History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 611 - 630

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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family suffered the irreparable loss of the husband and father. They resided in Washington until March 4, 1869, when he with his mother and four brothers, started West, coming to St. Louis, Missouri, and one year later to Portland, Oregon. Our subject then attended school for eighteen months. The family, in 1872, located a homestead on Chehalis river, where Charles remained until 1881. Most of that time he found employment as a farm hand, and for three years worked for "Blockhouse" Smith. He was also two years in the employ of A.W. Sargent. While in the latter's employ he met with a severe accident, having his leg fractured.

     On recovering from that accident, he came to Tacoma with the idea of learning a trade. He selected the butcher trade, and entered the employ as apprentice of the Original Ranier Market, then owned by Myson D. Barlow & Bros., at a salary of fifteen dollars per month. He remained in that market through all the changes of proprietorship until it passed into the hands of S. Coulter & Sons. He was then placed in charge, and managed the wholesale business for the latter firm for the following three years. During that time he purchased the Original Ranier Retail Market, which he conducted for himself. Two years later he purchased the wholesale business of Coulter & Sons, which he has since conducted; and his field of operations extends over the entire Sound country. Twice during one year Mr. Uhlman suffered the entire loss of his market by fire, but each time built larger than before. During all that time he had unbounded faith in the future of the City of Destiny, and purchased property from time to time, until now he owns some of the most valuable real estate in the city, part of which is the building now occupied by Chester Cleury & Co's dry-goods store on Pacific avenue. In 1888 he built the Uhlman Block, a magnificent three-story building on the corner of A and Ninth streets, opposite "The Tacoma" where he has fitted up without question the finest market on the Pacific coast.

     Mr. Uhlman in 1889 organized the Puget Sound Pressed Beef & Packing Co., a corporation destined to fill an important place in the resources of the State of Washington. He is a large property owner in other parts of the Sound, more especially on Bellingham Bay, where he possesses valuable real estate adjoining the city of Fairhom. In March, 1888, he was elected a member of the city council of Tacoma, a position he still holds, and is to-day regarded as one of the most responsible and progressive business men in the city. He was united in marriage in Columbus, Washington Territory, August 26, 1883, to Miss Myrtle Middleton, a native of Illinois. By this union they are blessed by the possession of two beautiful daughters.

     JAMES URQUHART. - Many are the illustrations found, as we proceed with this history, of the qualities spoken of as "taking hold with the hands and dwelling in kings' palaces." The pioneers of this country dwell on their own townsites and on their own lands, which are frequently of more value than the domains of some of the kings alluded to; while their houses are often better than the palaces.

     The enterprises of our own "settlers" are, from the standpoint of real utility, of more magnitude than those of many of the old-world princes whose names are now famous. In the lives of the makers of the Northwest, we find peculiarly effective illustrations of those qualities, which prepare the way for public prosperity and happiness. The subject of this sketch is one who has borne his part manfully in the foundation epoch of this country.

     Mr. Urquhart was born March 15, 1822, in Newton, of Ferentosh, Ross-shire, Scotland. His parents were Andrew and Margaret (McKenzie) Urquhart. At the age of fifteen, James went to Arbroath to work in his uncle's store. He might next have been found at Linlithgow, railroading. November 18, 1845, he was married to Miss Helen Muir. In 1851 the stories form beyond the sea so appealed to his imagination, and indeed to his reason, that he determined to come to America. He reached New York, September 15th, and spent the following winter at the south, visiting Arkansas and Louisiana. Iowa was his next terminus; but in May, 1852, he joined an emigrant train bound for Oregon. Among his comrades on that journey were William Ginder, of Vancouver, David Powers (deceased), who resided near Portland, and other old pioneers.

     Not till September of that year did the long journey close at The Dalles. From there to Portland he traveled by small boats and on foot, as there were then no steamboats from The Dalles to Portland. Mr. Urquhart's first work in Oregon was wharf-building at St. Helens, at that time aspiring to be the shipping city on the Columbia and Willamette rivers. Mining in Southern Oregon absorbed his labors for a time; but returning northward he stopped a little out from Oregon City, helping Mr. De Lashmutt build a machine to shave shingles. In February, 1853, he was again on the Columbia at Cowlitz Landing, doing whatever came to his hand. In 1853 he was at Young's Bay, near Astoria, employed on the Akin & Flavel steam sawmill, built by John West, foreman and millwright. This occupied the summer; and in the autumn he was again back to the Cowlitz, and voted in November at the first election held after Washington was organized as a territory. There he decided to set his stakes for good, and settled on land near Eden Prairie. That was a happy decision; for at the same time, that he found a home he might also be joined by his family. This, consisting of a wife and five children, he had left in Scotland while he could make a home for them in the new world. They came to the country via Cape Horn, and arrived at San Francisco January 1, 1855, having been six months on the voyage. They came thence by ship to Oak Point, Washington Territory.

     After more observation, Mr. Urquhart, deciding that he could improve on his first selection of land, entered a half section near the present site of Napavine, and abandoned his old place beyond the Cowlitz river near Eden Prairie. As rapidly as able, he added to his possessions, now owning a large body of fine land, upon a part of which is situated the town of Napavine, which he laid off December 17, 1883, near Stutson, said to be the Indian name for wild-flowers, the Indian name Napavoon signifying

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 a small prairie. Mr. Urquhart is to be commended for the attractive name which he has bestowed upon the town. It bespeaks his taste, as the establishment of the town tells of his enterprise. In addition to his farming operations, Mr. Urquhart has busied himself and his sons in the mercantile business which he established in 1873 in company with his son John, who in June, 1878, began business at Chehalis, and was county treasurer and postmaster when he died. He has been  honored by his neighbors with three terms of service in the legislature, and three terms on the board of county commissioners.

     Mr. Urquhart's wife was Miss Helen Muir, of Linlithgow, Scotland. They have had nine sons and two daughters. The career of this sturdy pioneer illustrates anew that not only competence but also honor lies at the end of the pathway of enterprise, which is but a revised form of old-fashioned industry.

     WILLIAM M. URQUHART.- This gentleman, the son of James Urquhart, whose biography is immediately preceding, was born at the family residence near Napavine, Washington Territory, on the 22d of December, 1855. He remained on the farm till he had attained his majority. He then entered his father's tore at Napavine, where he attended strictly to business and became thoroughly acquainted with trade, remaining there until 1880. In that year he removed to Chehalis, and began merchandising for himself. In this independent venture he was eminently successful, and had one of the largest mercantile houses in Lewis county. The confidence reposed in him that for eight years he was county treasurer, a position which he held until the people of the county elected his brother David county auditor. For six years he was postmaster of Chehalis. As has already appeared, Mr. Urquhart was a member of one of the most conspicuous of the old pioneer families of the territory. He was personally a large, noticeable man, of the most winning manners.

     His recent death was deeply deplored by the community and mourned by his family. He was a man of noble nature, and did great service to his community. He left a widow and three children.

     HENRY VAN ASSELT. - The subject of this sketch was born in Holland April 11, 1817. In 1847 he emigrated to the United States, being the first person living in the locality of his old country home to come to this country. Prior to leaving home he promised to travel from one end of the Union to the other, and write his people and friends the results of his observations. From Castle Garden he went to New Jersey, and in that state remained for nine months, and then came west to St. Louis, Missouri. After a stop there of five months he went to Iowa, and worked there in a sawmill for ten months, and then journeyed on to Illinois, living in that state until 1850, when he returned to Iowa, and made one of a party of eight, who with two ox-teams as a motive power started across the plains to Oregon. The party consisted of John and James Thornton, Humphery Long, Jake Wagner and Charles Hendricks.

     They met with many experiences and hardships incident to such a trip, but arrived in safety at Clackamas river, near Oregon City, on September 21, 1850. They crossed the Willamette and went up to the Tualatin, where they worked at making shingles until spring. Everybody then had the gold fever; and the entire party caught the disease, and accordingly started for the Northern California gold mines. In five and a half weeks of mining, they divided up their accumulation of gold dust, and it was found that each was the possessor of one thousand dollars' worth of the precious metal. The water supply giving out, the claims could not longer be worked; and five of the party returned to the Willamette valley in June, 1851. On the road they fell in with LM. Collins, who had a land claim on the Nisqually river, on Puget Sound. In his party was Hill Harmon, of New Tacoma, and Jacob and Samuel Maple. He persuaded John Thornton, Charles Hendricks and our subject to go to the Sound with him.

     In ferrying across the Columbia river at St. Helens, on July 7th, Mr. Asselt accidentally shot himself in the right arm and shoulder, and was compelled to remain at St. Helens a month for medical treatment. That accident, which seemed a great affliction at that time, afterwards proved a great blessing to him and to his companions, which will appear later on in this sketch. Starting again on his journey, in company with John Thornton, who had remained behind with him, they proceeded to the mouth of the Cowlitz river in a small boat, up that stream to Pumphrey's Landing in a canoe, and from thence footed it across the country to Nisqually, where they joined the others of the party who had left them at St. Helens. From Nisqually he made excursions, on foot and on horseback, in every direction, thoroughly exploring the section now embracing the counties of Thurston and Pierce.

     But he could find nothing to suit him, and made up his mind to return again to the Willamette valley. His intention was changed through an offer of Collins to hire a boat and take the party to a location some forty miles down the Sound, where he thought they would find homes acceptable to them. The plan being agreed to, they set out for the Duwamish river on September 12, 1851; and on the fourteenth they camped at what is now Milton. The site now occupied by Seattle was a howling wilderness, inhabited by nothing but Indians; and at that time there was not a white settler within the boundaries of King county. On the morning of September 15, 1851, they entered the mouth of the Duwamish river, and proceeded up that stream as far as the mouths of White and Black rivers. The appearance of the country pleased our subject; and he proposed to the party that if any of them would take up a claim that he would second him. Collins agreed to locate a claim provided that he could dispose of his interest at Nisqually, which he did, finding a purchaser in Balland.

     The matter being settled, Messrs. Collins, Eli and Jacob Maples and our subject staked out their locations, the latter also selecting one for Sam Maples. This claim so taken up by Mr. Van Asselt yet remains in his possession. The preliminaries towards

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founding a home being completed, they returned to Nisqually to prepare for moving on their places. From there our subject, accompanied by Collins, went to Olympia; and they purchased a scow on which to transport their household effects, etc. The stock belonging to the party consisted of twenty head of horses and cows. These were driven from Nisqually to Puyallup, and from there around the beach as far as Milton, where they were put on the scow and taken to their new home. The locations already made were followed soon after by those of D.T. Denny, Doctor Maynard and others; and within nine weeks after the first claim stakes were in the ground there were nine houses between Alki Point and that of our subject.

     The nearest store where provisions and clothing could be procured was located at Steilacoom; and often that establishment would be out of stock. In which event a trip to Olympia or Tumwater for the wanted articles would be necessary. The last of these trips made by our subject was in 1851-52. Those going with him were George Holt and August Hograve. The time now consumed in making the journey on one of the numerous palatial steamers on the Sound is but a few hours; but, in those pioneer days, the whistles of such craft had not echoed on its shore, nor yet plowed its waters with their prows. The trip then was made with canoe or scow, the former being used on this occasion; and three weeks were consumed in getting to Olympia and back home again, both Christmas and New Year being spent on the way. Early in the spring of 1852 Charles C. Terry and John Low opened up a little trading store on Alki Point, which gave the settlers a market nearer home. For the first few years, in addition to opening their farms, they got out square timbers and cut piles, which they sold to Captains Plummer and Fuller, who ran schooners between the Sound and San Francisco. Settlers continued to come in slowly; and places were one by one being taken up.

     On the arrival of our subject at the home of his adoption, and for some time thereafter, he carried his arm in a ling, not having recovered from the wound received at St. Helens. Meeting some Indians, they were curious to know the cause, and were often shown the wound and allowed to feel the buckshot still remaining in his shoulder. This excited great wonderment in their minds; and they began to look upon him as a devil; for, among their many other superstitions, they believe that one with lead in his body cannot be killed by being shot. The first difficulties with the Indians in the locality where our subject resided occurred in 1852. It was brought about through a misunderstanding between a Mr. Loweman and an Indian called Grizzly. It finally culminated in the latter's enlisting the services of other Indians in his cause; and they took possession of Loweman's place. He appealed to his neighbors for help; and Sam and Jacob Maples, Collins and our subject responded. They accompanied Loweman to his place, and on arriving found the Indians in possession and fortified. At the risk of their lives they took the guilty Indian out, chained him, locked him up, and sent to Steilacoom for the soldiers. In lieu of such there came an Indian agent; and, instead of punishing Grizzly, he gave  him a couple of shirts and a blanket, and told him to be a good Indian in the future.

     Again, during that same summer, the Indians broke into the Peace brothers' home, on what is now known as the Terry farm, and stole everything. our subject promised a friendly Indian five dollars if he would find out who the transgressors were. After an absence of three days he returned and reported that Tom Pepper and his father were the thieves. Giving the informant his reward, our subject, together with six of his neighbors, went to an Indian village of several hundred inhabitants located on Black river, where Pepper lived. On their arrival there they went to the culprit's lodge, and fund Pepper very busily engaged in transferring the stolen property from the house to the brush. When an attempt was made to arrest the old scamp, he showed fight and drew a large knife as a weapon of warfare. Before he could use it, however, he was knocked down with the butt of a rifle. During this time twenty or thirty guns were leveled at the party by the Indians. Knowing their superstition relative to our subject, he charged on them; and the would-be assailants took flight without firing a shot. After securing the captive, the party took him to their settlement and endeavored to wring from him a confession as regard to who did the stealing. For a time he maintained that he did not know, but became more conversant with the facts in the matter after he had been hung up by the neck a few times, and confessed that he and his father were the guilty parties. Old Chief Seattle heard of the trouble, and the next day came up and pawned guns and blankets for the safe return of the stolen property; and it is needless to say it was all returned to its rightful owners.

     Shortly after this a party of Indians came to Sam Maples' place in the evening. Maples was sick, and asked a young Indian to split him some wood, promising him his supper. While doing the work the boy cut his foot. At the sight of the blood the Indians pounced upon the sick man with their knives, and would have killed him had he made any resistance. He lay still and allowed them to carry out all the provisions, cooking utensils and everything else there was about the house. After they had plundered the place, the sick man crawled out and started for assistance. In going to where our subject was hewing out timber, he met Mr. Van Asselt; and the recital of the Indian's deviltry roused him so that his first impulse was to mete out punishment upon several of them with his axe; but on reflection it was deemed best to use strategy. Learning that the savages had some property at the home of Collins, the settlers collected and made that point a rendezvous. When the Indians came along for their belongings, they were made prisoners, and, by threats of sending for the soldiers, were induced to give up the stolen articles, and pay in venison for their meanness.

     Little affairs of that kind would occasionally happen; but on the whole the Indians were peaceable and friendly till September 15, 1855. On that eventful Sunday morning, just four years from the date of the first settlement of what is know King county,

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 the merciless Indians, in pursuance of well-arranged plans, swooped down on the settlers of White river, and massacred Mr. and Mrs. King, Mr. and Mrs. Jones Mr. and Mrs. Brannan and child, and a Mr. Cooper. During the night the Indians had secreted themselves in the brush near the residence of these people, and in the morning shot the settlers down as they ventured from their houses. Joe Lake, a settler on White river, was also shot, but not killed; and it was through him that the news spread before other murders could be committed. People in terror left their farms and fled to Seattle. In twelve hours after the massacre, the only white persons in King county, outside of Seattle, were Sam Maples, Doctor Grow and his brother, and our subject. They remained on their places till the morning of the sixteenth, but slept in the woods for safety, and left at daylight for Seattle. shortly afterwards the Indians came along and burned their houses, barns and fences, stole their horses and drove off their stock. Not a building of any description was left standing from the head of White river to the mouth of the Duwamish.

     On the morning of the sixteenth, as these settlers were leaving for Seattle, a party of friendly Indians came along with three white children belonging to the Jones family. Their parents having been murdered, they were turned over to the party, who took them to Seattle and placed them in the custody of the authorities, who cared for them and finally sent them to their friends in the East. Seattle was barricaded by the people, who converted the town into a fort; and a three months' volunteer company of settlers was formed, with Captain Hay ward in command. The company protected the town, marched through the country, killed a few Indians, and were finally mustered out.

     In the meantime an American man-of-war, the Decatur, had arrived, and was lying at anchor in the harbor. She would occasionally send a cannon ball whizzing by the town into the woods where the Indians were secreted. On the 5th of January, 1856, after the disbanding of the volunteer company, the Indians attacked the town and killed two men, - one a brother of Lemuel Holgate, and another whose name cannot now be called to mind. A six months' volunteer company was then organized, with Judge Lander as captain, and A.A. Denny and D. Neely as lieutenants. This company did good service in guarding the town and converting the hostiles into good Indians. One day it was reported that the Indian who had killed Holgate was upon the hill above the fort, about where John Collins' house now stands, firing at anyone who chanced to put in an appearance. Our subject, believing that he could stop the Indian, began to watch closely the locality from whence the firing came, and in a short time discovered him. It was noticed that the Indian would get behind a tree and load his gun, and then go to a log where he could get a better aim and fire away. Taking his Sharpe's carbine, our subject laid down behind a fir stump just outside the fort and fired. he can't say whether he hit his mark or not; but at all events the settlers were not troubled again by the Indian.

     H.L. Yesler at that time had a sort of charge or supervision over a lot of friendly Indians camped at what is now Milton. One evening Sergeant John Hannan, of the volunteer company, called Mr. Van Asselt out and said there was a hostile Indian named Lucha and his squaw over at Milton trying to induce the peaceable Indians at that place to join the hostiles, and that Yesler had ordered him to leave there before the next morning. He determined to blockade the mouth of the river, in order to kill Lucha and all who went with him to join the hostiles. Among those who made up the party sent in this behalf was our subject. An account of what transpired is here given in his own language:

     "That night the moon shone out brightly; and the weather was bitter cold. We waited till the Indians were all asleep, when a party of five took a canoe and paddled cautiously to the mouth of the river, a little above the place where Conkling's house now stands, where there is a short curve in the stream. Drawing our frail craft out into the brush, we divided and posted ourselves in three different places, - two men together, forty yards apart, and myself forty yards above the upper two. The understanding was that the lower two should let the canoes pass, and when they were opposite the second two should be fired upon. The party consisted of J.W. Johns, C.D. Boren, John Hannan, Sam Bicklehammer and myself. We remained at our posts until daybreak without an adventure. The weather was fearfully cold; and we were stiff and numb. We held a consultation; and a majority favored returning home. But I urged them to remain half an hour longer; and all consented.

     "We again took our posts; and in les than fifteen minutes we heard the splash of paddles, and knew that a number of canoes were approaching. Finally a dugout, containing the before-mentioned hostile and his wife, hove in sight,. When directly in from of us, I heard three guns snap and one fire. At the first crack of the guns the Indian crouched down and lurched his boat over for protection. His wife rose up and yelled in Chinook: "Don't kill us; we are your friends! Don't kill us.' We did not want to kill her. Three of our guns had been rendered useless by the damp and cold. I, however, banged away at Mr. Indian and riddles his boat with bullet holes; but he made his escape in the brush on the opposite side of the river.

     "The other canoes, hearing the report of the guns, turned back. We launched our boat and made chase. We soon sighted a canoe, and worked hard to overtake it. By this time the guns had been cleaned and reloaded; and all four of my companions fired at the Indians; but their shots feel short. I was steering the boat. Mr. Boren stood up in front of me; and I gave him my gun and told him to fire. He did; and the Indians all dodged down, then rose up and paddled for shore. They landed at the extreme mouth of the river, beached their canoe and took to the woods. We ran alongside, captured their boat and found it smeared with blood from one end to the other. We afterwards learned that Boren's shot had struck one of the Indians in the shoulder. We took the canoe out into the bay and broke it up."

     By 1857 hostilities had ceased; and the settlers

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returned to their homes. Our subject among others then found plenty to do. His houses and barns had to be rebuilt, his fences renewed; and, in fact, he almost had to begin anew. When he had got things in a somewhat comfortable shape, he left for the Willamette valley, and there worked for several months; and with the funds thus derived he restored his ranch. He was united in marriage to Miss Jane Maples in 1862, the fruits of the union being four children.

     Mr. Van Asselt, through his energy in the past, has acquired means sufficient to surround his home with comfort during the declining years of himself and his estimable wife. Aside from the distinction of being a pioneer and state-builder, it is said of him by all that he is a man of strict integrity and unsullied reputation, and that he has legions of friends, and few if any enemies.

     J.J.H. VVAN BOKKELEN. - We constantly find among those that are here present lives of such incident and fullness, that any sketch must be so meager as to be well-nigh worthless. The active career of Mr. Von Bokkelen, covering more than half a century, is one of them.

     He inherits his name and much of his rugged mentality from an old Holland family on his father's side, which at the time of the entrance of the French and flight of the King came to New York. There the grandfather became one of the first physicians, settling in the old Bowery, he having been in Holland physician to the King's household. During the war of 1812 his father continued the active reputation of the family by making a hazardous voyage with one Captain Main to Japan for a load of saltpeter for Uncle Sam, running the gauntlet of two British war ships on the return voyage by the Cape of Good Hope. His father during the balance of his life followed a shipping and commercial business.

     On the mother's side our subject is of a hardy sea-faring Welsh family, that came to New York in 1867, his grandfather on his mother's side being the third licensed pilot in New York; and during the Revolutionary war he was most famous for piloting the French fleet into the bay. His early recollections extend to the visit of Lafayette, whom he saw at the house of his grandmother, whither the great Frenchman had come to present her with a golden anchor in commemoration of the services of her husband. His active and lively boyhood was spent in school, in society and with the New York Fire Department. He saw the opening of the Erie Canal, and with his father called upon David Clinton. there was scarcely a public event in and around New York which escaped his keen scrutiny.

     This observance of and interest in public matters during his youth and early manhood brought him into personal contact with the great events and men of the times. He early began as a clerk in a wholesale house, and led the high-pressure life of the young men of those days. In 1843 he went south to Alabama as shipping clerk in the cotton business a year, and two years longer as agent of mail contracts. The wild and reckless life into which he was thrown proved inimical to his health; and he went home to die at his father's new residence in North Carolina. A full year of sickness, however, failed to kill him; and, upon the recommendation of physicians, he set off on a voyage to California to recover his strength. By the time that the Horn was doubled and the Golden Gate reached, his old vigor had returned; and, at Big Bar and Pilot Hill, he dug gold as fast as the best of them. Hoping to make some great strike, he performed a prospecting tour in the mountains, from which he returned dead-broke and had to work his way to San Francisco, where he soon found himself appointed as inspector of customs through the influence of David Broderick and Fred Kohler, formerly his associates in New York.

     This occupation proved too slow; and with a few companions he set sail for Queen Charlotte's Island in April, 1851, to discover gold. But the findings were so small as to make him glad t take passage on a Hudson's Bay ship to Port Rupert; and he returned to California in the fall of 1852. There once more he set to digging in earnest, and was so successful as to be nearly ready to return home. But a land-slip, or cave-in, of his mine, burying him under rocks and gravel, so seriously impaired his frame, breaking bones, etc., as to detain him over winter; and in the meantime he took ship in June, 1853, with Captain Coupe on the bark Success for Puget Sound. Landing at Penn's Cove on Whidby Island, he assisted the Captain in building a town; and he cut the first tree felled at Coupeville. But, hearing of the coal on Bellingham Bay, he steered thither, soon crossing over to Nanaimo. In that British region he got into a singular difficulty. Some of the squad to which he belonged felled a tree before daylight, which dropped upon and crushed some machinery just brought from England, and intended for enlarging the works at the coal mine. In their fright, these men averred that Van Bokkelen was an agent of the Bellingham Bay Company, sent secretly to persuade some twenty of the men to leave the Nanaimo mine for its American rival. He was accordingly arrested and sent to Victoria under the conduct of ten Indians. He was held in prison for a month awaiting a ship to sail to London, where he was to be tried for high treason against the Hudson's Bay Company; but, as it was manifestly impossible to establish against him any charge, he was set free; and after working around a few weeks for money he crossed the straits for Port Townsend.

     About this time the Indian war broke out; and, joining the command of Captain Ebey, he went to the Snohomish river. He rose by election to the position of orderly sergeant, and after four months to the captaincy of Company E, and was finally made a major in the Northern Battalion. He saw very active service, and was scouting constantly in the mountains.

     Returning from the war he began farming, but was soon appointed deputy collector, serving a part of the time in the Colville district. He also acted, while at Port Townsend, as county auditor and postmaster. After leaving the custom-house, he continued in the  two latter offices, and subsequently served the county as probate judge and sheriff. He

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was also a member of the territorial council a term from Colville district, and two terms from Port Townsend district, in the house.

     His two children have reached adult life; and the daughter is married. Now, at the age of seventy-three, Mr. Van Bokkelen devotes his energies, which are but little impaired, to conducting the Seamen's Bethel at the Port, and in assisting the Methodist church of that city. Although having seen as much as anyone of the shines and shadows of life, and having tried it from all sides, none of his memories are more bright than those which relate to his mother's and father's training of his early years; and, in all his varied fortunes and misfortunes, he finds nothing of which to complain, or indeed, to regret.

     THEODORE C. VAN EPPS. - Mr. Van Epps, a portrait of whom is placed among the illustrations of this work, is one of the best known men in Washington's capital city. He was born in New Scotland, eight miles west of Albany, New York, February 15, 1847, and is the son of Charles and Angelica (Vedder) Van Epps, both of whom were born in New York of Holland parentage, his mother being a cousin of ex-President Martin Van Buren. His great-grandfather was from Holland, and founded the town of Amsterdam in New York State.

     At the age of six Theodore moved with his parents to Davenport, Iowa, and in that city received his education. In 1867, having spent one year at St. Louis, he found employment as a school-teacher in Muscatine, Iowa. In the autumn of 1868 he moved to Cass county, Nebraska, and located a homestead on which he lived until 1875. In that year he crossed the mountains to Washington, selecting Olympia as his future home, and purchasing with S.C. Woodruff as partner the stationery store of A.J. Burr & Co. In 1881 Mr. Van Epps purchased his partner's interest, and continued the business, conducting one of the largest and most successful book, stationery and notion stores to be found on the Sound. In February, 1889, he sold his store to is son, W.A. Van Epps, for some years previous his able assistant, and opened his present elegant office in the Olympia Block, where he has done a general real-estate and loan business.

     In public affairs Mr. Van Epps has been active and progressive. He is a past grandmaster of the Grand Lodge of A.O.U.W., and past grand representative of the I.O.O.F. Of sterling integrity and fine business ability, he has identified himself with all the enterprises in his community which have been undertaken to improve the city, and has added to his own resources until he has become possessor of the enjoyments and comforts of a beautiful home and the respect and confidence of the people.

     He was united in marriage in Muscatine, Iowa, in September, 1868, to Miss Rosalia J. Schoonover, a native of Indiana. By these union they have three children, Eltney L., W. Arley, and Iva R.

     ALBERT B. VAUGHN. - This leading man of the younger generation of our state was born at Cottage Grove, Lane county, August 16, 1857, his father, J.W. Vaughn, being the proprietor of a mill located there. Our subject remained with his father until he was twenty-one years of age, receiving a common-school education. In 1878 he removed to Rock creek, and three years later came to Arlington, Oregon, and has made that flourishing town his home until the present time, conducting a remunerative business. In 1889 he was elected a member of the city council, and occupies that position to the present time. he is a man of growing influence, and one held in great esteem by all who know him.

     JOHN S. VINSON. - The proprietor of Nolin, Oregon, was born in Iowa in 1848. His father, James Vinson, was a native of Ohio, and was born in 1808. In 1852 our subject crossed the plains with his father, who located a Donation claim in Clackamas county, Oregon, and was first postmaster at the town of Needy, where he subsequently kept a store. After the wars of 1855-56 he bought largely of the volunteer scrip, which as yet has never been paid by the government. This brought the elder Vinson financial ruin, and caused him to remove to Umatilla county in the early days, where he has ever been a respected citizen, and is still hale and hearty.

     Our subject, John S. Vinson, was raised as a farmer in the old "Webfoot" state, and received a common-school education. At the age of nineteen he began to do for himself, working for wages and teaching school in Umatilla county. He finally located a land claim at the town of Vinson in 1871. In 1873 he was appointed postmaster at Vinson, and opened a general store in 1875, and continued in that business till 1883. In 1885 he purchased the site of Nolin, and was appointed postmaster and commenced merchandising there, and still follows that occupation. In 1880 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the legislature on the Republican ticket.

     Nolin, situated six miles east of Echo, on the Umatilla river, is a country village in a semi-developed though productive portion of Umatilla county and is the natural shipping point for about thirty thousand acres of good wheat land. As its proprietor and leading citizen, Mr. Vinson possesses the requisite qualities to make it a progressive point, and we may look for its steady growth.

     JUSTUS WADE. - This gentleman, the brother of Phares E. Wade, mentioned in these pages, was born in Virginia in 1843. He remained with his parents on the farm in Iowa, receiving a common-school education, and in 1864 crossed the plains to join his brothers in the Grande Ronde valley, arriving among them with but a five-dollar greenback, which was then worth but two dollars in these parts. He farmed three years with his brothers, and returned to Iowa with eighteen hundred dollars, thinking to remain there. But the beauties of the land of which we write could not be erased from his memory; and having, in 1868, married Miss Mary E. Connor, an old schoolmate, he boldly set out in 1871 and returned to the scenes of his former success. He engaged once

                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                        617

more in farming and stock-raising and pursued that avocation until 1885, when he sold out the most of his stock and engaged with a brother in a general merchandise business in the town of Summerville, Oregon, of which he is the present manager. He still conducts his stock farms and raises thoroughbred cattle, and follows his real-estate interests in town. His three daughters and a son are now attaining adult life, and receive his careful supervision in education and the acquisition of accomplishments.

     Mr. Wade's business methods are bold as well as successful. In 1876 he purchased of the Umatilla Indians a band of Cayuse ponies, and drove them across the plains to Nebraska, where he sold them. Also in 1885 he drove three hundred of the horses he had raised across the plains to the same point.

     PHARES E. WADE. - A native of the Old dominion, born in 1840, the subject of this sketch, at the age of fourteen, removed with his parents to Iowa and engaged in farming, remaining at home until 1863. In that year he crossed the plains to the Grande Ronde valley, where he continued his agricultural business, raising grain and stock, and is at the present for nearly a quarter of a century. This is two and a half miles east of Summerville, Oregon, and consists of twelve hundred acres of remarkably rich, level and productive land. Upon this farm he has a handsome residence, with good out-buildings and pleasant surroundings. He has large bands of cattle and horses and flocks of sheep on the surrounding ranges, and is living in health and contentment. All this prosperity has sprung from his own labor; since he had but a few dollars upon his arrival here.

     In 1865 he married Miss Mary C. Myers of the Grande Ronde valley; and they have brought up five children. Mr. Wade is a lover of the hunt, and very many of the elk and deer which, in the sixties and seventies, were wont to roam the mountains that circle the Grande Ronde valley, have fallen at the crack of his rifle. On one occasion he and two companions killed seven elk within ten minutes.

     THOMAS WADE. - Mr. Wade was born in Virginia in 1837, and is the eldest of the three brothers, mention of whom is made herein. In 1853 he emigrated to Wayne county, Iowa, where he engaged in farming, and so continued until 1862, when he crossed the plains and located in the Grande Ronde valley on his present homestead. There he commenced with a capital stock of about two dollars and fifty cents to assist in developing that portion of our glorious Northwest, substituting on game and some flour from the Willamette valley. The next spring he paid fifteen cents per pound for seed wheat and oats. There he has delved and digged until now, a hale and hearty man of fifty-two summers, he is in possession of a thousand acres of the choicest land in the world, with a fine residence, out-buildings, orchard, a large herd of range cattle, and a band of horses, including thoroughbreds in each line. he is a partner in the large mercantile establishment at Summerville, and is a notably hospitable as well as a successful and happy man.

     In the winter of 1860 he returned to Iowa by way of San Francisco, Panama and New York, and came back to Oregon in the spring of 1867. In 1870 he returned to Iowa and married an old friend, Miss Lucy J. Jackson, of Van Buren county. During the years of his residence here, Mr. Wade has crossed the plains four times, and has come upon many fresh indications, such as embers still aglow, of the devastations of Indians; yet luckily he has never been attacked, and never lost anything by them.

     JUDGE AARON E. WAIT. - Judge Wait, who needs no introduction to the people of Oregon, was born in Whately, Massachusetts, on Sunday, December 26, 1813. His father was a soldier in the war of that period, and died in the service. His family name on his mother's side was Morton, of Scotch descent. His ancestry on his father's side were English. At fourteen years of age Aaron went to the adjoining town of Hatfield, and learned the "broom trade." By money earned at that trade, and afterwards by teaching, he was enabled to increase his education. He taught country winter schools, and was an assistant teacher in "Erasmus Hall," Flatbush, Long Island, six months, but never really liked teaching.

     In 1837 he went to Michigan and located at Centerville, the county-seat of St. Joseph county, where he read law with Judge Columbia Lancaster, now of Vancouver, Washington Territory. Judge Wait has taken an interest in political matters since a boy, and has always been a Democrat. In the presidential campaign of 1844 he edited a Democratic paper in Michigan, and afterwards, until he left that state, held the office of military secretary of his Excellency, John L. Barry, Governor of that state. Judge Wait was asked to accept important and honorable office in Michigan under Governor Woodbridge, and also under President Fillmore in Oregon, but declined.

     In the spring of 1847, Judge Wait, in company with Judge Lancaster, wife and one child, and Mr. Adam Van Dusen and wife, left Centerville with ox-teams en route for Oregon, and arrived at Oregon City about the middle of September of that year. Watchful care was exercised; and no serious accident nor difficulty occurred on the journey. Otherwise than being tiresome, the journey was not an unpleasant one. Judge Wait in crossing the plains, as before and since, because of near-sightedness, wore spectacles. The Indians, pointing to the spectacles, wanted to know what they were for. He told them that they were to enable him to see "away off." from that they thought he could see anything anywhere.

     Soon after arriving in Oregon, Judge Wait entered into an agreement with Governor Abernethy to edit the Oregon Statesman for the year. The only exchanges of the Spectator at that time were a paper published at Honolulu and two seven-by-nine papers published in California, one at San Francisco and the other at Monterey, which were received when vessels arrived. At that time some of the people in

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Oregon received letters and papers from the "States" once a year by immigrants.

     When the Cayuse war broke out, Judge Wait was appointed first assistant commissary-general under General Joel Palmer. While engaged in that capacity he had a little experience with a man well-known on the Tualatin Plains, which is worth repeating. He was endeavoring to get provisions for the use of the troops in the field; and someone said, "Go to 'God-Almighty' Smith. He is able to give, but won't; but you try him." Judge Wait arrived at Mr. Smith's late in the day, and made his errand known. Mr. Smith said, "You must stay with me all night; and we will talk it over." The result was that he agreed to furnish an equipment for one of the soldiers in the field, and rendered other aid. He also went with the Judge to a settler's ranch near the foothills, and assisted in procuring a drove of hogs for the department.

     In the summer of 1848 Judge Wait drew the deed conveying the Portland townsite of over six hundred acres from Francis W. Pettygrove to Daniel H. Lownsdale, the consideration being five thousand dollars in leather.

     In the spring of 1849, the Judge went to California on a little seventeen-ton schooner built by his friend Lot Whitcomb. At Sacramento he met Judge Peter H. Burnett, who urged him to remain in California. He remained, however, only until the fall rains drove him out of the mountains. On his return to Oregon he was elected commissioner to audit the claims of the Cayuse war. The most of them he audited, and has the satisfaction of knowing that every claim allowed by him was paid precisely as allowed.

     Judge Wait was the first chief justice of the supreme court of Oregon. He was also a member of both houses of the legislature, and was elected at one time mayor of the city of Portland, to fill the unexpired term of Mayor Holmes. This last position, however, he declined on account of ill health. He has also held other offices and positions; but he says that he never held an office for which he sought a nomination, but that he has always preferred to practice his profession. His doctrine in his younger days was that no man had a right to ask office nor refuse it. While on the bench during the war, he reluctantly accepted a congressional nomination from the Democratic party, and was defeated, as he expected to be. He was one of the Democratic candidates for presidential elector in the McClellan campaign, and made the canvass in Eastern Oregon. At the preceding June election, every county in Eastern Oregon had gone Republican; but in November every one went Democratic.

     Judge Wait was engaged in nearly every important land case growing out of the Donation law; and his practice was generally as large as he could well attend to. Early in the seventies his voice failed him for public speaking; and he retired from his profession, since which time he has attended to but two important land cases in the departments at Salem and Washington. These were attended to at the request of his friend, Judge O.C. Pratt of California. After retiring from his profession he spent part of two years with his wife and daughter in Southern California for their health, and then went upon his farm in Clackamas county. In the fall of 1886 he went to Portland to make his home, and there has lived ever since.

     When he left the East his friends tried to deter him from his undertaking, by saying that he would be homesick; but he thought that almost an impeachment of his manhood. He told them that perhaps he might be back in five years. As a matter of fact he did not again see the East till the summer of 1884, when he went as a member of the Democratic national convention. He has suffered the deep afflictions of the loss of two wives and four children. He now has but two children living. These are Charles N. Wait of Portland, and Annie Everline Hanford of Seattle.

     Among the many interesting reminiscences of Judge Wait's life, he tells of a conversation with Doctor McLoughlin which has never appeared in print. It was in his office in Oregon City. No one happening to be present but themselves, the Judger remarked playfully, "Doctor, they say that when you were governor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Vancouver, those who approached you were expected to do so with their heads uncovered. How is that?" The Doctor was taken all aback; and reddening somewhat, exclaimed. "The French; the French~ A very polite people a very polite people!" The Judge said, "Of course, Doctor but__"; when the Doctor again exclaimed, more vehemently than ever, "The French! Very polite, very polite." Soon recovering himself, however, the good Doctor gave reasons which required neither blush nor palliation. Among other things he said," I was at the head of the Hudson's Bay Company in this country. When I came there were many Indians here. the success of the company depended on the manner in which the Indians were treated and controlled. The lives of all the servants and employés, and the property of the company were in my keeping. I knew enough of Indian character to know that, if those around me respected and deferred to me, the Indians would do the same."

     The Judge also remembers with great interest his connection with Bishop Scott in passing the bill to incorporate the Bishop Scott Grammar School at Portland. Honorable Amory Holbrook drew up the bill, and fixed the capital stock at five hundred thousand dollars. The bill was intrusted to Judge Wait to present to the senate. It passed that body with no trouble, but met violent opposition in the house. The astonished and mortified Bishop, who had not dreamed of opposition to his purely benevolent scheme, after listening in silence a few minutes to the aspersions on his noble purposes and character, rose and left the room, muttering to himself, "Well, well, some people are wise and some otherwise." Judge Wait has always said that the good Bishop's indignation was "righteous indignation." The bill was subsequently passed with its capital stock reduced.

     The many interesting, thrilling and characteristic anecdotes of this first and one of the most honored of Oregon's judges would fill a volume; and great is the privilege of those who may hear them from his own lips.

                                                                                BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                                    619

     REV. ELKANAH WALKER. - Rev. E. Walker was born at North Yarmouth, Maine, August 7, 1805, and was the son of a farmer. He was brought up in his native place. He was converted when about twenty-six years old, and soon afterwards began to study for the ministry. He took an academic course, but did not go to college, a fact which he afterwards regretted. he entered Bangor Theological Seminary, Maine, in 1834, and graduated in 1837.

     Having given himself to the foreign missionary work, he was appointed by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to South Africa, with Rev. C. Eells. But a fierce war between two native chiefs there detained them; and in the meantime the call from Oregon became so urgent that, with their consent, their destination was changed to this coast. he was ordained at Brewer, Maine, as a Congregational minister in February, 1838, and was married March 5, 1838, to Miss Mary Richardson. She was born at Baldwin, Maine, April 1, 1811. Before her engagement to Mr. Walker she was appointed as a missionary by the board to Siam; but after that event her destination was changed first to Africa and then to Oregon.

     The next day after their marriage they started on their bridal tour across the Rockies, in company with Rev. C. Eels, A.B. Smith, Mr. W.H. Gray and their wives, where no white women had ever traveled, except Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. Spalding. They made the journey from Missouri on horseback, and arrived at Doctor Whitman's station at Walla Walla, August 29, 1838. The next ten years were spent at Tshimakain, Walker's Prairie, among the Spokane Indians, in company with Rev. C. Eels and wife. At first the Indians were much interested; but, when they found that christianity meant that they should give up gambling, incantations and such things, their interest grew less, so that none united with the church before they left.

     Mr. Walker studied the language of those Indians quite thoroughly, and learned its scientific, grammatical construction more thoroughly than his companion, Mr. Eells. He prepared a small primer, which was printed in 1841 on the mission press at Lapwai, Idaho, - the only book ever printed in the Spokane language.

     After the massacre of Doctor Whitman and others at Walla Walla in November, 1847, they remained at their station until March, 1848, when they went to Fort Colville, where they enjoyed the protection of Chief Factor Lewis until June, when they were escorted to the Willamette valley by Oregon volunteers.

     Mr. Walker remained at Oregon City from June, 1848, until 1850, when he moved to Forest Grove, Oregon, which was his home as long as he lived, - nearly thirty years. While at Oregon City he made a tour with Doctor Hart, Indian Agent, through some of the country east of the Cascades, but decided that it was not his duty to return to that region to live, although the Spokane Indians were friendly, and wished him to go. He also, with four other ministerial brethren, organized the Congregational Association at Oregon City in July, 1848.

     From 1852 to 1856 he was pastor of a Presbyterian church at Forest Grove; and from 1856 and 1875, with the exception of about three years and a half, he was pastor or joint pastor of the Congregational church at the same place, having been assisted by Rev. S.H. Marsh, E.D., H. Lyman, C. Eells and T. Condon. During that time eighty-two persons united with the church, fifty of them on profession of faith. The church building was also erected during his pastorate at great effort, and at a cost of over seven thousand dollars, of which he gave one thousand.

     In 1848 he aided in establishing Tualatin Academy and Pacific University at Forest Grove, of which he was chosen a trustee in 1866, in which capacity he served until his death, - eleven years, - and for which he gave a thousand dollars of his property.

     In 1870 he returned to Maine with his wife on a visit, which he greatly enjoyed.

     He died at Forest Grove, November 21, 1877, aged seventy-two years. His wife still survives him, and is living at the old homestead. He had eight children, - Cyrus H., Abigail B. (Mrs. J.A. Karr), Marcus W., J. Elkanah, Jeremiah (deceased), John R., Levi C. and Samuel T. Of these, the oldest, Cyrus H., was the first white boy born in Oregon, Washington or Idaho, - December 7, 1838. J. Elkanah has been a missionary in China since 1872; and four of them have at different times been engaged in christian work among the Indians of Oregon and Washington.

     COL. WILLIAM H. WALLACE, - The subject of this sketch was born in Troy, Miami county, Ohio, July 19, 1811. His early life was spent in Indiana, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. In 1835 he removed to Iowa, and was appointed, by Governor Lucas, colonel of the state troops. He was elected a member of the first legislature, and served as speaker of the house. He was thereafter elected to the council, and was president of that body. He was appointed, by President Taylor, receiver of public moneys at Fairfield, Iowa.

     In 1853 he removed to Washington Territory, and served for several sessions in the territorial legislature, and was chosen president of the council of which he was a member. He was appointed by President Lincoln, in 1861, governor of Washington Territory, and was afterwards elected delegate to the Thirty-seventh Congress. Before his term expired, the territory of Idaho had been set off from Washington, and he was commissioned the first governor of that territory. Upon his arrival thither, pending the first election, he was nominated by the Republicans, and was elected first delegate to Congress from that territory. When his term had expired, he returned to his Pierce county home, and resumed the practice of his profession.

     He was then elected probate judge of Pierce county, which honorable position he held until his death, which occurred in Steilacoom on February 7, 1879. Judge Wallace was a Mason for over forty years, and was at the time of his death master of Steilacoom Lodge, No. 2, A.F. and A.M.

620                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

During the Indian war he was captain of a company which did good service in the field, whilst his wife and son slept in the blockhouse at Steilacoom, to help hold the fort.

     He was married February 3, 1839, to Miss Suzana Brazelton, a native of Guilford county, North Carolina. She was a daughter of General Brazelton, of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, and had a family of three children, two daughters and one son. The son, William W. Wallace, is living in Washington, District of Columbia. He is in his forty-sixth year, and has been clerk in the third auditor's office for twenty-one years. He is married and has a family of six children.

     REV. A.F. WALLER. - Alvin F. Waller for many years was one of the most familiar figures in the pioneer life of Oregon. There was with him an individuality of person and life that easily lifted him out of the common multitude of the street and the field, and marked him as no ordinary man. For more than thirty years he wrought among the foundations of Oregon society and life with a zeal and a wisdom that made his name a proverb; and no man was more widely known and more thoroughly respected than he.

     He was born in Abingdon, Pennsylvania, in 1808, but removed to Elba, New York before reaching his majority, where he began his public life as a preacher of the gospel about 1832. Soon after he became a member of the Genessee Conference, in which very able and distinguished body he maintained a good standing until 1839, when he was appointed a missionary to Oregon. He came to this then little-known country around Cape Horn in the same vessel that brought Gustavus Hines and J.L. Parrish, landing on the soil of Oregon June 1, 1840.

     The most prominent fields of his work on this coast were at Willamette Falls, now Oregon City, The Dalles Indian mission, as presiding elder of the Portland district, and as managing agent of the Willamette University. While he had charge of the Indian mission at The Dalles, his wisdom and courage were often put to a severe test, as it was a time when the Indians were restless, and when large immigrations were entering the country overland; but he always proved himself equal to the occasions of either danger or responsibility that surrounded him. Much good was done among the Indians by his faithful ministrations; and his name is affectionately remembered by many of the older of the Yakima and Warm Springs Indians until this day.

     Perhaps the work in which Mr. Waller wrought most successfully was as agent of the Willamette University. This school was peculiarly the child of his affections. He helped to lay its foundations as the Oregon Institute; and for many years he put his time and toil and money into it with the generosity of a father's hand. In gathering means for it he traveled all over Oregon repeatedly, and sought among high and low the little or the much to help forward this cherished interest.

     He was once honored by his brethren in being made delegate of the Oregon Conference to the general conference of his church. For many years he served gratuitously as chaplain to the state penitentiary, and was held in highest esteem by its officers and inmates.

     As a man and a minister, Mr. Waller had great perseverance, energy and fidelity, and was a clear, logical, powerful preacher. His judgment had weight in the public mind on all questions, whether connected with state or ecclesiastical interests, because his intellect was many-sided. He was a minister, and had an intense loyalty to his church; but he was more, - a broad, catholic, patriotic and public-spirited man. In such pioneers as Alvin F. Waller a great blessing came to the early days, when civilizations were made and commonwealths founded on the shores of the Pacific.

     For nearly all the thirty-two years of his life on this coast, the home of Mr. Waller was in Salem, in which city he died December 26, 1872.

     GEORGE W. WALLING. - George W. Walling was born in Ohio on December 18, 1818. He moved with his parents to Iowa in 1828, and remained there ten years. He came thence to Oregon in 1847, crossing the plains by ox-team with his parents. He was married in Iowa to Miss Frances Nye. His first son was born at a place called Mud Springs. on the summit of the Rocky Mountains. He arrived in Oregon City on the 10th of September, 1847, and remained there one year, when he moved to the place he now occupies about two miles from Oswego, on the west bank of the Willamette river, where he has lived for over forty-one years. He once owned the Willamette Nursery; but as old age grew on, and feeling unable to attend to the business himself, he turned it over to his oldest son, who now owns it. He has a family of seven children, four boys and three girls. He has been a school superintendent for fifteen years, and is one of the leading old pioneers of his section. He still retains his vigor, and takes an active part in the working of his magnificent orchard and farm.

     JUDGE JOSHUA J. WALTON. - This eminent jurist and public leader of our state wa born April 6, 1838, at Rushville, Illinois. At the age of two years he was taken by his parents to a new home near Springfield, Illinois. After a brief sojourn there another move was made, bringing the family as far west as St. Louis, Missouri; and in 1842 they moved on to Keosauque, Iowa. In 1849 the plains were crossed with ox-teams, on the route via Salt Lake City; and the journey was brought to an end at Frémont, California, a place at the junction of the Feather and Sacramento rivers. Two years later the line of march was resumed; and Yreka was made the objective. The next year a more permanent location was found in the Rogue river valley; and a Donation claim was taken on Wagner creek on the beautiful farm now known as the Beason place. That was at a time when the Rogue river Indians were very troublesome, and quite generally on the warpath. The elder Walton engaged to some extent in mining at Jacksonville and Rich Gulch; and young Joshua, then but a lad of fourteen, also essayed to make his pile by rocking a "Long Tom." With his father he also

                                                                                    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                                            621

 used to go on freighting expeditions to procure goods from the Willamette valley for the market at Jacksonville, Yreka, or the mining camps on the Klamath; and his work was to ride the bell animal. While thus occupied he carried his school books, and spent the slow hours in the saddle acquiring the rudiments of an education.

     Upon the outbreak of the Indian war in 1853, the family went to the fort at Jacob Wagner's, and remained until the autumn. By the various scares and indeed great perils of the time, Mrs. Walton had acquired a constant dread of the savages, and, in order to giver her less anxiety, Mr. Walton decided to seek a new location, less isolated and less exposed, and consequently sold his right to Mr. Beason, and made the same year a new home in the Umpqua valley, a few miles west of Oakland, in a little oasis known as Green valley. Among other benefits derived from this change was the advantage of a good school then just started, at which Joshua made rapid progress in his books under the tutelage of Professor J.S. Gilbert, a worthy man and an excellent teacher.

     In the fall of 1858 a final removal was made to Eugene City, Oregon. At that beautiful place a permanent home was located; and there Judge Walton resides at the present time. With the exception of a short time spent in the Idaho mines, he has resided there continuously. At that center, which even in the early days boasted much culture and ability, young Walton found opportunities not hitherto enjoyed for the development of his mind, and soon began the study of law under Honorable Riley E. Stratton, then circuit judge of the second judicial district. He also read somewhat with Honorable Stukeley Ellsworth. He was admitted to the bar in 1863, at the September term of the supreme court, in the first class ever examined by that court in open session. The class was large, including in the number some whose names have since become eminent, as C.B. Bellinger, Joseph F. Watson, P.S. Knight and other men of mark.

     Soon after completing his studies, Mr. Walton was called upon to occupy public positions, and has spent the greater part of his life in official or other public duties. In 1866 he was elected county judge of Lane county. In 1876 he was appointed to the same position by Governor  L.F. Grover, to fill the place made vacant by the resignation of Judge John M. Thompson. In the same year his position was confirmed by election; and he served out a full term. In 1874 he was elected president of the Union University Association, and successfully superintended the erection of the university building at Eugene, and also succeeded in securing the location of the State University at that city. In 1880 he received the nomination for circuit judge of the second judicial district; but the contest resulted in the election of his opponent on the Republican ticket, Honorable Joseph F. Watson.

     Judge Walton has been twice married, first to Miss Lizzie Gale, who died in 1873, and secondly, in 1876, to Miss Emma Fisher.

     MRS. ELIZA WARREN. - All will feel the deepest interest in this intelligent and refined woman, seeing that she is the daughter of the missionary, Reverend H.H. Spalding. She is the "Eliza" whose name has become familiar in the many narratives touching upon the history of Oregon. Not only in her historical but in her own personal character, she well deserves the consideration of her friends, whose number is that of all Oregonians. Her father's consecration and her mother's life of the utmost devotion reappear in her own, although not now projected upon the black background of tragedy as was theirs.

     She was born at the Indian station at Lapwai, among the Nez Perces, and was brought up principally in the schoolroom with her mother, until, at the age of nine, it was deemed better to take her to Whitman's school at Waiilatpu, where she might have the companionship of more children of her own race. Her first trip thither was under the escort of an Indian woman, her father being unable to leave his post at the time. In 1847, after a visit home in the summer, she was taken by her father to Whitman's. That was but a short time before the massacre of November 30th, a full account of which is given in the general history of the first volume of this work. The awful scenes of that massacre, all of which were transacted before her eyes, are still vivid in her mind. She was the only one surviving who understood the Indian language, and during the three weeks succeeding, while the captives were held by the Indians, was called upon to act as interpreter, both to explain the commands of the Indians and the wants of the Whites. This was a difficult, and, under the circumstances, heart-rendering position for a child less than ten years old. She also sewed the winding sheets upon the mutilated bodies of the dead, when, by the command of the priests, they were buried. She was not released until the general ransom, notwithstanding the arrival of two Nez Perce Indians with a message to convey her to her father.

     After the massacre, she came with her parents to the Willamette valley, and at the age of seventeen was married to Andrew Warren. Their child, America, ahs the distinction of being the oldest grandchild of white parents born in Oregon.

     Mr. Warren, who was born in Lexington, Missouri, in 1822, and came to Oregon in 1852, served during the Indian troubles of 1855-56, and became thereafter a dealer in stock and a rancher east of the Cascade Mountains. Returning in 1861 to Brownsville, for a seven years' residence, he spent subsequently much time in the Ochoco valley, developing a large stock interest. He died at his home in Brownsville, Oregon, in 1886; and there his widow still resides, enjoying good health, and being in good circumstances. Her four children, America J., Martha E., Amelia E. and James H., were all born at that place and live in the vicinity.

     W.H. WATKINS, M.D. - William Henry Watkins was born in Yorkshire, Cattaraugus county, New York, on the 16th of April, 1827. He graduated as Doctor of Medicine from the Buffalo Medicine College in 1849; and after his graduation as doctor his thoughts turned to the Pacific coast and

622                                                       HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

to Oregon as a field of his life-work, whither he removed in 1852. He settled first in Josephine county, but in 1861 removed with his family to Portland. In December of that year he tendered his services to the government in view of the impending crisis brought on by the Rebellion, and was appointed surgeon with the rank of major. His regiment was the First Oregon Cavalry. He was with them in all the burdens of war up to 1864, when the organization was dissolved and himself mustered out with the rest in December of that year.

     Returning to Portland he engaged in the practice of his profession, and from that time until his death enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most careful, conscientious and successful of physicians. It will be impossible to trace the life of this man through all its multiplied forms and forces for good. It fell to the lot of but few to do so much and ins such various forms, or to do all so well as he. As a man, a citizen, he was intelligent and careful in his estimates of public duty, and faithful and consistent in the discharge of public obligations. Early in his life in Oregon, he was intrusted with one of the most important of public responsibilities by being made a member of the convention that framed the constitution of the state. There, as everywhere, he did his work well, and won the confidence and respect of all by his comprehension of the issues involved in the deliberations of the body, and the work it was called upon to perform. But his choice was not the arena of political ambition, but the more quiet field where he could work out his own ideal of personal character and public good. He was one of the noblest members of one of the noblest professions among men; and he honored that profession. To him it was more than a profession; it was a mission. In it he was conscientious, charitable and humane. Many of the homes of rich and poor that have sadly missed the presence of this able and learned physician, this earnest and sympathizing friend, and this sincere and devoted Christian.

     He was earnest and active in the Church, and foremost in works of philanthropy. An excellent popular lecturer upon temperance and medicine, he became well known throughout the state, and was one of those large-brained men to whom the people look for substantial information, and who carry a weight of personal character in every community or line of endeavor in which they may operate. He was one of those physicians who would anywhere rise to the front rank in their profession, and, had he chosen Philadelphia, New York or London as the field of his practice, would not thereby have lessened his fame; for he had the qualities which would have given him a reputation equal to the field in which he worked. Although never giving personal attention to political contests, he was ever ready to assist the public in matters of political importance, and served as a member of the constitutional convention of Oregon in preparing it for admission as a state of our Union. He served at various times as member of the city council of Portland, and was also one of the presidential electors on the Lincoln ticket of 1864.

     In April, 1858, he was married at Hempstead, Long Island, to Anna E. Bloomfield, who was born June 10, 1833, at Richfield Springs, Central New York. The children born in their home, some of whom are already well known in our society, are as follows: William Bloomfield, now a physician of Portland; Edward L., deceased; Frederick G.; Francis, deceased; Lorinda V.; Mary Elizabeth; Edna Louise; and Harry W.

     WM. PENN WATSON. - Of those who came to the Pacific Northwest in pioneer days and settled within its boundaries, and closely identified themselves with its material, social and political welfare, the exemplary citizen named above took a very active and foremost part. He was born December 18, 1828, in Morgan county, Illinois. When he was only three weeks old, his mother closed her eyes in death; and the infant left behind was confided to the care of foster parents, Allen Q. Lindsey and wife, who gave the orphan boy the best of attention and one of the best of homes. In those days the advantages for securing an education were extremely limited; but with application and diligent study at his adopted mother's knee, and during the three months' term of school in the old log schoolhouse, he mastered enough of learning to enable him at the age of nineteen to begin teaching on his own account. This avocation he followed during the winter months, devoting the rest of the time to the improvement of the farm and home of those who had reared him.

     In 1848 some of the neighbors conceived the idea of emigrating to Oregon, and determined to start during the spring of the following year. Our subject caught the fever of exodus himself; but being without funds his dreams of accompanying the others savored of nothing except disappointment for him until a Mr. John C. Dennis, who knew his worth, volunteered to assist him. This offer was gladly accepted; and, his outfit being completed, he bid adieu to the scenes of his childhood, and with L.B. Lindsey and Samuel Green left for St. Joe, Missouri. On arriving there they joined a party of nineteen others, from Springfield, Illinois, who were under the leadership of a Captain Baker. This was a small party to undertake the long and dangerous trip across the plains; but, being well equipped with arms, and brave-hearted, they headed their oxen towards the setting sun, and after a wearisome journey of one hundred and twenty days reached the far-off Oregon. The trip was fraught with many incidents that would be interesting reading; but the space allotted for biographies forbids herein a résumé of what took place. Mr. Watson, however, kept a journal of what transpired on the trip, and after his arrival gave in letters to friends left behind his reminiscences of the journey, which were published in some of the Eastern papers. These not only created a desire among others to emigrate, but also contained valuable information to such, as well as amusing details.

     He first located in Oregon City, - the capital of Provisional Oregon; and after a brief period, together with L.B. Lindsey and Isaac Constandt, his comrades "the plains across," he secured a contract to furnish Lot Whitcomb, of pioneer steamboat fame, with a hundred thousand shingles and sixty

                                                                                      BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                        623

thousand feet of square timber. The compensation for the shingles was to be five dollars per thousand, and for the square timbers ten cents per lineal foot, all of which Mr. Whitcomb shipped to San Francisco and sold at fancy prices. While thus employed, our subject, true to the confidence reposed in him by Mr. Dennis, began at once to save from his earnings the amount sufficient to reimburse that gentleman for the sum expended by him in the equipment furnished; and it was not long before our subject had the requisite number of dollars, nor yet much longer before they were in the hands of his patron.

     In the spring of 1850 he received a letter from Mr. Dennis that the latter intended removing to Oregon, and wished him to select him a location, build him a house and prepare for the coming of a large band of stock; and he at once set about in this interest by going to the "classic shades of Yamhill" county, where he built a house in Lafayette, rented two farms and planted them extensively with grain. About the time he expected Mr. Dennis to arrive another letter came announcing a change of mind, and that he was not coming. Thereupon our subject closed out the enterprises and went to Polk county, locating a homestead of three hundred and twenty acres. He removed his young bride thereto, he having been married previously, while in Lafayette, to Miss Priscilla Patton of Yamhill county. After proving up on this claim he removed to Washington county, where he settled and began fruit culture, but met with poor success, as his orchard got frozen out. This disgusted him for the time being in that business; and he invested in beaver-dam land at Beaverton.

     After reclaiming this he disposed of it at a handsome profit, and removed to Hood River in 1871, and there undertook again the raising of choice fruits, especial attention being given to peach-growing. After a fine success for a time, the blight of 1875 destroyed the orchard; and he was compelled to abandon the enterprise. In conjunction with this fruit farm he also established near The Dalles another orchard on a large scale; but the climate, not being suitable to the growing of the various fruits, he had only indifferent success. Finding that there was nothing to be made in fruit culture, he engaged in the stock business in Pleasant Home valley, Klikitat county.

     Receiving sufficient inducements to sell, he disposed of this ranch and removed to Yaquina Bay, where he intended to take life easy; but at the earnest solicitation of his father-in-law, he removed to Albina. Here he thought of quiet and rest; but it could not be so. An active brain would not admit of idleness; and he engaged in the real-estate business in Albina, Portland and suburban property, and is meeting with fine success. In this avocation he ought to succeed; for he knows from what he has seen where people miss great opportunities in not investing in realty in growing cities. He can look back thirty years and see himself out gunning on a spot near where the Mechanics' Pavilion now stands, and where soon afterwards he was at the door of a rudely constructed woodsman's cabin, without door, shutter or window, with the dirt floor for a fire-place. About the only culinary utensil to be seen or had in those days was a frying pan; and the bill of fare was "Oregon slab" or in other words sliced bacon, potatoes, and black molasses for desert. Cedar blocks took the place of chairs; and two poles placed in the cracks of the cabin and covered with moss answered for lounge and bed.

     In contrast with these views the many palatial residences now to be seen miles beyond the rural and forest scene, or step inside, inspect and find them grandly finished and furnished, the table loaded with all and every delicacy the markets of the world produce. In a word, a forest almost then, and now a city which counts its population and houses by the tens of thousands, riches by the million, streets and street-car lines by the mile, and has institutions of learning, churches, manufactories, railroads, steamers, etc. of vast number, and with new enterprises constantly springing up on every hand. The story of the pioneer is a most irresistible argument; and they who do not act upon his opinion relative to what a decade will bring forth for Portlanders will in time often remember his advice and regret that they did not invest.

     Mr. Watson has never been known to any great extent in the way of grasping for the "loaves and fishes" of office, the bent of his mind being for the material welfare of the commonwealth through non-party means. The most prominent feature of Oregon's advancement for many years has been the State Agricultural Society; and with this association he has been identified for many years, serving as its president for four terms. During such time more of an interest was awakened among the people than ever before to advance, in the way of the obtainment and culture of better stock, grains, fruits, etc., than what had previously been their habit to raise; and the world at large gained a better knowledge of Oregon, her industries, advantages and opportunities. The society, appreciating his efforts and success, at the close of his term of office presented him with a handsome gold watch, a token much more honorable than one gained in the field of politics. He has also been a member of various societies of like nature ever since 1860, when the first one in the state was organized, such being the Horticultural Society of Clackamas county; and of this one he served as president for two years. Mr. Watson has always been a promoter of education and morality, and an earnest worker against the evils of liquor and tobacco, and justly prides himself that he does not use them in any form; and to his credit it can be said that his three sons, now reared to man's estate, "touch, taste nor handle not." Such men as he are state-builders in every sense of the term; and the voice of Oregon will be, when this nobleman among her number gives over to the sleep that knows no waking, "Well done, though good and faithful servant."

     The maiden name of our subject's estimable wife was Patton, her father being Hon. Mathew Patton, now of Albina, Oregon. She was born in Lafayette, Indiana, and emigrated to Oregon with her parents in 1847. She became the wife of our subject in Lafayette, Oregon, January 4, 1851. the fruits of this union have been five children, two

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daughters and three sons, all of whom are living, and are counterparts of their parents in morality, integrity, respectability and kindness of heart.

     REV. THOS. G. WATSON. - To the ministry more than to any other class of men does a community owe its moral progress; and with such development opportunity is given for progress in other directions. This is strikingly illustrated in the life of the minister whose name appears above. He was born in Geneva, New York, in 1836, and was educated in his native place, graduating in 1857 from Hobert College. He took his theological course at New Brunswick, New Jersey, and entered upon missionary work at Cayuga county, preaching eight years at Cato, Fair Haven and Victory, and assisting one church out of a heavy debt, and another to purchase a new church and parsonage. His field was then changed to Brighton Heights, Staten Island, at the urgent request of the secretary of Domestic Missions; and his ministry of two years was greatly blessed. His health, however, was broken by excessive labor; and he removed to Wisconsin in the fall of 1872, and settled at Waukesha, which was then becoming a watering place, popular on account of its numerous springs. There he was called to preach to the First Presbyterian church of that place, and consented to do half work, and after a year and a half was installed as pastor. He remained there, laboring also in the interests of Carroll College, until 1883.

     Under the returning desire to enter the missionary field, he was appointed to the work which brought him to this coast. The Board of Home Missions assigned to him the charge of that portion of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho whose natural center is Spokane Falls. He began the work in May, 1883, and the next month organized the First Presbyterian church with nineteen members. This church has since grown to a membership of one hundred and seventy-five. A lot was purchased for twelve hundred and fifty dollars in 1885; and in 1886 a pretty and commodious church was built at a cost of forty-nine hundred dollars. Having outgrown this church in two years, the property was sold for twenty-one thousand dollars, and another location selected on the south side of the railroad. During this period of labor, - six years, - Mr. Watson also organized churches at Rockford and Davenport, in Lincoln county, Washington Territory, at Spangle, Rathdrum and Coeur d'Alene City, in Idaho, and a second church, the Centenary, in Spokane Falls, Washington Territory.

     Aside from his ministerial labors, he has taken an active part in the development of Spokane Falls, being one of the thirty who bought the water works to secure them until the city could float its bonds. He took an active part in the Board of Trade. He was one of the founders of the first Public Library Association, and was its president several years, and is now president of the new association.

     Mr. Watson was married in 1861 to Miss Fannie C. Seelye, who died at their residence on Staten Island. he was married again in Waukesha to Mrs. Walker L. Bean. They have three children, Walker L. Bean, Fannie S. and Thomas S.

     ALEXANDER WAUGH. - This gentleman is a native of Indiana, and was born in 1826. He was a farmer boy and navigator on the inland rivers. Upon reaching mature life and being married, he came west to Rock Island, Illinois, in 1853, and in 1864 was on the plains for Oregon, making a successful trip despite an attack by the Sioux. He made his first location on Birch creek, Umatilla county, in September of that year, arriving with a total capital of four mules and seventy-five dollars in money. His one hundred and sixty acres of land, a small band of cattle, together with strict industry and economy, have kept him on the steady up-grade towards a competence; and in 1887 he realized ten thousand dollars by the sale of cattle, which the restricted range made it no longer profitable to attempt to keep. He invested this capital in a large tract of land, and continued in stock-raising upon the safe basis of a large provision for the winter months, and stall-feeding, and by replacing the common or scrub cattle by graded animals of the best breeds. His business success, which makes his assets foot up to twenty-five thousand dollars, has not been attained by the neglect of his duties to society or to his family, having given his own children a sound education, and also having assumed the care and education of his orphan grandchildren.

     JOHN W. WAUGHOP, M.D. - The subject of this sketch was born in Tazewell county, Illinois, October 22, 1839, and is now in his fiftieth year.

     His early life was that common to boys on a Western farm, working in the summer and going to school in the winter. By the aid of private instruction, he prepared for and entered Eureka College, at Eureka, in his native state.

     Before the close of his college course, the war of the Rebellion broke out; and those whose memory runs back to that time can never forget the fire of patriotism and enthusiasm which swept over the land. The flames burnt brightest perhaps in those centers of learning where the feeling was intensified by the warm blood and generous impulses of youth; and Eureka College, like many a more famous one, sent out its devoted little company of student soldiers under command of a favorite professor. Young Waughop formed one of this gallant band, and with it took part in some of the bloodiest battles of the war, among others Shiloh and Donelson.

     Towards the close of the war his health became impaired; and, as the active service of the Army of the West had ceased, he sought and obtained a position in the hospital service, a field offering great attractions to those contemplating the study of medicine, the young man's chosen profession.

     After the war had ended, Mr. Waughop prosecuted his medical studies at Ann Arbor, and subsequently at the Long Island College Hospital, from which latter institution he graduated with distinction.

     He began the practice of medicine in White Cloud, Kansas, of which city he afterwards became mayor. In 1866 he married Eliza S. Rexford, second daughter of Stephen Rexford, a prominent citizen of Cook county, Illinois. He then settled in Blue Island, Illinois, and practiced his profession until 1871,

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when he moved to the Pacific coast and settled in Olympia, Washington Territory. He continued in general practice in that city until 1880, when he was elected superintendent of the Hospital for the Insane of Washington Territory, at Fort Steilacoom, which position he still holds. Through his efforts a fine brick hospital building, with all modern improvements, has been erected; and to-day this institution ranks with the best in the country. The wisdom and energy of the Doctor's administration have more than justified the choice of the people, and have shown them where to look when the need appears for still further public services.

     ALFRED H. WEATHERFORD. - This representative citizen of Columbia county was born on a farm in Missouri in 1853. While but a child he suffered the loss of his father and mother. At the early age of thirteen he began life for himself. Hs first venture was in working on a farm at seventy-five cents per day. IN 1868 he emigrated to California and worked on a farm for wages, until two years later he came to Washington and bought a ranch on the stream euphoniously termed Whiskey creek, and in 1872 formed a home, marrying Miss Allie M. Baldwin. In 1880 he changed his residence to Shutler Flat, twelve miles below Arlington, and farmed there until 1884. In that year he was honored by election as commissioner of Wasco county, and upon its division was appointed commissioner of Gilliam county. In 1885 he disposed of his property there and returned to Columbia county, Washington, and purchased five hundred and twenty acres of very productive land six miles south of Dayton. He has since managed this farm personally, raising an average of thirty bushels of wheat to the acre.

     At the November election in 1888, he was elected representative to the Washington legislature. In the following January he suffered the irreparable loss of his wife by death, who left him with three little boys and four little girls, whom to properly educate and train has become his ambition. A large-hearted, generous-minded man, Mr. Weatherford is highly respected by his many friends, and fully trusted by the constituency whom he publicly represents.

     MRS. M. WEATHERFORD. - Of all the pioneers of Oregon, none have performed a more devoted part than this now venerable lady, who is well known and esteemed in our chief city. She was born near Beaufort, North Carolina, September 22, 1822. In her fifth year she accompanied her father Josiah Harris and family to Indiana, making a new home. In 1839 she was married to William Weatherford, a young physician from Richmond, Virginia. Thus united they entered upon various scenes, and made their home in a number of different places in the old West, selecting new Haven, Illinois, as their first residence. The location, however, proving unhealthful, they advanced further towards the outposts of civilization to Iowa, stopping successively at Keosauque, Bonaparte and Oskaloosa. With none of these were they fully satisfied; and the Doctor determined to push to the very verge of the continent, and to become a builder of a new state on the Pacific shores. Preparing for this great undertaking, he was able to be off on April 22, 1852.

     With his family of wife and five young children, and in company with Mr. William Dart and family, he set forth. Soon after starting, two young men were taken into their company; and these were the sole regular associates of their march. The journey on the Nebraska or Platte river was made uncomfortable at times by bands of Pawnee Indians stopping them and demanding toll; and more than once Mrs. Weatherford was addressed by an Indian with a drawn knife for a supply of victuals. By appeals to their sympathy, she avoided difficulty. They found the plains populous with emigrants, and were not lacking in chance traveling companions. On the plains east of the Rockies they were overtaken by that dread pestilence which scourged the immigration of that season, - the cholera, - of which Mrs. Weatherford had repeated attacks; and the Doctor was called upon to administer to the sick in the trains before or behind. Great was the suffering thus experienced, and such that one in anticipation would not believe endurable.

     On the western slope of the continent the mountain or typhoid fever was almost as malignant, and called for as great attention on the part of the Doctor. It was, therefore, with great satisfaction that in August they passed the ridge of the Cascade Mountains, and at last saw Mount Hood behind them. To a gentleman asking Mrs. Weatherford how she had enjoyed the trip, she replied that if that mountain were a wedge of solid gold, and should be hers for crossing the plains to get it, she would refuse the gift at that price; - not that she was sorry for coming, but felt that her strength would be insufficient for such an undertaking. It was by the exertions of such wives and mothers, who gave all but life and sometimes even that, that our state was purchased from savagery.

     The first home was made at Lafayette, the Doctor entering there upon the practice of his profession. He was led to believe, however, that at Portland was the best opportunity for business and a career, and in 1855 moved to the then little city in the woods. Besides attending upon the sick, he established in 1856 a drug business, dealing both in a wholesale and retail line. In 1869 this was enlarged by a branch house at Salem, under the management of his son, J.W. Weatherford, now a practitioner in Portland. Being a man of wide information and much ambition, in about 1867 he assumed the management of the Herald, the Democratic paper of Portland. He found it in a bankrupt condition; but so able and popular was his management that it was almost immediately became a financial as well as a literary success.

     Owing to the cares of a business so extensive, he began to decline in health, and in 1872 retired from active business in Portland, although still retaining his interest at Salem. In 1880 his life forces gave way; and he passed from this to the better life. Although in the midst of much weakness during the last weeks of life, he preserved his faculties in perfect clearness, had his business affairs in perfect

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order, and was afflicted by no dread nor shadow of the future. He left his family provided with ample means.

     During the years of her husband's activity, Mrs. Weatherford made for him a home of comfort and refinement, strengthened his hands in the community, and herself furnished of her endowment something of the refinement and better ideas so essential to transform the wild society of early Oregon into our present elevated position. The labor of creating christian communities in our state fell, as the credit should be awarded, to women like Mrs. Weatherford, who would not lower their conception of life, even though living away from all the ordinary incentives to social exertions.

     She has reared a family of nine children: Mary E. (Mrs. F.H. Simmons); J.W.; William G. (deceased); Lewis C.; Emma C. (Mrs. S.S. Douglas); Sarah E. (Mrs. David Steel); Ada H. (Mrs. R. Schmidt); Lilly M. (Mrs. Doctor S.N.A. Downing); and Charles E.

     EDGAR J. WEBSTER. - Mr. Webster not only has a claim upon our interests as a citizen of Washington Territory, but also as a veteran of the war. Born in Michigan in 1847, he was of an age, at the commencement of hostilities, to enter the army, whither his father and three brothers had already gone. At the battle of Cold Harbor, he was shot through both legs, and after a year's confinement in the hospital returned home and pursued the legal and special literary course at the State University. During the last year of his course, he was appointed private secretary of Thomas M. Cooley, and through him received the appointment of United States deputy marshal for taking the census of 1870. Finishing that arduous work, he began the practice of his profession at Hudson, Michigan, but within a year suffered a loss of all his office and equipment by fire. This led him to make a tour of California, during which he also visited nearly all the towns and cities in the West, and returned home by water by way of New York City. Disposing of his property, he returned by water to the Golden state, visiting the cities of Mexico and Central America on the way. At Oakland he found employment as deputy county clerk, and afterwards practiced law, remaining ten years. There he was also married to Miss Ida S. Grisby. In 1883 he came to Spokane Falls, Washington Territory, locating permanently and engaging in the practice of his profession. He furthermore undertook real-estate and mining interests. he has identified himself largely with the educational interests of the city, developing the present admirable school system, and has acted for six years as trustee. He is one of the foremost in these as in all the public concerns of the city of his choice.

     HON. ALLEN WEIR. - This universally known and universally respected maker of public opinion and founder of pioneer institutions in Washington Territory, of whom we present a portrait, was born in Los Angeles county, California, April 24, 1854, and is therefore  in his thirty-sixth year. In 1860 the family removed from California to Puget Sound, arriving at Port Townsend June 1st of that year. They located on government land in the Dungeness river bottom in Clallam county, and there resided and "grew up with the country." They were among the early pioneers of that section, moving in when there were but a few white families in the whole country. In such surroundings young Allen became accustomed to toil, and to that independent, self-reliant industry that overcomes natural obstacles and plants civilization where previously existed only a wilderness or an arid desert.

     His father, John Weir, was a typical frontiersman. Born and raised in Missouri (his father before him was a hunter and trapper for the Missouri Fur Company) John Weir combined the sturdy qualities that impel men to push out into Western wilds. He crossed the plains with his family, journeying by ox-teams from Texas to California in 1853. Finding that the best lands about Los Angeles and Santa Barbara were owned in large Spanish grants, he pushed northward in 1858, going to the Frazer river gold mines. By the time he reached Victoria, however, the excitement had subsided; and he crossed Puget Sound and took up land at Dungeness, the family (four daughters and two sons) following two years afterwards. Mr. Weir was thoroughly identified with the best interests of the community in which he lived. In all the local Indian troubles, and when white vagabonds had to be driven out by vigilantes for the common public safety, he was one of the foremost in protecting lives and property. He enjoyed the respect and confidence of all who knew him.  His father, the grandfather of our subject, William Weir, crossed the Rocky Mountains in charge of a small party of hunters and trapper in 1808, returning in 1809, four years after the Lewis and Clarke expedition. They passed the entire winter on the banks of the Columbia river, about where the city of Portland, Oregon, now stands. John Weir was the village blacksmith at Dungeness during the sixties; and his boys worked with him at the forge when not engaged in clearing the heavy growth of timber from the land.

     In 1866 the elder of the two boys, Marion, died after a prolonged illness. The father had to seek employment at a neighboring sawmill; and Allen (then but twelve years old) was left to take charge of the little farm, which by that time had been cleared and was in cultivation. From that time until he was nineteen, he could not be spared from the work at home long enough to attend even one term of school. He had, however, an aptitude for books, and put in the long winter evenings studying. At nineteen he was "given his time" and a father's blessing, and set out with no earthly possessions but the clothes he wore, to seek fame and fortune. His first object was to obtain an education; and to get the means it was necessary to work two years, which he did, the latter part of the time being occupied in driving a team in a  logging camp. When finally the long-anticipated opportunity for schooling came, it was appreciated far more than such opportunities ever can be appreciated by the petted sons of luxury who never learn to work their way. During the two years when young Weir was attending school at the Olympia Collegiate Insti-

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tute, no student could be found more industrious than he. With natural abilities long before noticed and commented upon, with a love for books that amounted to a passion, with a vigorous physical constitution capable of enduring the severest strain, with a fond instructor who saw and appreciated what there was in the young man, it is not remarkable that he accomplished more during those two years than is usually accomplished in five. Even though carrying half a dozen studies, and doing the janitor work in the academy building, he found time enough to ransack large libraries to which he had access, and to acquire a reputation in a local debating club conducted by grown-up college students.

     Before his studies were half completed, he began to learn the printer's trade and to fit himself for the practical duties of journalism. At the age of twenty-three, within two weeks from the time he left school, he was doing the editorial work for a daily newspaper in Olympia; and, before a month had elapsed, he had purchased the Puget Sound Argus newspaper and job-printing office at Port Townsend, where he immediately settled himself in business. There he forged his way steadily ahead from small beginnings until, at the end of twelve years, he sold out and retired from active business with a comfortable competence. It was in this newspaper field that he acquired most of his hard-earned fame in public affairs. With slender means at the start, he met obstacles which, to an ordinary person, would have been insurmountable. An ardent adherent of the Republican party, he had advocated its principles in season and out of season, and successfully, too, though the prevailing sentiment in his town was Democratic. Four opposition newspapers went down in succession before his energy ere a Democratic newspaper was finally established in the town.

     Mr. Weir was also an enthusiastic temperance worker, and was active in church matters. neither of these proclivities added to his popularity in the dominant saloon element in his town; yet he was respected and extensively supported by the very class of people whose interests he most vigorously opposed. A member of the Methodist-Episcopal church, he had been licensed as a local preacher before he left school. After entering business, he served two years as secretary of the grand lodge of Good Templars for Washington and British Columbia, being subsequently elected presiding officer by acclamation.

     At the territorial legislative session of 1879, he served as chief clerk of the council, performing the duties of the position so well that the completed record was filed with the territorial secretary sixteen hours after adjournment. Subsequently he was elected justice of the peace and police judge of Port Townsend, serving two full years. He served part of a term as regent of the Territorial University, and was at its expiration appointed a member of the Territorial Board of  Health. In that capacity he served three full terms of two years each, being chairman of the board the last term. He was defeated for a seat in the territorial legislature by a mere scratch, owing to a failure of a full vote in one precinct, in1884. In 1888, however, he was elected a member of the upper house of the legislature by a majority of nearly a thousand in a district composed of seven counties. In both instances his opponents were excellent gentlemen. In the spring of  1889, upon preliminary steps being taken to organize a state government, Mr. Weir was elected a member of the constitutional convention, and was also one of three prominent candidates for the nomination of his party for member of Congress from the new state.

     As a newspaper publisher and editorial writer, Allen Weir has long since occupied a place in the front ranks. The Argus under his management rapidly became one of the most prominent and widely quoted papers in the territory. Locally it was a power felt in the promotion of every public-spirited enterprise. In June, 1882, Mr. Weir began publishing a daily edition of the paper, being the first daily newspaper ever published in Port Townsend. It was successful from the start. Two years later he became secretary of the local Board of Trade; and in that capacity, as well as with his newspaper, he labored incessantly and effectively for the growth of the town.

     His first entry in the field of territorial politics was in 1884, when he was chosen a member of the territorial Republican convention, and headed a large delegation in the interest of a leading congressional candidate. He took part in the campaign that followed; also in 1886 he was a member of the territorial convention, and canvassed over half the territory, delivering speeches that commanded attention everywhere. In 1888 he was again a member of the territorial Republican convention, and was elected its secretary without opposition. In the campaign that followed, he scored more than an ordinary victory. During the winter following, he was  a member of a statehood convention called to meet at Ellensburgh. Mr. Weir possesses the graces of oratory, and never lacks the courage of his convictions. While yet a young man, his future part in public affairs may be estimated from the fruitful past.

     He enjoys the benefit of a large circle of personal friends, and is happy in his domestic relations. He was married November, 1877, to Miss Ellen Davis of Dungeness, the fruits of the union being three bright children. Their home in Port Townsend, Washington, is distinguished for comfort and attractiveness.

     CAPT. WILLIAM BENJAMIN WELLS. - This skillful early navigator of the Willamette and the Columbia, and one of the first projectors of the great steamboat and transportation companies of the later time, was born in Ogdensburg, New York, July 18, 1822, and at that port imbibed his love of the water which followed him his whole after life. At the age of twelve he moved with his father tot he western district of Upper Canada, remaining in that province until his marriage in 1844 to Miss Mary J. Richardson. The young pair, who were very much devoted to each other, were ambitious to try life in the Western territories, and removed to Iowa, engaging in agriculture. Mr. Wells, however, was not satisfied with this secluded life, and took service

628                                                    HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

on one of the barks on the lake. During a severe storm his proved his coolness and intrepidity, and for his gallant conduct was promoted. He further showed his humanity and devotion to the suffering at Ann Arbor, where his ship was detained while the cholera was raging. For many days and nights he took care of those in all stages of that dreaded disease, many of whom were deserted by all others.

     Returning to his family in 1849, he prepared for the journey to Oregon, and accomplished that great undertaking the following season. Reaching our state, he engaged in boating on the Columbia above The Dalles. Little later he invested his returns from that business in the Eagle, a steamer on the Lower Willamette, and with Captain Richard Williams as partner plied between Oregon City and Portland. Two years afterwards the captains built for themselves the steamer Belle (1853), and operated with her on the Lower Willamette and the Columbia, on the line with the steamer Mary above the Cascades.

     In 1856 he was active in the Indian war, transporting troops under Phil Sheridan from Vancouver to the portage. In the fight which occurred soon after, there happened a pleasant incident, hitherto unrelated, illustrating the coolness of our Captain. Being a portly man of fine bearing, and standing somewhat exposed observing the fight, a stray bullet passed so near as to take a cigar from his mouth and to kill a soldier at his side. A non-commissioned officer standing by observed, "Captain, with your permission I will retire a little, as you are most too conspicuous a mark for this occasion."

     Captain Wells took the first boat that ever went through the basin up to the Willamette Falls Company's works, on the Linn City side of the Willamette opposite Oregon City, in 1854. He also took the first boat that went from the Lower Cascade Landing to the Middle, and the first that went from the Middle to the Upper Cascades.

     In 1859 he sold his interest in the steamer to the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, and established himself at North Cove, Shoalwater Bay, Washington Territory, taking a pre-emption claim and increasing his domain by purchase. He invested also in stock, and became a successful seacoast rancher in one of the most salubrious and delightful of all our seaward looking valleys.

     In February, 1863, his useful life was ended, his brave heart stilled, by an accident in a sailboat. While crossing the bay in a plunger, a squall struck and capsized the little craft, drowning Captain Wells and his companion, a Mr. Clymer.

    His wife having joined her husband in 1853, she undertook, upon his death, the conduct of the farm, and managed it successfully, until in 1869 she was united in marriage with Honorable W.W. Bristow of Eugene, and is now passing her years in the refinements of society and of a pleasant cultivated home at the city of Portland.

WILLIAM A. WETZELL. - The gentleman of whom we write was born in Washington, Virginia, on October 3, 1852. His parents are Jefferson and Catherine Wetzell, of good old Virginia stock.

     He lived with his parents in Virginia until 1861, when they moved to Farmer City, where William A. attended the public schools. At the early age of seventeen years he began teaching in the same. In 1876 he was admitted to the Illinois Wesleyan University, where he took an eclectic course, and was regarded as one of the brightest and most promising students of that institution. After finishing the course, he entered the State University, where he occupied the chair of professor of elocution and assistant teacher of English, both of which positions he filled to the entire satisfaction of the board of regents, and with honor and credit to himself.

     After two years he resigned his position and accepted the one tendered as superintendent of the East Portland schools, in 1884. The Professor brought to these schools the ripe experience of fifteen years as teacher in the best schools of Illinois. The success in East Portland has been almost phenomenal; and no educator in the public schools stands higher in the esteem of the pupils and patrons. The people of East Portland are justly proud of their schools, and believe Professor Wetzell to be the right man in the right place. In 1888 he was elected school superintendent for Multnomah county, and has there, as always, proved himself equal to the emergency. The schools under his management have grown in efficiency until they are unexcelled by any in the Northwest.

     CALEB N. WHITE. - Mr. White is a representative of that class of our citizens who have gained from their own strength and application a share in the advantages and wealth of our Western communities.

     He was born in Illinois in 1850. He 1864 his parents took the first steps of the journey across the plains, but, the father dying at Fort Bridger, the family was compelled to remain there over winter. While thus waiting, cattle to the value of one thousand dollars were stolen from them. With the opening of the following season, however, the journey was resumed; and the Grande Ronde valley was reached in September, 1863. Upon their arrival there were but seventy-five cents in the family; and Caleb and his brother began at once seeking and finding work for the maintenance of the others.

     In 1871 they came into Indian valley, Oregon, north of the Grande Ronde, and there laid claims. The sickness and death of his brother within the next year was a severe trial to Caleb; but nevertheless, maintaining a stout heart, he clung to his place, cultivating and improving it. His operations have gradually enlarged, until he is at present owner of a fine herd of cattle, with other livestock. He has a pleasant home, and has a family of wife and six fine children. In that beautiful valley of his choice he has met the prosperity which everywhere awaits patient labor.

     In 1866 during the Nez Perce trouble in the Wallowa, Mr. White was sergeant of the volunteers, and guarded the few persons living in that much-exposed settlement. During the trouble the two succeeding summers, the same efficient duty was performed. For that service, as well as for his general character and abilities, Mr. White is very highly esteemed in his community.

                                                                            BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                        629

     S.S. WHITE. - The pioneer experiences of Judge White are of an exceptionally interesting character. This well-known and highly valued citizen of Portland was born in Franklin county, Indiana, December 14, 1811. His father was much of a frontiersman, and, after a removal to Ohio in 1815, went three years later to Sangamon county, Illinois, settling on Sugar creek, twenty miles south of Springfield. This was then a remote and unoccupied region, Mr. White's family and those of a Mr. Ellis and Mr. Vancil being the only families within the limits of the present Sangamon and Morgan counties, and sixty miles from white settlements. Various removals were made subsequently within that state. Upon arriving at his majority, young White entered the mercantile business, and continued in it near Galesburg.

     In 1831 occurred his marriage to Miss Hulda Jennings; and the next year an effort was made in company with Mr. Amzi Doolittle, and M.M. McCarver, so well known as one of our early citizens, to settle on a tract of land soon to be thrown open in consequence of a treaty of relinquishment from the Indians. The land was not to be subject to settlement until June of that year; but, not apprehending any opposition, these men located lands and put up cabins in February, but were removed with much rigor by government troops under Jefferson Davis, then a lieutenant in the United States army; and their cabins were burned. Even a shed build afterwards to protect their household goods while the families were absent in Knox county was destroyed. Nevertheless a claim was secured there and was occupied until a removal to Burlington. Taking up and closing out business at Burlington, and in Hancock county, Illinois, he entered into partnership with Mr. Doolittle in 1840 to operate a ferry at Madison. In 1845 he crossed the plains for Oregon, bringing the family of Mr. McCarver, who met them at The Dalles with a bateau and crew to transport them down the Columbia.

     With difficulty provisions were obtained at that point for the eight days' trip down to Vancouver. Owing to the necessity of driving the stock, - one hundred and forty-four cattle and thirty horses, - the journey was prolonged to four weeks; and, after the usual food was exhausted, the nine men subsisted solely upon milk boiled and thickened with a little flour. The autumn storms were also blowing; and the buffalo robes with which the immigrants were provided became soaked with rain. They peeled off the hair, and grew rank to the smell. They had no tents.

     Reaching the valley, however, without sickness or disaster, Judge White purchased a farm near Oregon City, but was soon sought by Governor Abernethy as the very man wanted for associate judge of Clackamas county under the Provisional government. The year following he was advanced to the position of chief justice of Clackamas county. The judicial work of those days, although of comparatively small volume, was exacting; and the fidelity with which it was done may serve as a perpetual admonition to the future. Judge White was also elected to the Oregon  legislature, and upon taking his seat in 1847 was almost immediately called upon to prepare legislation with reference to the Whitman atrocity, - just perpetrated, - being appointed on a committee of three to draft a bill to authorize raising a military force. The bill prepared by him was adopted, notwithstanding some vigorous opposition form Colonel Nesmith.

     In 1848, s the news of gold in California came to our settlements, the judge consented, after hesitation, to the proposition of Peter H. Burnett to go with wagons to the mines. Letting their purpose be known, and naming the 13th of September as the day of their departure, - but five days distant, - they were joined by forty-two wagons, and under the guidance of Thomas McKay made the journey to the Sacramento. The open pine woods offered little obstruction; and no difficulty was experienced until reaching a belt of fir with underbrush and fallen logs, near the divide of Feather river. After passing Pitt river, they followed in the tracks of wagons coming in at that point from the East, and overtook a band of utterly discouraged and worn-out immigrants tangled in the forest. This was a party under one Lawson; and, with teams and provisions exhausted, they were giving themselves up for lost. A hundred Oregon axes, however, made short work of cutting a road forty miles through the fir woods; and Oregonians and immigrants went on together to the Sacramento. they were none too early, as the mountains were white with snow as they left them in their rear.

     Six weeks' work on the Yuba brought them about a hundred ounces of dust apiece; and the mines were left, and San Francisco reached in time to take passage on a bark for Oregon, - the same vessel that brought up General Lane and his escort. The journey was uncomfortable from the crowd; and the passengers were on an allowance of water six of the eighteen days of the passage. The trip from Astoria was by canoe, there being no other means of transportation.

     Expecting to return to dig gold the following spring, Judge White made all preparations, but, learning that his partners Jennings and Hannah had engaged in the mercantile business, he deemed it best to remain in our state, and engaged in building the Lot Whitcomb, of which he was a one-fourth owner, - the first steamer built on our waters. This boat was sold to advantage in San Francisco after a few years.

     Tacoma in erecting buildings for business purposes and in providing a residence for his family. The failure of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, however, induced his return to Portland; and he is there well known as a justice of the peace, an office which he held for six years.

     Although age has not left him without its impress, it sits lightly upon his shoulders; and he is still, at the age of seventy-eight years, full of vigor, and does the work of a very active man.

     MARCUS WHITMAN, M.D. - A volume might be written in regard to the life and death of this man. Hence, in the brief space here given to

630                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

him, only a synopsis of his life can be given. He was born at Rushville, new York, September 4, 1802, and was the son of Beza and Alice (Green) Whitman. His father having died in 1810, he was brought up by his paternal grandfather, at Plainfield, Massachusetts. There he was converted in 1819; and in January, 1824, he joined the Congregational church at his native place, of which he remained a member until 1833, when he united with the Presbyterian church at Wheeler, New York, of which he was elected a ruling elder. In 1838 he was one of the original members of, and the elder in, the Presbyterian church at Walla Walla, the first church of that denomination on the Pacific coast.

     He studied medicine under Doctor Ira Bryant, of Rushville, receiving his diploma in 1824. He practiced four years in Canada, and afterwards in Wheeler, where in the winter of 1834-35, he became interested in Oregon, through Reverend Samuel Parker. He started the next spring with Mr. Parker, and went as far as the rendezvous of the American Fur Company on Green river, when it was thought best for the Doctor to return for more missionaries, while Mr. Parker should proceed and explore. On his journey he performed some very important surgical operations on some of the mountain men, which gave him a reputation that was of great service to him afterwards. On his return he took with him two Indian boys, who went to school that winter, and returned to Oregon with him the next year. That winter he was married to Miss Narcissa Prentiss, a daughter of Judge S. Prentiss. She was born in Prattsburg, New York, March 14, 1808.

     Having procured Rev. H.H. Spalding and wife and Mr. W.H. Gray, as colaborers, in1836 he again started for Oregon. Mrs. Whitman, with Mrs. Spalding, made this journey mainly on horseback, the first white women to cross the continent, an event which proved to be of very great importance to Oregon, as far as homes and settlements were concerned. The Doctor, with great difficulty and with no little opposition from others, but with great perseverance, took a wagon as far as Fort Boise, an event which likewise greatly affected the destinies of Oregon.

     On the 2d of September they reached Fort Walla Walla one day in advance of Mr. Spalding, and were received with great demonstrations of joy. Having visited Fort Vancouver, in order to consult with Doctor McLoughlin, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, he returned to Walla Walla and settled among the Cayuse Indians at Waiilatpu on the Walla Walla river, six miles from the present city of Walla Walla.

     There Alice Clarissa Whitman, the only child they ever had, was born, March 4, 1837, believed to be the first white child born on the Northwest coast; but she lived to be but little more than two years old, when, June 23, 1839, she was accidentally drowned in the Walla Walla river.

     That was their home until the time of their death. They labored earnestly and faithfully to teach agriculture, civilization, morals and the christian religion; and although but few if any of the Indians united with the church, and some of them helped in the massacre, yet subsequent events have shown that some of those Cayuses were true Christians; and the seed then sown is still growing in the Protestant church on the Umatilla reservation.

     In the winter of 1842-43 Doctor Whitman made his famous winter journey across the Rocky Mountains to the Eastern states, with Hon. A.L. Lovejoy, amid great sufferings and hardships. There has been much discussion in regard to his reasons for doing so, the editor-in-chief of this work, Colonel Elwood Evans, taking one view, and the writer another. This is not the place for much discussion of the subject; but perhaps the writer may be permitted to say that to his mind and to that of many others, the evidence is such as to induce the belief that he had at least four objects in view:

1. To induce the American Board to rescind the order which they had given in 1842 to abandon the stations of Doctor Whitman and Mr. Spalding.

2. To induce christian lay families to come and settle in the regions of the missions, as a nucleus for further settlements, and as a support to the missions;

3. To induce emigrants of all kinds to come to Oregon;

4. And to do what he could to convey such information to the authorities at Washington that they should know of the value of Oregon, and not tradeoff any part of it to Great Britain.

     In the first of these objects he succeeded; in the second he failed. According to almost universal testimony, he did very much to aid the immigration of 1843, the first with wagons to come successfully through; and, in regard to the fourth, opinions differ.

     After his return his work went on until suddenly, November 29, 1847, at his station, the massacre occurred, in which he and his wife were killed by the Indians. On that day, and a little later, twelve others lost their lives; and the missions of the American Board in Oregon were broken up.

     A wide discussion has taken place as to the causes of this massacre; but this is not the place to consider them. They fell at their post, died a martyr's death, have been honored with a martyr's memory in this world, and a martyr's crown in heaven.

     WM. H. WHITTLESEY.- This popular young gentleman, who has brought to our coast a business capacity and enthusiasm of progress which augers well for the city in which he has made his home, was born in Virginia August 8, 1858, and is a son of the gallant Major Joseph H. Whittlesey of the United States Army. The mother, Kate K. Fauntleroy, belonged to one of the first families of the Old Dominion.

     The son William, of whom we write, remained in the south while his father, the major, was transferred tot he Department of the Columbia, having command of Fort Dalles; and his grandfather, General Fauntleroy, was in command at Vancouver, and later at Benicia, California.

     Upon the outbreak of the Civil war, the family returned to their old home; and after this fearful political storm was over, and the year of 1872 reached, our subject, now become an ambitious youth, went to Princeton College, graduating with honor four years later, then being but eighteen

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