was employed by Bush & Baker in building a large bateau and ferry-boat. In October he left for Olympia, and in 1854 built there a schooner, the Emlie Parker, on a speculation, which he sold to advantage. When the war broke out in 1855 he was engaged by Michael T. Simmons, Indian agent, to act as his secretary. Mr. Morgan was soon selected by the Indians to act as agent. He built seven houses under contract on the Squakson agency, and twelve house for the Indians on the Puyallup agency, and in 1861 was appointed by the government as agent of the Tulalip Reservation.

     In 1858 he took a tour home to Iowa via San Francisco, Panama and New York. although attempting to live after this on the prairies of Kansas, he recrossed the continent with his family. He reached Olympia late in the autumn, and gained a livelihood by plying his trade, but, with an eye to the future, secured a homestead four miles west of the town. In 1875 he endeavored once more to leave the territory and to live in California, but returned after a three months' absence, and engaged in the grocery business until 1876. In that year he selected a new home and business at Snohomish, Washington Territory, engaging with his sons in a sawmill and sash and door factory. He has there a remunerative occupation, and enjoys all the comforts that attend a well-spent life.

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In a public capacity, he has filled the office of probate judge, justice of the peace and county commissioner. He was married in Ohio in 1844 to Miss Maria Van Arsdell, of New York, who died in 1846, leaving one child. His present wife, Mary J. Trout, is a native of Ohio. Of their seven children, four are living, - L.G., the wife of E.C. Ferguson, John D., Benjamin H. and Alonzo W.

     M.J. MORLAN. - This prominent citizen of The Dalles was born in Lake county, Ohio, in 1835. In 1846 he moved to La Salle county, Illinois. In that state his parents were successful in securing good land and in improving their farms; and this was the home of our subject until he attained his majority. With a somewhat limited education, but with abundance of muscle and determination, he began life for himself working as a hired hand on his father's farm, and saving nearly all his earnings.

     His innate ambition and desire to reach the higher walks of life induced him to cross the plains in1857 to Portland, Oregon. Being but ill suited with this Webfoot metropolis, he returned eastward as far as Walla Walla and found a desirable location on the Touchet river, improving his own place and assisting the various ranchers until, in1860, he was able to buy a ranch at Dayton. His venture there, however, proving but a partial success, he disposed of his property in 1864, and removed again to Western Oregon, returning eastward in 1867 to Wasco county and engaging in sheep-husbandry. The first four years of that occupation were but little remunerative; and in 1871 he moved to Umatilla county, engaging very successfully in agriculture.

     In 1873 he was married to Miss Mary E. Jones, who has born him two children, Charles and Mary.

     Some four years since he found that his ranges were becoming restricted by reason of the extensive fencing and plowing of the land; and he therefore disposed of his sheep and invested the proceeds in land, owning at the present time a fine ranch near Heppner and grazing lands in Wasco county. Mr. Morlan has never aspired to political preferment, but is a fine example of those sturdy pioneers whose labor has made our state what she is to-day.

     ROBERT WILSON MORRISON. - This leading pioneer of the immigration of 1844 was born March 14, 1811, in Fleming county, Kentucky, of Scotch parentage. In 1822 he moved with his parents to Montgomery county, Missouri, living with them until his marriage in 1831, to Miss Nancy Irwin. Two years later a move was made to Clay county, and thence to Clinton county, on the border of the territory occupied by the Indians of the plains. Upon the consummation of the "Platte purchase," he moved with his family into that frontier region, and for six years lived in Andrew county.

     The excitement and interest in respect to Oregon was then, in 1843-44, reaching a high pitch among the people of the frontier; and in that particular neighborhood the Oregon fever was still further inflamed by letters from a man named Smith, formerly of that section, but then in Oregon, who was urging his people to come to the land by the Pacific Ocean. Indeed, all information obtainable was found to be favorable to Oregon; and, in time for the trip next season, Mr. Morrison was among the number who were armed, equipped and well prepared for the march across the plains. His wife and six children were of course to accompany him; and there were two young men taken into the family as fellow-travelers, - John Minto and Willard H. Rees, - who have since become eminent in our state.

     Many of the incidents of that eventful season on the plains have been narrated elsewhere; and it will not therefore be necessary to give the details here. Upon the organization of the large company under Colonel Cornelius Gilliam, Mr. Morrison was chosen one of the captains; and, in point of fact, there afterwards devolved upon him the larger share of the management of the company. In the matter of the stampeding of cattle by the Indians of the agency, as described elsewhere, he took a prominent part in recovering scattered stock; and in the prompt action by which the cattle that had been slaughtered by the Indians were replaced by animals from the post, to be paid for out of the Indians' annuities, he was a leading spirit.

     At the Vermilion there was a delay of fourteen days, owing to heavy rains; and although a crossing was finally effected by means of a ferry, and by swimming the stock, a general feeling began to prevail that Colonel Gilliam was not fortunate in his movements; and the independent settlers, with their own families and teams, not being proper subjects of the military discipline of which the Colonel in the Florida war had become a master, were now beginning to manifest their dissatisfaction. He therefore, not caring to retain authority over the whole train, set out ahead with such as wished, from ability to travel rapidly, or from personal preference, to be with him; while the greater part of the company remained behind under the command of Morrison and Shaw.

     The most exciting and difficult portion of the journey was on the stretch from the eastern slopes of the Blue Mountains to the Willamette valley. Even before entering those mountains, on the eastern borders of our state, provisions began to show signs of exhaustion; and, from the Burnt river hills to the waters of the Umatilla, snow or ice was experienced. From the Umatilla to The Dalles, there was great annoyance from the Indians. On one occasion an ox was stolen; and Mr. Morrison, captain of the train, made every effort to recover the animal for the owner. Finding the track, with a horse track on each side, he traced it into the hills, expecting the owner and others to follow. He was, however, left to make the pursuit alone, and after a time was joined by four Indians armed with bows and arrows; while his only weapon was a sheath knife in his belt.

     The savages pretended to be interested in his search, urging him on, and insisting that he should go over the next hill. By this means his mind was diverted; and, coming near, they snatched his knife away and flourished it over his head threateningly. Without weapons of any kind, he was at their mercy, but nevertheless faced them calmly, looking

482                                                             HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

them steadily in the eye, and, seeing no assistance coming, walked away deliberately, until he had passed out of their sight behind a bank, and then made the best of his way back to the train. There he found that the owner of the lost ox had started to accompany him, but had turned back upon seeing the Indians.

     Sometime after this Captain Morrison lost a very valuable horse of his own, and was also obliged to follow its tracks for a long distance in the hills, being careful to provide himself this time with a rifle, but failing to discover his property. At the ford of the Des Chutes, while Captain Morrison was stopping behind to pay the Indian guide, Mrs. Morrison was driving. As she passed by a narrow spot in the road an ugly Indian appeared, who endeavored to run the team over the bank by whipping the lead oxen. The plucky lady, however, counteracted his efforts by striking him over the head with the butt of her ox-goad. Being much enraged at this, the Indian now thought to ride over her, urging the Cayuse upon which he was mounted towards her; but she rained down the blows so rapidly that he was soon ready to turn and flee. The same evening, after camp was made, Indians came in and showed their ill will by kicking out the fires. Their mischief was stopped by Rees and Morrison, who soon came in and made ready with their guns to abate the nuisance.

     At The Dalles the wagons had to be left; and, after sending off young Rees with the cattle on the trail down the river, Mr. Morrison with his family took passage some days later on the river for Vancouver. At a point some eighteen or twenty miles below The Dalles, a light was discovered on shore; and, it was thought to be that of white men, the strangers were hailed. A satisfactory reply being received, the boat was urged into shore. Much to Mr. Morrison's surprise, he found the Rees party there, and discovered that the cattle had been abandoned in the mountains, having become unmanageable in a snowstorm, in which the drivers had become bewildered and lost. Having Rees take his place in the boat to look after his family, Mr. Morrison stopped off on shore to hunt up the cattle. Soon securing all but those that had died from eating poisonous plants, he set out on the return to The Dalles. At Hood river, then unnamed, they ate a dog belonging to Mr. Gerrish, preferring its flesh to that of animals that had been poisoned; and hence the name Dog river, by which that stream used to be known.

     At The Dalles he left the cattle in charge of George Bush and David Kindred; and, as the winter proved favorable, the animals came through fat in the spring. At that time he also made the acquaintance of Reverend A.F. Waller, who extended to him the most cordial hospitality, and afforded him entertainment and all comforts obtainable, until he could find passage down the river to join his family, whom he supposed to be safe at Vancouver. At the Cascades, however, he was horrified to find his family still exposed to the winter storms, camping in a rotten tent, and almost wholly destitute of provisions. Indeed for twelve days they had been subsisting upon bacon-rinds that Mrs. Morrison had economically stowed away on the trip to use for soap grease when she should reach once more a stationary abode. Rees was below looking for a boat, but returned about this time with one that he met on the way; and, under the guidance of Colonel Ford, the whole party reached the fort in safety.

     They were housed and fed by Doctor McLoughlin, who also allowed a credit of six dollars to each at the company's store. Taking his family on to Linnton, a point somewhat below Portland, he left them in camp, while he himself went on to the Clatsop Plains, on the ocean shore near the mouth of the Columbia, and selected as a claim the place upon which he now resides, and from which he has never been absent a Christmas day since 1844. His wife and children spent the time until January, 1845, at a point a little above Vancouver, whence they went to Clatsop.

     There a home was made in the face of many difficulties. Mr. Morrison was a pioneer in raising grain on the plains, and also erected a grist and saw mill. He served during the Cayuse war, and was the officer in charge of the fort at The Dalles. He was also elected and served as a member of the first legislature of the State of Oregon. He has for many years been engaged in the stock and dairy business on Clatsop Plains, and has a fine tract of land of dune, prairie, meadow and hillside, which now in the era of railroad construction from Astoria southward is rapidly rising in value.

     Nancy Irwin, for almost sixty years the wife of R.W. Morrison, was born April 27, 1809, in Fleming county, Kentucky, and removed in 1815 with her parents to Missouri, where she was married in 1831. It was much against her wishes and judgment that the Oregon trip was undertaken; but, once on the way, there was no woman more heroic nor enthusiastic in the performance of the duties which fell to the lot of a wife and mother during that great journey. Her chastisement of the ugly Indian has already been mentioned; and upon another occasion she cleared the corral of Indians who were trying to make off wit her cow. With all her frontier strength and vigor, she has been, as at present, a woman of great delicacy and refinement of character, a devoted Christian, and a possessor of the winning qualities of the true lady. Of her nine children, all but one, who died at the age of eighteen, have reached a vigorous mature life, and now occupy honorable positions, all living upon this coast.

     HON. JACKSON L. MORROW.- It is not so uncommon a thing in this land of a great future for a man to lay out a town or build a city; but there is, we believe, but one man in the state who may be called the maker of a county, and whose name is perpetuated in its designation: that man is Jackson L. Morrow, of Heppner, Oregon, whose sketch is here presented. This honor was worthily bestowed upon him at the instance and almost insistence of his neighbors, in recognition of his privations and labors in settling up the region, in building Heppner, and in securing the division of Morrow county from Umatilla.

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     A region which was once regarded as inaccessible and desolate has now become, by the efforts of a driving body of men, beginning with Mr. Morrow and Mr. Heppner, a thriving and prosperous portion of Oregon. The population of the county is now six thousand, and of Heppner itself about one thousand, with a good outlook in the near future for five thousand. A branch line of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company brings the city within easy reach of all the markets, and taps a great grain and grazing belt. The first settler upon the townsite of the city was G.W. Standsbury. Morrow and Heppner came next; and together they set in operation the works which have made the place. A subsidy of twenty-five thousand dollars was paid to the railroad company to extend their line and make the city their terminus, as it will be for many years. This shows something of the enterprise of the place.

     Mr. Morrow was born in Kentucky in 1827. His father was a trader, and in pursuit of his calling moved with his family to Illinois in 1837, and after three years to Iowa. There he was educated at Mount Pleasant. Thirteen years subsequently the young man came to Oregon, soon finding a home on the Sound at Olympia. Afterwards, in Mason county, he engaged in merchandising, lumbering, mail-contracting, ranching, etc., and induced his parents to come from the East and make their home upon this coast. The father afterwards moved to Washington Territory. He was a man of more than average ability, and showed his capacity for public affairs by taking an active part in politics, and occupying a seat in the territorial legislature. The son, the subject of this sketch, was also interested in matters political, and was auditor of Mason county, to which office he was elected on the Democratic ticket.

     During the Indian war of 1855-56, Mr. Morrow did essential service in collecting the Indians who were disposed to be peaceable at the head of North Bay. It was the policy of the government to feed and protect all the Indians that were willing to surrender their arms, to parties appointed to receive them, and be friendly with the Whites. Owing to this order during the fall of 1855, Mr. Morrow went with Colonel Simmons to Fort Nisqually, and with the influence and assistance of Doctor Tomie got the consent of the Indians to be moved to the head of North Bay, where they could be more easily protected from the Whites, and where they would also be away from the influence of the hostiles then in the field.

     Morrow and Simmons succeeded in gathering up some two or three hundred and locating them at that point, and kept them for at least four months. Morrow then received orders from Colonel Simmons and Governor Stevens to move them onto Square Island, the place already selected for the reservation. At that point they collected at least two hundred more Indians, making five or six hundred in all. His duties were somewhat disagreeable, as he must give passes and assign daily rations; and, feeling this work monotonous, he resigned and went into the volunteer service, serving in that capacity until the end of the trouble. Many of his experiences led him into peril; and he performed a number of memorable exploits in the field.

     In 1864 Mr. Morrow turned his face away from salt water, going to the heart of the Blue Mountains, and engaging at La Grande in general merchandising. He was elected at that place a member of the common council, and was chosen president of that body, - ex officio mayor. Mr. Morrow was also county treasurer of Union county for four years. After eight years in that delightful valley, he located in that portion of Umatilla county which now is constituted Morrow county, building the first house and opening a stock of goods, with a determination to make a city. In this he has been remarkably successful, the city of Heppner (named by himself for his partner) having a phenomenally rapid growth.

     He was elected to the Oregon legislature while yet in Umatilla, and in the two houses of that body pushed through the bill to erect the county of Morrow, - named thus at the desire of his constituents. He still conducts his business with marked ability, and enjoys the personal esteem of a large and influential community. He is one of Oregon's prominent, representative men, whose life-work is incorporated distinctively in her structure. His city is his pride; and he looks confidently to its large increase in a short space of time.

     In the Indian war of 1856 he bore his part, being appointed assistant agent on the Squak Reservation, and doing active duty as scout under Captain Smith.

     He married in Iowa Miss Nancy McEwan, and brought his wife to this new home in the West. Of their eight children but one, now an active man of thirty, is living.

     OLNEY N. MORSE. - The subject of this sketch, who was one of the argonauts of 1849, was born in Westfield, Chautauqua county, New York, December 4, 1826, and is the son of William and Lydia Ford Morse. During his early years he resided on his father's farm, and received his education at the common schools until the spring of 1849. In that year he organized a company with nine other young men to cross the plains to the gold fields of California. Being elected secretary and treasurer of the party, he was sent to St. Louis in advance, and purchased the outfit and provisions, being soon joined by his associates. Having come to Council Bluffs, this little band started on foot or horseback across the plains, their company being known as the Westfield train.

     They arrived in Sacramento October 17, 1849, and still maintained their organization as they proceeded to the Amador mines, where they met with good success. January 1, 1850, Mr. Morse returned to Sacramento and opened a restaurant and hotel, which he conducted until the disastrous floods in the following March, which swept away his building. He then engaged in driving freight teams to the mines at a salary of eleven dollars per day. He followed that occupation until the company intimated a cut of one dollar per day, when Mr. Morse severed his connection with the company and embarked for himself in the general merchandise trade in El Dorado county, where he conducted a very

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successful business for about one year, making over one thousand dollars per month.

     He then closed out and determined to return East, but upon arriving at Sacramento saw a golden opportunity in a stage line from Sacramento to Georgetown, and another line from Sacramento to Jackson; and in the fall of 1851 he began to operate those lines, continuing that business until the consolidation of his lines with the Oregon & California Stage Company, Mr. Morse taking thirty thousand dollars worth of stock in the latter company. This proved an insecure investment, as a few years later, owing to the mismanagement of the Oregon & California company, he met with the entire loss of his stock. He then followed ranching and hotel-keeping in different places, until, in 1861, he purchased the well-known "Q" ranch, situated in the Ione valley, Amador county, paying therefor twenty thousand dollars, and residing upon it until 1879. In that year he sold out and returned to Sacramento.

     In 1883 he came to Seattle, Washington Territory, and in 1886 leased the well-known and popular Arlington Hotel, a view of which is placed in this volume. The popularity of Mr. Morse and that of his hotel became so general that he was compelled to secure more accommodations for his ever-increasing patronage; and in 1888 he built on his own property the magnificent four-story Morse Building, adjoining the Arlington, upon a foundation sixty by one hundred and twenty feet. This was furnished with a thorough system of steam-heating and gas, and was magnificently furnished. It was destroyed by fire in the great conflagration on June 6, 1889. Mr. Morse combines all the qualities necessary for a successful hotel proprietor. Having a disposition to accommodate, and possessed of generous promptings towards his fellow-man, he greets the stranger, the guest or the friend in that peculiar way which carries with it an impression of a kind wish that seldom fails to leave a desire with the recipient to do him a favor if he can.

     Mr. Morse was married in El Dorado county, California, January 12, 1859, to Miss Margaret Winchell, a native of Illinois. By this union they have three children.

     MOSES. - This noted chief, who presides with almost regal authority over the vast reservation in Northern Washington named from himself, has had a strange and romantic history. According to his own story (the matter has been much disputed) he is of Cherokee birth. He says that when a child he went with an uncle to Wisconsin. Having been lost by that uncle, he wandered several years. At last, having made his way across the Rocky Mountains, staying long enough among the various tribes to become somewhat acquainted with their various languages and customs, he brought up among the Spokanes. His ability and strength soon won him the admiring recognition of the tribe; and by degrees he became the head chief of the mongrel remnants of tribes between the Spokane and the Columbia.

     Some have maintained that he is in reality a white man. However this may be, it is true that he can speak and write the language perfectly, and in whatever way he may be approached shows extraordinary ability and boldness. He has acquired great wealth in horses and cattle. There are those who hint at dark and desperate deeds in the grim defiles of his "coulée," which have supplied him abundantly with gold and jewels. Probably no one can aver with certainty of this matter; but it is true that traders and miners have mysteriously disappeared in those rocky solitudes; and the "king of the coulées" is not known to be in lack of whatever of gold and wine and women his fiery passions may crave.

     He is now about fifty years old. He is of lofty stature and giant strength. Aside from the uncanny and searching look of his restless eyes, he is almost the perfection of barbarous beauty. There is nothing in his looks to sustain the theory of his white origin. On account of his oratorical ability and majestic mien, he has often been called the Webster of the Columbia.

     COL. LA FAYETTE MOSHER. - There is perhaps no resident of Oregon more widely known and generally respected than L.F. Mosher. He has held so many prominent positions, and is so well qualified to fill them, that it only seems a natural thing to see him in the senate, and as a justice of the supreme court. He was born in Benton county, Kentucky, September 1, 1824. So entirely did he bend his energies tot he gaining of an education, that at the age of nineteen years we find him a graduate of Woodward College, Cincinnati, where he carried off honors on June 30, 1843. After graduating, he acted as deputy clerk of the supreme court of Hamilton county, where he remained until the breaking out of the Mexican war. He at once came valiantly forward and joined the Fourth Ohio Regiment, and served in the brigade of General Joseph Lane until the close of the war.

     When the war was ended he entered the law office of Pugh & Pendleton, the members of the firm being ex-Senator George E. Pugh, now deceased, and ex-Senator George H. Pendleton. He was admitted to the bar in May, 1852, and at once began the practice of his profession in Cincinnati. He came to Oregon with General Lane in 1853, landing in Portland in May of that year. The following months he went to the mines in Jackson county, and took part in the Indian war of the same year, acting as adjutant-general under General Lane. He also earnestly engaged in the Indian war of 1855-56, acting as a volunteer, though not enlisted in any company. In the year 1855, upon the creation of the Southern Oregon land district, he was appointed registrar by President Pierce, and was continued in the office until the administration of President Lincoln, when he was removed.

     In 1870 he was elected to the state senate, and three years later was appointed justice of the supreme court of Oregon by Governor L.F. Grover, vice A.J. Thayer, now deceased. In 1884 he was selected by President Arthur as one of the board of visitors to West Point.

     After filling so many prominent positions, and so well accomplishing his mission in each and all, Colonel Mosher has now settled quietly down to the

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practice of his profession, and is enjoying all the comforts of home life in the beautiful little city of Roseburg, in Southern Oregon. He has well earned the high esteem and universal respect so fully accorded him by all his acquaintances; and, although many do not know him personally, they realize his sterling qualities as a man, - holding a position by the voice of the people, and acting in accord with their earnest desires and principles.

     He was married to Miss Winifred Lane, a daughter of General Lane, on July 1, 1856. Their union has been blessed by six children, two sons and four daughters.

     SIDNEY WALTER MOSS. - Mr. Moss is a venerable and noticeable character among the pioneers, not only for his long residence in Oregon, but for the esteem in which he has ever been held by the people. He has, in an eminent degree, that quality for which the early Oregonians have been remarkable, - liberality.

     He was born in Paris, Kentucky, March 17,1810. His father, Moses Moss, was a Baptist minister; and his mother, Katherine Buckford Moss, was a woman of great force and elevation of character. The young man learned the trade of stone-cutting, and in 1828 left Kentucky for Ohio. He found an abundance of work in the Buckeye state, but in 1837 went on to Indiana, working at Madison and on the Madison & Indianapolis Railway. At the state capital he erected two bank buildings.

     In 1839 he was back in Kentucky working on lock three on the Licking river canal. In 1841 he was at Fort Smith in full charge of the stone-cutting department in work then under construction. But a desire for the wild West there overtook him; and he joined the company of Doctor White for Oregon. That was the first genuine immigration; and the particulars are given elsewhere. At Waiilatpu Mr. Moss met Doctor Whitman, and remembers his inquiries about the Ashburton treaty, and in what shape Oregon would be left, and believes that the Doctor's trip undertaken the October following with A.L. Lovejoy was for political reasons.

     Reaching Oregon City, our skilled stone-cutter found the country a wilderness; and there was no work to do except chopping wood. The remuneration for chopping fifteen cords was sufficient to last him a few days; and after this was completed he found similar odd jobs requiring neither energy nor skill. It was impossible to remain in a country on pain of living a nondescript life; and he did as all the Oregonians of spirit found it necessary; he made work and created business. He put up a house fourteen by seventeen feet and seven and one-half feet high, and opened it as a hotel. In connection with this he kept a livery stable, the first west of the Rocky Mountains. The first ferry-boat run on the Willamette was built by him; and he also mentions with pride that he dug the first well, grubbed the first stump, and built the first board fence in Oregon City. After four years he built a larger hotel and operated it until 1858. He made his home and caravansary the instrument of much unrewarded hospitality; but generous deeds done for the needy, as so many of the immigrants were, will not be forgotten or be without the reward of the just.

     Between 1849 and 1854, he also carried a stock of goods and did a large business. As he lived at the old capital, he acquired a faith in the place which led him to invest largely in farming property; and, although residing at the city, he gave his chief attention to agricultural operations until 1871. He did much voluntary public work in the early days, acting as assessor without salary, and traveling in that capacity all the way from Vancouver to Eugene, and from The Dalles to Astoria. Of his five thousand acres of land, he has given the most to his children, but retains a competency for himself.

     Mr. Moss has ever been a stout Whig and Republican, although a Kentuckian, and having been brought up in early life by the aunt of Jefferson Davis.

     JOHNSON MULKEY. - This prominent pioneer of Oregon was born in Knox county, Kentucky, in January, 1808. His father, Philip Mulkey, and mother (whose maiden name was Margaret Miller), were natives of Germany. In the year 1818 they moved with their young family to Missouri, settling in Lafayette county, where the father soon after died, leaving his widow with nine children. Johnson was married in 1835 to Mrs. Susan Roberts, née Brown. In the summer of 1845 he crossed the plains to Oregon, and on arriving took up a land claim in Benton county three miles west of what is now Corvallis.

     Returning to Missouri in 1846, in the spring of 1847 he again started westward, accompanied by his family, two brothers, Luke and Thomas, with their families, and also a large number of old friends and neighbors. The company brought a large herd of cattle. after a summer's long, hard travel, so well remembered by all early pioneers, they arrived in the Willamette valley in the month of October. Mr. Mulkey engaged in the avocation of rearing and dealing in stock. His home was always open to new settlers, whom he assisted according to their necessities with work, seeds, and kind, encouraging words. Finding the church organization to which he belonged struggling to gain a foothold in the new country, he immediately connected therewith and contributed liberally toward its support; and no man in Benton county did more to extend its usefulness and influence.

     News of the discover of gold in California reaching Oregon, he was among the first to repair thither with cattle, pack-trains, etc. Several trips were also made to Southern Oregon, and later to Idaho. On his return by stage in February, 1862,from a business trip to that territory, a severe snowstorm was encountered, which blockaded the roads, and compelled the passengers to travel on foot the remaining distance between the John Day river and The Dalles. Becoming exhausted from this exposure, Mr. Mulkey shortly after died at the latter point. His loss was keenly felt and deplored by all who knew him.

     Simple and unassuming in his manners, but possessing also great energy and ambition, he involuntarily won the respect and esteem of all with whom

486                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

he came in contact. His name, honored and unsullied, is held in sacred memory by his surviving sons and daughters, who are to-day among the most useful and enterprising citizens of Oregon and Washington.

     MARION FRANCIS MULKEY.- This gentleman, the eldest son of Johnson Mulkey, and who took up, and conducted in the spirit, and to some extent in the method, the pioneer activities of his father, was born in Johnson county, Missouri, November 14, 1836. He was therefore but a boy of ten when, in 1847, he accompanied his father across the continent to Oregon. His, however, was one of those old heads on young shoulders; and so responsible was he, and so capable of affairs, that he was intrusted with the driving of oxen, and all work adapted to his strength, with the same confidence as a grown man. Upon arriving in Oregon and beginning life anew on the Donation claim in Benton county, he played his part in felling timber, breaking and fencing land, and erecting the frontiersman's temporary buildings as vigorously as anyone in the family.

     He early drew from his parents a desire for education, and after his first essays in learning at the log schoolhouse, under the tuition of such men as Senator J.H. Slater, and Honorable Philip Ritz, was eager to take advantage of the assistance furnished by his father to pursue higher studies at Forest Grove, under the guidance of the late Doctor S.H. Marsh. This assistance he supplemented by labor of his own, following the traditional method of the youth ambitious of self-improvement, -teaching school during vacations. It was while at school that the Indian war of 1856 broke out; and, although then but a boy of eighteen, young Mulkey saddled his pony and rode off to the seat of hostilities.

     In 1858 he was able to consummate a purpose formed long before, that of going East and entering Yale College. As a companion in this undertaking he had J.W.J. Johnson, now president of the University of Oregon. Graduating in 1862, he returned to Portland, and read law with Judge E.D. Shattuck. For the legal profession he was found to have great aptitude on account of his naturally logical and accurate mind; and his acquisitions from the study of Latin and Greek gave him an understanding of the power of language, and a facility and directness in its use, which placed him early in the rank of old and leading attorneys. In 1863 he took time from his studies to act as assistant provost-marshal, and aided in making the enrollment of that year.

     In 1864 he was admitted to the bar. He was soon thereafter intrusted with public duties, being elected in 1866 as prosecuting attorney for Portland, and was re-elected in 1873. Since that year and to the time of his death he was associated with Honorable J.F. Caples as attorney-at-law, and filled the responsible position of deputy during the three successive terms of his partner's service as attorney for the district.

     As a lawyer Mr. Mulkey had few superiors, and ranked with the ablest men of his profession in the state. As a speaker he was logical, and kept his point in constant view, compelling the attention of the jury, and convincing them to the full extent of his premises. While usually cool and unemotional, he was capable of breaking into passages of deep feeling and eloquence. A lawyer of Portland who knew him well says of him: "he was a man of tireless energy and perseverance, resolutely and patiently working until his object was accomplished. He had consistency of purpose, prudence and common sense to balance and guide the energy that impelled him. There was no frittering away of his powers upon alien pleasures or pursuits. In court he was a troublesome antagonist, and one to be feared; for if there was a weak point in the case, or a flaw in the logic, he would mercilessly expose it. I cannot recollect any act in the heat of conflict that left aught of bitterness behind."

     In business he was exact, and of accumulative turn of mind, consistently making acquisitions of property in and about Portland, which he subsequently improved with good edifices, such as the Mulkey Building, which will always stand as, in some sort, a memento of his purely business activities, and his conception of a property-owner's duty to the city. As an early citizen of the state he had a love of an orderly and substantial society, free from the riotous and gambling spirit of a large portion of the West, which should grow by steady increment and natural business evolution and the development of the resources of the country. He, as much as anyone, carried this conception to its present practical dominance in our state.

     He was united in marriage, in 1862, to Miss Mary E. Porter of New Haven, Connecticut, a New England lady of great intelligence and large culture, who has brought to bear, in the society and intellectual and moral life of Portland, much the same strong influence for the best things as was exercised by her husband in the professional, political and business fields. Of their two sons, Frank, an alumnus of the State University, will follow his father's profession; while Fred, some years younger, is still at school.

     The death of Mr. Mulkey, which occurred the 25th of February, 1889, was felt as a blow tot he community, and as a personal loss to very many throughout the state and the Pacific Northwest.

     WILLIAM MUNKS. - Mr. Munks, an excellent portrait of whom is placed in this history, is a veteran of several wars, as well as a pioneer, trapper and scout in the early days of the Pacific coast. He is to-day one of the most widely known men on Puget Sound, being often called "king of the Fidalgo Island" as he was the first white man to locate on its shores. It was then a part of Whatcom county, Washington Territory, but is now included in the boundary of Skagit. Mr. Munk was the first white man that lived within the present confines of the latter county, and was born in Canton, Ohio. At the early age of six years he suffered the loss, by death, of his father.

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     Upon the breaking out of the war with Mexico, he enlisted in the Fifteenth Infantry, United States volunteers, under General (then Colonel) George W. Morgan, with whom he remained until the close of hostilities. The military record of the family is rather bright, his grandfather having served in the war for independence, his father in the war of 1812, and his only brother following the fortunes of Sherman on his march to the sea. In 1849 he left the East to seek his fortune in the far West. After hunting and trapping for a time on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains, he came onto Oregon, and then proceeded to the mines of Northern California, where he followed mining with good success until 1855, during which time he took part in two Indian wars, and had many skirmishes with the savages. In the fall of the above year he returned to Oregon and entered the service of the Indian Department under General Joel Palmer, with whom he served in different capacities. He was one of the nine men sent out by the Department, under the command of Captain Jake Rhinerson, to gather and bring in the hostile Rogue river Indians and place them on the Coast Reservation, located at Fort Yamhill and the Silitz, during which service he had many very narrow escapes from savage fury. He then for a time served as an express messenger for the Indian Department.

     When he had severed his connection with the Department, he started on a perilous trading and prospecting trip to the headwaters of the Columbia river, passing through a hostile Indian country from The Dalles to the Pend d'Oreille in safety, owing to his knowledge of the Indian character, and his possessing the faculty of obtaining the good will and respect of the Indians. After making this successful trip, he came to Puget Sound, and served one season on the United States Boundary Commission, then locating the boundary line between Washington Territory and British Columbia. On the breaking out of the great Frazer river excitement, he was the first to establish a trading post above Fort Yale, where he also successfully embarked in mining operations.

     In the latter part of 1859, Mr. Munks concluded to retire from trapping, hunting and the life of a mountaineer, and that year selected his beautiful place on Fidalgo Island, now known as Munks' Landing. His nearest white neighbor at the time of his locating on the island was twenty-five miles distant. Although surrounded by Indians in his new home, he was never molested. In the spring of 1860 he again caught the trading fever, and going to The Dalles purchased pack animals and loaded them with goods, and went to the Similkameen mines, where he disposed of horses and goods to good advantage, and again returned to The Dalles. There he joined a government exploring expedition, under Major Stein, for the purpose of exploring the Harney Lake country.

     In the following fall he returned to his island home, where he has since resided, engaged in the cultivation of his large farm, in beautifying his home, and in conducting his mercantile store, in which he has been engaged for the past eighteen years. He has held various offices of public trust, and for the past twenty years has been postmaster at Fidalgo. Mr. Munks has one of the finest farms on Puget Sound; and Munks' Landing is one of the old landmarks on the Lower Sound. No one travels that route without remarking upon the delightful surroundings and beautiful landscape that greet the eye as he comes in sight of Fidalgo.

     Mr. Munks has accumulated a sufficiency of this world's goods to enable him to take that ease and comfort that always attend an active and industrious life. He owns over one thousand acres of valuable land in Skagit, Whatcom and King counties. His Fidalgo property has become very valuable, as the Ship Harbor Railroad now building has established a station near his steamer landing; and it is his intention to plat part of his farm for a townsite. It is certainly one of the most beautiful locations for a city to be found on the Sound.

     GEORGE MURPHY. - The firm of Murphy & Burns occupies an important place in the business of Sprague, Washington. Their book and stationery business, including also novelties and jewelry, now aggregates some twenty thousand dollars a year and is rapidly increasing. This is a dept for these articles to the Big Bend and Okanagan countries.

     Mr. Murphy is a native of Ireland, and was born at Limerick. He is a veteran of the United States navy. He came to New York in 1858, and in 1862 joined the United States marine corps, serving under Commander E.Y. McConley for three years on the gunboats Fort Henry and Tioga. He was honorably discharged in 1866, and, coming to San Francisco, was occupied on steamboats and in hotels. In 1881 he came to The Dalles, where he opened a small stationery and cigar store, remaining there one year, after which he came to Sprague and engaged in his present business. His career does credit to his intelligence and activity; and as a defender of the Union he merits the lasting gratitude of all.

     DAVID MURRAY. - This gentleman is a well-known capitalist. He has retired from active business, and is now reaping the benefits of a life full of even and unceasing hard work. David Murray is a name that every youngster in the Kittitass valley, Washington, is familiar with. It might be well for those very same youths if they had a few of the hardships to go through that Mr. Murray did in his early life. He was born in Maine in 1831, and at the age of twenty left his home to seek his fortunes in the Golden state of California. he embarked onboard one of the sailing vessels that brought a dry dock to the Pacific coast. Rounding the "Horn" with that massive bulk in cargo was no very safe undertaking. However, reaching California, he settled at Vallejo, on San Francisco Bay; and, not having been overstocked with money upon leaving his home, he was forced to accept what work he could obtain. He did the first work that was ever done on Mare Island, where the government works and navy yard now are. After finishing his employment there, he led a life of various pursuits for a period of ten years, among which were mining, lumbering and ranching during the

488                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 great Caribou gold excitement of 1862 he made his way to that field, and took up a ranch on the Fraser river, 150miles above Fort Yale, He was the first rancher in that locality, and worked assiduously on his claim for a period of six or seven years.

     In 1870 he gave up the ranch there, and then came to Kittitass valley, where he has resided ever since. He bought a ranch near Yakima, and with his varied experience and a moderate capital started in to raise cattle. The ranch covered one hundred and sixty acres and the well-known adaptability of the soil to stock-farming favored his efforts, so that, by careful, attentive handling, his stock increased and multiplied, until at one time he owned the large number of four thousand head of the finest cattle in the land, and was one of the "cattle kings" of Washington Territory. He married in 1878, and, being in the height of his prosperity, settled down to enjoy those solid comforts of home and hearth which he had never previously known on account of his wandering life. The happiness he had striven so hard for was not of long duration, however; for, in the midst of his triumphs and joys, his beloved wife was called away, leaving the bright home and loving husband desolate and childless.

     Mr. Murray has made one visit to his boyhood's home in Maine since coming to the coast, but soon returned to the land that gave him fame and fortune. He owns considerable property around Ellensburgh, and was a director and shareholder in the First National Bank started there, but which closed up on account of the uncertain prospects of the railroad being built through the town. A man of generous and noble instincts, he has ever done all in his power to advance and promote the interests of Ellensburgh, and has been prominently connected with many enterprises for the public weal. Within the past few years he has retired from business, and as a landed capitalist is now engaged in loaning his money to his less fortunate neighbors. His old reminiscences and experiences in the days of his struggles with poverty in the Golden state have caused him to feel a longing to end his days in California, - his first landing-place in the West.

     Mr. Murray's life being one of outdoor work, he has an iron constitution that has never been undermined by the ravages of disease; and his age sits so lightly on his powerful frame that one could hardly credit the fact of his being in the fifty-seventh year. He is six feet tall, energetic in manner, and straight as an arrow. Everybody has a good word for Mr. Murray. He possesses the esteem and respect of his associates, and has many friends and but few enemies. His residence at the head of Second street is a model of neatness and comfort. It is the finest and most substantial dwelling in Ellensburgh. Conscientious and straighforward, he has ever led an honest and honorable life, and deserves all the encomiums and prosperity that by his diligence he has attained.

     H.A. MYERS. - Mr. Myers, for twenty-five years one of the "pillars of the community" in the beautiful north end of the Grande Ronde, was born in Kentucky in 1820, and nine years later removed with his parents to Missouri, where he grew to manhood and received what education might be obtained at the common schools of that state.

     In 1864 he made the journey across the plains immediately to the Grande Ronde, Oregon, and located a claim three miles west of Summerville. For six years he was engaged in farming and stock-raising, and afterwards for six years lived in the village to enjoy the advantages of education and society. Purchasing, however, a farm a short distance below town, he again engaged in agriculture, and two years later returned to Summerville, establishing a livery stable. He still pursues that occupation, although retaining his ranches, which aggregate six hundred and fifty acres of excellent land.

His wife, Louisa Speaks, to whom he was married in1845, is no less prominent than himself in a public way. Their home has been blessed with three girls, Catherine, Sarah and Jeannette, and two boys, James and Franklin, all of whom have ranches of their own in that neighborhood.

     F.M. NAUGHT. - Mr. Naught, whose life experience contains many incidents of unique interest, was born in Illinois in 1838, and removed as a child to Texas, and in 1846 to Iowa. In 1853 he crossed the plains to Oregon and located in Polk county. Upon the outbreak of the Indian war in 1856, he joined Captain F.M.P. Goff's Company K, Washington Territory Volunteers, and came east of the cascades. In July of that year, a part of Captain Goff's company quartered at Fort Henrietta was summoned to the relief of Major Leighton's command, which was surrounded on the John Day river. Starting late in the evening with ten days' rations, they rode that night and arrived upon the scene the next evening. The Indians fled upon their approach. Encamping that night with Leighton's command, the united force of the volunteers started up the river in pursuit of the Indians, following so closely in their track as frequently to find meat still cooking.

     Finally, upon the headwaters of Burnt river, they sighted some of the savages. Lieutenant William Hunter, with twenty-seven men, was ordered forward; and a skirmish ensued in which two of the volunteers were killed and one wounded. The Indians surrounded them; and for twenty-six hours it was necessary to fight on the defensive. But at last the two companies came to his relief; and the Indians broke and disappeared. The two men that were killed had ascended a mountain with a third to keep guard but were ambushed; and this was the commencement of the fight. The volunteers followed the fugitives through Powder river and Grande Ronde, where Colonel B.F. Shaw intercepted them, giving them a severe chastisement. At Lee's encampment the command met a detachment of men coming to meet them with supplies, which were greatly appreciated, since they had subsisted twenty-eight days upon the ten days' rations.

     Later Mr. Naught took part in some of the exciting incidents on the attack on the wagon train, where the volunteers were moving up Mill creek from the present site of Walla Walla, after the six days' council, in which the Nez Perce, Umatilla,

                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                            489

Walla Walla and Cayuse Indians took part. After the close of hostilities, Mr. Naught returned to Polk county, and resumed work upon his father's farm, and a year alter learned the blacksmith's trade at Bethel, continuing in that employment until going to the mines at Oro Fino, driving a freight team. Late in 1861 he went to the Salmon river mines, and recalls the phenomenal prices paid for provisions, - two dollars a pound for flour, three dollars and a half a pound for bacon. Returning to Polk county, he engaged, in 1863, in packing to the Idaho mines, and in 1864 enlisted in Captain Lafollett's Company A. Being discharged June 30th, he returned to Polk county, but in 1871 found his way to the Palouse valley, engaging in the sheep business; but of late years he has made his home in the Walla Walla valley, Washington Territory, near the town of Walla Walla, where he has a productive and beautiful farm, and is one of the leading citizens in his section.

     DAVID A. NEELY. - The gentleman who forms the subject of this sketch was born to John and Mary Davis Neely in Murray county, Tennessee, on July 18,1823. In 1824 his parents moved to Carroll county, West Tennessee, and settled on government land. There he lived with his parents, his father following the quiet life of farmer and preacher of the gospel until the commencement of the Rebellion.

     John Neely raised the first company under the Union flag in West Tennessee. All of his sons, five in number, joined the Union army; and only two sons lived to see peace proclaimed, the father and three sons being killed. Being the eldest of his father's family he was kept busy on the farm, and only had the opportunity to attend school a short while in each fall; so by the next fall he had nearly forgotten what he had learned at the log schoolhouse the year before. Indeed he was far more interested in farming, hunting wild turkeys and raccoons than in securing an education.

     On December 22, 1844, he was married to Miss Irena Kemp, a native of Georgia; and he then left his parents' farm and settled on a rented farm, living one year in Carroll county. In December of the following year, he moved to Gibson county, and after six years' residence there moved to Obion, Tennessee, where he stayed seven months. On July 18, 1852, he started to Missouri to take up government land. He found that all of the best land had been taken up; and, as his desire for a good farm was very strong, he resolved to go with his wife and three little boys to Oregon and get a donation of three hundred and twenty acres. He stayed to raise one crop in Newton county, Missouri, and then started across the plains, driving three yoke of oxen and one of cows.

     In May, 1854, he was almost persuaded to stop in Kansas, as the prospects were very good there at that time, but instead he pushed on westward. When they reached Boise river, twenty-five miles east of Fort Boise, they were warned by the Snake Indians that they intended to make war for the gain of their property. There were three trains traveling near together, i.e. Yantis', Jones' and Estie's trains, as they thought it necessary for their safety. On the evening of August 10, 1854, Mr. Yantis asked our subject to mount one of the mules and go back with him after some of his stock, which was missing, which request he at once complied with. They soon reached the rear of Mr. Jones' train, and were warned that if they proceeded it would be at the risk of their lives, as the Indians had acted very insultingly and hostile; but they thought it best to go on after the stock.

     They had ridden about three miles, when they saw some twenty horsemen in their front pass rapidly into the willow brush. They were just about crossing a low strip of country, which completely hid them from the level plain in front, and got their arms in readiness, resolved to go on notwithstanding they thought the Indians were laying in ambush for them. When they regained the level plain, they saw a man coming towards them, and soon recognized the long hair of an Indian, it being their custom to wear their hair long and dangling about the shoulders. They soon met the man; and he told them that he had their stock, and was taking them to a camping place only a short distance, and was very anxious that they should accompany him and get the stock, as he said he was going on to The Dalles and could look after the cattle no longer. Mr. Yantis proposed paying him to bring the cattle on; but he refused, and to Mr. Yantis' question replied that he and one other man comprised the pack train. As Mr. Neely and Mr. Yantis had both counted twenty persons they rather declined going on; indeed, Mr. Neely said, "Darned if I will ride my mule to death for Yantis or any other man." Mr. Yantis said he couldn't blame him, and requested the stranger to bring the stock to their camp, which he still refused. As Mr. Neely was riding Mr. Yantis' mule, his anxiety for its safety conveyed a great deal to Mr. Yantis' mind.

     So they returned to camp; and all hands commenced preparing for defense. The Indians visited the camp as they usually did; and, as some of H.H. Jones' cows were missing also, Mr. Yantis and Mr. David Neely thought it best to go back and warn the trains just behind them, and also see what the Indians were doing. So, telling the women and children that they were going to look after the stock, they on the fifteenth got the trains on the move towards Fort Boise, where they expected to arrive that evening.

     A.S. Yantis. H.H. Jones, Amon, Estie and Mr. David Neely went with two other men to see what the probable danger was. They soon saw the man they had met before. He said he was going to The Dalles; and another man and a squaw with him had Mr. Yantis' stock, but said they had seen nothing of Mr. Jones' stock. They soon found the camp of the two men; and it showed that there had been many Indians with them. H.H. Jones' stock had been barbecued; and parts of the carcasses were still over the fire. All hands were satisfied that there was danger; and some of the men became very indignant.

     Neely and Yantis started on to warn a train which they saw at a distance; and the others started back to Boise river. They had gone but a short distance when they saw that there was trouble ahead, and

490                                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 that the train was standing still. They at once wheeled their horses and galloped after the other party, and after going some distance got them halted; and all started back together for the train. When they got near enough they could see the Indians galloping past the train for the purpose of drawing the fire of the emigrants. When they got within a mile or so of the train, they saw that some of the party were hitching the oxen to two of the wagons; and they at once decided that the train had been captured, and that the Indians were starting with the women and children directly towards the brush where our party were concealed. At this critical moment Mr. Neely's name was suggested as commander; but he at once declined in favor of A.S. Yantis, requesting all the men to keep cool, dismount, stand behind their horses, and take good aim before they fired.

     They made a dash to take the wagons, notwithstanding there were some twenty Indians in charge of them; and as they passed a clump of brush two Indians came dashing out with their short stirrups, bobbing up high in the air, first on one side and then the other, with the intention of drawing the first fire of the white men and dodging it. In this they failed; and Mr. Neely started after one and Yantis after the other. Mr. Yantis wounded both Indian and horse; but the other escaped into the willows. At this time the firing became general from both parties; and, as Amon was standing beside his horse, Mr. Neely saw him drop his rifle and throw his hands to his head, having been shot through the head and hip at the same time. The poor fellow exclaimed, "Boys, don't leave me here." As the Indian straightened up from behind a bank, Mr. Neely snatched Amon's rifle and shot at him. He disappeared; and Neely went to see what he could do for his wounded comrade, when Yantis exclaimed: "The boys are demoralized and gone; they must be stopped," and started after them. Our subject asked Amon if he wanted his horse, but received no answer. At that moment his mule became frightened and started on a run; but he managed to hold to his double-barreled shotgun and stop the animal. He at once returned to Amon, but found him senseless and left him on the ground.

     Mr. Yantis and the others were about four hundred yards away at the wagons, where the fighting was going on. The first fight in Mr. Neely's sight was Robert Ward's yoke of oxen, and the next a dead Indian. A little farther lay a young white man, and by his side another dead Indian. Tis young man was said to be a young lawyer from Massachusetts, and was decoyed out from the train to effect a compromise. His name was Babcock; and no doubt he killed the two Indians mentioned. As Mr. Neely approached the wagons, he heard Yantis appealing to the men to stick together or they would all be lost. The Whites and the Indians lay around dead or dying, the white men being Robert Ward and his son from Missouri, Samuel Malugen, Illinois, Babcock from Massachusetts, Charley (or Doc) Adams and brother, California, and three other men, nine in all.

     There were some five Indians dead near the wagons, making seven he had counted killed by the train men; and the Indians afterwards reported that Yantis' men killed five of their number, making a total of twelve Indians killed. The dead were left on the ground until the seventeenth, when Nobler's and Yantis' party went back to bury them.

William Ward, a boy thirteen years of age, was cruelly wounded, having been shot several times with arrows; but he succeeded in making his escape and was out on the plains for several days. Newton Ward was badly shot with arrows, and was lying under the wagon tongue, which prevented the horses from stepping on him. He said he held his breath as the Indians rode over him; and when he saw Mr. Neely he held out his hand and said; "How do you do Mr. Neely. We have been looking for you and Mr. Yantis a long time." He was assisted up behind Mr. Neely; and they started for Boise. But he begged much harder to be left than he had to be taken; for his suffering was intense. Two Dutchmen were yet alive, and begged for water. The dead were lying around in all directions; and there were evidences that most of the fighting had been done hand to hand.

     The men who had been killed so terribly bore nothing in comparison to what the women and children who were prisoners endured. Miss Ward only rode a few hundred yards when she jumped out of the wagon and was brutally murdered; and Mrs. White shared the same fate, though her son has never been heard of since. Two or three of the Ward children were burned before their mother's eyes and Mrs. Ward was burned in many placed by red-hot irons.

     The trip across the plains occupied five months and they reached White river, King county, Washington Territory, on October 1, 1854. On the 9th of October, Mrs. Irena Neely gave birth to the first white child born on White river. Mr. Neely at once located a home on the east bank of White river, where he still resides, having added two adjoining farms to the original Donation claim.

     He had now the hardships to contend with of a new country full of Indians, with no roads. He had no money, and had a wife and four children to provide for. Their meals consisted mostly of potatoes and salmon, and sometimes of only salt and potatoes. However, he soon secured work away from home, and was obliged to leave his family alone four miles from the nearest neighbor's, and not a sign of a road to go anywhere, all travel being by canoe. In 1855 he raised a small crop of potatoes, and a fine supply of flour just in time for the hostile Indians to get the benefit.

     On the 27th of September, Enos Cooper said to our subject that he was very uneasy, as he thought hostilities were about to break out among the Indians, and proposed going in his canoe to H.H. Jones' to investigate the situation, and asked Mr. Neely to clean and put his revolver in readiness for use. He cleaned and reloaded the revolver, put it in his pocket, and went to work. In a short time one of the little boys told him there were four Indians at the house wanting to sell some berries. He found two squaws and two Indians; and they proposed the berry trade, which Mr. Neely refused. The two squaws went out into the yard; and the

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