History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 591 - 610

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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and eleven days, - two hundred and twenty-four days in all. As we stopped nine days at Rio Janeiro, twenty-one at St. Catherines, ten at Valparaiso and ten at San Francisco, in all fifty days, our sailing time was one hundred and seventy-four days. Our ship was a fine sailer, and might have made the voyage in much shorter time; but government vessels are not pressed as are merchant ships. They take their time, and exercise unusual prudence in making and shortening sail.

     "Their was nothing of particular interest in the voyage to the public. Except for the great length of time consumed, it was more comfortable and pleasant than either of the other modes of moving a family to Oregon could have been. Our stoppage at St. Catherine, a port three hundred miles south of Rio, was rendered necessary on account of the yellow fever, which we took aboard at Rio. Some of our party, and a large part of the officers and crew, were taken down wit it. At one time it seemed as if the ship would be entirely disabled before we could reach a port. It proved fatal, however, in only four cases. Our eldest son, four and a half years of age, was the first victim, and was buried at sea in the Atlantic, whose waves washed the distant shores of his native land. A young seaman, in whom we all took great interest, next died; and governor Gaines lost two daughters, interesting and accomplished young ladies, who had been the life of our party.

     "It was a bright and beautiful morning when we entered the Columbia. The air was delightful, the scenery grand. The shores were covered with a dense green foliage, the hills crowned with magnificent evergreens. On our voyage up the western coast of South America, we had seen little except brown and hazy sunburnt mountains. Nothing green was visible. Around the Bay of San Francisco, everything at that season of the year looked dry and barren. The hills having recently been burned over, consuming the crop of wild oats with which they had been luxuriantly covered, presented a black and desolate appearance. The great contrast which the shores of the Columbia presented was cheering to the heart. The first impressions of our new home were delightful.

     "When Astoria was pointed out as we reached the point below, I confess to a feeling of disappointment. Astoria, the oldest and most famous town in Oregon, we had expected to find a larger place. We saw before us a straggling hamlet consisting of a dozen or so of small houses, irregularly planted along the river bank, shut in by the dense forest. We became reconciled, and, indeed, somewhat elevated in our feelings, when we visited the shore, and by its enterprising proprietors were shown the beauties of the place. There were avenues and streets, squares and public parks, wharves and warehouses, churches, schools and theaters, and an immense population, - all upon the map. Those proprietors were men of large ideas, large hopes. They assured us that in a short time Astoria was to become the commercial metropolis of the Pacific coast. Some of those proprietors have passed away and gone where they are beyond the reach of hope or fear. Some remain; and, though their eyes sparkle and brighten when they talk of the future grandeur of Astoria, they manifest a slight feeling of sadness, and drop the subject with the remark: "This may not be in our day; but it will surely come. You and I may not see it; but our children will."

     "Astoria at that time was a small place, or rather two places, - the upper and lower town, - between which there was great rivalry. They were about a mile apart, with no road connecting them except by water and along the beach. The upper town was known to the people of Lower Astoria as Adairville. The lower town was designated by its rival as Old Fort George, or McClure's Astoria. A road between the two places would have weakened the differences of both, isolation being the protection of either.  In the upper town was the custom-house, in the lower two companies of the First United States Engineers, under command of Major J.S. Hathaway. There were not, excepting the military and those attached to them, and the custom-house officials, to the best of my recollection, to exceed twenty-five men in both towns.

     "At the time of our arrival in the country, there was considerable commerce carried on, principally, in sailing vessels between the Columbia river and San Francisco. The exports were chiefly lumber, the imports general merchandise."

     At the time when Judge Strong entered upon the performance of his official duties, Oregon embraced all of the territory west of the Rocky Mountains lying between forty-two degrees north latitude (the northern boundary line of California) and the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude) the southern boundary of British Columbia). That immense area was divided into three judicial districts, to each of which was assigned one of the justices of the Oregon supreme court, as presiding judge of the courts in their respective district. The third judicial district of Oregon Territory comprised all of Oregon north of the Columbia river, and the county of Clatsop south of that river. There were no organized counties east of Clarke county at that time; but that county extended eastward to the Rocky Mountains; The other county north of the river was named Lewis; it extended northward to the British boundary. Thus it was that Judge Strong's district included all of what is now Washington Territory, Idaho and Montana north of the forty-sixth parallel, and west of the Rockies, besides the county of Clatsop in Oregon, of which Astoria is the county seat.

     During the winter of 1850-51, Judge Strong with his family resided at Vancouver. In the early spring of 1851, he took a claim at Cathlamet, on the north side of the Columbia river, under the Donation act of September 27, 1850, which required four years' residence upon the land, and where he resided until his removal to Portland, Oregon in 1862. This is not the place in which to chronicle the proceedings in detail of the courts over which Judge Strong presided. His judicial life was commenced in Oregon when party spirit ran high, when politics to a great extent became matters of personal difference, when differences as to political questions were made the occasions to mar and destroy social relations, to alienate and estrange personal friends and

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neighbors. This strange result arose from local issues, from the intensity of personal feeling growing out of the location, or rather the removal, of the seat of government. It became necessary for the supreme court of the territory to decide where the seat of government was located. It so happened that the dominant party in the territory made the capital removal a party question; and it was perhaps unfortunate that the majority or quorum of the supreme court, appointees of a Whig national administration, viewed the law which they were called upon to administer as inoperative to effect that removal.

     During all the years of Judge Strong's first judicial term, that and kindred questions were constantly agitated and embroiling the public mind. Never were judges more severely denounced, more the subjects of personal and malevolent attack, than were Justices Nelson and strong, the quorum of the supreme court who decided that the Omnibus bill, as it was called (which had provided for the location of the seat of government at Salem, and for a commission to supervise the erection of the capital buildings thereat; the location of a university, and for a commission to sell the university lands to provide funds for its erection; and nominating the site as also providing for the building of a penitentiary, as also a commission to build it), was inoperative and void under the Organic act, because it included more than one object, and the title of the bill clearly failed to express its object. Unawed and unmoved, the quorum of the supreme court met at Oregon City, the place by them decided as the seat of government. They calmly heard the question argued; bravely and judiciously, in opinions creditable for ability and for evidence of painstaking consideration, each filed an opinion announcing the conclusion reached. There is no necessity to call back any humiliating incidents which mark those years of Oregon politics or social life. After well nigh two score of years completed, who will attempt to detract from any honors sought to be accorded the scholarly and gentlemanly Chief Justice Nelson? Who will stop short in hearty commendation of the ability and integrity which marked the judicial career of his more vigorous and stalwart brother Strong in those troublous stormy days, when juridical administration had become the issue whereby partisan rancor was kindled? Nor will it be denied that each possessed to an eminent degree those four motives or qualities which the wise Socrates has said must actuate the Judge: "To hear courteously, to answer wisely, to consider soberly, and to decide impartially."

     "Judge Strong was still on the bench when Washington Territory was (March 2, 1853), set off from Oregon. In the whole of that newly created territory, as defined by its Organic act, he continued to act as sole judge until Governor Stevens' proclamation, late in November, divided the territory into three judicial districts, and assigned to each, one of the judges of the supreme court of Washington territory appointed by President Franklin Pierce. The first legislature of Washington Territory was in politics Democratic; yet William Strong, the late Whig judge, was by a unanimous vote associated with Chief Justice Edward Lander and Associate Justice Victor Monroe as a commission to sit during the session of the legislature to report laws from day to day. That commission worked laboriously; but it is not derogatory to either of the other members to say that by far the largest portion of the body of law enacted at that first session was reported in the admirable clerical hand of Judge Strong. But little of his work needed revision or rewriting. Judge Lander gave as much time and valuable service as did Judge Strong; but the clerk of the commission was obliged, in laws reported by him, to make copies. That body of law was very generally enacted with little or no alteration, and was infinitely better when first adopted than now, with the innovations of a quarter century's legislation.

     After the close of that session, Judge Strong retired to his residence at Cathlamet. For the next few years he divided his time between practicing law in the various courts of Oregon and Washington, in which he was employed in almost every suit of importance, and in surveying the public lands, at which he was a thorough adept, and for which he took several government contracts.

     In May, 1855, he received the Whig nomination for delegate to Congress. He and the Democratic nominee, Colonel J. Patton Anderson, made a joint canvass of the territory, which was ably conducted; nor were the amenities of social life and the relations of gentlemen ever ignored. Washington Territory was thoroughly Democratic. Judge Strong received his full party vote, which was all that he had any right to expect against his gallant and generous competitor. At the breaking out of the Indian hostilities, in the fall of 1855, when Governor Mason called for two companies of volunteers in response to a requisition of Major Rains, U.S. Army, Commander of the Columbia river and Puget Sound district, one to rendezvous at Vancouver and report to Major Rains, Judge Strong raised a company and was unanimously elected its captain. That company was known as Company A, First Regiment Washington territory Volunteers. It was mustered into the Untied States service, and performed considerable duty in Clarke county and vicinity. The company prayed to be sent to the upper country to escort Governor Stevens on his return from the Blackfoot council through the hostile Indian country; but so hostile wa General Wool, then commanding the Department of the Pacific, to Governor Stevens and the two territories, that against the urgent protest of Captain Strong he disbanded Company A before their term of enlistment had expired.

     In April and May, 1856, Governor Stevens caused the arrest of certain persons in Pierce county, Washington, who, being intermarried with Indian women and living in the hostile region, were suspected and accused of furnishing the hostile Indians with supplies and information, that led to a serious and protracted conflict between the courts and the territorial military authorities. Judge Strong was retained by the governor as his law adviser. Perhaps it would be proper to say that his duties partook of the nature of attorney-general, as also of judge-advocate-general on the governor's staff, although no commission was issued to him.

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That clientage necessitated the most intimate confidential relations with the governor, and identified him with the war policy of the executive.

     Shortly subsequently he was elected a member of the house of representatives of the territory. The issue in great measure at the election of 1856 was "Stevens" and "Anti-Stevens." The Whig party had ceased to exist; and those who know how strongly Judge Strong was influenced by personal associations and surroundings, his party a matter of the past, and with him a secondary consideration, the politics of the territory almost entirely based upon personal support of personal policy, will not for a moment be surprised that Judge Strong espoused the cause of his client, and cast his political lot with his personal friends. He gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, not to the Republican organization, which had just been inaugurated in the territory. At the session of the legislature he championed Governor Stevens and his war policy. At that session, upon him devolved the duty of conforming the various practice acts of the territory, the laws for empaneling of juries, and providing for terms of court, to a recently passed act of Congress, which limited the courts the expenses of which were borne by the United States to three, to be held only at three places.

     In 1858, Hon. O.B. McFadden having been promoted to the office of chief justice, Judge Strong was appointed associate justice, succeeding Judge McFadden as judge of the first judicial district. He held this office until succeeded by Honorable James E. Wyche in 1861.

     Judge Strong continued to reside and practice law within Washington Territory until December, 1862, at which time he removed to Portland, Oregon. He at once acquired an extensive and profitable general practice, but later on was almost exclusively engaged in the business of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, whose counsel he continued to be until the transfer of their interests to the Henry Villard combination, resulting in the organization of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company as its successor.

     Thereafter he gradually retired from active practice. His large business was ably handled by his two very intelligent and competent sons, Fredric R. and Thomas Nelson Strong; and the good old man rested from his long and arduous professional labors. From 1883 the profession had been abandoned by him; yet he was not idle. His busy pen continued to work in treasuring the reminiscences of early years, of the men who had been his contemporaries, and the events in which he had been so conspicuous an actor.

     In April, 1887, the full three-score years and ten completed, that stalwart frame, that manly and robust form, succumbed to age and bodily infirmity; that vigorous intellect, that active brain, that large, generous heart yielded to the inexorable. An active, busy, useful life was ended.

     He was a most untiring worker; and few indeed could accomplish so much. His mind was of the most active and vigorous character; and he carried to his practice at the bar, or his administration upon the bench, that marked individuality for which he was distinguished. he was always positive. No uncertain language, nor worlds of compromise nor demagogic attempts to conciliate the public, marked his enunciations of a conclusion reached. he was one thing or the other; and hence he was at times the object of ultra and bitter partisan criticism. But that never swerved him from his own chosen line of duty. Neither did such criticisms influence him to personal controversy or justification. He ignored those assaults, and was as kind and urbane to those who censured his judicial acts as though they had spoken of him in terms of laudation.

     As a judge none were readier than he to seize instantly the pivotal points of a case. Few indeed possessed greater acumen power of analysis or resources to fortify the conclusion reached. As a speaker he was fluent, earnest, impressive, - too practical to be eloquent. As a lawyer, counselor, legislator or judge, he was alike at home in each capacity. His forte, however, was perhaps in felicitous, happy and forcible expression in aptest language of a proposition or conclusion of law. In dictating a decree, making a record of an order or judgment, he needed no form-book. He had no superior in announcing in the fewest appropriate words a conclusion of law or a judicial determination. he was a natural clerk. He made practice, molded procedure, and established precedents, for his bar to follow. his orders of court, his decrees in chancery, his drafts of laws, are models of expression. How aptly he placed the right word in the right place. As a lawyer he was ingenious and untiring in resource. Thoroughly equipped for every-day practice and every vicissitude, he was learned in the science of his profession, and loved it as such, and was thoroughly devoted to the cause of his client, for whom he labored to succeed while there was any hope to win. As a judge he was patient, urbane, fearless, independent, unselfish, deferential to his brethren of the bench, and considerate to members of the bar.

     Those who knew him in the early days, the old settlers of Oregon and Washington, will treasure his memory, will continue to recall his genial kindness, his encouraging and cheerful sympathy.

     HON. J.A. STROWBRIDGE. - Mr. Strowbridge, universally known as one of the leading business men and philanthropists of Portland, Oregon, was born in 1835 in Monteur county, Pennsylvania. With his parents he early made a home in Ohio, receiving the substantial home training of very careful christian parents, and gained thereby the habits of thrift, industry and enterprise which have made him uninterruptedly successful through life. He was also afforded excellent advantages at school, and prepared himself to enter the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware Ohio, with a view to studying law. When but a lad of fourteen he was promised by an eccentric old gentleman, a Mr. Oldham, a school to teach, if he could obtain a certificate from the board of examiners. Encouraged by this incentive, he at once set to work to make the attempt, and appearing with some fifty or sixty other applicants before the board at Marion, Ohio, passed the examination with flying colors, and was

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 complimented by the examiner, Mr. John J. Williams, who was enough impressed with his youthfulness to address him, "My boy." Mr. Oldham was as good as his word; and young Strowbridge finished his term with success and pleasure, although many of his pupils were older and larger than himself.

     He deemed it a considerable sacrifice to forgo his plan of study, and come to Oregon. The journey was undertaken in October, 1851, and was performed that autumn across the several states with the comparatively easy and expeditious conveyance of horse-teams, to St. Joseph, Missouri. There the winter was spent in taking care of the stock and giving attention to matters pertaining to the comfort of the family, while the young man secured a school by the employment of a Mr. Robinson, and gathering a considerable number of pupils, taught a very pleasant term. The rest of the journey was performed in the season of 1852. That was the year of the great immigration, when cholera raged among the trains and tents, and dotted the wayside with graves. Mr. Strowbridge's family was invaded by the pestilence; and one of the children, a little boy, fell a victim to the scourge. By this event the father was very much dispirited; and, feeling anxious and apprehensive for the safety of his family, and determined to do all in his power to get them to Oregon alive, he took upon himself great burdens and cares, and moreover contracted mountain or typhoid fever. He took sick at The Dalles, and died soon after reaching Portland.

     By this severe blow J.A. Strowbridge, still but a youth, was very greatly distressed, and thought that life henceforth would be insupportable, or even impossible, in the absence of this greatly beloved parent. He was himself sick, and now felt the responsibility of his mother's family. In his great trouble, however, he found the people of Portland - then but a little hamlet in the deep woods - big-hearted and kind, and ready to make his life as cheerful as possible. Following close upon the bereavement of the family by the death of the father came the loss of the entire band of stock, worth many thousand dollars, which had been brought across the plains with the greatest care and without loss. Their destruction now was brought about by the fall, nearly the middle of December, 1852 of about two feet of snow, which lay on the ground many weeks, making grazing impossible, while feed was not to be had.

     Thus, upon the opening of the season of 1853, Mr. Strowbridge found himself in a new country, practically without means, and with no resources except such as were in his own courageous heart, active brain and willing hands. Setting to work bravely, and taking any employment that offered, he soon had some means ahead, and forming a business connection, in a small way, with San Francisco, greatly improved his outlook. In 1853 he bought a few boxes of Oregon green apples, which were among the first, if not the very first, placed in the San Francisco market. Going into the business more extensively, he made a tour among the farmers, and encouraged them to set out apple orchards, offering as an inducement that he would take all they could raise at from fifteen to thirty cents a pound, - from five to twelve dollars a box. By this time he became one of the first to inaugurate the shipping of fresh fruit, a business which increased to such an extent by 1860 that the total shipments of apples from Oregon amounted to over one hundred thousand boxes.

     The first results of his labors were, however, swept away by the failure of Adams & Co., bankers and expressmen at San Francisco; for, upon going to that city at the request of his commission merchants, he put into Adams & Co's bank, for safe-keeping, his entire avails, and but a few days after learned, in common with many others, that the establishment had totally failed. He improved his remaining time at the city, however, by examining the produce market, both as to stock on hand, and that incoming as indicated by the shipping lists from new York. Returning to Oregon, he entered boldly, almost without money, into the produce and commission business in Portland and the surrounding country. By very careful calculations and exact methods, and the timely tender by a friend of a small sum of money, which he was soon able to return, he made rapid financial headway, and has never been obliged to seek aid outside of his own resources. Never since his first establishment has he worked for a salary, but has been controller and operator of large kinds of business, and one of those men that seek employe's instead of employment.

     Continuing his trade in produce, he transferred his interest in 1850 to the boot and shoe trade, forming a partnership with Mr. C.M. Wiberg. In 1870 the firm closed out; and Mr. Strowbridge made a specialty of leather and shoe-findings. In the great fire of August, 1873, he was burned out and lost heavily, but was among the first to rebuild, and to get a stock again on the market. He has followed this business wit great fidelity up to the present time, becoming known for his integrity and fair dealing. He has been successful, reaping the honest fruits of his application, sagacity and good investments. He has the satisfaction of liquidating all honest debts the moment they are due, of paying a hundred cents on the dollar, and of knowing that no one ever lost a farthing through him. This is a clean and handsome record, of which any man may be proud. He is one of our men of wealth who holds nothing but what legitimately belongs to him. He has been extensively engaged in real estate operations in the city, and has pursued the liberal policy of improving his property, and thus furnishing accommodations for business and stimulating the growth of the city.

     In addition to this record in exact affairs, he has been closely identified with public measures to develop the city and state. Inclined to be conservative, believing rather in steady growth than in ephemeral excitement, and quiet and careful, he has nevertheless done more than could be told within these pages to make Portland a true emporium. In the interest of public good and philanthropy, he has a wide influence, being a friend of the public schools and of the churches, contributing to almost every religious organization in the city. He was one of the first members of the Portland Volunteer

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Fire Department, organized about 1853, and is now an exempt and honorary member. He has been a member of the Portland Board of Trade since its first organization. He was one of the incorporators of the Lone Fir Cemetery. He is a member of the Boys and Girls Aid Society, a director in the Pacific Fire Insurance Company, a member of the board of trustees of the First Congregational Church, and was one of the first members of the Portland Library, and has a perpetual membership therein.

     Mr. Strowbridge has steadily refused all political offices, except that in June, 1888, he suffered his name to be used in nomination as representative from Multnomah county; and his popularity was attested by the largest majority on the whole legislative ticket as he receive 6, 052 votes out of 9,384 cast.

     He was married July 4, 1864, to Miss Mary H. Bodman, of Oxford, Ohio, a lady of rare education, culture and social abilities. She is the eldest daughter of Doctor H.A. Bodman, who volunteered as surgeon in the war of the Rebellion, and was assigned to service on the fleet of Admiral Porter on the Mississippi river. They have a delightful home, with all the surroundings of comfort, refinement and wealth, and a family of five children, - Alfred B., Geo. H., Joseph A., Henry J. and Mary H.

     HON. ROBERT F. STURDEVANT. - Mr. Sturdevant is known as the pioneer lawyer of Dayton, Washington, and is one of its most enterprising citizens. His birthplace was Warren county, Pennsylvania; and the date was November 18, 1841. About eighteen months after that important event in his history, his parents moved to Iowa, and settled in Lee county. There they remained until 1854, when they removed to Clark county, Wisconsin. There Robert attended school, and in 1860 began the study of law. He was engaged in professional study and practice till 1873, when, in company with his father and mother and wife, he came to Washington Territory. Their first home was at Olympia. The parents returned to Wisconsin the next year; and Mr. Sturdevant with his family removed to Dayton. There was no lawyer in the city at that time; and Sturdevant's was the first attorney's sign.

     In 1875 Columbia county chose the pioneer lawyer her probate judge, thus making him the pioneer at the bench as well as at the bar. In 1878 he was elected prosecuting attorney on the Republican ticket, for the first judicial district of the territory. He served in that office for two years. He has also served as mayor of Dayton, and was a member of the constitutional convention of Washington Territory. Always ready to forward the interests of Dayton, he has used his means largely in making improvements. What is known as the Sturdevant block will long stand as a monument of his business spirit. he is also the owner of much other real estate in the city.

     In politics Judge Sturdevant is firmly Republican. he was married in 1866 at Neilville, Wisconsin, to Miss Mary J. Townsley. Eva M. and Edith D. are their two children. A beautiful residence at the west end of Dayton, and a tract of sixty acres adjoining, afford Mr. Sturdevant and his family all the comfort and good cheer of a happy home.

     GEORGE W. SWAGART. - Mr. Swagart, identified since 1853 with the interests of our coast, and now one of the "cattle kings" of Eastern Oregon, was born May 1, 1848, near Galena, in Joe Davis county, Illinois. In 1853 he came with his parents to Oregon, locating in Lane county, where he received a common-school education, and became inured to the hardships of an early pioneer life, in the saddle, and to the arduous labors of farming, until, in 1865, he branched out for himself in the stock business, driving a band of sheep across the Cascade Mountains to the ranges of Umatilla county, in the vicinity of the old Centerville stage station between Pendleton and Walla Walla. There he laid the foundation for the success which had crowned his efforts. The following five years were spent in the mining camps of Nevada, and in following the various speculations which a rapidly developing country offered to the speculator.

     In 1878 he returned to Umatilla county, and embarked in the stock business and other outside interests. There he has remained ever since, raising a family of five children, having been married in 1871 to Miss Mildred Clark, his present wife. Mr. Swagart is interested in raising Clydesdale horses and shorthorn cattle, as well as securing a moderate holding of sheep. He now lives at Heppner, Morrow county, Oregon, where he has made his home for the last eleven years; and he is fully content with that magnificent region.

     HON. JAMES G. SWAN. - Hon. James G. Swan was born in Medford Massachusetts January 11, 1818.He came to San Francisco via Cape Horn in 1850. He came to Shoalwater Bay in 1852, which was then a part of Oregon, and remained till 1856,when he went East as private secretary to Governor Isaac I. Stevens, Delegate to Congress at Washington, District of Columbia. He returned to the territory in 1858, and settled in Port Townsend.

     In 1862 he was appointed teacher in charge of the Makah Indian Agency at Neah Bay, and remained till 1866, having charge of the government property during the war. He rendered effective service in keeping peace among the Indians, and in protecting the Agency from incursions of foreign Indians from British Columbia.

     At the close of the war of the Rebellion, when the Confederate steamer, Shenandoah was destroying our whalers in the Arctic ocean and Behring Sea, the people of Puget Sound were in daily apprehension of the rebel cruiser destroying the lighthouse at Cape Flattery, the agency buildings at Neah Bay, and the town and mills on Puget Sound. there were no tug-boats nor steamers on the Sound as at present; and the sight of one excited general remark. One afternoon the smoke of a large steamer was discovered from the tower of the school building at Neah village, approaching from the north. It was supposed to be the Shenandoah coming to destroy the government property. George Jones,

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 the agency farmer, asked Mr. Swan what they should do. "Climb up the flagstaff and nail the flag to the masthead," said Mr. Swan. "I will never haul it down to a rebel." George climbed up and did as he was ordered; and all awaited the result. The steamer came in and anchored; but it was too dark to distinguish her flag. Soon a boat came ashore and announced that the steamer was her Majesty's ship Devastation, Captain Fox, returning from Barclay Sound, where she had been to chastise the Ahosett Indians for killing a white man. The next morning Captain Fox came ashore and complimented the employe's for their bravery in protecting government property. The Victoria papers related the incident; and Agent Webster, who was in Washington, complimented Mr. Swan.

     In 1868 the Clallam Indians at Dungeness massacred a party of Tsimsean Indians on the 20th of September. One woman, who was supposed to be dead, finally recovered. Mr. Swan, at the request of General McKenney, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, arrested the whole of the Indian murderers, twenty-six in number, and took them to the Skohomish Indian Agency at Hood's Canal; and, when the woman recovered, he sent her, with the presents General McKenney furnished to pacify the Tsimseans, to her home at Fort Simpson, British Columbia. Mr. Swan is acknowledged to have more influence with, and to be better known to, the coast Indians from the Columbia river to Alaska, than any other one man; and he has been able to effect much good among them.

     On seven different occasions Mr. Swan has been to Alaska as a commissioner of the government to procure articles of Indian manufacture for the National Museum in Washington. The result of his labors may be seen in the largest and most valuable collection in the museum of the manufactures of the Indians of the north coast of North America. His last official visit was in 1883 to Queen Charlotte islands, British Columbia, where he made a most complete and valuable collection of Haida works of art, in gold and silver jewelry, and stone and wood carvings. It was during this cruise, the first black cod ever brought to Victoria in a merchantable condition; and he has the credit of having been the first to introduce this delicious food to public notice. Mr. Swan has been agent and correspondent of the United States Fish Commission since it was first established by the late Professor Spencer F. Baird.

     He is Hawaiian consul at Port Townsend, Puget Sound pilot commissioner, commissioner for the State of Oregon, United States commissioner, and secretary to the Puget Sound Fish Preserving Company at Port Townsend.

     Mr. Swan has written many elaborate contributions for the press. Among the most valuable are the following: On the manners and customs of the Indians of the Northwest coast for "Schoolcraft History, North American Indians;" volume VI; 1857. "The Northwest Coast;" one volume, octavo, 435 pages; Harper & Co., New York; 1857. Compendium with Boston Transcript on Washington Territory; 1857. Compendium with Washington and Boston papers on Washington Territory; 1858. Articles in Harper's Magazine on Amoor river; 1858. Article in Hunt's Merchant's Magazine on Amoor river; 1858. Series of articles in San Francisco Bulletin on Puget Sound; 1859 and 1860. A series of descriptive articles in Washington Standard, Olympia, Washington territory; 1861-68. "Indians of Cape Flattery," published in the Smithsonian contributions to useful knowledge; 1869. "Haida Indians of Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia," illustrated; published by the Smithsonian Institution; 1874. "Criticism on the Linguistic Treatise in volume I, Contributions to North American Ethnology;" published by the Bureau of Ethnology; 1879-80. A vocabulary of the Haidas of Queen Charlotte Islands. A vocabulary of the Makahs of Cape Flattery.

     Mr. Swan has, for more than thirty years, been a regular correspondent and collaborator of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington, District of Columbia, where his contributions to the national Museum are of marked interest to all visitors; and his many valuable articles on the food fishes of the North Pacific have received honorable mention in nearly all the reports of the Smithsonian during the long period from 1856 to the present.

     In November, 1871, Mr. Swan was appointed judge of the probate court of Jefferson county, Washington Territory, which office he held for seven years, and has retained the title of "Judge" ever since. Judge Swan's reports to the Northern Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads, on the Amoor river and the Asiatic commerce still to be developed in Siberia, Manchooria, Corea and Japan, have done much to direct the attention of these two great corporations to the magnitude of that trade, and will be a means of inducing its development in the near future.

     As vice-president of the Association of Pioneers of Washington Territory, Judge Swan marched at the head of the pioneers in the procession at the inauguration of the new State of Washington on the 18th of November, 1889. He is an active, energetic member of the Port Townsend Chamber of Commerce, and a respected and valued citizen. He has lived in Washington through its whole territorial existence, and with his fellow-pioneers rejoices that Washington is now a state.

     J.B. TABOR. - The gentleman whose name appears above is one of those driving and thriving men whose situation had, through his own industry and sagacity, become one of enviable prosperity and comfort. Mr. Tabor owns a large stock ranch ten miles south of Colfax, Washington, and also a fruit ranch on the Snake river bottom. For the latter he paid nine thousand dollars some years ago. He is the stepfather of W.J. Hamilton, the leading druggist of that city; and his two daughters are living near. One of these, the wife of J.B. Holt, is living on the Snake river place; and the other, Mrs. W.L. LaFallett, is located on the delightful farm near his own. The Snake river ranch is devoted to fruit. This strip of lowland, sandy, warm and in many places supplied with water from the springs or creeks from the surrounding hills, is equal to California for the production of grapes,

                                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                            597

 peaches and sweet potatoes. Lands well situated for fruit command from seventy-five to one hundred dollars per acre. Mr. Tabor's orchard is gradually becoming extensive; and, as the market is good, it is and will be a fine source of income.

     He deserves his prosperity. He has been a frontiersman nearly all his life, having been born in Tennessee in 1821; and in 1840 he moved to Missouri. In 1849 he crossed the plains with ox-teams, and began mining at Grass Valley. In 1851 he came up to Oregon and took a farm in the Willamette valley. He there engaged in stock and grain raising. In 1856 he joined the volunteers and, with Colonel Cornelius, followed the Indians all over the Inland Empire; and even then he marked the choice location.

     In 1872, desiring to change his home, he went up to the Palouse country, laying his claim ten miles south of Colfax, and engaged in raising horses, cattle, and especially sheep. Those high hills, from one thousand to two thousand feet above the sea-level, and nearly as high above the river bottoms, are the places for stock ranges and for grain. Twenty-five bushels of wheat per acre is assumed to be the average capacity of those uplands. Since going into the fruit business, Mr. Tabor has largely disposed of his stock. Upon his first arrival in the country, Colfax had no existence; and the first settlers, Cox, Perkins and Hollingsworth, who made the city, were very isolated frontiersmen. Mr. Tabor shares with these men the honor of creating Whitman county, and proving its adaptability to the uses of civilization. Large Agricultural, mineral and lumber interests of that section lie at the back of Colfax; and the railways assure its future.

     Mr. Tabor has been county commissioner, and has always been ready to serve the community in every way. He is a man whose sturdy self-reliance, integrity and energy have won universal esteem.

     ALBERT H. TANNER. - Albert H. Tanner was born in what was at one time a part of the Oregon Territory; but, when Congress cut the territory in two and made Oregon and Washington Territories, it left him in Washington Territory, with the mighty Columbia between him and his now much-loved Oregon. His birthplace was on what is commonly known as Cape Horn Mountain, some fifty or sixty miles below the Cascades. In a little log cabin, the favorite habitat of the early settler of this Western country, on the 9th of September, 1855, the subject of this sketch first saw the light. His father was Benjamin F. Tanner, a native of Kentucky; and his mother was Sarah Turner, a native of Missouri.

     When Albert was about eight years of age, they separated and were divorced; and he went with his father to Sheridan, Yamhill county, where he moved about from place to place a homeless lad, until he became of sufficient age to be of assistance to his father, who was a carpenter by trade, when we went to work with him with a boyish purpose of following the trade of his sire. He continued in this employment, working in the summer and attending the district school during the winter months, until he had attained the age of sixteen years. He was industrious at his work, and a faithful and diligent student in school. About this time Professor T.F. Campbell, the President of Christian College, at Monmouth, Oregon, visited Sheridan in the interest of the college, delivering lectures on the subject of education. Young Tanner attended those lectures, and was inspired with an enthusiastic desire for an education, and to rise above the obscure station which he seemed at the time destined to fill. He set about at once to get together what money he had earned; and, borrowing some form friends, he started for Monmouth, and was matriculated as a student of that institution, then considered the best in the state. He attended this college for three years, graduating in 1874, sharing the first honors of the class with Mr. T. Jay Graves, of McCoy, Polk county, Oregon.

     In the fall of 1875 Mr. Tanner came to Portland, Oregon, with the avowed intention of studying law and becoming a lawyer, and entered the law office of the then well-known firm of Messrs. Dolph, Bronough, Dolph & Simon, as a law student, where he devoted himself with great diligence to the study of the law and general literature. He suspended his reading during a part of 1876 and taught a term of school. He returned to the reading of law, and was admitted tot he bar in 1878. He immediately entered upon the practice of his profession in Portland, and has been in active practice ever since, growing in strength and experience, and in the estimation of the public, as the years go by.

     He soon began to look into politics with an interest natural to a rising young lawyer. In the presidential campaign of 1880 he was an enthusiastic advocate of the election of Garfield and Arthur, making speeches in various parts of the state. he also assisted in making a canvass of the state in the last presidential campaign.

     In 1882 he was nominated by the Republicans of Multnomah  county as a candidate for the legislature, and was elected by a large majority. At the session of the legislature, he was appointed chairman of the judiciary committee of the house, which position he filled with success, and otherwise proved himself an active and useful member of the house.

     In 1884 he was the Republican nominee for district attorney of the fourth judicial district, having as a competitor for the office John M. Gearin, the Democratic nominee. They both made a thorough canvass of the district; and, though the best of feeling prevailed between them and between their mutual friends, the race was hotly contested. There was a fusion ticket, the beginning of a labor agitation that two years later swept the state over to the Democracy.

     The Democratic candidate, by working this for all there was in it, and with a solid Democracy pulling for him, was enabled to overcome the Republican majority, defeating Mr. Tanner by a hundred and ninety-four votes. It was openly charged at the time that the Republican candidate had been counted out, and that the machinery of the party had been used against him. It is believed, however,

598                                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

that Mr. Tanner never joined in those assertions, but took his defeat manfully and without complaint.

     In January, 1885, he was appointed city attorney of the city of Portland, and served in that capacity until July, 1887. He attracted wide attention in that office by his successful management of important city cases, some of which involved many thousand dollars to the city in money or property, and retired with the best wishes of the entire community. He is at present associated with Senator John H. Mitchell in the law business.

     As a lawyer, Mr. Tanner ranks among the ablest at the Portland bar. He has assisted in the trial of many important cases, and has fine tact in handling witnesses and getting in evidence. He prepares his cases with care and research, having the law and the evidence thoroughly in hand, and can, when interested and aroused in a case, make a stirring and powerful speech to the jury.

     In 1880 Mr. Tanner was marred to Miss Marcella Kelly, daughter of Hon. John Kelley, ex-Collector of Customs of Portland, Oregon; and they have three bright children. Their domestic life is of the happiest kind. Mr. and Mrs. Tanner ware devoted to each other and to their children.

     There is no better example of a self-made man than the subject of this sketch. Born of poor parents, in the obscure wilds of the West, left by domestic trouble at a tender age without a home, knocked about from "pillar to post" in his younger years, he struggled on through adverse circumstances, by his own efforts acquired an education, and has a place in the legal profession that even older men might well feel proud of. He is still comparatively a young man, not having yet reached his thirty-fifth year. As the old pioneers fall from the ranks, leaving places for the new generation, Albert H. Tanner is bound to take a high place in the public estimation, and in useful public service.

     ARTHUR J. TAYLOR. - The subject of this sketch, whose portrait appears herein, was born in Staffordshire, England, on the 18th of August, 1857 When but two years of age his parents brought him to America, locating at Richmond, Virginia. Their residence there was but brief, as they soon removed to Halifax, Nova Scotia, perhaps anticipating the political troubles of the next few years. When but a boy of twelve, Arthur came West, upon his own responsibility, to the Red River of the North, where he lived until 1884.

     His next move, in April of that year, made him a citizen of Mason county, Washington Territory. In the following August, on the death of Mr. Wilson, Auditor of that county, Mr. Taylor was appointed to fill the unexpired term, - thus showing the rapidity of political preferment in America. The immigrant arrives in the spring. He is county auditor in the fall. But this was not all. The Republicans insisted upon Mr. Taylor filling the same place in 1887. The people of Mason county indorsed this and elected him, although the others on the same ticket were defeated. It is his sterling integrity which has given him so large a measure of public confidence and esteem.

     His investments at Oyster bay, as well as in other localities, have been very successful, proving him not only a competent official but a financier as well.

     Mr. Taylor was united in marriage on March 10,1888, to Miss Mayme E. Bell, a native of the Empire State.

     COL. JAMES TAYLOR. - The immigration of 1845 was large, and furnished many of the leading men of the Northwest, among that number being Colonel James Taylor of Astoria, Oregon. Although now past eighty years of age, he is still one of the active citizens of a city which boasts of many men of energy. He is one of the fathers of the place, not only in point of time, but as owner of considerable property in the city and adjacent country, embracing the heights west of the city, which will one day be occupied with handsome residences, as they command a magnificent view of the estuary of the Columbia river, and Young's Bay, and its beautiful rivers, also of the imperial Saddle Mountain or Swallatache, and a wide view of the main ocean beyond the Clatsop Plains.

     The Colonel is of Scotch and Irish descent, and was born in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, in 1809. When thirteen years of age his father moved west to Mansfield, Ohio, and bought a farm near by, where he spent his boyhood. The winter of 1830-31 found him teaching a six-months' school in the neighborhood. The following summer he joined an older brother who had preceded him to Fort Findlay, now the city of Findlay, Ohio, then a wilderness, including the great black swamp of the Maumee country, and inhabited by several tribes of Indians, including the Wyandottes, Ottawas and others, who lived by hunting, and whose peltries were the principal trade then in that new country. He and his brother were largely engaged in trade with the natives until they were moved by the government still farther west; and the country was rapidly settled up by the Whites.

     Mr. Taylor, now being married to Miss Esther de Armon, and being fond of the adventures of a pioneer life, and believing the Pacific coast still offered a fine field for his ambition and prospects for such a life, in the latter part of the winter of 1845 resigned the office of registrar of the land-office which he then held in Ohio, and organized a small company, consisting of Orville Risley, wife and two children, Levi Rice and one child, A.E. Skinner, Hiram Smith, Noah Huber, C. Main, William Savage, Abel George, E.C. Crow, J.C. Creighton, and eight or ten others, whose names are like-wise well known in our early annals. They repaired with wagons, horses and much other outfit for the journey by the Ohio and Missouri rivers to the general rendezvous near Independence, Missouri, where Mr. Taylor purchased cattle and other supplies for the journey; and, with five fully equipped teams, they were off by the 10th of May for the long trip. That was a favorable year on the plains; and at the rendezvous and on the plains many life-long acquaintances were made. Stephen Meek, a mountaineer was selected as guide. He will always be connected with the disastrous expedition into what is called the cut-off, where Meek himself became bewildered; and the whole company that followed him was lost

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 in the sands and lonely Ironstone Mountains of Middle Oregon. The starving emigrants endured much suffering, but finally found their way out. Taylor's party was not in this scrape, as it followed the old route by Snake river and the Grande Ronde valley to the Umatilla and Columbia river.

     Soon after starting on the journey from the rendezvous, it was seen that the whole army, upwards of two thousands persons, with thousands of loose stock, besides horses and yoke-cattle could not travel in one company. The Colonel's party, with General Palmer's small company, in which was a Lieutenant McDougall of the United States army, who was fleeing on account of an unlucky duel which he had fought at St. Louis, set off by themselves and pushed ahead. On this side of the Rockies they met Doctor White and party en route for the East, who delivered a speech to the emigrants, concluding with the advice to keep on the old route down Snake river; and Doctor Whitman also met them at the foot of the Blue Mountains, and traveled with them down to the Columbia river. Upon arriving at The Dalles, they found that Captain Samuel K. Barlow had preceded them and was cutting a road across the Cascade Mountains, pushing out to the foothills to assist in getting a road across to the Willamette valley. They took only as many horses as were necessary to carry the families across, and drove the loose stock, having left their wagons and supernumeraries behind. They made the crossing safely, reaching Oregon City October 10th, having made a quick and prosperous trip of only six months from Ohio, eight months being the usual time of former emigrations.

     In the spring of 1847 Colonel Taylor took his family to Clatsop Plains, buying out a still earlier settler, and securing the farm which he still owns. The Indian trouble of 1847-48, caused by the massacre the fall before of Doctor Whitman, family and others, induced him to take his family back to Oregon City for safety; and he himself served in the Cayuse war. Seeing the beauty and fertility of the Cayuse country, and as George Abernethy, then Provisional governor of Oregon, had declared that country open to settlement by the Whites, and by order had stationed a company of soldiers at Fort Waters, the Whitman station, Colonel Taylor, Captain Philip Thompson and Captain Absolem Hembree determined to colonize the Walla Walla country. They went to the Willamette valley for settlers, and also purchased several thousand dollars' worth of cattle to be driven to the prospective home. But this flourishing enterprise was dissipated as with a breath by the news of gold mines in California. Settlers and soldiers alike made a stampede for the mines, leaving but few, mostly women and children, to take care of the whole of the Oregon country, and fight off the Indians.

     The Colonel and his partners sold their stock of cattle; and with his family he remained at Oregon City, not going to the mines, but with General Lovejoy and Medorum Crawford built sawmills and carried on the lumber business until January, 1850, when the mills with much sawed lumber and logs in the boom were carried away by the great flood of that winter. This left our pioneer many thousand dollars minus. The summer of 1849 found much gold dust drifting to Oregon from the California mines, which could not be used well as a currency; and, having no coin in the country except what the Hudson's Bay Company shipped in, and which was used to buy up the dust at a very low figure, the Provisional legislature then in session passed an act establishing a mint to coin the dust so as to be used as a currency. Colonel Taylor was made comptroller of it, and commenced coining in September of that year, and continued until the winter following, when Governor Lane, appointed by the President of the United States, arrived and assumed jurisdiction over the country, and declared such coining unconstitutional, and caused its suspension. Thus originated the noted Beaver Money, which gave Oregon its first circulating medium and materially raised the price of the gold dust.

     In the spring of 1851 he again returned with his family to his Clatsop farm, ever his stand-by, and engaged in farming and stock-raising until the fall of 1855, when he moved to Astoria, where he now resides. In the meantime he kept up a trade by shipping and driving cattle to Victoria and British Columbia, which was then a remunerative business. In 1854 the Colonel went into a sheep speculation with Jacob Rinearson, W.H. Gray and Robert McEwen. He furnished each about three thousand dollars to go East and buy sheep and drive them to Oregon. Rinearson bought horses and cattle instead, and sent them to California. Gray succeeded in getting about six hundred head through to Astoria in safety; but, in crossing Young's Bay to get to Clatsop Plains, the scow upon which he had them was wrecked, drowning all the animals. McEwen delivered about three hundred and fifty at Oregon City, which were distributed over the country. Though not remunerative, this venture gave a start of sheep in the country.

     As the country has grown, the Colonel has found the management of his farm and large real-estate interests at Astoria sufficient to occupy his attention; and he built a handsome residence on the site of the old fort of John Jacob Astor's time (1811), where he still lives. Mrs. Taylor, of the De Armon family of Pennsylvania, was also a pioneer of Ohio, and has been to the social life of Oregon what her husband has been to its business interests. Of their five children, one son is a merchant in Astoria; and another is the judge of the fifth judicial district of Oregon. Their oldest daughter is the wife of Captain White, U.S. revenue marine. Another daughter is married and is living in Portland; and a single daughter is at home.

     The Colonel has never been a politician in the usual acceptation of that term, but in 1857 was the first Republican ever elected to an Oregon legislature, but was counted out, however, by brother Whigs and Democrats on account of his politics, which could not be tolerated at that early day by the old parties then dominant.

     Thus pleasantly situated, in an exceptionally vigorous old age, surrounded by their children, and by the result of their labors, these venerable pioneers enjoy the life and the state which they have done so much to establish.

600                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     W.H. TAYLOR. - The subject of this sketch was born in Michigan in the year 1851. He was a farmer boy of that new England stock which has enriched so many of our American commonwealths. His parents removed to Iowa, and afterwards to Kansas, while he was a mere lad. At the age of twenty he abandoned the life of a farmer boy for a place where his talents would have broader field of usefulness, and entered the office of the Commercial, the leading paper in his section, where he learned the trade of a printer. Before the expiration of his apprenticeship he was made the foreman of the office, and the next year became the publish of the Daily Evening Argus. Soon afterwards, following the advice of an able journalist, he set out for the Pacific coast, with the intention of establishing a newspaper at San Francisco.

     Having stopped off at Salt Lake City, he quickly discovered an opportunity for usefulness in the line of his profession in the Mormon capital. There were at that time three dailies at Salt Lake City, two of which were devoted entirely to the cause of Mormonism; while the third, which pursued a weak and vacillating policy on this great question, was in the last stages of mental and financial dissolution. Mr. Taylor, associating himself with one of his former employe's and a few others, secured the leading control of the Tribune. He and his associates at once placed that paper in the front rank of American journalism, and made it a literary and financial success second to that of none between Chicago and San Francisco. To the Tribune, under the management of Mr. Taylor and his associates more than to all causes combined, is due the now decaying fortunes of the latter day hierarchy. It was a fight to the death from the start; and the noble part borne by the Tribune advanced the reputation of that journal and its managers to the orbit of national reputation.

     When the battle for American supremacy in Utah had been fought until the issue was no longer doubtful, Mr. Taylor, unable to continue to bear a life of confinement such as journalism alone imposes, sought a home in the territory of Washington, intending to devote his time to private business affairs. but it is not possible for such a man to long deprive the public of the benefit of his services, or escape the duty of citizenship which a character and nature such as he possesses imposes. In 1887, the business men of Spokane Falls, without regard to party, elected him mayor of that beautiful and progressive city, an office which he administered with untiring energy, integrity and capacity. Declining a re-election, eh became president of the Spokane National Bank, and of the Board of Trade of Spokane Falls, which position he now fills.

     Mr. Taylor is a Republican in politics, and a man of intense convictions. He is, however, broad and liberal in his views, and commands the confidence and respect of the entire community in which he lives. He is one of the progressive men of the Pacific Northwest, and contributes largely to all enterprise of a public and progressive character. He is a man of abundant wealth, a large stock and land owner, and is extensively engaged in mining in Washington and Idaho Territories. Few men are so entirely devoid of ostentation; and none affords a better example of American manhood when directed to honorable ends.

     HON. CHARLES C. TERRY.- The name and labors of this gentleman fill an important part in the history of the North Pacific coast. He was not only one of the first settlers here in point of time, but has ever been foremost among those who have had the foundations of our society and business. He was born in new York State when that was itself the frontier, and received his education in his native town.

     The fame of the soil and climate of the North Pacific coast had already reached the Atlantic slope. Adventurers and daring men in various parts of the country were preparing to seek their fortunes there, and among these was Mr. Terry. He joined a party of homeseekers in 1851; and their point of departure from civilization was the old site of Council Bluffs. Thence their route was up the long valley of the Platte by way of Fort Laramie; up the Sweetwater and under the shadow of Frémont's peak; down the Bear and Snake rivers to the Columbia. From Mr. Terry's old home it was three thousand miles; and most of the way was through an almost trackless wilderness, swarming with powerful tribes of Indians.

     The journey was successfully made; and the party arrived at Portland in August,1851. While the rest of the company awaited at that place to rest and recover from the fatigue of their journey, Mr. Terry and two others made an exploration to Puget Sound. After a month's absence in an almost trackless forest, he returned and reported favorably upon that country for permanent homes. As soon as preparations could be made, a party of twenty-one took passage on the schooner Exact, and landed at what is now Alki Point in September. The whole party camped in the forest until log cabins could be built. The first work of the settlers after building was to cut and skid to the Sound a load of piling for the brig Leonesa. This work, with its pay, was a God-send to the settlers. Without teams or anything but their axes and strong arms, they felled the great forest trees, cut them up, forced the piling by hand to the Sound and floated it to the brig.

     In a small way Mr. Terry and Mr. Lowe, another of the party, commenced merchandising at the point of their landing, which they named Alki, an Indian word meaning "by and by." This word was an indication of the faith these brae men held as to the future of that country. It was so apt and expressive that it was subsequently adopted by the territory of Washington as its motto. This mercantile business, under careful and able management, grew to importance, and was continued for six years, when Mr. Terry traded his interest in it for a land claim located on what is now a part of the city of Seattle. While merchandising he had also engaged successfully in sawmilling. With that foresight which had characterized his location of the party on the Sound, Mr. Terry saw the future of Seattle; and he bought other claims, so that finally he became one of the principal owners of the present site of that metropolis. He was an active participant in the measures that led to the organization of Washington Territory, and also shared in the dangers and hardships of the Indian war of 1855-56.

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     He possessed the unbounded confidence of his fellow-citizens, and was honored by them with an election to the territorial legislature, and to the territorial legislature, and to the position of mayor of the city which he did so much to found and build. He was a natural leader of men; but he had no taste for office-holding. His influence in politics has been shown in his management of the party outside of the office. He was active in all that tended to settle and develop Washington Territory, and especially Puget Sound. He had the broadest and most comprehensive views of the future, foreseeing that the great forests, the iron and the coal, insured a manufacturing and commercial future; and his every effort was towards such a realization. In private life he was a model man. In his family he was all that was purest, gentlest and best. When his iron constitution succumbed to the pressure of mental and physical labor, and he passed from earth he left a widow, two sons and three daughters to mourn their irreparable loss. Mr. Terry was a man whose long life left nothing to extenuate, and very much to emulate.

     HON. A.J. THAYER. - Few of the pioneers of Oregon are more worthy of having their memories perpetuated for their worth and services to the state than the late Judge Thayer.

     Andrew Jackson Thayer, the second child of Gideon Anne (Dodge) Thayer, was born in Lima, Livingston county, State of New York, on the 27th of November, 1818. He received an academic education at what was known as the Wesleyan Seminary, afterwards the Wesleyan University, studied law in the office of Doolittle & Thayer, the latter being his cousin. He was married to Melissa D. Chandler on the 9th of October, 1842, at Warsaw, Wyoming county, New York.

     He was admitted to the bar of the supreme court of New York in 1849, and entered into partnership with his brother, Ed. Thayer, at Buffalo. He remained in Buffalo until March 28, 1853, when, accompanied by his wife, he started for Oregon. Buying an ox-team at St. Joe, they crossed the plains in the usual style of the overland emigrants. The journey though tedious was uneventful; and they arrived at Salem August 28, 1853. From Salem he went to Corvallis, and on the 9th of October of that year settled upon the farm three miles north of Corvallis, which is still in possession of the family. Upon the admission of Oregon into the Union in 1859, Judge Thayer was appointed by President Buchanan the first United States district attorney, a position he held with honor for six months, when he resigned, giving as a reason that he would much rather defend than prosecute a criminal.

     In 1860 a question arose in Oregon as to the proper time of holding the congressional election, the portion of the party to which Judge Thayer belonged contending that it should be held in November, and that the election in June was illegal. Accordingly Judge Thayer was nominated, and at the election in November, 1860, was elected representative of Oregon in the Thirty-seventh Congress. He was admitted to the seat at the extra session in July, 1861, which he held till the close of the session, when it was awarded to Honorable George K. Shiel, who was elected in June. In 1862 Judge Thayer was district attorney for the second judicial district of Oregon, which office he held two years. In 1870 he was, in the same district, elected associate justice of the supreme court, which office he held at the time of his death, which occurred in Corvallis, April 28, 1873. Upon his monument the loving hands of friends have traced the appropriate words, "An honest man and a true friend."

     Melissa D. Chandler, wife of A.J. Thayer, was the youngest child of Moses and Clara (White) Chandler, and was born in Hartford, Washington county, New York, November 13, 1821. Mrs. Thayer is a typical pioneer woman, one who was ever the help-mate of her husband; and in the battle of life she has borne her share of struggles and toils nobly and well. A woman of unflinching personal courage, she stayed night after night entirely alone in the wide prairie, and "held the claim" while her husband was "riding the circuit" engaged in the practice of his profession; and by close economy and the prudent administration of household affairs she aided him in getting a foothold in their chosen state.

     Four children were the issue of their marriage: William Augustine Thayer, born in Warsaw, New York, October 30,1845, died in Pittsford, N.Y. September 19, 1851. Clara Melissa Thayer, born May 29, 1855, graduated at the Agricultural College June 18, 1873, and was married July 2, 1876 to John B. Eglin, a lawyer of Roseburg, who died at The Dalles, Oregon, November 14, 1877. She is still a childless widow, and resides in Portland, Oregon. Emma A. Thayer, born July 2, 1857, graduated at the Agricultural College June 17, 1874, and was married December 25, 1878, to S.W. Rice, a lawyer, and at that time county judge of Multnomah county. They have one child, Claude Thayer Rice, born November 2, 1879, and reside at Portland. Edwin Alden Thayer, the youngest child, born at Corvallis November 19, 1860, is a tinsmith by trade, is unmarried, and also resides at Portland.

     At the May term, 1873, of the district court held at Roseburg, Judge Mosher presiding, the members of the bar passed resolutions of respect and sympathy, which were ordered placed upon the record. Honorable L.F. Lane in presenting these resolutions, faithfully portrayed the character of Judge Thayer when he said: "As a lawyer he won the respect and esteem of the entire bar of the state. As a gentleman he was kind, affable and courteous. As the head of a family he was devoted and affectionate, as a judge firm, dignified and prudent. We can say with pride that he held the scales of justice evenly poised, and always compelled the right to incline the balance; and, although he has forever departed from the busy scenes of life, yet, if true merit here is rewarded with immortality hereafter, then angels will welcome our brother into the bright portals of heaven."

     HON. W.W. THAYER- William Wallace Thayer, the present chief justice of the supreme court of Oregon, came to this state in 1862. He was born at Lima, Livingston county, New York, July 15, 1827. His boyhood was spent upon a farm

602                                                               HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

in that county, where he attended the common schools and received the meager instruction that the times and circumstances of farm life afforded. But an early love for books and a retentive memory, characteristics that mark him even to-day, supplied what was lacking in his school education. He became a wide reader of standard literature; and, having determined to fit himself for the practice of the law, he began a course of reading to that end, covering the best productions in history and biography, as well as the usual elementary legal works. He attended law lectures at Rochester, New York, and was admitted to the bar of the supreme court of that state in that city in March, 1851. It may be mentioned that in the class of applicants for admission who were examined at the same time was Professor John Norton Pomeroy, LL.D., who also then received his certificate of admission to practice, and who subsequently became well known as the author of several law books of note.

     During the early years of his practice, Judge Thayer laid the foundation for a broad and thorough knowledge of the law by constant and discriminating study of reported cases. Notwithstanding the years that have elapsed since that period, his clear memory of the leading cases read at that time, particularly those of the New York reports, is frequently noted and remarked upon by his associates on the bench and the bar of this state, and attests the thoroughness with which he mastered his task.

     In November, 1852, he married Miss Samantha C. Vincent of Tonawanda, New York. He practiced his profession at Tonawanda and buffalo, New York, until the spring of 1862, when he emigrated with his family and his team overland to Oregon. He settled at Corvallis, Benton county, where his older brother, Judge A.J. Thayer, had already preceded him; and for a time they were in partnership. But in the summer of 1863 he removed to Lewiston, Idaho, where he opened a law office. There his talents were soon recognized; and he was successively elected a member of the territorial legislature and district attorney of the third judicial district of Idaho.

     Resigning the latter office in 1867, he came to Portland, Oregon, for the benefit of the health of his family, and has since resided at that city, and at his suburban residence near East Portland. He soon gained an enviable standing at the Portland bar; and his urbanity and sociability brought about him a host of warm friends in his new home. He was nominated by the Democratic party for the office of governor in 1878; and such was his popularity that, thought he rest of the ticket was defeated, he was elected by a fair majority. He was inaugurated September 11, 1878, and served the full term of four years. His administration was remarkable in many respects. It was a time in the history of the state when reform was much needed in the administration of its affairs. Under his economical and non-partisan management, the penitentiary, insane asylum, and other public institutions, were put on a new basis, to their great improvement and to the financial benefit of the state. The swamp and tide lands were made a source of revenue to the state; and the school fund was satisfactorily husbanded and invested. In all departments reforms were instituted; and party politics were not allowed to control either the public business nor appointments to office.

     At the close of his term as governor he declined renomination, and earnestly devoted himself to the practice of his profession at Portland; but in1884, he was unanimously, and against his repeatedly expressed preference for private life, nominated by his party as candidate for the office of judge of the supreme court. He was again elected when most of his ticket failed, and was duly inducted into office in July, 1882. He has since that time faithfully and conscientiously discharged the laborious and constantly increasing duties of his office; and his luminous and masterly opinions are recognized as the ripe fruit of his diligent and comprehensive study in his younger years.

     He became chief justice of the court in July, 188; and his term of office expires in July, 1890. He has one son, Claude Thayer, an attorney and member of the banking firm of C.&E. Thayer, at Tillamook, Oregon.

     JOHN M. THOMAS. - Mr. Thomas was born in Nicholas county, Kentucky, July 8, 1829, and is the youngest son of a family of seven children. When he was four years old his parents moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where his father died a year later. In 1844 he went to an older brother in Kentucky, where he remained for five years, and in October, 1849, returned to Indianapolis.

     On March 30,1852, he went to St. Louis, and one month later to St. Joseph, and there joined a friend from Indianapolis; and together they started with ox-teams for Oregon. At Fort Hall they lost some of their stock, and traded that left for pack-horses, and came on into the Grande Ronde valley, arriving there about August 30th. At Willow creek his partner left him; and he came on alone to Portland, arriving on September 5, 1852. He found employment at Tryon's mill in Milwaukee, where he remained for two months, when he was taken sick and returned to Portland. In February, 1853, he went to Oswego, and in the same year went to Puget Sound and took up his residence in Port Townsend, where he remained until July, 1853. He then, in company with E. McFarland, came to White river; and, after looking over the country, in January, 1854, he took up the place now owned by J.B. Hewitt, and became the first white settler on White river. He lived there until driven off by the Indians. He soon returned, however, but only remained a short time, when he went to Seattle for safety. There he joined a company and came back to help bury the victims of the Indian massacre near the town of Slaughter.

     He afterwards went to Port Orchard and engaged in running a stationary engine in a mill. He soon returned to the blockhouse built by Captain Dent, and was secured by the Captain to act as guide all through the Indian war. When the war closed he located a homestead seven miles lower down, where he remained until 1877, when he located on his present place at Thomas Station and engaged in hop-raising and general farming. He served as county commissioner for a term of three years, those

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of 1857, 1858 and 1859. He was married in 1854  to Miss Nancy Russel of Ohio, and has nine children living.

     JOSEPH A. THOMAS. - This leading citizen of Gilliam count and a "native son" of our state, was born in Douglas county, September 18, 1854. With his parents he moved to Jefferson, Marion county, in 1862, and was furnished with good educational advantages, attending upon the excellent common-school of that town. In 1874 he went into business with his father, E.N. Thomas, a merchant with headquarters at Jefferson, but also with branch houses in various other localities, and indeed much occupied in other lines, such as livestock, of which he had accumulated as many as ten thousand head in Washington Territory; and who also maintained a large drug business in Arlington.

     This father has now retired from active business and lives at his home in Jefferson, having buried there his first wife, Margaret, née Cosper, who died in September, 1888, leaving two boys and one girl, - Laura G., Rosco and Clyde.

     Mr. Joseph A. Thomas, our subject, who early took charge of the business in Eastern Oregon, is one of the representative men of Arlington, and indeed of all Gilliam county, and is much respected by all associated with him. He has been publicly honored by the people, having been elected mayor of Arlington in 1886 and re-elected to the same office in 1887. He was elected county treasurer of Gilliam county in 1886, and served two years. He was elected in 1888 on the Republican ticket, by a majority of three hundred and fifty, to represent Gilliam county in the Oregon legislature, and served with credit and a good record throughout the last session, having been appointed a member of the committee on commerce.

     HON. LEVANT F. THOMPSON. - There are but few lives of the pioneer settlers of the many communities upon the Pacific slope which illustrate in a greater degree than does that of the subject of this sketch the varied experiences of those who lay the bases of future commonwealths; the motives under-lying action; the vicissitudes which mold and alter resolution; and the patient waiting for the reward of following sagacious and far-seeing judgment in the adoption of location. Here is a man who was comparatively denied the education of the schools; who has assimilated practical knowledge as he struggles with life, and profits by  what is passing around him; who makes no claim to pre-eminent ability, intellectually or physically; who assumes no superiority because of gifts or advantages; but who, with only proper self-reliance, simply, steadily obeys the dictates of intuitive good judgment so aptly described in our Western unabridged language as "horse sense." yet Mr. Thompson is a state-builder, the impress of his life being plainly stamped upon the embryo settlements of Pierce county and the State of Washington; and his works will live after him. Perhaps "he builded wiser than he knew'" for he did not seem ambitious for public recognition, and never sought public honors nor offices. When he did serve the public, it was he who was sought. He was unpretentious, unassuming. Indeed, his innate diffidence made him the counselor in retirement rather than the public leader. He was sent to the first territorial house of representatives of Washington in 1854. Thirty-five years later, without his solicitation, and unknown to him until after his nomination, his fellow-citizens of Pierce county placed his name on the ticket for the first senate of the State of Washington, and elected him by a triumphant majority. In that interval he had attended to his private business, content with giving his time and means liberally to that more useful service of building up a good, growing and moral community, in the vicinity which to him and his interesting family constituted home.

     Levant F. Thompson was born December 26, 1827, near Jamestown, Chautauqua county, New York, and continued to reside upon the farm of his parents, his birthplace, until 1850. The story of every farm lad is the story of his youth. His education, if such it may be called, was that which could be acquired at the common school of a rural district; and its amount or the thoroughness of its course depended rather upon the will and aspiration of the youth than the opportunities bestowed. The discovery of gold in California attracted him  to the Pacific slope, and in February, 1850, he started for the great El Dorado. At Chicago he joined a company of seven young men, who, having purchased outfits and horse-teams, started with him on their journey across the plains. They traveled what was called the Carson route, and had a successful trip until they reached the Great American desert. There they experienced extreme hardships, their provisions having become scant, and being destitute of water. They traveled from four o'clock of the afternoon when they entered the desert until ten o'clock the next day; and then they abandoned wagons and harness, loaded their animals with the remaining provisions and blankets, and started to walk out of that desert region. They had intended to return for their wagons, but did not do so, but pushed ahead on foot, using their horses as pack animals. After walking six hundred miles, they reached Sacramento August 15, 1850, having suffered untold privations on that march, and being in an almost starving condition.

     While on that journey the little party of gold-seekers had camped on the site of the present city of Omaha for three days, at which time not a single house had been erected. Mr. Thompson, upon his arrival at Sacramento, was penniless. Nothing daunted, he at once set out on foot to the Placerville and Weaver creek mines, where he worked for nearly four months with more than average success. He then resolved to come to Oregon to engage in the lumber business. Late in that year, or early in 1851, he took passage on board the schooner Urana for Portland. Among his fellow-passengers was John Gates, late mayor of the City of Portland, deceased. The voyage occupied four weeks. On arriving at Portland, Gates and himself applied for work at Abram's mill, and were offered one hundred dollars per month. Gates accepted, but Thompson went to Milwaukee, where he secured the position of foreman in the sawmill of Meek

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 & Llewellyn. He continued there for several months, during which employment much of the lumber used in the construction of the pioneer steamer Lot Whitcomb was sawed under his supervision.

     In 1851, upon the advice of General Joseph Lane, Mr. Thompson went to the Yreka mines, and from thence to those on Scott's bar. In those two Southern Oregon locations he followed mining until July, and then prospected all the way to Feather river, and thence back to Oregon, without any encouraging success. That ended prospecting for gold and mining. He returned to Milwaukee, and was employed in the lumber business by Lot Whitcomb. Shortly subsequently he leased the mill and conducted the business; but ill health compelled him to surrender the lease and engage in other pursuits. With David Miller he purchased a  ten horse-power threshing machine (the first one of that power brought to or used in Oregon) and two McCormick reapers. The threshing machine cost seventeen hundred dollars laid down at Champoeg. They sold the reapers for four hundred dollars each. During that season they threshed, charging fifteen cents per bushel, and realized three thousand dollars in sixty days. That was really the first raise Mr. Thompson had made since leaving his farm-house home in Chautauqua, New York. Intent on building a sawmill, eh came to Puget Sound, and about the last of December, 1852, located a Donation claim at the mouth of Sesqualitchad creek, near Fort Nisqually. In company with Captain Lafayette Balch, the enterprising proprietor of the town of Steilacoom, he commenced the erection of a sawmill near the shores of the Sound, and completed it despite the repeated notices to quit served by the agent of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, who claimed the land under the treaty of June 15, 1846. That was the third sawmill erected in the Puget Sound basin; and it was run continuously and profitably, its products being taken to San Francisco by Captain Balch's vessels until the breaking out of Indian hostilities in the fall of 1855, at which time Mr. Thompson was compelled to abandon it; and the hostile Indians destroyed it.

     As before stated, on the organization of the Washington territorial government, at the first election Mr. Thompson was elected a member of the house of representatives of the legislative assembly, which assembled at Olympia February 27, 1854. Although he was the youngest member of that body, his attention to business, his ripened experience gained in a very chequered life, and his intuitive good sense, caused him to be recognized as a useful member.

     At the commencement of the Indian war, October, 1855, he served for a short time with the regular troops under Lieutenant McKeever, U.S. Army, as assistant quartermaster at Fort Steilacoom, purchasing pack-animals and serving in the field. This service at times was exceedingly hazardous, requiring Mr. Thompson to travel through sections of country where he was liable to meet small bands of hostile Indians on their predatory excursions. His trips were through Pierce, Thurston and Lewis counties between Fort Steilacoom and the Cowlitz. Having secured about one hundred head of horses, he left that service and joined the Pierce county company of the Second Regiment of Washington Territory Volunteers. After a month's service in the field, he was transferred to the quartermaster's department, territorial volunteers, as assistant quartermaster and commissary at Steilacoom, in which capacity he served about six months.

     At the close of the war he established an extensive logging camp on the Nisqually river, at the site of its present crossing by the county road between Olympia and Steilacoom. He there gave employment to eight men, among whom was Stephen Judson, now one of the most prominent citizens and leading public men of the State of Washington. Though the war had ended, the state of the country was yet unsafe by reason of apprehended Indian hostilities. The camp was continued in a posture of defense; and the loggers had to work with their rifles in reach, to guard against a hasty attack by the perfidious Squally Indians, in whose territory the camp had been established. After several months, he sold his interest in the logging camp to Balch & Webber, and became proprietor of the hotel at Steilacoom, which he continued to run successfully until the fall of 1860.

     He had, on July 1, 1856, married Susanna Kincaid, who has ever been to him an affectionate helpmate, and counselor, full of courage and devotion to all his interests. Before the outbreak the Kincaid family had lived near the site of the present thrifty town of Sumner. The Indians had long been preparing to make a simultaneous strike upon the outer and exposed settlements on the Sound. The blow fell in the last weeks of October, 1855. The notice was short but peremptory. A friendly Indian rode to each farmhouse in Puyallup, warning the settlers to get out of the way, as the "Musachee" or hostile Indians were coming. Nor was any time to be lost. Many saved only the clothing in which they stood. That cruel haste, as also the bravery of our women pioneers, finds the happy illustration in the hurried escape of the Kincaid family. It was bedtime. The hostile Indians were heard prowling near the lone and isolated Kincaid log cabin. Quick as thought all the lights were extinguished; and in the dread darkness the family sought safety in flight towards Stuck river. Susan, the future Mrs. Thompson, seized her young brother Joseph, to whom, since their beloved mother's death, she had supplied a mother's place; and on that dread October night - in that gloom, the savages intent on murder, so close at hand that their movements could be heard - she carried him in safety across a small alder log spanning Stuck river to a safe place of concealment. There they remained through that long night, - she the guardian of the charge committed to her care. Brave though she was, under ordinary circumstances she would not by daylight herself alone have ventured to cross that meager bridge. But her affection, her duty, her presence of mind amid appalling danger, stimulated the effort, and carried her triumphantly through the ordeal. The family, she and her charge all escaped. Through out the night they remained hidden in sight of their late home, which was in

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 flames. On the next day they reached Steilacoom in safety, with their wordly wealth upon their backs, their home, household effects and suppies having been destroyed by the murderous savages.

     Mr. Thompson removed to Puyallup valley in 1860, and first made his residence upon land rented of Mrs. Meeker. In the spring of 1863 he pre-empted the tract now his valuable farm, upon which he has since resided. In 1865 he associated with him his brother-in-law E.C. Meade, in a hop venture, under the firm name of Thompson & Meade. They set out twenty-five hundred hop cuttings, and commenced the culture of hops as a crop in the Puyallup valley. Since that beginning the valley has obtained a world-wide celebrity for the quantity and quality it has produced and is annually producing. The experiment proved a success until 1868, at which time their annual product was about twenty thousand pounds. That fall a fire consumed their entire crop, as also all their houses and appliances, leaving the firm heavily in debt.

     Being compelled to recuperate his finances, he accepted the appointment of farmer-in-charge of an Indian reservation, whither his wife accompanied him. They served for several months, when they were transferred to the Puyallup Reservation, he having been appointed teacher. There they remained about two years, when they returned to their farm and resumed hop-raising. Since that time Mr. Thompson has been very successful, and is now a man of wealth. In 1883 he built a beautiful residence in Sumner. His real-estate holdings in the city of Tacoma are extensive and very valuable. In 1884 he became an incorporator and director in the Merchants' bank of Tacoma, and is now a director and large stockholder in the Washington Bank of that city. During the past year he organized and became president of the Bank of Slaughter, in King county.

     In 1889 he became senator-elect from the county of Pierce, in the first state legislature under the new state constitution. By reason of his past experience, his mature judgment, his intimate knowledge of the territory, its needs and resources, his fellow-citizens confidently believe that his presence in that body will prove of infinite value to the future state.

     FIELDEN M. THORP. - Mr. Thorp is spoken of as rough in his exterior, but as having a warm heart, a man who has taken great interest in improving the Indians among whom he has lived, and as of such strict honesty that his word is taken everywhere to be as good as hi bond. He is every inch a frontiersman, and is the son of a frontiersman who ranged over Missouri before that region was set off as a state. This old father was, moreover, a veteran and pensioner of the war of 1812.

     Fielden left Missouri in 1844 for the Pacific coast, coming across the plains with a party of twenty-six men, and a train of twelve wagons. Much of the way led through sage-brush' and, as was customary; the head team of one day took the rear the next day, each one thus taking a turn at breaking the brush. The trip down the Columbia from The Dalles was effected by rafts as usual; but Mr. Thorp, with one other man, added to this the feat of shooting the Cascades in a canoe, perhaps the only craft of this kind that ever came safely through that fearful torrent. The Hudson's Bay People might well have looked upon those "Missourians" as bearing a charmed life, when, unused to water, they safely took such risks.

     Making a landing near the present site of Portland, Mr. Thorp went out to the Tualatin Plains, finding employment in splitting rails to an extent sufficient to procure, with the proceeds of this labor, provisions for the winter; and after that he went into Polk county, where he lived for a number of years, and subsequently resided in Benton county. But the Willamette valley, as the years sped by, grew too populous; and in 1861 he sought the uninhabited region of the Yakima, making a new home in the Moxee valley, ranching and cattle-ranging until 1869, when he pushed farther into the wilderness, taking up his present farm on t he Kitittass, near Ellensburgh, Washington Territory. His youthful restlessness was wearing away; and his farm and home are a comfortable retreat. His business is flourishing; and he lives in a sunny old age, surrounded by his children, all of whom are well-to-do.

     Mrs. Thorp, whose maiden name was Bound, was born in Tennessee in 1822, and now in her sixty-eighth year is active and well able to conduct her household duties. She has reared a family of nine children, three of whom died in their infancy. The lives of both Mr. and Mrs. Thorp have been full of toils, labors and hardships, but have been of great use to the Pacific Northwest, and are crowned with such blessings as this old earth can afford.

     LEONARD L. THORP. - This pioneer of the Yakima country is a native of Oregon, having been born in Polk county in 1845. He came to Klikitat county, at the present site of Goldendale, as early as 1858, and to the Yakima in 1861, engaging in stock-raising in the Moxee and Selah valleys until 1870, when he occupied his present place three miles from North Yakima, Washington territory, consisting of one hundred and twenty acres of very rich land. He also owns eighty acres somewhat nearer town, upon which he has an extensive orchard with a very fine exposure, and other requisites for the successful culture of fruit. His principal business is handling large lots of cattle, and delivering them to the various cities of the Sound.

     The early pioneer days of Mr. Thorp were eventful with the experiences relating to a frontiersman's life. When he was but a boy of sixteen, the lonely family was surprised one morning by the appearance of an Indian war party bearing down upon the cabin. Hastily hiding the women in the feather beds, the father and son stationed themselves behind the fence out of sight of the Indians, who were approaching, with old Smohallah at their head, to reconnoiter. They were armed and mounted, and were decked with war paint. As they reached the fence, the elder Thorp sprang over the fence and seized the chief's horse by the bridle, covering Smohallah himself with his revolver, and demanding the reason for such a warlike approach. Being quick-witted, the old Indian smiled and offered to shake hands

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 in friendly fashion, saying, by way of excuse, that he had heard of an injurious report current among the Whites, that he had a thousand warriors with which to attack and overwhelm the settlements; and he had now come around with this little band to show his white neighbor that these few braves were all he had. Then with bows and smiles the war party rode away. The Thorps believed that the cold muzzle of the pistol looking into his eyes wrought a pacific effect upon Smohallah's mind.

     Upon another occasion, young thorp was sent to Idaho to gather up a band of cattle belonging to his father. It was in the middle of winter. The snow was two feet deep; and the cattle were scattered over an area of forty-five square miles. For two weeks of that Rocky Mountain winter, with no shelter but his blankets, the young man - only twenty-gathered in the stock, and afterwards remained in a log hut until March. He drove the cattle thence into the mining camps, with no competent help, and received for the sale twenty-two thousand dollars, which he managed to bring a hundred and seventy-five miles through a country infested by highwaymen, and delivered it to the express office in Lewiston. This is but a specimen of the shifts and hardships of the life of the frontiersman and stock-ranger. At every turn it requires grit, address, force, and a world of endurance.

     Mr. Thorp has served as sheriff and assessor of the county, and also as school commissioner and as district clerk many terms. He has a happy home, having been married in 1869 to Miss Philena W. Hanson, of Yakima county. He has one boy and three girls, - Martha, Eva, Dale Owen and Margaret.

     CAPT. HENRY L. TIBBALS, Sr. - One of the most active men of whom Port Townsend, Washington, boasts is the captain whose name appears above. He has done much to make that city, and merits the recognition and wealth which its rapid growth awards him.

     He was born in Middleton, Connecticut, on December 18, 1829. His parents were in good circumstances; but at the age of ten he took the responsibility of shipping as cabin boy on a brig, at seven dollars and a half per month. From that time forth, nearly half a century, his life has been spent upon the sea or salt water. At the age of twenty he was master of a brig on a voyage to the West Indies, and until 1849 was mate or master in active sailing. In that year he came around Cape Horn to San Francisco in charge of the sailing vessel Draco. Returning East, he came out in 1853 on another cruise, reaching San Francisco the next season, and thence went to Australia in charge of the bark What Cheer.

     In 1856 he arrived at Puget Sound as sailing master of the revenue cutter Jeff Davis, and was stationed with her at Port Townsend one year. Then, leaving the water, he opened a hotel, and in 1858 built the Pioneer Hotel on the present site of the Cosmopolitan. He conducted this house greatly to the credit of the city, and with good pecuniary returns, for twelve years. Retiring from the hotel in 1871, he built the Union wharf and became agent for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. After six years he assumed control as general agent of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company for another term of six years, and was also pilot of the Straits. In 1888 he resigned those positions, and retired from active business. During all those years he was making opportune investments in city property, and is now one of the heaviest taxpayers in the county.

     His political history dates back as early as 1863, when he was elected to the legislature, and in 1864, when he became sheriff of Jefferson county. Fifteen years he served as president of the board of county commissioners, and for years was postmaster of Port Townsend and a member of the city council. He is also a leading member of the Masonic order, being one of the three surviving charter members of Lodge No. 6, and has held all the offices within the gift of that body. In politics Captain Tibbals is a Democrat of strong views, and is in all respects a man of great power. His three-score years are belied by his rugged appearance; and, with his family of wife and seven children, he occupies a high position in the business, political and social world of the lower Sound.

     The Captain has always been energetic in every work he has undertaken; and his energy has brought him work from prominent sources. It was he who tested the great iron diving-bells invented by Major Henry B. Sears, and constructed at West Point for the Havre de Grace bridge across the Susquehanna river. The bells were used in building the abutments, and faithfully fulfilled their mission.

     He is now building a one-mile racecourse and park just tow and one-half miles from the head of his own wharf. He says of the racetrack, that "it will be one of the fastest in the world."

     HON. GEORGE W. TIBBITTS. - A portrait of Mr. Tibbitts is placed among the illustrations of this history. He was born in Acton, Main, January 22, 1845, and is the son of Daniel and Mary (Witham) Tibbitts, and was the youngest in a family of fifteen children. When our subject was but one year of age, the family suffered the irreparable loss of their mother; and at the age of four years George was placed with an aunt in West Milton, New Hampshire, with whom he remained until he was fifteen years of age. He then went to Great Falls, in the same state, to do for himself.

     July 12, 1861, being then but sixteen years of age, he enlisted in Company F, Fourth New Hampshire Infantry, with which he served for three years. On the expiration of that time he re-enlisted in the same company and regiment, during which time he attained the rank of orderly sergeant. Mr. Tibbitts during his army life suffered the privations and hardships that caused thousands of the brave boys to succumb. On August 15, 1864, at the battle of Deep Bottom, he with thirty-eight of his company was taken prisoner and incarcerated in Libby Prison. One month later they were transferred tot he famous Belle Isle, where he remained until October, 1864. They were then sent to Saulsbury, South Carolina, where Mr. Tibbitts remained until March 14, 1865,

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when he was returned again to Libby Prison, form which he was paroled in the latter part of March, 1865.

     In June, 1865, owing to a broken constitution caused by his long imprisonment, he was mustered out of the service, and returned to his former home in New Hampshire to recuperate. A short time afterwards he started west for the benefit of his health, and finally located in Monitor county, Missouri, where he engaged in a mercantile business until 1871, when he with his wife and family came to Portland, Oregon, and one year later to Puget Sound, locating in 1872 on his present valuable property near the present thriving town of Gilman, Washington, where he has since resided, with the exception of one year on Whidby Island and three years in the mercantile trade at Renton, during which time he was postmaster of the above place. Mr. Tibbitts has added from time to time to his original purchase at Gilman, until he now possesses a valuable estate of over one thousand acres. Together with the management of his general store in Gilman, he is engaged in farming and hop-raising on a large scale, and is looked upon as one of the leading as well as substantial men of King county.

     Mr. Tibbitts was one of the organizers of Grand Army Post No. 1, of Washington, which is appropriately named "General I.I. Stevens Post," in honor of the general of that name, and who was the first governor of Washington Territory. Mr. Tibbitts was elected senior vice-commander at its organization, and one year later was elected commander. In 1887 he was elected to the territorial legislature, and in 1881 was elected brigadier-general of state militia for two years. For ten years he has been justice of the peace, notary public and postmaster of Squawk. In 1889 Mr. Tibbitts was a member of the constitutional convention that met at Olympia to frame the constitution for the new State of Washington. Mr. Tibbitts was united in marriage in Missouri, in March, 1868, to Miss Rebecca Wilson, a native of that state, by which union they have a family of four children. He is a gentleman of broad and liberal views, and through energy and perseverance has amassed a competency, and enjoys the esteem and confidence of the residents of the entire community in which he lives.

     GEN. JAMES CLARK TOLMAN. - One of the leading citizens of Jackson county, and foremost among the representative men of Oregon, is General James Clark Tolman, ex-surveyor general of this state. A man of great decision of character and executive ability, he has always occupied the position of a leader, and, after fifty years of active participation in the affairs of his country, retains the confidence and respect of not only his political associates, but of adherents of the opposite party. From youth he was an enthusiastic Whig, during the lifetime of that party, and since has been a consistent and unswerving Republican. He comes of a family of patriots and pioneers, and has inherited the genuine pioneer sentiments. His father, Seth Tolman, a son of Silas Tolman, traces his ancestry to Holland; and Mary, his mother, a daughter of Captain Clark, is of English parentage. Both grandfathers were veterans of the Revolutionary war. When peace returned, his parents settled in Washington county, Pennsylvania; but by discreet conduct they managed to escape ruin from the devastations of the whisky insurrectionists. They next removed to Marietta, Ohio, where they were frequently compelled to "fort up" in blockhouses with their neighbors for defense against hostile Indians.

     Judge Tolman was born in Washington county, Ohio, March 12, 1813, and eight years later moved with his parents to Champaign county in the same state. Those were the pioneer days of Ohio, when unfrequent log-houses were the only habitations. In such a house he lived; and in the schoolhouse of like character he received his education. At the age of seventeen he apprenticed himself to Jesse C. Phillips ( a cousin of Thomas Corwin), and spent four years in learning the business of manufacturing leather. He then entered the university at Athens, Ohio, pursuing English branches with assiduity for a year; during which time he also imbibed much knowledge of a useful and practical nature by the exercise of his large powers of observation. For several years he was engaged in various pursuits, lending to each his full energy and enthusiasm. he was an earnest supporter of General Harrison in 1888 as he had been of the unsuccessful "Tippecanoe" in 1836, and successful in 1840.

     The family, consisting of father, mother, two brothers and himself, removed to Iowa in 1839, and began again a pioneer life. Land Claimants were bought out, two hundred acres of land being bid in at public sale by him at Burlington; and the General engaged in farming in Van Buren county, Iowa. Iowa at that time was strongly Democratic; yet he adhered firmly to his Whig principles. He was placed on the ticket of that party for the territorial legislature; and, though party lines were closely drawn, and a warm canvass followed, during which he was the only Whig speaker on the ticket, he obtained four hundred Democratic votes, and missed only sixty of being elected. In the fall of 1845 he removed to Ottumwa and engaged in the manufacture of leather. There he was again placed on the Whig ticket, contrary to his desired, but accepted the nomination at the solicitation of friends, who urged that his opponent was hard to defeat. The whole county ticket was elected by small majorities, though the Democrats carried the county by a hundred and twenty-five for delegate to Congress.

     In 1844 General Tolman's thoughts were turned towards the Pacific; and, when news of the gold discovery reached Iowa in the fall of 1848, he began preparing to seek the El Dorado the following spring. In due time he started, and, as sole pilot of an ox-team, arrived in the mines in October, 1849. Declining several advantageous business offers, he went to work with pick and shovel as a true miner. His usual energy and attention to his business secured ample results; and he returned to Iowa in the fall of 1851. Ill health during the winter caused him to seek once more the shores of the Pacific. In April, 1852, he was married to Elizabeth E. Coe, of Oskaloosa, Iowa, and within forty-eight

608                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

 hours was again en route across the plains, the pilot and adviser of ten wagons of emigrants. The train reached Yreka in eighty-two days without the loss of an animal, notwithstanding their journey through the hostile tribe of the Modocs. General Tolman crossed the Siskiyous into the Rogue river valley with a portion of the train, arriving the last of August, and bringing the first families to the valley from across the plains direct. He purchased the rights of two squatters, and began preparing to raise stock.

     Early in 1853, perceiving the impending trouble with the Indians, he took his tock to California and sold them. He then went to Coos Bay to look after some investments he had made there for two young men, and returned to the valley in time to sit on the coroner's jury which investigated the death of the first white victim in the Indian war of 1853. Upon the cessation of hostilities, eh sold out his place, and with his wife and child took a mule-back ride to Empire city, on Coos Bay. He soon withdrew from the locality without realizing anything on his investment, and took up a half section of land, upon which he located the town of Marshfield, where he erected a rude house for his family. He spent the spring of 1854 in exploring that region, being the first white man to discover the Indian trail across the isthmus between Coos Bay and the Coquille river.

     In August, 1854, he returned to the Rogue river valley, leaving his claim in charge of a man, who sold it out and disappeared. Upon his return to the valley the General purchased for eighty-five hundred dollars the ranch he now owns, including the stock thereon, and gain engaged ins tock-raising. When the Indian war broke out in 1855, he hastily gathered his herds and drove them to California, selling them for what they would bring. It was two years before he could resume his business. He then purchased blooded stock, - English turf horses, Morgans and Lion Hearts, - and in a few years realized handsomely on his investment. The severe winter of 1861-62, however, almost annihilated his band of cattle.

     In the public affairs of our state, General Tolman has ever borne a conspicuous and honorable part. When the state government was formed in 1858, he was elected judge of Jackson county, receiving a  large majority, although three-fourths of the voters were Democrats. he was re-elected in 1862, defeating his opponent two to one. In that important position he was enabled during the critical times of the Civil war to do more than anyone else to prevent open hostilities in our state. He was also instrumental in reducing county taxation fifty per cent, and rescuing the county from threatened bankruptcy. he was nominated for governor on the Republican ticket in 1874; but the formation of a third party gave the administration into the hands of the Democracy; and he accepted his defeat with becoming dignity and resignation. In 1878 he was appointed surveyor-general of Oregon by President Hayes, and was re-appointed by President Arthur in 1882. His administration of the affairs of that office meets with the hearty approval of the administration and of the people  generally. He is firm and prompt in the discharge of his official duties, and never had his integrity been impeached.

     During half a century of active business and official life, he has won and retains the respect of all with whom he has come in contact; and, though he has never sought official positions, they have come to him unsolicited.

     M.C. TRUE. - The proprietor of the Palace Hotel at the city of Pullman, Washington, is a native of Indiana, and was born in 1847. While but a boy, his family removed to California, locating in 1853, upon a farm. Somewhat later his father began hotel-keeping and is still the proprietor of the Suscol House at Napa. While at that place young True received a good education, and assisted in the hotel, but in 1880 sought a field of his own. He went to Moscow, Idaho Territory, and leased and ran the Barton House. Two years later he came to Pullman, and built and has since conducted the finest hotel in that city. In 1887 it was enlarged to a capacity of twenty-five rooms.

     Aside from his private business, Mr. True takes a leading interest in the public schools, having served as clerk for two years. The facilities of the schools have been increased to accommodate seventy-five pupils. A healthy public feeling on the subject of education prevails; and the three children of the gentleman of whom we write illustrate their father's interest and care in this regard. The agricultural resources and railway facilities at Pullman assure its steady growth; and while not expecting to rival such places as Walla Walla, Spokane Falls, or the City of Destiny, it will always be an important commercial point. There Mr. True has a pleasant home, and enjoys life with his family, having been married in California, and having three promising children.

     JOSEPH TRUESDALE. - The name Truesdale is so well known throughout Oregon as designating the captain of the plains as to need little introduction here. The son Joseph was born in Illinois in 1850, and two years later made the journey to California with his father and mother, the latter of whom died the same year; while the former returned to Illinois in 1855, taking the boy with him. Marrying again in 1856, the Captain brought an ox-team across the Rocky Mountains in 1862 to form a settlement in the Grande Ronde valley.

     In 1865 young Truesdale went to the Upper Santiam, and there received his education. Two years later he collected a band of three hundred cattle, which he drove to the Grande Ronde, losing one hundred head in the Cascade Mountains. For many years he has followed a goodly variety of occupations, - conducting a livery stable at Walla Walla; operating in the mercantile business at Weston three years; in the agricultural implement business in Umatilla county; buying whet at Union Point one year; in the hotel business at Summerville three years; and one year and a half in the butcher business there. From the latter point he removed to La Grande, Oregon, where he is at present engaged in conducting the Golden Rule Hotel, of which he is a

                                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                        609

most kindly and agreeable host. He also owns a first-class livery stable.

     He was married in 1873 to Miss Ella Shore of Walla Walla, who died in 1876, leaving him one boy. In 1877 he was married to Miss Emma Lewis. They have one daughter, Ettie. During the Nez Perce and Bannack wars, Mr. Truesdale served as teamster on the civil list. He is highly esteemed for his many excellent social and moral qualities, his business abilities and integrity as a man and citizen.

     J.C. TRULLINGER. - There is scarcely a man in Oregon who has been engaged in more various, or, on the whole more successful enterprises than the man whose name appears above. With a tendency, possibly, to push his efforts a little beyond the line of safety, and to overcrowd himself with different schemes, he has nevertheless a substantial grip on property and business which proves his sagacity. If his love of making inventions and introducing improvements incline him to temerity, his career shows that he has a solid judgment which warns him when to put on the brakes. Oregon owes much to his inventiveness and energy.

     His business at Astoria, Oregon, is very large. He owns the West Shore sawmills, which are now running at the rate of one million feet per month, besides a large amount of lath. He owns a large body of the finest timber land on the Wyluski, a stream some seven miles, by water, from Astoria. To this he has built and equipped a standard-guage railroad from the head of tide water, a distance of three miles. Thereby he is able to put two hundred thousand feet of logs into the boom per day. To feed the fifty or one hundred men in his mill and at the logging camp, he has bought a tide-land farm of three hundred and twenty acres, which he has diked and stocked with Jersey, Guernsey and Holstein animals, and from which he gets his supply of butter and beef. This is one of the richest farms in the country, and is easily worth twenty-five thousand dollars. Besides this extensive business, he owns, as he first introduced, the electric-light system of Astoria, furnishing the city with fifty arc lights.

     In Yamhill county he also owns a farm of seven hundred and thirty-five acres, two miles west of Newburg, in the beautiful valley of the Chehalem. Last year he raised six thousand bushels of grain and a large quantitative of fruit upon that place. That business is not only sufficient for the active brain of Mr. Trullinger himself, but gives employment to his six sons, who are all adults, the youngest being seventeen. His two daughters are married. His ability to engage his own family in his extensive business is as remarkable as it is safe, and insures both his and their profit.

     When we inquire into his former life, we find him in 1848 a young man crossing the plains with his father's family to Oregon; and in the following winter he and his brother found it no easy matter to get horses for going to the mines in California. His early enterprises in Oregon have been almost endless. Soon after returning from the mines on the schooner Montague, making a perilous voyage, he engaged in warehousing at Milwaukee. In 1852 he took up a claim nine miles south of Portland on the Tualatin, remaining eleven years, clearing fifty acres of brush and timber land, and putting up a flour and sawmill. He was among the first to plant an orchard and sow timothy. In 1863 he bought property at Oswego, and rebuilt the sawmill there in 1865. He laid a logging railway from the Tualatin to Sucker lake, placed a steam scow on the lake, and made a portage to connect with the Willamette. Joseph Kellogg and the People's Transportation Company co-operated, the former running a small steamer on the Tualatin river into Washington county.

     In 1863, with A.A. Durham, of whom he had purchased a half interest in the townsite of Oswego, he sold four acres of land with water privileges to the iron company; and, having bought the Bishop Scott Grammar School tract, he laid off a townsite, settling as the first stake the first pig of iron run from the iron works, or indeed west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1870 he bought the famous old flour-mill at Centerville in Washington county, which was built and owned by John Jackson. He ran this until 1879, when it was burned. In 1875 he bought the forty-acre tract at Astoria owned by Alanson Hinman, and soon erected his sawmill on the splendid water-front thus secured. There he has remained, with a diversion of two years mining in Jackson county, with the results which we have already seen.

     Mr. Trullinger has been active in making inventions, having seven which he has covered with patents, among the most notable of which are the "Duplex Ace", and a Turbine water-wheel. He has always been public spirited in support of schools and churches, and is fully up with the times in public maters, taking an active interest in politics, and pushing for railroad connection for Astoria. The partner of his labors and successes, Miss Hanna Boyles, became his wife July 24, 1853, and now shares the name and fame which she has done much to create.

     HON. AMOS F. TULLIS. - Amos F. Tullis was born January 6, 1830, at Carthage, Rush county, Indiana. Both of his parents were natives of Ohio, and, having migrated to Indiana, followed farming. At the age of five years his mother died; and five years later his father followed her to the great silent majority, leaving a family of four sons and two daughters, of whom Amos was the fourth child. He lived on the farm of his parents until 1846, when he accompanied an older sister with her husband to Iowa. He resided at Mount Pleasant, Burlington and Ottumwa in that state until March 18, 1852. On that date, with his two brothers, John, now deceased, and James, now one of the substantial farmers of Lewis county, he started with ox-teams to cross the plains for Oregon. They arrived at Portland on the 8th of August. They did not  tarry at that embryo metropolis, but started for Olympia, on Puget Sound (then Oregon Territory), which they reached August 27th.

     Mr. Tullis found immediate employment in the sawmill of Ward & Hays at Tumwater, and shortly afterwards leased the mill for six months. He

610                                                          HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

loaded the ship Leonesa with the entire result of his occupancy, and accompanied her to San Francisco, intrusting the sale of the same to a commission merchant in San Francisco; but not a dollar was ever realized by him for that six months' labor. It was Mr. Tullis' intention with the proceeds of that cargo to have returned to his home in Iowa; but his scheme was defeated by his bad luck. Without means, eh returned to Olympia, which he reached in March, 1854, and then followed different employments until the breaking out of the Indian war in the fall of 1855. He was then appointed captain by Acting-Governor Mason, and with a small command guarded the transportation of the mails between Monticello, near the mouth of the Cowlitz river, and Olympia. Through the continuance of the Indian war, from October, 1855, till nearly that date in the following year, he patiently and faithfully performed that hazardous service, much of which required travel at night-time through sections within short distances of the haunts of the hostile Indians.

     At the termination of Indian hostilities, in October, 1856, he purchased a farm in Lewis county, where he engaged successfully in farming, dairying and stock-raising. In later years, after the Fraser river excitement had filled the mining regions of British Columbia, and the cities of Victoria and New Westminster, with a numerous population, he became an extensive dealer in stock. He engaged in buying in Lewis and the neighboring counties, as also in Oregon, all the stock he could secure, and shipped it to Victoria. In that occupation he realized a handsome fortune. he continued to reside upon his farm in Lewis county until 1885, when he sold it and came to Tacoma, Washington Territory, where he has since resided. He invested early and wisely in real estate in that growing city, and is now among its wealthiest citizens.

     During his residence in Lewis county he was generally in official life. He held the several positions of sheriff, county commissioner and also as a member for the counties of Lewis and Thurston in the council, the upper house of the legislative assembly, a body which corresponds with the state senate. In 1880 he was appointed by Governor Newell one of the territorial board of commissioners to build the insane asylum of the territory of Washington, on the old site of Fort Steilacoom, which had been donated to the territory by the general government for that purpose. The building itself, not to refer to the success of that magnificent charity to those of God's poor who have been bereft of reason, is Mr. Tullis' best testimonial for efficiency of service and faithfulness to public duty, as also to his broad humanity and utilitarian views. He served in that labor of love for seven years. Let it be remembered, as an evidence of his financiering ability, his economy and strictness of business, that the great structure received entire completion out of the first appropriation that was made. But Mr. Tullis would be offended were not an equal meed of credit awarded to his able, efficient and ever-attentive colleague on the board, George Shannon, the liberal and whole-souled banker of Olympia. To the benevolent labors of those two men, the citizens of the territory must greatly attribute the successful erection of the asylum building, and the prosperous condition and enlarged usefulness of one of the noblest of the people's charities.

     In 1887 he became one of the county commissioners of the county of Pierce, and is now the chairman of that board. Though in affluent circumstances, Mr. Tullis' active life must be engaged in business. His leisure from official duties finds employment in looking after his interest as a stock-holder in the Alaska Mercantile & Packing Company. Numerous other enterprises enlist his attention. He is never idle; and all his energies are devoted to elevating the community of which he is an honored member. A successful farmer, an able financier, a business man of sagacity and spotless integrity, - such is very briefly a sketch of the life service of one of the most reliable and substantial solid men of Tacoma.

     TERRY TUTTLE. - Mr. Tuttle, one of the first residents of the Grande Ronde, and the first school superintendent of Union county, was born in Ohio in 1831. Until the age of twenty he remained with his father, working on the farm and obtaining an education in the log schoolhouse. The next year he was married to Miss Maria A. Lewis, of Indiana, with whom he still sails his bark on the sea of life. Six children have blessed their home; and four of these are now living in Union county with their own children about them.

From 1850 to 1862 the years were spent in Iowa. The latter date the journey was made across the plains to Oregon; and a home was erected in the Grande Ronde valley. The usual life of the Oregon farmer was there assumed, raising stock with more or less grain and other produce, but devoting especial attention to horticulture. He has at present three hundred and twenty acres of fine land near Summerville, Oregon, and a neat residence and farm well stocked. In a public way Mr. Tuttle has borne his share of responsibility, having served three terms as superintendent of schools one term as assessor, and one term in the Oregon legislature, - as representative for Union county for the session of 1880.

     CHARLES T. UHLMAN. - Mr. Uhlman, a portrait of whom is placed in this history, although a young man, is an example of what the possibilities are for a young man when guided by honesty, industry and business ability. Coming to Tacoma but a few years ago, our subject entered a meat market as an apprentice at a salary of fifteen dollars per month. To-day he is a member of the council that guides the interests of the City of Destiny, the proprietor of a large and increasing trade, with branch houses at different points on the Sound, and is erecting handsome brick blocks that will stand as monuments to the enterprise and industry of one of Tacoma's brightest business men.

     Mr. Uhlman was born in Washington, District of Columbia, January 10, 1861, and is the son of Charles J. Uhlman, a former district surveyor of the District of Columbia. His mother was Minnie (Frank) Uhlman, both of his parents being of German descent. When our subject was but five years of age, the

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