History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 511 - 530

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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 was elected, receiving the highest number of votes cast for any candidate for the legislature. He served as a member of the house of representatives during the fifteenth regular session, and was recognized as one of the ablest members of that body, and as a hard-working and faithful representative of his constituents. Mr. Paquet has been elected nine times a member of the city council of  Oregon City, several times receiving the votes of both parties. He served three times as president of the board of delegates of the Oregon City Fire Department, of which he is an exempt member, and has served one term as mayor of Oregon City.

     He was married September 5,     1871,to Miss Sarah E. Hamilton, and has three children, - Louise J., Florence C. and Victor H.H. Mr. Paquet has been a resident of Oregon City since 1870, and has followed the occupation of a general contractor and builder, and has built some of the finest bridges, steamboats and buildings in the state. He is a prominent member of Multnomah Lodge No. 1, A.F. and A.M., and has been engaged for some time in writing up a history of Multnomah Lodge and a biography of its past masters.

     In politics Mr. Paquet is an uncompromising Republican, but always aims to be fair, and has the respect and confidence of his political opponents. As a citizen he is a man of high moral character, and where best known is most respected.

     REV. SAMUEL PARKER. - Mr. Parker was not a pioneer to settle in this country, nor to engage in missionary work, but was a pioneer of pioneers, a "John The Baptist," to prepare the way for missionaries and emigrants. He was born at Ashfield, Massachusetts, April 23, 1779, and was the son of Elisha and Thankful M. Parker.

     In 1806 he graduated from Williams College, and from Andover Theological Seminary in the first class that left that institution. He immediately went west to New York, and engaged in home missionary work. he was ordained as a Congregational minister at Danby, New York, November 12, 1812, and was married first to Miss H. Sears shortly afterwards. But she soon died; and in 1815 he was married to Miss Jerusha Lord, who was the mother of his three children, - Mrs. J. Van Kirk and Doctor S.J. Parker of Ithaca, New York, and Professor H.W. Parker of Grinnell College, Iowa. He labored most of the time at Danby, Ithaca and Apulia, New York, and Middlefield, Massachusetts until 1833.

     At that time the request of the four Nez Perces who went to St. Louis in search of the white man's bible was made public; and on April 10, 1833, he offered himself to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions as an explorer or missionary. Having begun life as a home missionary, he had often looked farther west, but dreaded the malaria of Ohio, and feared the American desert, but said, "Over the Rocky Mountains must be a land worth possessing." Mr. Parker's offer was not at first accepted; and nothing more was done until the next January, when he roused the church of Ithaca, New York, which agreed in the main to support him, provided the American board would superintend the work. This was finally agreed to; and May 5, 1834, he started with two young men, Messrs. Samuel Allis and John Dunbar, as missionary companions. They reached St. Louis too late, however, for the caravan of the American Fur Company, without whose protection it was unsafe to travel; hence Messrs. Allis and Dunbar entered upon missionary work among the Pawnees, and Mr. Parker returned home. He spent the next winter in interesting the churches in behalf of his work, found Doctor Marcus Whitman, and the next year started with the Doctor.

     They left St. Louis April 8, 1835, and on the 12th of August reached Green river, the rendezvous of the fur company. From all the information which could there be gathered from traders, trappers and Indians, it was decided that it was best for Doctor Whitman to return East for more laborers, while Mr. Parker should proceed on his journey, explore, and gain what information could for his successors. He did so, traveling with none but Indians most of the way, passing over the Salmon River Mountains, down the Clearwater, suffering much from sickness, and doctoring himself by bleeding; but on October 6th he reached old Fort Walla Walla, and a few days later Fort Vancouver, where he accepted a kind invitation from Doctor J. McLoughlin to spend the winter. He visited Astoria and the Willamette valley, and gained what information he could about the country. The next spring he made a tour among the Nez Perces, Spokanes, and to Colville, then came back to Vancouver, and, starting June 21st, returned East by ship via the Sandwich Society and Tahiti Islands and Cape Horn, and reached home May 25, 1837.

     As soon as practicable afterwards, he published a book entitled, "Parker's Exploring Tour beyond the Rocky Mountains," with a map. This gave a description of the journey, of the Indians on his route, and in Oregon, of the plants, animals, geology, meteorology and geography of the country, and spoke of the practicability of a transcontinental railroad. As an observer he was very close; and his was intelligent, educated observation. This book passed through six editions, comprising sixteen thousand copies, spread broadcast much information about Oregon, and was highly commended by eminent men. After this he constantly kept interested in Oregon, lectured about it, and used his influence with Honorable Caleb Cushing to prevent its being lost to the United States. He supplied various pulpits until 1847, when he was struck with paralysis, but, partially recovering from it, lived until March 21, 1866, when he died at Ithaca, New York at the age of nearly eighty-seven years.

     HON. W.W. PARKER,- There is no name in the city at the mouth of the Columbia better known in the business and social circles than that of Parker; and of those bearing it Wilder W. Parker wields an influence perhaps the most extended. A pioneer not only in name but also in fact, he ha brought to bear upon public affairs a mind keen, quick and powerful, and has been able to give the people the

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benefit of opinions carefully elaborated and lucidly stated, and held by himself with conscientious firmness. In intellect and character he is the ideal New Englander, and has found his life interest in the great political and moral development of the nation.

     He was born at Orange, Vermont, October 19, 1824, but removed as a child to Washington in the same state; and that town became his own until he attained his majority. Being ambitious and fond of study, he sought an education in advance of that afforded at the common schools; and for this purpose selected Newberry Seminary, an institution under the control of the Methodist denomination and deemed at the time the best equipped in Vermont. Assisting himself by teaching school in the winters, he graduated from the academic department of that seminary, and completed his course at Norwich University, an institution which had grown out of the military school of Captain Alden Partridge, a distinguished educator, and previously a professor and superintendent at West Point, and who was thus enabled to give his pupils the benefit of a course the same as at the government institution, with ancient languages optional. In April 1847, young Parker received the offer of a lieutenancy in the one Vermont company comprised in the New England regiment to serve in the Mexican war, under Colonel T.P. Ransom; but, in preference to a campaign which promised to be barren in the notoriously unhealthy climate of the east coast of Mexico, he accepted a position as engineer at the copper mines of Lake Superior on the Ontonagon river. There he spent fifteen months, but, becoming dissatisfied with the management of the company, and seeing the difficulty of reducing their hard ores of the Lake Superior copper, determined to prospect the old copper mines of Lower California, which had now by the treaty of Guadaloupe Hildalgo become accessible to Americans.

     The journey thither was undertaken in the autumn of 1848, and involved an almost endless succession of adventure. Mr. Parker arrived in new York in ample time to arrange for a passage in the old steamship California, the first vessel of the Pacific Mail Company's line to clear for Astoria; and he was the first passenger to pay his fare on that ship. By an unforeseen and unexpected event, and not his own fault, at the sailing of the ship, he was left behind, and was obliged to take passage in a Spanish, or New Grenadian bark for the Isthumus, and arrived in Panama more than a month ahead of the steamship.

     While he was crossing the Isthumus and awaiting his steamer at Panama, the reports of gold mines in California, which had first appeared in a fabulous form, received full confirmation; and ere the ship arrived a thousand gold diggers had congregated in the old city of Panama, across the Isthmus, looking for transportation to the new El Dorado. Loose crafts, disengaged coalers, whalers, etc., in the Pacific, as well as the steamship, sailed in to accommodate the company. The ticket which Mr. Parker held, and for which he had paid one hundred an fifty dollars, was now worth six hundred dollars, in addition to a paid ticket in one of the sailing vessels.

     Arriving in San Francisco February 28, 1849, he, with three others, built a scow skiff boat of 2 tons' burthen, took on a ton of provisions and freight, and went to Stockton and to Tuolumne and engaged in mining, realizing about twenty dollars per day. A return to San Francisco, however, showed the greater advantages of business, and, obtaining some three-inch Oregon planking, costing three hundred dollars per thousand, he ripped it into scantling for the frame of a canvas or cloth covered building, the floor of which was earth, but was protected with checked matting. This building was intended for service as a restaurant, and the profits of its operations were large. Before winter a bakery was added; and, for the cloth, boards were substituted. baker and cook were paid an enormous salary of six hundred and four hundred dollars per month respectively. Among the visitors at the restaurant, and indeed among the waiters whom Mr. Parker employed were many interesting characters, - big headed Eastern ex-college professors, highly cultured young men; while at the board sat many dignitaries. The business was ultimately swept away by fire at a loss of twenty thousand dollars.

While in San Francisco, Mr. Parker was elected on the city council as a member of the board designated as "honest," whose special work was to straighten the accounts and pay the debts of the succeeding spendthrift incumbents. The work of casting up the interest and arranging the funding of the debt of two million dollars was done by Mr. Parker. The celebrated Henry Meiggs, Thomas J. Selby, afterwards mayor, C.L. Ross (with C.J. Brenham for mayor) with other well-known characters of early San Francisco, were upon the same board.

     After his loss by fire, Mr. Parker was advised to seek a location for lumbering in Oregon, and, arriving at Astoria in 1852, leased the old Harrall sawmill on the Lewis and Clarke river, and later bought Simpson's mill at Astoria. For many years he was occupied in that line, doing a heavy business, until in 1861 he received an appointment as deputy collector of the port under W.L. Adams. He held that position eleven years, serving also under Honorable Alanson Hinman. Since his retirement from that office he has been active in the real-estate and insurance business, and in improving his city lots for public uses.

     His animating purpose in coming West was the ultimate establishment of a journal of the stamp of the New York Tribune; but, although not realizing that cherished design, he has ever made his principles felt. For a time he was editor of the Astoria Marine Gazette. In 1855 he was the Republican and opposition candidate, receiving a tie vote with Judge P. Callender; and in 1859 he was elected from Clatsop county as representative to the territorial legislature on the platform of approbation of the Maine liquor law as one of  its leading features. During the session he introduced and had passed by the house, by a vote of seventeen to thirteen, a  bill authorizing the annual voting in each county for license or prohibition, with the express provision that, whenever a majority for prohibition was retained, the vote should be considered an instruction to the ensuing assembly to pass a law securing it.

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This, considering that the year before the house, by a larger vote, ordered UNDER THE TABLE a petition of two hundred citizens of Portland for a prohibitory law, was considered quite a success for temperance. He was the first in his city to urge upon the school district a free school, which, after several school meetings was secured; and he has been among the most active in promoting public enterprises. He has contributed large to the upbuilding of churches and all moral institutions. He is at present a stockholder in the Astoria & South Coast Railway Company, and was one of the five incorporators of the same. In 1878 he was elected mayor of Astoria, serving two years.

     Although approaching the years of elderly life, he prosecutes his business with no diminution of energy, and is one of the representative men of character in our state. he was married in 1863 to Miss Inez Eugenia Adams. Mrs. parker is well known in all social and church relations and maintains a high character for benevolent work, and for faith and zeal in the moral upbuilding of the city. She is a lady much beloved by a large circle of friends.

     REV. JOSIAH LAMBERSON PARRISH. - This well-known pioneer, one of the few survivors of the early missionary force of Oregon, was born in Onondaga county, New York, on the 14th of October, 1806. From his father he learned the trades of blacksmithing and farming; and to them he devoted most of his time till he reached the age of twenty-four. At that time failure of his health from overwork caused him to turn his attention to the harness and saddlery trade. At about the same time he began preaching as a local preacher in the Methodist church. His field of labor was at Pike, Alleghany county, New York.

    In 1833 he was married to Elizabeth Winn. Two years later he closed out his business as a saddle and harness dealer, and devoted his time mainly to preaching until 1839. He was then appointed blacksmith to the Methodist Mission of Oregon by the New York board. In company with Jason Lee he came to Oregon in the ship Lausanne. The course was via Cape Horn. After reaching Oregon, MR. Parrish spent two years in blacksmithing for various missionary stations and settlers in the Willamette valley.

     In 1843 he was appointed missionary to the Indians at the mouth of the Columbia river. He remained there until the Mission was closed in 1846. After a short stay at Oregon City, he was appointed to the circuit on the west side of the Willamette, his field extending from Portland to Corvallis. To the arduous duties of that field he devoted himself with characteristic energy and faithfulness for nearly four years. In 1848 an east-side circuit was added, extending from near Spoor's place in Lane county to Molalla Prairie near Oregon City.

     In 1849 he was appointed Indian agent for Oregon by President Taylor. He entered upon his duties a year later, having in his jurisdiction the vast region between the summit of the Rockies and the Pacific, and bounded on the north by the Straight of Fuca, and on the south by the California line. Through a curious blunder he was appointed as Joseph L. Parrish, instead of Josiah, and was obliged to do all business through the latter personage as deputy. At his reappointment by President Pierce, the mistake was rectified. Many persons, however, supposed that the two names belonged to two distinct men. Owing to ill health, he resigned after the Rogue river war, at the end of which the Indians were put on reservations. His last work in that line was the organization of the reservation of which Port Orford was the headquarters. These important official duties having been well ended, he was again appointed by the Oregon conference as a missionary to the Indians.

     In 1856 he was put on the retired list. Since that time, though he has had no regular charge, he has maintained his connection with the conference, and has by no means been idle. For sixteen years he was acting chaplain of the Oregon Penitentiary, holding services every two weeks, for which arduous attention he received neither pay nor reward. On the alternate Sundays he preached to various congregations, often Indians. At the present time he preaches with more or less regularity to the Indian youth at the government training school at Chemawa. The name of this school was given by Mr. Parrish from a band of Calapooias who occupied the site of the old Methodist Mission near Wheatland, on the west side of the Willamette.

     Father Parrish's family by his first wife consisted of four sons, Lamberson, Norman, Samuel and Charles. All but the last were born in the old home in the East. The eldest died in 1840. Samuel is now well known as the chief of police in Portland. Charles is an attorney in Cañon City, Oregon. The first wife died in 1859, and Mr. Parrish was married again in the following year to Jennie L. Lichtenthaler. She died in 1887. A year later Mr. Parrish was married to Mrs. Mattie A. Pierce, with whom he is now living.

     Though now an octogenarian, this noble old pioneer is strong and well-preserved, and has few or no equals in the country in extent or accuracy of information concerning all the details of our early history. He is spending the well-merited rest of a laborious lifetime in a beautiful home at Salem, Oregon. Scrupulous integrity has always been a distinguishing feature of his private as well as his official life. At the expiration of his five years of service over an immense and difficult field as Indian agent, eh found that he was just ninety-two cents in arrears to the government. He accordingly paid over that balance, the receipt being duly forwarded to him with his discharge.

     PATKANIM. - This famous chieftain was the hereditary ruler of the Snoqualmie tribe, and also the ruling spirit of the Indians in general on the eastern shore of the Sound between the border of British Columbia and the present northern boundary of King county. He was noted for shrewdness and cunning; and at the first coming of the Whites he was hostile to them. While thus opposing the settlers, he kept on good terms with the officials of the Hudson's Bay Company. His cunning, not to say duplicity, is shown by his conduct during the attack

514                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

on Fort Nisqually in October, 1849. While Cussass, his brother, was heading the attack on the outside, he was quietly sitting inside smoking the pipe of peace; and, when the time came for him to leave, friendly Indians helped him escape.

     On the breaking out of the Indian war in 1855, successful efforts were made to prevent his joining the hostiles. Governor Stevens authorized him to raise a company of Indian scouts. These co-operated most effectively with the volunteers in the northern campaign. During that war he brought to Olympia the heads of two alleged hostile chiefs, as an evidence of his loyalty.

     It has been questioned whether this Snoqualmie diplomatist was really friendly to the Whites; but, whatever his real sentiments, he was cunning enough to see which way lay the path of safety for himself. After his first effort in 1848 to excite war against the settlers, he was thoroughly opposed to hostilities. He lived to a great age.

     A.W. PATTERSON, M.D. - Doctor Patterson was born in Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, October 14, 1814. He received his scholastic education in the village of Freeport, of his native state, and afterwards entered the Western University, at Pittsburgh. He subsequently studied medicine in the office of Doctor J.P. Gazzam, an old and prominent physician of that city, and in 1841 graduated with high honors from the Pennsylvania College of Medicine, of Philadelphia. Coming westward, he located at Greenfield, Indiana, and there practiced his profession until 1852, when he concluded to come to Oregon, and began the long and tedious journey known only to the pioneer. After his arrival he went to Lane county and there settled upon a Donation claim near the present site of the flourishing town of Eugene.

     The settlers in those days being few and far between, there was but little call for those skilled in his profession; and, being conversant with civil engineering, he engaged in the surveying business for a time. Among the contracts taken were several for the government, they being both in Oregon and Washington. The reports of surveys to be found in the surveyor-general's office, submitted by him, will attest the guidance of a master hand. He also laid off the townsite of Eugene City. On the outbreak of the Indian war of 1855-56 in Southern Oregon, he at once offered his services for the subjugation of the savages. He was commissioned and served, for a time, as first lieutenant, and afterwards as surgeon of the medical department.

     The Doctor has also served the commonwealth in the legislative field, serving as representative from Lane county in 1854. In 1861 he was appointed chief clerk in the office of the general surveyor, which was then located at Eugene, and in 1870 was elected state senator from Lane county for a term of four years. In 1872, owing to his very active interest in locating the State University, his home, Eugene City, was selected as the location. About that time he entered into a contract with A.L. Bancroft & Co., of San Francisco, to prepare the manuscript for a set of school readers; but afterwards, being pressed for time to complete the work by a given date, the contract was limited to a speller; and the first three readers, and the fourth and fifth were assigned, at his suggestion, to another. The new school law requiring the selection of a uniform series to be used throughout the state going into effect was much opposed; still these Pacific coast spellers and readers were adopted, and were used until recently displaced.

     In 1882 and again in 1884, he was elected to the position of county superintendent of the school, an office for which he was eminently qualified. Eugene City in 1883 began to make strides towards being a city; and the country round about became more thickly settled as time flew by. The Doctor concluded to go back to his first love, - the practice of medicine; and, since he opened his office, he has continued in the practice of his profession up to the present time, and has met with the most flattering success in every way. The pioneers on this coast are characterized often by versatility of occupation, and the Doctor has not been an exception. In all of the different spheres of life occupied by the Doctor, be it said to his credit, that he adorned each and every one of them. In conjunction with his other affairs he has interested himself in agriculture, and was the first to cultivate hops in Lane county. He imported new varieties, and experimented extensively in their adaptability to the climate and soil, now being the most extensive grower of that vine in Oregon.

     He was married in 1859 to Miss A.C. Ollingee, whose father, Abram Ollingee, with his family in 1843 had crossed the plains with the first wagon train that reached the Columbia river. Several children were born to this union, all of whom are not only a credit to their parents but to the community and state at large.

     OTIS PATTERSON. - Mr. Patterson, editor of the Heppner Gazette, at Heppner, Oregon, and one of the representative men of common sense and energy in the Inland Empire, was born at Danville, Indiana, September 4, 1858. He remained in that city until the age of eighteen, receiving a good common-school education. He also improved himself by a scientific course, graduating as B.S. from the Centeral Normal College of Danville. In 1876 he acted upon the advice of a celebrated father of his profession, and came to Emporia, Kansas, where he engaged in educational work.

     In 1882 he performed the rest of the journey across the continent, stopping in California. Remaining there only a short time, however, he came by way of Portland, Oregon to Walla Walla, where he once more became a teacher of schools, following that occupation in various schools in Walla Walla county until 1885. In that year he became principal of the Heppner Public School, and conducted that institution with great success. The following spring he entered into business, successfully establishing a store in the hardware line. Seeing the opportunity and feeling the desire to occupy a somewhat more advanced position as educator, not simply of children but of men and of the people at large, he purchased in 1888 the Heppner Gazette and has conducted that periodical to the present

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time with very marked success, now owning one of the best-appointed newspaper offices in Eastern Oregon, and every week issuing a clean, honest and able paper, of which the county is justly proud.

      In 1884, he was married to Miss Mary Gregg of Walla Walla, and with her enjoys a most comfortable and happy home.

     JOHN PATTISON. - The subject of this sketch was born in Albany, New York, in 1859, and is the son of John and Elizabeth Pattison. His father was a Union soldier during the war of the Rebellion. He lived at home until he was fourteen years old, being educated in the city public schools. In 1873 he went to Silverton, Colorado, and engaged in mining for six years with varying though reasonable success. he went from there through Arizona and New Mexico, looking for a better mining location, and spending about two years in that country, making money, but at heavy expense. He came from there to Colfax, Washington Territory, in April 1882. He worked for about two years with the construction party in building the Palouse branch of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company from Palouse Junction, on the Northern Pacific Railroad, to Colfax, being employed in the position of commissary. He secured an interest in the Colfax Hotel, and was one of the proprietors of that house for two and a half years, jointly with Joseph Ryan.

     He was married on the 7th of June, 1885, to Miss Mary C. Cairns, daughter of Reverend James Cairns, present pastor of the Colfax Baptist church, and financial agent of Colfax College. He sold his interest in the hotel to Mr. Ryan in August, 1886, and engaged in the real-estate, loan and insurance business.

     Mr. Pattison was the regular Republican candidate for coroner of Whitman county in 1884, and was elected by a majority of eight hundred, the largest majority ever thrown to a candidate on a party ticket in the country.

     Mr. Pattison has an intimate acquaintance throughout Whitman county and Eastern Washington, which enables him to place loans for outside parties so as to procure the best security in all cases, and has built up a large trade by the absolute safety of all such investments.

     MRS. FRANCES N. PATTON. - This estimable lady, the daughter of Hon. E.N. and Eliza Cooke was born in Erie county, Ohio, on the 3d day of August, 1837; and the greater portion of her early life was passed in that state. In 1851, at the age of fourteen years, she accompanied her parents across the plains to Oregon, reaching Salem on October 10th of that year. She began attendance at the Willamette University, which up to 1853 was called the Oregon Institute; and from the time her name was first enrolled as a scholar, until she bid adieu to the schoolroom, she was known as an attentive, painstaking and most exemplary pupil. On her seventeenth birthday she was united in marriage to Thomas McF. Patton, who at Council Bluffs joined the company with whom she journeyed across the trackless plains. The first year of her married life was spent in Jacksonville; but, at the earnest request of her parents, she and her husband removed to the Capital city, where, with the exception of a two years' residence in Hiogo, Japan, at which place Mr. Patton was United States consul, she resided until the day of her death, which occurred on Wednesday, December 7, 1886.

     Mrs. Patton, soon after her arrival in Salem from Ohio, united with the Congregational church, and was a member of that church throughout her life. She was always foremost in alleviating distress and in dispensing charities, being connected with religious and benevolent associations having those objects in view. She was a life member of the Orphans' Aid Society, and rendered many years of efficient service to that laudable institution, both as a member and officer. During her residence in Japan, she was told for the first time that she would, at most, live but a few months. With an earnest longing that she might return to Salem, where she could die amid the sweet companionship of her girlhood days, she accepted her fate with true christian resignation.

     Leaving Hiogo, - coming home to die, - she reached San Francisco on January 22, 1886, and a few days thereafter found herself again at home. She seemed to gain a new hold on life after her arrival in Salem. Here were concentrated all the most hallowed associations of her life, - home, mother, children and companions. All the relief that human skill could afford and every ministration of love and sympathy, were hers, but without avail; for death had marked her for its own. Still for her it had no terrors. It was simply a happy transition to the life beyond, and an entrance upon eternal happiness. Having discharged all the duties of her life with fidelity, and borne all her trials with christian resignation, she calmly awaited the end, upheld in the sublime faith in the promises of that religion of which she had been for so many years a devout and consistent disciple. She left behind to mourn her loss her husband and family of three children.

     MATTHEW PATTON. - This well-known and now venerable pioneer was born in Monongahela county, Virginia, November 15, 1805. As a child he moved with his parents to Highland county, Ohio, and four years later to Brown county, remaining until he was sixteen years old. Being naturally mechanical, he was sought and gladly received as an apprentice to a cabinet business by a certain Mr. Eli Collins, and at the end of four years of diligent application mastered the trade. Being young and ambitious, he turned his face to the far West, as Ohio, Indiana and Illinois were then called. After five years of labor and saving, he established a cabinet business at La Fayette, Indiana. In that city he wedded the daughter of Joshua and Ellen Grimes of Adams county, Ohio, on the 15th of April, 1830.

     Owing to the scarcity of money, and the limited demand for the products of his skill, he was obliged to take produce from the farmers as pay in exchange for his goods; and, having a large surplus of manufactured stuff, he determined to build a flatboat, load her with furniture, and embark for New Orleans. After encountering many dangers and hardships, he

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accomplished the trip, exchanging his load for merchandise; and, returning, he established himself as a merchant at Frankfort, Indiana. He removed subsequently to Newtown, and thence to the locality where he laid out and founded the town of Pattonsburg, Missouri, which he made his home until 1847, building during that time a saw and grist mill.

     Learning, however, of the vast resources of Oregon, and having had much trouble with the Mormons, or Latter-day Saints, as they are more frequently designated, he gathered together his resources, and with his wife and five children embarked in a prairie schooner for the land of the setting sun, starting with seventy head of cattle, three hundred sheep and three horses. After a long and tedious journey across the desert wilderness, a description of which would fill a volume, he arrived at The Dalles. We confine ourselves to but one incident of the journey, which we commend especially to the Pullman sleepers of to-day: There being no practicable way to Portland at that time, the tall pine trees were felled; and, after several weeks of hard labor, a rude flatboat was constructed and launched, and the families of himself and Thomas Carter, and the dissected wagons, placed aboard. Manned by inexperienced men, this life preserver was headed down stream, the more rugged of the men being intrusted with driving the animals down by land. The boat, nearing the Cascade fall, was landed; and the women and children were put ashore ad conducted around the precipitous rocks and rugged streams by the men seven miles to the Lower Cascades. Indians were hired to take their chances with the boat over the dangerous rapids, the descent of which was made without accident, then deemed miraculous. The Indians were paid four shirts, two bars of soap, a butcher knife and a looking glass.

     After much hardship they reached the south bank of the Columbia at a point opposite Vancouver, and continued the journey into the Willamette valley. After making satisfactory investigations, Mr. Patton selected a location for his home in the beautiful Chehalem valley. Shortly afterwards, when the gold fever struck Oregon, he left for the new El Dorado. After six weeks of mining he began the journey homeward on the bark Undine, which a drunken captain ran into Shoalwater Bay instead of the mouth of the Columbia. Mr. Patton was obliged to make the journey to his home as best he could from that point, performing much of it on foot; but nevertheless he brought to his cabin five thousand dollars in gold dust. He invested his means in town property and land, one tract being near Oswego, from which was taken the first iron ore worked in Oregon.

     Mr. Patton is now living at Albina with his second wife, to whom he was married July 16, 1868. He is eighty-three years old, and refers to his longevity to his exemplary and temperate habits, and his strict avoidance of all tobacco or ardent spirits. He has ever been a man whose word is strictly conscientious, who over-reaches no one, and takes no advantage of another's necessity. He is therefore highly respected and indeed beloved by all who know him. His donations to his children and grandchildren, and to charitable objects, have been munificent; yet he has reserved a sufficiency of this world's goods to maintain him during the remainder of his natural life.

     HON. THOMAS McF. PATTON. - There is scarcely a man in Oregon, who enjoys a greater measure of esteem, both in his own community and abroad, than the gentleman whose name heads this memoir. With the usual substantial and popular qualities of the pioneers, he has a touch of dash and a breadth of view which lift him somewhat above the horizon of even the first business men and thinkers of the Pacific Northwest. He is prominent among those who have given the tone and pose to the peculiarly refined and genial society of the Capital city. He was born in Carrollton, Ohio, March 19, 1829, and in 1838 moved with his parents to Findlay. His education was secured at Martinsburg Academy, and at the Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware. He chose the law as his profession, and after the usual preparation passed a very satisfactory examination, being admitted to the bar in 1850.

     The very flattering reports, which returning parties from Oregon had circulated relative to that territory, reaching his ears, he determined to come West, and in 1851 joined a party of emigrants at Council Bluffs, arriving at his destination in October of that year. In that company he first saw the lady, then a girl of fourteen years, who afterwards became his wife. He first settled on Yamhill county, where he remained until December, when he located at Salem. In the spring of 1853 he removed to Jackson county, and was shortly afterwards elected county judge. During the Indian war of 1855-56 he served as orderly sergeant in Company A, commanded by Captain John F. Miller.

     On August 3, 1854, he was united in marriage to Miss Frances M., the only daughter of Hon. E.F. and Eliza Cooke of Salem. The first year of their married life was passed in Jacksonville; when, at the earnest solicitations of the parents of his wife; they removed to Salem. He served as chief clerk of the house in 1860, and, in 1861 was appointed chief clerk in the office of the superintendent of Indian affairs, under W.H. Rector. He was for several years secretary of the people's Transportation Company, and was again elected chief clerk of the house in 1866. In 1872 he was elected representative to the legislature from Marion county, and in 1876 was appointed appraiser of merchandise for the District of Willamette, serving in such capacity for seven years. In 1884 he was appointed United States consul at Hiogo, Japan, and held that position until 1887.

     Mr. Patton has for many years taken an active interest in Masonry, and has ably filled the greater number of the more important offices within the gift of that fraternity. He has served as grand secretary, grand treasurer and deputy grand master. In June, 1889, he was elected grand high priest of Royal Arch Masons, serving one term, and for sixteen years served as chairman of the committee on foreign correspondence for the grand chapter, with acceptance at home and abroad, his annual reports being received with marked favor in every grand jurisdiction. During his career in public life, many

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and varied acquirements were demanded to meet all the positions he had been called upon to fill; yet he has adorned all of them. Being a shrewd business man, and cautious in his investments, success has attended his enterprises. He owns considerable real estate in Salem, and is credited with being well fixed in worldly affairs.

     Mr. Patton's greatest sorrow has been brought about by the death of his estimable wife, which occurred December 7, 1866. His family consists of three children, two sons and one daughter, the latter being the wife of John D. McCuly, of Joseph, Union county, Oregon. Politically speaking, Mr. Patton is a Republican; and his religious tendencies are cast with the Congregational church.

     DR. MARTIN PAYNE. - This Oregon-made man of worth and note was born September 14, 1838, in Crawford county, Arkansas, and is the son of Clayburne and Miriam Somner Payne. On April 17, 1843, the family set out for Oregon, joining the emigration of that year under Applegate and Burnett, and with the guidance of Doctor Whitman. On the Rocky Mountains the father died; and the mother was compelled to care for her little family by herself the rest of the journey. She secured kind assistance from her companions; and particularly was Doctor Whitman careful to see that she was provided with food. At Fort Vancouver she was also liberally supplied by Doctor McLoughlin.

     Arriving in Oregon City October 11th, that place became the abiding place of the family until a journey to California was performed by land in 1845. Returning to Oregon the next year, they bid good-bye upon the commencement of their journey to the grandfather, G.F. Somner, who returned East.

     As young Payne grew up in the valley, he received his education there, and in 1855-56 served as volunteer in the Indian war, belonging to Company E., Captain A. Hembree. A part of the time he was with Colonel Cornelius, being at the camp at Palouse Falls when the command was fed for thirty days on horse meat from a band captured by Cornelius from the Indians. He was also in the Yakima country when Hembree was killed.

     After the war he returned to the Willamette valley, and made his residence in Yamhill county, near the home of his uncle, Thomas Shadden. Of late years he has resided in Portland, practicing his profession as a physician. A frequent tourist, he has spent quite a portion of his time in California, at San Diego and other points, but on the whole prefers Oregon as a home. His mother is still living at her home in Yamhill county, and enjoys good health. A brother, also, Jasper Payne, is living in our state.

     The Doctor was married August 12, 1858, to Miss Melissa Ellen Drury, of Illinois, who came to Oregon in 1852. They have five children, - Clay, William Amon, Rod. K., Wells Drury and Rebecca Ellen. The Doctor has been a medical practitioner for more than twenty years.

     DANIEL O. PEARSON. - One of the most respected and honored of all of Washington's citizens is the pioneer of Stanwood whose face looks at us from the opposite page. He is one of those whose integrity and universal kindness, as well as public spirit and business enterprise, are of the truest need in laying the foundations of a community. Mr. Pearson was born at Lowell, Massachusetts, April 11, 1846. His parents were Daniel and Susan (Brown) Pearson, who now reside near Coupville, Washington.

     The first removal of the family was to Salmon Falls, while Daniel was yet an infant. There they remained till he was twelve years old. Returning to Lowell, they gave the son the best of educational advantages at the High School of that city. Having a collegiate education in hope, he was already well on in the preparatory course, when the tempest of the Civil war in 1861 called him, with so many of the other boys of the nation, to her defense. Mr. Pearson was one of the one-hundred day men, enlisting as a volunteer in Company G, Sixth Massachusetts Infantry. At the expiration of his term of service, he returned home and spent his time at the painter's trade, which he had previously learned.

     Soon after the close of the war, Mercer's Colony scheme, which created so much interest on this coast, and even in the East, come to the attention of the Pearson family, with the result that Daniel, with his mother and sister, joined the colony. The object of the colony was especially to enable those who had suffered in the war, particularly widows and daughters of soldiers, to begin life anew in the then far distant Pacific slope. The attention of the educated and sympathetic was drawn to it; and for a time there was high hope of its success. The steamship Continental, a staunch and commodious but clumsy ship, was chartered, and the advance guard of the colony transported hither, via the Strait of Magellan.

     In California the scheme was much derided, as a means of bringing out wives for the miners and sheepmen, who were popularly believed to inhabit caves and hollow trees. It subsequently fell into financial straits; and its aim was unfulfilled. After a delay at San Francisco, Mr. Pearson with his mother and sister, went to Whidby Island to join the father, who with two other sisters had come out the preceding year. The senior Pearson was at that time light-keeper at the station on the island.

     Daniel turned his attention to farming on the island, in which he was occupied until 1877, when he selected the site of the present town of Stanwood as his home. The little place then suffered under the common-place appellation of Centreville. But no postoffice having yet been established, it was not impossible to change the name. Mrs. Pearson, having especially interested herself in securing an office in the place, was honored by having her maiden name attached to the embryo city. Mr. Pearson then entered the merchandising business, in which he is still engaged. He also owns a fine farm near La Conner.

     Mr. Pearson was married at his home on Whidby Island on June 3, 1868, to Clara J. Stanwood, a native of Lowell, Massachusetts. Their union has been blessed with six children, Guy S., Bertha M., Eva M., Fred W., D. Carleton, and Ray M.

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      JOHN J. PEEBLER. - Mr. Peebler was born in Iowa in 1837, and while but a boy of six years met the irreparable loss of his parents, who died within twenty-four hours of each other. With an uncle, David Peebler, he crossed the plains in 1853, and made his home at Harrisburg, in Linn county, Oregon. During the Indian disturbances of 1855, he went to Umpqua valley and served with the volunteers on Rogue river. He continued his journeys to Yreka, where he mined for eighteen months, returning thereafter to the Umpqua valley.

     In 1859 he was married to Miss Antoinette Grumble, and in 1862 went to the Salem river gold mines, thence to the Grande Ronde valley, and then back to the Umpqua. Being very much pleased with the Blue Mountain country, he determined to bring thither his family and make the Grande Ronde his home. He located at Ladd's Cañon, Union county, Oregon, where he still resides, owning five hundred and sixty acres of fine land, which is stocked with sheep, cattle and horses. Three married children are living near them; and three unmarried are at home.

     ALBERT ROLAND PENNICK. - It is said of this gentleman, "He is a rising young man, is respected by all who know him, and takes a decided interest in everything that tends to advance the interests of the town and county." It also adds that he is unmarried, but owns a comfortable home a quarter of a mile from town. This is as it should be. A bachelor - and he need not be so very old - has no less a privilege of having a home than anyone. Besides his residence, Mr. Pennick owns and runs a grocery store on Main street, has a lumber yard, and conducts an implement house near the depot. This shows him to have an old head on young shoulders, and able to hold a position among the first business men of the city. He is only twenty-two, was born in Edora, Kansas, in 1867, and came to Oregon in 1880, selecting his home at Adams, where he has since resided with the exception of two years spent in attending school in Kansas.

     HON. SYLVESTER PENNOYER. - Sylvester Pennoyer, the present governor of Oregon, was born in Groton, Tompkins county, in the State of New York, on July 6, 1831. His father was a pioneer in that section of the country, having moved from Dutchess county in the same state just after his marriage, and settled upon a piece of government land while it was a wilderness, and which he afterwards, by his own labor and with the help of his sons, transformed into one of those beautiful and valuable farms for which New York State is so famous.

     The Governor inherited from his father, Justus Powers Pennoyer, a native of Amenia, Dutchess county, an admixture of German and French blood, and his mother Elizabeth née Howland, of Kinderhook, in the same county, a further admixture of English, Scotch and Welsh blood. His father was one of the largest farmers in Groton, and one of the foremost men of the town in all public enterprises; and at one time, although no politician whatever, he represented his county in the New York assembly. In fact, the Governor has fair reason to be somewhat proud of his ancestry.

     In the year 1670, William Pennoyer, of Norfolk county, England, who had previously removed from France to the New Haven colony and thence to England, died, leaving by his will his estate in such county subject to a rental charge of forty pounds per annum, which sum, by the terms of the will, was to be sent to Harvard College in Massachusetts, to be applied to the education of the descendants of his brother, Robert Pennoyer, of the New Haven colony; and, in case they did not apply, it was to be appropriated to the benefit of any indigent students whatever. Ever since that period until now, for more than two centuries, has that forty pounds per annum been sent out to Harvard College without a single failure. Even the Revolutionary war, when nearly all commercial intercourse with the mother country was stopped, it came with its accustomed regularity. And when, in 1853, the future governor of Oregon arrived at the college, he happened soon after to meet, in the steward's office, the Honorable Jared Sparks, who had previously been president of the college, and who thanked young Pennoyer for the great favor the brother of his ancestor had done him, stating that, when he himself had entered Harvard College, he was a poor boy and had received the fund to aid in his own education. Such quiet deeds of charity as that conferred by William Pennoyer in making such a benefaction, though silent in their influence, are yet most potent in bettering and elevating the condition of mankind.

     The story of the youth of the subject of our sketch is the same in the main that has to be told of all New York farmer boys of a half a century ago. Hard and steady work during the spring, summer and autumn, with a schooling in the winter season, gave to him a vigorous constitution, and created in his mind a desire for a fair education, which was gratified to the extent of his receiving a full course of study at Homer Academy, New York, and afterwards in his receiving a course of law study at the Dane Law School, Harvard University, from which he received his diploma in the summer of 1854.

     The following year he left his home for the Pacific coast, and arrived in Portland, Oregon, about the 10th of July, 1855. Shortly after his arrival he engaged in school-teaching, which he followed for some five or six years.

     The year following his arrival in Oregon, he was married to Mrs. Mary A. Allen, née Peters, by whom he had five children, two of whom are still living. About the year 1862 he became employed in the lumber business at Portland, in which he is yet engaged.

     From the year 1868 to about the year 1871, he was for a greater part of the time editor of the Oregon Herald. As a political writer, his main characteristic was precision of style and force of expression. He had the good quality, as a writer, of always striking the nail on the head. And, although his political philippics were pungent and forcible, he had the commendable faculty of avoiding the arousing of animosity, both by the infusion

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of a warm humor and the entire absence of any manifestation of malice in all his writings. While, therefore, he became somewhat prominent as a political writer, at the period above-mentioned, he never figured at all prominently in politics until his nomination in 1886 for governor; for the reason that he quietly but persistently refused the use of his name until that time in connection with the nomination for any office whatever. And it is a fact, somewhat anomalous in these later times, that his nomination for governor by the Democratic state convention of 1886 was procured without any exertion whatever on his part, he having steadily refused to do anything further than to state that if such nomination was given him he would accept. That was the entire sum total of his efforts towards securing such nomination. It is highly probable that the great controlling cause that procured his nomination at that time was the bold stand he had just previously taken in regard to the agitation of the Chinese question.

     During the winter of 1885-86 a strong feeling against the Chinese was aroused in Portland. Business was stagnant, and the immigrant white laborers who had flooded to this coast to better their condition found nearly all the avenues of labor filled by the Chinese, who lived like beasts and who could thus afford to work at wages that meant starvation to the white laborer who had a family to support. The workingmen of Portland perfected an organization; and a movement was projected looking to the expulsion of the Chinese from the city. This led to a counter-movement; and a bitter state of feeling was aroused. A meeting was called by those opposing the expulsion of the Chinese at a certain day at the courthouse in Portland. The workingmen of Portland captured the meeting from their opponents, placed Mr. Pennoyer in the chair, and after having passed resolutions in favor of law and order quietly adjourned. This coup d'état gave peace to the city. It gave encouragement to the anti-Chinese element throughout the state, and procured the nomination and triumphant election of Mr. Pennoyer as governor of Oregon by a plurality vote of 3,702,although, two years before, Mr. Blaine, the Republican candidate for President, had carried Oregon by a plurality vote of 2,256, thus making a change in two years of nearly six thousand votes.

     Until he began his canvass as candidate for governor, Mr. Pennoyer had never had any experience as a public speaker. Upon the stump he is a plain and forcible talker, and has the happy faculty of stopping when he gets through with what he has to say. His inaugural address as a literary production was faultless. It, however, provoked some sharp criticism on account of the position he took and maintained in regard to the absence of power in the courts to nullify a law of the state. he maintained that, while it was the province of the courts to interpret and enforce the laws of the legislature, it was not within their delegated power to declare such a law to be no law. He claimed that, as members of the legislature were sworn to obey the constitution, they were compelled in the passage of every law to pass upon its constitutionality; and that, as they had jurisdiction of that very question by virtue of their office, such determination on the part of the legislature in regard to the constitutionality of a law which its members were compelled to pass upon by their oath of office was as binding upon both the other co-ordinate branches of the government, as was the judgment of the court of general jurisdiction. He claimed that, under our state constitution, the courts had no more right to set aside a law of the legislature by a judicial opinion than had the governor a right to set it aside by an executive order.

     The Governor is a man of positive opinions; and he has a positive way of adhering to such opinions under any and all circumstances. This fact was made very plain during the session of the legislature of 1889. During the previous legislature two years before, a bill was introduced giving the water committee of Portland the right to issue bonds should be exempted from all taxation. The Governor then vetoed the bill on the ground that, when such bonds were paid out by the city to private parties in exchange for the means and appliances for bringing water into the city, such bonds then became private property which under our state constitution, could not be exempted from taxation. His veto was then sustained. Again for the third time it was, in a different shape, introduced and passed; and again it was vetoed; and the veto for the third time during the session was sustained.

     The positiveness of his character was also demonstrated by the action he took in regard to the trouble anticipated on account of the failure to pay the laborers by the contractors on the railroad east of Albany about the close of the year 1888. The Governor received a dispatch from an officer of the road at Corvallis, stating that the laborers were marching upon the town; that trouble was anticipated, and begging the Governor to authorize the sheriff to call out the troops if necessary to suppress any riot, should it occur. The Governor at once went to Corvallis, and told such officers that, unless the laborers were paid in full the wages due them upon presentation of their orders, and a riot occurred on account of such non-payment, he would not, under any circumstances whatever, order out the troops; but he added that, if they should be paid what was justly their due, and then a riot should occur, he would see that it was suppressed. The result of this positive stand on the part of the Governor was that the laborers were paid their just dues, and all danger of a riot avoided.

     WILLIAM PENTLAND. - This town-builder and founder of Lexington was born December 26, 1835, in Fleming county, Kentucky, and removed with his parents in 1831 to Platt county, Missouri, and three years later made a new location in Buchanan county. He was there engaged in agriculture. In 1847 he made the great journey with ox-teams across the plains to Oregon, and located

520                                                                HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

near the present site of Corvallis. He remained with his people in that neighborhood until 1867, receiving a good, practical education during his early days at the common schools of Corvallis. he was married in 1860 to Miss Jane Nordyke, and afterwards engaged successfully in farming and stock-raising in Benton county.

     In 1867 he came to Willow Creek, in Eastern Oregon, and has been identified with the stock interests of that section ever since. He has become the owner of an immense flock of sheep, having twenty thousand head, owning also a small band of horses. For the sustenance of this truly patriarchal flock, he owns fourteen thousand acres of land.

     In 1885 he laid out the townsite of Lexington, Oregon, and is therefore the father of that most vigorous, active prosperous and moral young city. The large agricultural section and immense grazing region tributary to that town is sufficient guarantee of its future prosperity. It is now supplied with a gristmill of a capacity of fifty barrels per day, which does a good business.

     In that beautiful village Mr. Pentland enjoys a happy life with his family, and devotes himself to the public good.

     HON. D.F. PERCIVAL. - It is a source of pleasure to write a biographical sketch of a man like Mr. Percival, or, in fact, any of the argonauts of the Pacific slope, as their lives were so fraught with diversity, their careers so different and so much more interesting than the monotonous, humdrum life of the average individual. Among the men who came West in "early days" as it is called, there are many who can look back to the times when, in a comparatively few years, they had been miners, mechanics, ranchers, teamsters, merchants, law-givers, office-holders, and turned their heads and brains to more occupations than any other set of men on earth. They established camps, framed laws, and engineered trails and roads over which to obtain supplies, eventually settling down in some business where their efforts are now crowned with success, and where they can expect to enjoy the remainder of their days in comfort, and make comparisons between the past and present of the country they have been instrumental in developing. To my mind, the lives of such men are not only interesting in the extreme, but full of instruction, and an incentive for the youth who are growing up around us, forming the best example of what can be done by energy and a determination to succeed before they ceased their efforts, and the pluck with which when one venture failed they took hold of another. Taken as a whole, there was never a set of men possessed of more ability, daring and strength of character.

     They formed a grand army to invade a country, - not to subjugate a foe, but to develop the resources of the land. Owing to the difficulties to be overcome, there were to be found among them fewer cowards and more brave men than could be found in any similar number of people. But they were, in a sense, only a grand set of adventurers. Ay! adventurers is the word, and it is one which I would be glad to be able to have connected with my own name, because it implies a courageous disposition and a commendable spirit of trust in the divine Protector for the outcome. There was no place in their camps for cowards or weaklings. The weak and dishonest had to either grow strong and reform their ways, or forego the hope of reaching the goal now enjoyed by the respected and well-to-do pioneers.  There are one or more of these men to be found in nearly every town of importance on the coat. I have always found them to be men of liberal views, social and entertaining, and hearty supporters of any enterprise conducive to the good of the community in which they reside.

     Hon. D.F. Percival, a portrait of whose genial countenance is before you as you read, came to Stevens county, Washington Territory, in 1872, traveling all the way from Portland, Oregon, a distance of four hundred miles, on horseback, and first engaged to a large extent in the stock business. He has resided there ever since; and there he will probably pass the remainder of his days in comfort, enjoyment, and the respect of all his neighbors and acquaintances. In the meantime, let us make a short retrospection of his interesting career. He was born in Bangor, Maine, in 1839; and at the age of eighteen years he engaged in the lumber trade on his own account, having previously enjoyed the advantages of a good education.

     During the war of the Rebellion, young Percival disposed of his business and enlisted in the army, and during much active service conducted himself with characteristic bravery and valor. At the end of the war he engaged in merchandising at St. Joseph, Missouri, where he remained only for a short time. His adventurous nature predominated over his belief in the adage about the "rolling stone;" and in 1866 he set out for Montana and the newly discovered and muck-talked-of- El Dorado. He purchased a stock of goods and set out with ox-teams for that country via the Black Hills and "Sioux Nation," and braved the dangers of losing his scalp to reach it. He remained in Montana until the mining excitement died out, and then started for the southern country, traveling through new Mexico and California. After spending some time in San Diego county, California, he went to Oregon, arriving there in 1870, where for two years he turned his attention to his old business, the lumber trade. After which he came to Stevens county, Washington Territory, built himself a log house, and engaged in ranching and stock-raising, thereby acquiring a most thorough practical knowledge of the country and its resources.

     Mr. Percival is thoroughly conversant with the locality; and his knowledge has stood him in good hand, as he has been engaged in the real-estate business since 1880, when the Northern Pacific Railroad first laid out the townsite of Cheney. His home is on a beautiful elevation, commanding a view of the whole of the valley and the town of Cheney. It is a handsome two-story building, surrounded by young trees, and gives evidence of being the abode of contentment and domestic felicity.

     During his residence in Washington Territory, the people have shown their appreciation of him in their political selections. he has been twice elected

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to the territorial legislature, and served three terms as mayor of the town. He has many times tried to avoid election to different offices; but his wise and politic conduct of affairs has been indispensable to the locality; and the people would not take "no" for his answer when any display of diplomacy or wisdom at the capital of the territory was necessary to promote any special or general interest to the locality. The organization of Spokane county in 1879, the wisdom of which was at the time decried by some of the residents, is only an instance of the keen foresight of which his constituents have enjoyed the benefit.

     Mr. Percival is now forty-nine years of age, although he looks a much younger man. Plethoric, vigorous and enterprising, he is as full of life and youthful spirits as when in 1865 he joined heart and soul with his gallant comrades in the charges which resulted in the fall of Richmond and other signal victories, which are looked back to with pride and renewed patriotism by the honored and revered Grand Army of the Republic.

     Mr. Percival is at the present time president of the Bank of Cheney, an institution started through his efforts in 1886.

     HON. J.A. PERKINS. - It is a pleasure to see that this widely known and universally respected citizen of Colfax, Washington, the father of the place, is an Oregon man, having crossed the plains to his Western home in Benton county when but eleven years of age. He thus received his education and the impetus of his life on this coast, although he was born in Illinois. In 1861 he came to Walla Walla county, and in 1870 to the Palouse, taking up a claim upon unsurveyed land at the site of Colfax; for the whole region was yet a wilderness. There were then not above a dozen families within the present limits of Whitman county, now the third most populous in Washington. No sooner was Mr. Perkins well established there, than he began pushing for the upbuilding of the city. In 1871, with two others, he built a sawmill, - the first north of the Snake river, except at Colville. In 1872 he was appointed on a committee to select a county-seat. His nomination of Colfax was duly ratified by the people the following November.

     In 1873 he was married to Miss Ewart of Whitman county, a daughter of Captain Ewart, who served actively during the war. This step was scarcely less advantageous to the city than any of the preceding, since Mrs. Perkins has contributed very largely to its social, educational and religious advancement. The family thus formed has furnished four children, Minnie D., Myrtle M., Stella and Somner E., Minnie being the first white child born there.

     In 1878 Mr. Perkins was elected to the territorial legislature, serving on important committees in 1870. In 1880 he bought out C.G. Livingstone, who was conducting a private bank and established the Bank of Colfax in partnership with A.L. Mills. During his residence there, he has served as member of the city council, and was elected mayor three times in succession, refusing the nomination thereafter. As an active Republican he has sat in important conventions, assisting in the nomination of Selucius Garfielde, and of Major J.A. Armstrong, for delegate to Congress. He has ever been an indefatigable worker for railway connections, and is now taking measures for the construction of a branch road to the Coeur d'Alene mines, thus bringing the immense output of that region through Colfax. He has large real-estate interests in the place, and is one of the oldest, most active, upright, liberal and highly respected men in that section. He has recently been adorning his homestead and the city by the erection of a fine dwelling-house.

     C.S. PERRIN. - Mr. Perrin was born on a farm near Newton, Jasper county, Iowa, in 1857. He crossed the plains with his parents in 1871, locating near Salem, Oregon, engaging with them in agriculture. There he received his education at the Willamette University and the Chemeketa Academy, teaching public school during the summer season and attending upon a course of study during the winter, until 1878. After receiving his education, he followed teaching as a profession until 1881, coming in that year to Eastern Oregon and locating within the present limits of Gilliam county, near Arlington, engaging in the stock business, in which he still retains a considerable interest.

     In July, 1889, he was appointed deputy sheriff by Mr. E.W. Sanderson, and now fills that position with honor to himself and to the satisfaction of his superior, and with the marked approval of the people generally.

     WILLIAM H. PETERSON. - Mr. Peterson, an excellent portrait of whom is placed in this history, was born in West Virginia, August 31, 1836, and removed to Missouri in 1868. He became a teacher of schools and a collector of taxes in the latter state, and was so efficient in the position last-named as to remain in office three terms. In 1876 he put behind him the vast plains of the Mississippi, and even the more expanded region of the Rocky Mountains, and made his home by the Western sea in California. Over the northern part of that state he made many peregrinations, consuming thus three and one-half years. From that point he undertook the final stage of his journey to Washington Territory, settling in Kittitass (then Yakima) county, and securing a place some nine miles east of Ellensburgh. He soon gained the confidence of the people and was elected superintendent of schools, serving two years Upon the establishment of Kittitass as a county in 1883, Mr. Peterson became auditor and has been twice chosen to the same office, declining a re-nomination in 1888. He was also appointed clerk of the district court by Judge Hoyt, and was retained by Judges Turner and Nash, a position he still holds. Other public positions have also been given him to fill; and he is a trustee of the Ellensburgh Academy.

     Mr. Peterson was married in West Virginia in 1863 to Miss Anna E. Roach, and has a family of two children, Joseph W. and Virginia.

     While thus himself a pioneer of the Pacific states, the records of the family to which Mr. Peterson belongs indicate that his proclivities for frontier life

522                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

were honestly obtained. His father was a pioneer of Western Virginia; and his mother's family was of extended historical fame, dating to the celebrated Colonel Elias Lowther, the founder of West Virginia.

     FRANCIS W. PETTYGROVE. - The greatest respect and admiration is due the memory of the men and women who came to the Pacific Northwest when it was the home of savage tribes, and mountain men and a few traders, almost as wild, to plant homes and lay the foundation of the empires of Oregon and Washington, now so prosperous, and in fact fast verging into the garden spots of the union. They dared much when they accepted the role of pioneers. Among those who came in the earlier emigrations was the gentleman whose name heads this brief sketch. He was a native of Maine, having been born at Calais in that state, in 1812. From that time until 1842 his time was taken up in securing an education, and in fitting himself for an active, useful and honorable future career.

     In the latter year he accepted an offer of a mercantile firm in the East to bring to Oregon a stock of goods, open up a store and act as their agent. After getting the merchandise on board of the ship Victoria, he set sail in her for the far-off West via Cape Horn and the Sandwich Islands. On his arrival at the islands, he transferred his goods to the bark Farna and not long thereafter found himself in the Columbia, the vessel having anchored near Vancouver. There he was compelled to remain for some two weeks on account of lack of transportation facilities for getting his goods up the Willamette to Oregon City, his ultimate destination; when he secured the services of a small schooner from the Hudson's Bay Company and embarked for his adopted home.

     On his arrival there he opened out his wares, and until he disposed of his tore met with flattering success. In connection with merchandising he interested himself in the fur trade, and erected a warehouse at Champoeg and controlled the wheat yield of French Prairie. He was one of the first owners of the claims on which Portland now stands, and has the honor of having named that foremost metropolis of the Northwest. At the time of founding that city, he wished to call it Portland after the capital of his native state; and A.L. Lovejoy, who was part owner in the property, desired that it should be christened Boston after the "Hub." To settle it they agreed to toss a penny, the winner to name the town; and our subject proved to be the fortunate winner.

     In 1844 there was formed the Pioneer Lyceum and Literary Club, its objects being to discuss the whole round of literary and scientific pursuits, as well as matters of local moment. On the roll of membership were the names of the most foremost of the pioneers. The scheme to establish the Provisional government was first discussed in that society; and, when such régime was inaugurated, its members were the foremost in shaping its destiny and upholding its authority.

     In 1851 Mr. Pettygrove sold out his interests in Portland and removed with his family to Port Townsend, where he resided until his death in 1887. He was united in marriage in 1842 to Miss Sophia Roland, just prior to his leaving the East for Oregon, the fruits of the union being seven children, three sons and four daughters.

     Few men of those early days did more or exerted a wider or deeper influence upon the times and people than Mr. Pettygrove, either socially, morally or for the welfare in anywise of the community. And in his death the Pacific Northwest lost one of her best and most sturdy, capable and upright citizens.

     MARCELLUS MARCUS PIETRZYCKI, M.D. - Doctor Pietrzycki, the well-known surgeon, was born April 25, 1843, in Horodyszeze, Sambor District, Galicia, Austria, and was educated as an apothecary and chemist. He came to the United States in 1866, before the Austro-Prussian war. He engaged, soon after his arrival in the United States, as assistant and prescription clerk with Doctor Arnold of Hazelton, Pennsylvania, who had a very extensive coal-mining practice, and remained with him for one year studying medicine.

     He emigrated to California in the fall of 1867, and settled in San Francisco, receiving the appointment as an apothecary in the German Hospital, where he remained for five years, during part of which time he attended the Pacific (now Cooper) Medical College, from which he graduated in 1872. The next spring he went to Stockton, California, to practice his profession, and in November, 1873, remove to Rio Vista in Solano county, California. We quote from the history of Solano county, California:

     "Doctor Pietrzycki came to this county in November, 1873, and settled in Rio Vista, where he now resides and practices medicine. He always took an active part in enterprises pertaining to the welfare of the town. He was twice elected school trustee, and also clerk of the board. He took a very active part, and, in fact was one of the prime movers in establishing the Montezuma telegraph line from Suisun to Rio Vista. He married, June 29, 1876, Miss Mary Warren of San Mateo, daughter of Rev. J.H. Warren, superintendent of the Home Missionary Society of the Congregational church."

     He left California in November of 1879 for Portland, Oregon, and went in April, 1880, to Dayton, Columbia county, Washington Territory, where he now resides, and where he has a very extensive practice, both medical and surgical. He was health officer for the city and county during the fearful smallpox epidemic in 1881, which he succeeded in quickly subduing. He has been president of the Eastern Washington Medical Society, and is at present, and has been for seven years past, president of the Dayton Library Association. He is actively engaged in developing the resources of the country, and owns a couple of thousand acres of land devoted to agriculture and stock-raising.

     CAPT. ENOCH W. PIKE. - As a rule, the settlers of the Northwest have not passed through very much actual suffering in subduing the country; but their experiences have sometimes been severe, as is illustrated in the career of the subject of this sketch.

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 Captain Pike is a native of Maine, and was born in 1842. Removing while a boy to Winona, Minnesota, he was led by the call for soldiers during the war to enlist in Company K. Ninth Regiment Minnesota Infantry Volunteers. His regiment was detached to subdue the Sioux, who were then at war with the settlers; but after this he served to the close of the war. Returning to his home in Minnesota, he was appointed postmaster at Lewiston, but learning of the opportunities in the far West, and having a soldier's claim to public land, he crossed the continent, arriving at Salem in 1867. The expenses of the journey for himself and his young wife had exhausted his mans, but finding friends at the capital of Oregon, he was supplied with work and, in addition to making a living, was able to buy a lot and erect a dwelling. Being suited with Linn county he removed thither, and with his parents, recently from the East, engaged in agriculture. A back stroke, however, fell upon him there from having inconsiderately signed a note for a friend, who proved unreliable and left him to pay it. This ill-luck decided him to make use of his soldier's claim as the nucleus of a new fortune.

     Repairing therefore in 1873 to Klikitat county, he located a claim in the bunch-grass country. The region was then wholly unoccupied, except by cattle rangers; and its capability for producing grain and vegetables was untested. Anyone being caught out on its expanses must shift for himself, as there were no neighbors to lend a hand in time of need. With a sick and discouraged wife, and a broken-down team, the Captain found himself alone in that wild region. Laying his soldier's claim, however, and securing a little lumber, he erected the walls of his cabin, which an untimely snowstorm filled with drift before the roof was on. As the winter lingered he was obliged, in order to comply with the six months' clause of the law, to shovel out a room in the snow, and, with robes, blankets and a rousing fire on the cellar-floor, to pass a night with his family in that storm-bound spot. Money for subsistence during that hard year was obtained by securing mail contracts on the route from The Dalles to Columbus and Goldendale, and Klikitat Landing at fifty dollars per month. That in the winter-time was a very hard task.

     The stockmen, his neighbors, as the spring drew on, predicted a failure of the crops. But believing that grain would grow where grass was luxurious, the Captain prepared a high, dry field, sowed it to grain, and planted it also with vegetables; and such was the success of the experiment that others followed his example. He thus became a pioneer in the production of grain on the Klikitat hills.

     Space forbids our following the many interesting experiments and exploits of this veteran. He did the country an important service during the Indian excitement at the time of the Modoc war, and was in the Yakima and Colville country after the massacre of the Perkins family, bringing Moses and his braves to Fort Simcoe after their clever capture by Captain Splawn. Captain Pike had organized a company of his own, and, since these Indian difficulties, has formed and drilled Company B of Goldendale. He passed all the grades, until in June, 1888, he reached the colonelcy of the Second Regiment, N.G.W., which he now holds. In 1878 he was elected assessor of Klikitat county, and in 1880 took the census. He is at present living at Goldendale, conducting an agricultural implement business. He is also a stockholder in the First National Bank of Goldendale. He has there acquired a handsome property, and is enjoying the fruits of his former labors and hardships. The foundations of a substantial state are laid deep in the ground. the first work does not make the show of the last; but it is there.

     HON. ELISHA PING. - In this kindly face we see another of the honored pioneers of the Pacific Northwest. Born in Pulaski county, Kentucky, March 13, 1819, Mr. Ping's early years were spent in the chase after the fascinating phantom of "Out West" which lured so many of our best people to these pleasant shores.

     His early years were spent in Illinois and Indiana. In the latter state he was married in 1840 to Miss Lucretia Kuykendall. She died in December,1863. In 1851, Mr. Ping, with his young family, went to Wisconsin; but they still yearned for the "Westmost West," and the next year set out across the plains for Oregon.

     Reaching his destination in safety, he made St. Helens his first stopping-place. After short residences in St. Helens, and in Douglas and Linn counties successively, Mr. Ping removed in 1860, to Dayton, Washington Territory. His original homestead is now part of the townsite of Dayton. That beautiful and fertile region was then part of  Walla Walla county, Columbia not having yet been created. Mr. Ping served his county two terms as county commissioner, with conspicuous ability. His first term began in 1864. He was first elected to the legislature in 1867, again in 1871 and again in 1873. He was elected to the council in 1875 and also in 1877, and again to the assembly in 1883. He was a member of the first Republican convention of Washington Territory.

     As a legislator, Mr. Ping was always prominent in his advocacy of measures which would conduce to the good of the people, and to the maintenance of honest government. Not less active has he been in the government of the town where his lot has been cast. He was a councilman three years, during which time the expenses of the city were reduced about half, and retired only because of his wish to cease active work.

     He was married to his present wife, Sarah E. Alley, in March, 1882. Her native state is Maine.

     Mr. Ping is now enjoying in his elegant home the well-won rest from his life of toil. His five children, three daughters and two sons, are all married and happily settled in life. In his foresight, enterprise and patience, Mr. Ping is one of the finest examples of the pioneers of this great northwest. He merits his success.

     ALFRED A. PLUMMER, Sr. - This pioneer of the port of entry was born at Alfred, Maine, March 3, 1822. He was the son of John and Eliza Adams Plummer, of an old family of the Pine Tree state. In early life young Plummer removed to Boston and learned the saddlery and harness trade,

524                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

thereby acquiring practical ideas, and the facile use of his hands, which fitted him for the varied work of the pioneer on our coat. In 1849 he left for the Pacific shores, coming with the argonauts who steered their way across the seas of grass, and the deserts of the West, - one of those hardy, keen characters that find a world of resources within their own hearts and minds sufficient for any demand to be made upon a human being; and he most fully justified this confidence in his after career. At San Francisco he engaged for a time in the hotel business, but, feeling the drift of destiny still farther up the coast, boarded in 1850 the brig Emory, Captain Balch, and arrived in the Strait April 24th. The present site of the Port was then wholly uninhabited; but, seeing its great natural advantages as the first really practicable landing at the entrance of the Sound waters, he laid there his Donation claim, and with Charles Batchelder became the first settler of the place. His little clearing and log cabin on the hill long remained to tell the tale of his early labors and solitary exertions.

     In 1853 his home ties were strengthened by his marriage to Miss Anna Hill, a most amiable and intelligent lady, who bore to him a family of nine children; Laura A. (deceased), Alfred A., Enoch F., Mary E., Ida M., Alphonso (deceased), Frank, Annie Laura, and George; and they all are persons of marked and elevated character.

     Mr. Plummer early engaged with Hastings & Pettygrove in merchandising, and during his long residence was one of the most upright and public-spirited citizens of the Port. During the Indian war of 1856 he was captain of the Port Townsend Guards, and never shirked a public duty. He was a member of the first Republican convention of Washington Territory.

     He died May 19, 1883; and the following obituary notice shows the esteem in which he was held by the people of his community: "The people of this city were shocked and sorely grieved to learn of the sudden demise of its honored pioneer citizen. Mr. Plummer was the first white settler in Port Townsend, being followed soon after by Messrs. Pettygrove, Hastings, Clinger and others. His little clearing and log hut on the hill remained to tell a tale of pioneer labor, and a venture into a wild country inhabited by savages. here the best years of his life were spent;  here his entire family of sons and daughters were born and reared; here the wife and daughters were born and reared; here the wife of his bosom labored at his side in an honored and useful career; here he saw the fruits of patient effort crowned by a gratifying result, - a prosperous town grown up from the small beginning started by his own efforts. Mr. Plummer was not an ostentatious man, but preferred to pursue that even tenor so often crowned with success. His friends and neighbors, who are legion, sincerely mourn his death and realize that the place has sustained a serious loss."

     ALFRED A. PLUMMER, Jr. - Tis gentleman, of whom we present an excellent portrait, is the son of the pioneer whose sketch appears above, and was born in Port Townsend September 7, 1856. As a boy he received a sound practical education at the public school of the place, and as a young man entered into mercantile business, and has become a leader in business enterprises. In 1881 he inaugurated a business at New Tacoma, but eighteen months later returned to his native city, and after a time established with D.W. Smith and J.D. Fitzgerald the Port Townsend Foundry & Machine Company, one of the most important enterprises in the city, having a capital of twenty-one thousand dollars, and being operated under the able management of our subject. It turns out excellent work, and is the forerunner of many great enterprises of a like nature.

     In a public capacity Mr. Plummer has been at the fore, having held the office of county commissioner of Jefferson county for four years, and having also been a member of the city council. He was married in 1881 to Miss Katie, daughter of N.D. Hill. Five children were born to them, three of whom are now living.

     Mr. Plummer has recently met with a very sad affliction. On July 28, 1889, death robbed the happy home of its most precious jewel. The wife and mother, Mrs. Plummer, was twenty-nine years old at the time of her decease.

     O.P.S. PLUMMER, M.D. - Dr. Plummer, one of the most useful citizens of Portland, was born at Greenville, Pennsylvania, in 1836. He became a telegraph operator, and was soon one of the best sound readers in this country. In 1854 he made his home in the West, selecting Rock Island, Illinois, as his residence. He studied medicine, graduating from Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia in 1857. After practicing medicine several years, and serving in army hospital practice during the first years of the Rebellion, he emigrated to the Pacific coast. In the spring of 1864, upon the completion of communication between Portland and San Francisco, he became the first manager of the Portland Telegraph office, and for a short time did all the work of a service which has so grown as to furnish employment to over sixty persons. He was office manager and district superintendent nearly eleven years, and resigned in or4der to engage in the drug business. For eleven years he has conducted an extensive trade in this city, being located on the southwest corner of First and Main streets, Portland, Oregon.

     He was married to Martha E. Kelly, daughter of the late Reverend Albert Kelly, July 4, 1874, and is the father of eight children, as follows; Mrs. Claud Gatch of Salem, Mrs. S.J. Chadwick of Colfax, Washington, and Miss Francette Plummer, now a leading school teacher in that city, by his former marriage; and Grace, Agnes, Hildegarde, Ross and Marion, by his present wife.

     Doctor Plummer's remarkable capacity for labor has withstood unimpaired the many years of constant application to which he has subjected himself. He is one of Portland's most rugged and capable men. He has ever been highly appreciated for his ability and fidelity in public affairs, and has served the city of Portland as member of the city council, and Multnomah county as representative in the state legislature. In his profession of medicine he has held a conspicuous position, having filled for a long

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 time the chair of materia medica and therapeutics in the Medical Department of the Willamette University; and he was dean of the faculty.

     He is a leading member of the Masonic fraternity, and has been master of Portland Lodge, No. 55, during three successive years. He is at present a member of the Board of Examining surgeons for pensions at this city, and has been secretary of that body since its organization. He is a firm supporter of morality and good order, and is a member of the Fourth Presbyterian church of Portland. The state owes much to him for his untiring zeal in developing an interest in our fruit culture; and he is one of the leading members of our Pomological Society. He is one of our citizens whom we like to see register himself in distant or foreign parts as "of Oregon." It is a service to us.

     McCAULEY PORTER. - This gentleman, one of the oldest and best farmers in the Willamette valley, was born in Todd county, Kentucky, November 28, 1829. At the age of five he removed with his parents to Montgomery county, Illinois, and in 1845 made with them a  new home in Missouri. In 1848, by the prevalent reports and fabulous stories of Oregon everywhere circulated, his attention was drawn to the land by the sunset sea; and with his two brothers, William G. and John E., he set out upon the journey across the plains and mountains. He had ox-teams and loose cattle, and a flock of sheep, yet was but a youth of nineteen. He finished the trip barefooted, with his clothing almost worn out, and without a dime in his pocket. At the establishment of Foster, - a settler who was sometimes humorously called "Picayune," - on the west side of the Cascade Mountains, he obtained work of the foreman at sixteen dollars per month, but shortly came on to the great prairies of the Willamette valley, taking his first look at Benton county. The winter of 1848 he obtained a situation with Joel Whitcomb at Milwaukee, receiving one dollar a day. He remembers seeing there the launching of one of the schooners built at that early time.

     The dullness and lonesomeness of the times were broken here by the same cry that startled all the Western world, - that of gold in California. With a party consisting of himself, Isaac Winkle, John and James Foster, B.F. Bird, Jacob Martin and others, Porter set out with ox-teams for the mines, arriving at Sacramento June 8th. He stayed in the land of gold until 1852. In the fall of that year he returned to Oregon in the steamship Columbia, and the following spring laid his Donation claim in the immensely rich central section of the Willamette valley, eight miles south of Corvallis, in Benton county, Oregon. There he has lived more than thirty-five years, developing one of the handsome old places, and has betimes swelled his land to more than double its original compass of a square mile, now owning fifteen hundred acres. During all these years he has given leading attention to general farming and stock-raising, a good representative of the honorable, independent and substantial landowner.

     He was married April 7, 1853, to Miss Martha Winkle, a native of Alabama, with whom he had made the journey across the plains in 1848. They have reared five children - Samuel H., John F., Jessie, Isaac and Mark M.

     TRUEMAN POWERS. - Among all the pioneers, few have left a richer legacy of quiet manhood than Trueman Powers. A gentleman of the past generation, of dignified and considerate manners, of deep conscientiousness, and prevailing force of mind and will, he occupies a distinctive place in the memory of all who knew him, and in the history of Oregon. He was born in Vermont in 1803. He received in that state the education then in vogue, which gave much prominence to music in its curriculum. The proficiency thus gained in singing was to Mr. Powers, a lifelong delight, and an efficient means of usefulness.

     A number of years of his early manhood were spent in the South and East; and in 1846 he crossed the plains to Oregon That year was marked by unusual Indian atrocities; and the lady who subsequently became his wife saw her first husband murdered, and was all night alone with his dead body. In 1848 Mr. Powers and his wife came to Clatsop county, and lived about a year on the Clatsop plains. He then went to the mines of California, and afterwards laid a Donation claim near the mouth of the Lewis and Clarke river on the tide lands in Clatsop county. Becoming deputy collector by appointment of General John Adair, he made his residence at Upper Astoria, and lived at that point until his death in 1883.

     In public works of honor or benevolence, Mr. Powers was always at the fore. He early made an expedition far upon the plains to help immigrants who were in distress. He held a seat in the legislature at an early day. He was the first elder in the first Presbyterian church organized within the present limits of Oregon. In religious matters he was very active, being a leader in singing and devotions. He was prompt in securing educational advantages for the children of the community, and even after the age of seventy taught a school three months in order to secure for it the state aid.

     His death, although coming upon him at the ripe age of four-score years, with strength already depleted by an accident sustained sometime before, was greatly mourned by his family and deplored by the community. His wife had preceded him to the other. world. His only child, Mrs. M.H. Leinenweber, wife of the late well-known Christian Leinenweber, a leading businessman of Clatsop and Tillamook counties, lives at Upper Astoria with her three sons and one daughter, on the old homestead, improved as it has been by a very handsome residence.

     CHARLES H. PRESCOTT. - The subject of this sketch is second vice-president of the Northern Pacific Railroad.

     He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 22d of June, 1839, and is the son of Harrison and Sarah Harris Prescott. His father was a native of Massachusetts, and can date back for three generations as members of New England families. Harrison Prescott died when his son was yet in infancy;

526                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

and at the age of six he suffered the loss of his mother. So under the care of guardians he was educated in the common and high schools of Boston.

     At the age of fifteen he found employment as clerk in the well-known shipping firm of Wilkingram Bros & Co., who had offices in nearly every part of the country, and who shipped lumber from Puget Sound  as early as 1854. He remained in the employ of that firm until  March of 1861, when he began to do for himself, and went to Australia, where he engaged in mining and sheep raising with good success.

     After spending seven years in Australia, by exposure in the mines his health failed; and in 1868 he visited London, England, for a short time. He then returned to his native city, and in 1869 went to Kansas City in the employ of James T. Joy as auditor and treasurer of the Missouri, Fort Scott & Gulf Railr4oad. From that time until 1880, Kansas City was his home; and probably no one man did more for that country than Mr. Prescott.

     In 1880 he was elected comptroller of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company under the management of Mr. Villard. That position he held until 1881, when he was elected to succeed Mr. Oaks as manager of the corporation. He retained his position until in 1887 ill health compelled him to resign; and he returned to Boston.

     In 1888 he was appointed to the position he now fills, and which he ably manages, having charge of all the company's offices on the coast.

     His marriage to Miss Georgianna Bryant took place in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1870; and the have one child by adoption.

     HON. PAINE PAGE PRIM. - Always to be remembered along with such men as Thornton, Strong, Kelly, Lancaster and Boice, among the judiciary lights of our state, is Judge Prim. He is a Tennesseean by birth, and graduated from the law school at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee, and began his first legal practice at Sparta n White county of the same state. Like many ambitious young men of the East, he looked to the West as his best field, and came to Missouri in 1851, but arriving at Independence, joined an emigrant train and came on to Oregon. arriving in our state, he took a Donation claim eight miles from Albany, but the next year came to Jackson county, mining, and outliving all the Indian battles of 1855-56.

     Falling back now upon his profession, he opened an office in the then rude town of Jacksonville, and in 1857 was elected to represent that section at the constitutional convention. After the organization of the state in 1859, he was appointed by Governor Whitaker as justice of the supreme court of Oregon, and ex officio judge of the circuit court of the first judicial district. He held that office about twenty years, serving personally on the bench all that time, and maintaining the court with dignity and ability. after his retirement, he began the practice of law in Jacksonville, which he still continues. In 1882 he was elected to the state senate, serving a full term. He is a Democrat of the old school, intelligent, honorable, and an active member of society.

     He was married in 1857 to Miss Theresa M. Sterns, a cultivated lady from Vermont. They have two daughters and one son.

     FREDERICK PROEBSTEL. - This pioneer of the Wallowa valley was born in Germany in 1829, and with his parents emigrated to America in 1842 and located in Missouri. In 1852 he made the crossing of the plains to Lewis county, Washington Territory, locating on Fourth Plain. Mr. Proebstel, belonging to the family of this name, a number of whose biographies are found in this volume, shared many experiences in common with others, and was one of the Indian fighters of 1855-56, and wishes to bear special testimony to the liberality of the Hudson's Bay Company during the hard winter of 1852, when many must have suffered without their assistance.

     Of the many stories which he tells with feeling and humor in regard to the early settlement of the Wallowa valley, the following are specimens. His niece, returning home from the log schoolhouse one evening met face to face by a panther. Being near home, she called out to her father, and meantime struck the animal with one of her school books. The stroke and the scream caused the panther to slink away; and the father, coming quickly with his gun, secured a fine skin. In 1879 Mr. Proebstel drove his herds to the Imnaha, a portion of the Wallowa country, in order to obtain open range. There he stayed for four years, and while there was much annoyed by grizzly bears and panthers. The grizzlies were frequently disposed of by setting fifty-pound steel traps in a pen, wherein was fresh meat bait, and also a large hog at the opening. The bear usually put his fore foot into the trap as he attempted to gain the bait, or was lured on by the hog. Occasionally panthers were caught in this way; and one is mentioned, both of whose hind feet were thus pinioned, so as to make it impossible for him to tear open the dogs' bodies, as he could have done without this hindrance.

     GEORGE W. PROEBSTEL. - The subject of this sketch was born upon a farm in Missouri in 1842. When ten years old he crossed the plains with his father, Jacob Proebstel, driving an ox-team and experiencing the usual hardships attending such a trip. On one occasion he saw his mother pay a dollar a pound for flour, which was hard to secure even at that price. It was the Fourth of July that his party reached Independence Rock, and found there a large train celebrating the holiday with music an dancing. The behavior of the cowboys whom he saw made a lasting impression upon his mind. Arriving in Clarke county in November, the family was obliged to put up with the usual privations of that early day, living on boiled wheat and going barefoot through the rain and snow of that severe winter.

     George W. was a participator in the Indian war of 1855, belonging to Captain Kelly's company; and upon his discharge found himself in debt

                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                    527

fifteen dollars for the clothes which he had worn out in the service. In 1863 he endeavored to find his fortune by repairing to the Idaho mines, and remained as much as five years. Returning to Clarke county in 1868, he married and located a homestead on heavily timbered land, forty acres of which he cleared within ten years. In1878 he selected a new home at Weston, Umatilla county, and engaged with his brothers in a flouring mill, which was burned four years later. After this he clerked in a store for one year; and, being careful of his earnings, he was enabled to embark in business upon his own account, buying out an extensive hardware business, and establishing a store, which he is at present successfully conducting. Mr. Proebstel is one of the most successful citizens in that locality.

     DR. WILLIAM PROEBSTEL. - Few among our early residents have been more serviceable to society than the gentleman whose name appears above. He was born in Germany in 1829, and is the son of a wine-grower. He received his primary education in the old co8untry, and at the age of thirteen migrated to America, locating in Missouri, remaining there ten years, and receiving from the common schools the rudiments of an English education. He also took a course in dentistry.

     In 1852 he crossed the plains to Oregon, locating at Portland. The next spring, with two brothers, he purchased the present site of Albina. In 1855 Mr. Proebstel was one of a party of independent scouts who figured in Clarke county during the Indian troubles of 1855-56, after which he removed to The Dalles, engaging in the grocery business, which he conducted eighteen months. In the fall of 1857 he bought a section of land six miles from Vancouver, and engaged in farming. In 1861 he married Miss Lucinda F. Nessly, who crossed the plains with her parents in 1852, and made her Oregon home at Scappoose.

     He removed to the Grande Ronde valley in the fall of 1863, and located a mile north of La Grande, where he has resided ever since, and now owns five hundred and twenty acres of land well improved and stocked. He made a specialty of stock-raising until the range was eaten out, varying the monotony by practicing dentistry. He has five children; and his present home is one indicative of refinement and happiness. His numerous friends are always entertained in true pioneer style.

     GEORGE W. PROSSER. - George W. Prosser was born in Des Moines, Iowa, December 20, 1846, and crossed the plains in 1852-53 with his father and mother. They wintered at old Fort Hall, and left there the following spring, arriving in Clackamas county, Oregon, on the 25th of June, 1853. He with his father first settled eleven miles east of East Portland. they abandoned that claim, and took up a claim three miles west of Oswego; and the subject of this sketch discovered and opened the iron mines now owned by the Oregon Iron & Steel Company, on said claim. Mrs. Prosser, his mother, sold out this property to Hawley, Dodd & Co., of Portland, Oregon. Then he commenced business on his own account at Oswego, and has lived in that vicinity ever since.

     In 1880 he was elected to the Oregon legislature on the Republican ticket, and served two years. he is now one of the directors of the Oswego School District, No. 47, and is also postmaster of that town. He is at present doing a large business in the general merchandising line, and is one of the staunch and progressive men of that section, always ready and willing to promote the interests of the county and town he lives in. Mr. Prosser is a married man, and has a family of one daughter.

     COL. WILLIAM F. PROSSER. - This gentleman was born near Williamsport, on the west branch of the Susquehanna river, in the State of Pennsylvania, of Welsh parentage, on the 16th of March, 1834. Shortly after his birth, his father removed with his family to Cambria county in the same state, where most of his earlier years were passed in occupations usual to boys whose parents are in moderate circumstances. His early educational opportunities were limited, and were only such as were afforded by a winter attendance upon the public schools of that day, and three terms of five months each at an academy in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in the years 1850 and 1851. Teaching in the public schools, surveying and reading law, occupied his time and attention until he was twenty years of age, when, impelled by that spirit of enterprise which actuates so many of the youth of the country, he left his home in Cambria county for California.

     In 1854 the journey across the plains was long, tedious and laborious; and the party with which he traveled drove ox-teams, or rode on horseback, from the city of St. Charles, Missouri, to the new El Dorado of the West, nearly five months being required for the trip. He first engaged in mining on the American river, but in the spring of 1855 went to Trinity county, California, where he was employed in mining and other pursuits until the summer of 1861. In 1858, volunteers having been called for by the State of California to assist the regular United States troops in protecting the settlements about Humboldt Bay, he with others enlisted in the Trinity Rangers, a company of one hundred man, organized and mustered into the service in Trinity county, of which I.G. Messac was elected captain, and the subject of this sketch second lieutenant. After a successful campaign of great hardship, danger and severity, especially in the winter of 1858-59, the company was ordered back to Trinity and mustered out, Lieutenant Prosser and his brother officers receiving the special thanks of the state authorities. In 1860 he was the first nominee of the Republican party there for the state legislature; and, although Trinity county was strongly Democratic, and party feeling then ran very high, he was only defeated by a small majority.

     In July, 1861, at the breaking out of the Rebellion, he disposed of his interests in Trinity county and returned East to participate in the tremendous struggle which had already commenced. Arriving in Washington, he was tendered a commission in the

528                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

regular army by President Lincoln; but this he declined undertaking to enlist troops for the lamented Colonel E.D. Baker, who was in the meantime killed at Balls Bluff. Shortly afterwards he enlisted as a private in the Anderson Troop, a body of one hundred men selected for special cavalry service form all parts of Pennsylvania. this troop was ordered from Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, to Louisville, Kentucky, thence taking part in all the laborious marching and fighting which took place under General Buell, until the field of Shiloh was reached; and for efficient service in that battle it was especially complimented. While acting as quartermaster of this troop he was sent on special duty to Louisville; and while on the way, Lieutenant Prosser was captured by Morgan's rebel cavalry, in June, 1862, paroled and sent to Annapolis, Maryland, for exchange.

     While a prisoner the troop was increased to a regiment; and after his exchange he was temporarily assigned to duty as quartermaster of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, the new regiment serving as such. he joined the regiment at Louisville and proceeded to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving in time to participate with about three hundred men of the regiment in the battle of Stone River. Of those three hundred men eighty were killed, wounded or captured in the first two days of the engagement. Shortly after that battle he was transferred to the Second Tennessee Cavalry, of which regiment he was commissioned major in March, 1863, lieutenant-colonel in March, 1864, and colonel in June, 1865. From the time of the transfer, however, he virtually commanded the regiment, and for a considerable time in 1864,a brigade of Tennessee troops consisting of the Second, Third and Fourth Regiments of Tennessee Cavalry and a battery of artillery. With his command he participated actively in all the campaigns of the Army of the Cumberland under Rosecrans, Thomas, Sherman, and at the siege of Knoxville under Burnside, taking part in all the principal battles of that army, and in a large number of skirmishes and minor engagements.

     When the Confederate army under General Hood suddenly and unexpectedly appeared before Decatur, Alabama, on the 26th day of October, 1864, Colonel Prosser, who was then in command of the cavalry in the District of North Alabama, hastily gathered up about four hundred men and a battery of artillery of his command, and going out a short distance before that place disposed his force across the entire front of the line of battle of the enemy; and, taking advantage of some inequalities of the ground, he held the rebel army in check from ten A.M until night came on, thus giving General Granger time to call his scattered forces back to Decatur and put the place in a condition of defense. This delay saved the place; and, although General Hood remained before it several days, he failed to effect its capture, and moved off down the river to Tuscambia. The time thus gained enabled General Thomas to make the necessary preparations for the decisive battle of Nashville in December. The following spring brought the war to a close; and Colonel Prosser and his regiment were mustered out of the service July 6, 1865.

     Attracted by the natural resources and advantages of Tennessee, he decided to locate there, and with the return of peace bought a farm near Nashville, and engaged in various business enterprises looking to the development of the country. In 1867 he became involved, much against his will, in the political struggles of those days, which were characterized by intensely bitter feeling. The result was that in the same year he was elected a member of the Tennessee legislature for two years, and in 1868 was elected a member of the Forty-first Congress from the Nashville District. His practical services in both bodies were not only highly satisfactory to the party by which he was elected, but were complimented by leading men of all parties without regard to their political proclivities. His efforts, more especially in behalf of internal improvements and general education, were highly appreciated.

     In 1871 he was appointed postmaster at Nashville and for three years conducted the affairs of that office with great success. In 1871 he was also appointed by the governor of Tennessee one of the commissioners from that state to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia; and for seven years he devoted considerable time to the preparation for and the closing up of the affairs of that exhibition. In 1873 he was one of a committee to visit the World's Fair at Vienna for the purpose of investigating its management. For several years Colonel Prosser published an influential Republican newspaper in Nashville, Tennessee; and as a newspaper and magazine writer he has considerable distinction. Owing to continued and increasing ill health, contracted during the war, he determined to carry out his original purpose of returning to the Pacific coast; and in March, 1879, he came to Washington Territory as a special agent of the general land-office at Washington, District of Columbia. For more than six years he discharged the difficult and responsible duties of that position, not only to the entire satisfaction of the authorities at the national Capital, but of the people of Washington and Idaho Territories and of the State of Oregon, with whom he came in contact in the discharge of his official duties.

     On the 6th day of April, 1880, he was married at Seattle, Washington Territory, to Miss Flora L. Thornton, daughter of H.G. Thornton, one of the early pioneers of the State of Oregon. In 1882 he located a homestead in the lower part of the Yakima valley, and subsequently became the founder, at the same place, of the town of Prosser, which is rapidly growing in business importance, and is situated in the center of a rich agricultural and stock-raising region.

     This sketch is only a brief outline of some of the leading events in the busy life of Colonel Prosser; and it affords no room for reference to a number of positions of trust and honor which have been held by him, or to the many other valuable services he has rendered the country in an official and private capacity. Even in this brief review, however, we cannot but observe that the Colonel possesses in a very marked degree the qualities which lead to national distinction. We cannot but regret that he did not enter the regular army with the commission of lieutenant as Lincoln. intended. If the war had lasted

                                                                                    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                    529

four years longer, the military abilities which made him a colonel would have elevated him to the rank of major-general. Nevertheless we may in the meantime rejoice in the disposition which has made him a citizen of Washington and a city builder on our coast.

     J.M. PRUETT, M.D. - The native-born sons of Oregon who have had the wisdom to prepare themselves for a professional or business career have quite generally shown themselves fully equal to those born and raised elsewhere. The subject of this sketch is one of these. He was born at Salem in 1849, his father being the well-known pioneer J.W. Pruett, who crossed the plains in 1847.

     Young James remained with his father until the death of the latter, which occurred in 1866. He then went to California, where he remained for two years, after which he returned to Oregon and began his education, studying at Philomath and completing his course at one of the famous institutes of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1872. Choosing medicine as a profession, he entered the Ohio Medical College, graduating with honor. In 1875 he located at Pendleton, Oregon, and began the practice of his profession with very satisfactory results, being indeed one of the leading physicians of that thriving place.

     The Doctor was united in marriage to Miss P. Buckingham, of Benton county, the fruits of such union being three children.

     A.B. RABBESON. - Mr. Rabbeson, who observes that "he was born of rich but honest parents" at New York in 1824, was devoted from his youth to the most interesting and desperate adventures. Nevertheless, he was always delivered from his perils just at the right time, and lives to-day in hale age at Olympia.

     His boyish adventures began not many years after the death of his father in 1833. His step-father he did not like, and consequently left home. We find him out in Canada, soon at New York City with his grandparents and attending school, but within a few months on a coasting ship to Florida, where, with two mutinous sailors, he left ship and wandered through Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky to Cincinnati, where his companions left him to shift for himself. Making his way to Columbus, Ohio, he obtained steady work, but also found and read the biography of a Rocky Mountain man, which fired his mind with a burning youthful desire to go West and try it for himself. Nevertheless, it was not until after more wanderings in Canada, a short period at buffalo, a trip on the lakes, and a few years in the old West, - Ohio and Illinois, - that he finally got his feet on the Oregon trail; for it was mythic Oregon which was his lure.

     The autumn of 1846 found his party broken down and given out on the steep brow of Laurel Hill. Young Rabbeson was the one to go down to Foster's on the Clackamas and obtain of that kind-hearted gentleman five yoke of oxen free, with which to return and haul out his companions. Once in Oregon the young man took a brief survey of the west side of the Willamette valley, but soon turned his steps towards the wild country of Puget Sound. It was a rough trip up the Cowlitz trail on foot, and himself his own pack horse. His food was dried salmon and fern roots obtained of the Indians. Ten miles past the freight settlement and Hudson's Bay post he lodged at the cabin of John R. Jackson, the first American settler of the territory. The food set before him was boiled wheat straight, - as good as the farm afforded. At Skookum Chuck he met for the first time the first settlers of that region, - Sydney Ford, George Wanch, with their families, and Joseph Borst, each of whom had a cow or two, and were living on the fat of the land, that is, peas and milk.

     The pioneers of the Sound whose settlement he reached the third day out from the Columbia were then Michael T. Simmons, George Bush, Gabriel Jones, David Kindred, and the bachelors, Jesse Ferguson and Samuel Crockett. By all of these he was treated with the signal kindness of the Western pioneers, but remembers George Bush, the esteemed and honored mulatto, as one who, in hospitality, was even an exception among those exceptionally free-handed men. Another trip to the Willamette valley convinced him that his claim near Olympia was the best on the coast; and, although at the three-house city of Portland he was offered work by Pettygrove and King at five dollars per day, to be paid half in goods and half in town lots at five dollars apiece, he preferred to go to his home.

     After a trip in which he lost his canoe near St. Helens and dug up a skiff that was found buried in the mud, whose seams he caulked with his shirt torn in strips, and fitted with a blanket for a sail, and a cold trip up the shoals of the Cowlitz, he reached his attractive claim. The struggle for subsistence was maintained during 1847 by making shingles, one thousand of which equaled a week's board. Boiled perch, clams and fern roots were the staple dishes. Brick-making which brought wheat, peas and horses at Cowlitz Prairie, and carpenter work at the mission, also helped out existence.

     Returning from the mission to the Sound, he organized the Puget Sound Lumber Company. The following is Mr. Rabbeson's description of the mill, and the incidents of its first operations:

     "The company consisted of M.T. Simmons, George Bush, Jesse Ferguson, A.B. Carnafi, John Kindred, Colonel B.F. Shaw, E. Sylvester and myself. We purchased of the Hudson's Bay Company a set of mill machinery then at Vancouver, which the latter company had shipped from England with the intention of erecting a mill at some point upon the Columbia river; but they, believing it to be to their advantage, sold the same to us for the sum of three hundred dollars, to be paid for in lumber delivered at Nisqually Landing at the rate of sixteen dollars per thousand. The mill was built in the fall and winter of 1847 at the lower falls of the Tumwater. It had an old-fashioned up-and-down saw run by a flutter wheel, and cut from twelve hundred to fifteen hundred feet per day. I rememfler very vividly the trouble I had to get room when the mill was first started up on account of the Indians, who flocked to the mill by hundreds to behold

530                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

the wonders performed by the Boston man who could, by a word, make the saw move up and down and the log advance or recede at will."

     We also insert here his account of an early experience with the Indians. It is too interesting to be omitted:

     "I remember the second log that was sawn. When I went to put it upon the carriage, I requested the Indians either to get out of the way or to roll the log upon the carriage themselves; and, as they desired to make themselves useful, ten of them attempted it but failed. When I picked up the cant-dog and turned the log without help, they were astonished at my remarkable strength; and, when I proposed to pick up one of them and throw  him from the mill to the other side of the river, they all declined the experiment, - feeling no doubt that I could do it. This was the first effort to manufacture lumber upon Puget Sound, and I look back with pleasure to the fact that I had the honor of being the first to cut a board on its waters."

     The following is Mr. Rabbeson's account of his explorations down the Sound somewhat later:

     "In the spring of 1848, in company with Thomas Glasgow, I explored, for the first time by Americans, Hood's Canal. Crossing our canoe and outfit over the portage from the head of North Bay to the head of the canal, we met Indians by the hundreds that had never seen a white man before. We went well up Skokomish river, down the canal and straits as far as New Dungeness, and then to Whidby Island. There Glasgow took a claim and planted some wheat, peas and potatoes. While there he noticed that the Indians were gathering on the island in large numbers. Their camps had been made at Pen's Cove, as where we were located there was but little water. Inquiring as to the cause of the gathering, the information was given that the Indians were preparing to have a grand hunt and big talk. We supposed at the time that there were camped, within the radius of three miles, about eight thousand of these wild men. They built a line of brush fence and nets of seaweed from Pen's Cove to Ebey's Landing. Then they started the dogs and whippers-in at some lower point on the island, and drove the wild animals and game before them. There must have been killed on that day about sixty or seventy deer, and large quantities of other game.

     "Then was held the biggest barbecue I had ever seen In the Indian war dance there took part about two thousand bucks. We had a desire to witness the whole of the performance, but were advised by Glasgow's woman to hide until the excitement was over. On the third day came the big talk. There were in the assembly representative men from every tribe on the Sound. Those that seemed to be the most active were from the Snohomish, Clallam and Duwamish tribes. The first speech was made by Patkanim, Chief of the Snohomish. Glasgow's woman acted for us as interpreter. He spoke very bitterly against the Hudson's Bay Company, and urged that all the tribes combine to attack and destroy the station at Nisqually, divide the goods and stock, and kill or drive off the King George men. He was followed by John Taylor (an Indian chief) who was in favor of including the Boston men or Americans at Tumwater. He admitted that the latter had not much goods, but he had been over to the Willamette valley, and there had heard that the Bostons, in their own country, were as numerous as the sands upon the beach; and, if something was not done to check their coming, they would soon over-run the whole country, and the Indians would then be transported in fire ships to some distant country where the sun never shone, and there be left to die, and what few Indians escaped this fate would be made slaves. He urged that then was the time to strike terror to the white man's heart and avoid all future trouble.

     "This brought old Gray Head, Chief of the Tumwater tribe, to his feet. He was a warm friend of the Boston Man, and a fluent speaker. He said that, before the advent of the Bostons, the Nisqually tribe was in constant dread because the big tribes that Patkanim and John Taylor represented had been constantly making raids upon his people because they were small, killing them and making them slaves. but now the Bostons were ever ready to protect his people; and, if they were driven off, 'who,' he inquired, 'will shelter us from our enemies?" The chief of the Duwamish tribe now arose with a great flourish, and said that as his people occupied the country between the Nisquallies and the Snohomish he would protect. But old Gray Head answered that he would rather have one rifle with a Boston behind it as a protector than all of the Duwamishes' and this was the sentiment expressed by all the Nisquallies and Chehalises. It caused hard words; and we expected to see them come to blows. When night came it was concluded by Patkanim's party that by killing Glasgow and myself it would compromise Gray Head and his people; and then they would join them in their plain of attack upon Fort Nisqually and the American settlement.

     "Glasgow's woman, however, learning this fact informed us; and when night came we stole a small canoe and pushed out for home, leaving the woman and our goods behind with instructions to follow at the first opportunity. That was the last we ever saw of our goods. Shortly after starting, a favorable breeze sprang up; and by daylight next morning we were off Apple-tree cove. When off Blakely, the wind became so strong and the sea so rough that a landing were so unfortunate as to stave in our canoe, and were left helpless. We succeeded in keeping our powder dry, and remained upon the point until the next day, subsisting upon some ducks that we shot. About noon six Indians came along in a canoe; and we debated a long time as to the advisability of hailing them. Had there been but three or four, we would not have hesitated; but six to two - if they should prove unfriendly - was too much odds. But the case was desperate; so the call was made. They, on their part, consulted a long time before they would land; and when they came ashore we pretended to understand but few Chinook words. By signs we indicated that we wanted to go to Fort Nisqually, and that we would give them two blankets to take us. This they agreed to do; and we entered the canoe, taking our position in the center,

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