History of the Pacific Northwest
Oregon and Washington 1889
Volume II
Page 631 - 645

Copyright 1999 - 2003 - Janine M. Bork
 This page is part of the Union County, OR AHGP

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 years of age. Repairing to Washington City, he entered the Columbia Law School, securing a legal education, and also filling a position as clerk in the War Department at the Capitol.

     Seeking a career at the West, he came to Leadville, Colorado; and, being admitted to practice in the supreme court of the state, he entered upon professional work. With the facility of the Western man, he also engaged in mining. In 1882 he saw the greater opportunities upon our coast, and came to Puget Sound, stopping at Whatcom and later at Seattle. In 1885 he selected Port Townsend, Washington Territory, as his future home, and entered the customs service as deputy collector. Resigning the year following, he began his grip upon the great business of that section as ticket, freight and express agent for the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, acting also as their customs attorney, and having special charge of the shipment of all particularly valuable cargoes, such as teas. In 1886 he had so far advanced in reputation and public favor as to be elected probate judge and justice of the peace, and was also appointed clerk of the district court, a position which he still holds. He was appointed the same year as disbursing agent for the custom-house, whose payments aggregate nearly a quarter of a million dollars. From 1883 to 1886 he was secretary of the Bellingham Bay Railway & Navigation Company.

     Mr. Whittlesey ahs recently severed his connection with the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, and now devotes his whole energy and enthusiasm to the real-estate business. He is exceedingly sanguine as to the future of Port Townsend; and his confidence is of that contagious character which is worth thousands or millions of dollars to an aspiring city.

     In a public capacity he has born his full share, having acceptably filled the position of secretary of the state central committee of the Democratic party. He has also served as vestryman for the past three years at St. Paul's church. He has a delightful home, with all the surroundings of comfort and refinement; and with his wife, Lillian Bell, of Zanesville, Ohio, and their two boys, he enjoys a most happy, domestic life.

     REV. JAMES HARVEY WILBUR, D.D. - It will not be claimed that the plain people, whose lives are briefly recorded in this volume, merit the title of greatness. They were simple honest men who did their duty. They merit a niche in the halls of our history, since it was they who hewed out the stones with which this stately structure has been built. It requires very great qualities to be called great. In many regards, such as self-reliance, ability to live alone with little or no inspiration or motive except such as they found within themselves, the power to propose their own plan and theory of life, and to hold their lives up to its requirements, the pioneers and frontiersmen of the Pacific coast show qualities very much like those of the great men of history; and we almost think that, if their field had been as great as that of others, their fame might not have been less.

     One of the great-hearted men of the early days, now passed away, was "Father Wilbur." He has been everywhere known. His memory will be revered; and the boys of Oregon should be taught his heroic virtues. As a friend of the Indians, he deserves special mention; for the Indian War Veterans are most prompt of all in recognizing whatever is worthy and good in the Indian character as brought out by kind treatment and discipline.

     Mr. Wilbur was born in New York State in 1811, and in 1846 was sent out as a missionary to Oregon by the Missionary Society of the Methodist-Episcopal church. He came around Cape Horn in the bark Whitton, Captain Gelston, a trim little vessel, noted in pioneer days. Upon the voyage he had a characteristic adventure. Being of a very active and bold disposition, he was always ready to do work on the ship to relieve the tedium of the voyage, and while in the tropics was taking a hand in painting, - in fact, working on the outside. He fell off his board, pain bucket and all. The ship was going eight knots; and it was half an hour before he was picked up. With his usual self-control, he made no effort except to keep afloat, and when he was taken on board was none the worse for his misadventure.

     Upon reaching Oregon, in June 1847, he found Portland a city of three houses; and his circuit, of which Salem was the center, reached out south seventy-five miles, and embraced the entire width of the Willamette valley. There was then but one Protestant church edifice on the Pacific coast, the Methodist church still standing at Oregon City, the then metropolis of the Northwest. Mr. Wilbur set to work with great earnestness, multiplying himself by means of Cayuse ponies, and preaching with the fervor of a Paul wherever he found a listener. Perhaps there is no greater strain upon one's spiritual fiber than to live in a sparse community and be dependent only upon one's self for impetus. Wasting one's self "upon the desert air" quickly exhausts the life and saps the vigor of one not endowed with living fervor of his own. Mr. Wilbur, however, grew with his work; and many were the rough mountain men and the neglected immigrants who were led to a decent christian life by his preaching. While at Salem he also conducted the Oregon Institute, now the Willamette University with the assistance of his wife, teaching the boys and girls of the science and art beyond the mountains.

     Two years later he was appointed to the circuit embracing Oregon City and Portland, and in 1850 built the first church in the latter city. The Methodist church and parsonage cost five thousand dollars. Mechanics received twelve dollars per day; and lumber was one hundred and twenty dollars per thousand. In the following year Mr. Wilbur erected the Portland Academy and Female Seminary at a cost of eight thousand eight hundred dollars. In both these enterprises he did much work himself, going about in his striped shirt, and mixing mortar and carrying hods. Sixteen thousand dollars in all was raised for these and other church purposes during the two years of his pastorate in Portland.

     His next charge, his allotted two years expiring in Portland, was as presiding elder of the Umpqua district. It was a serious undertaking to move such a distance, over unfrequented roads, and across

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rivers without bridges or ferries. This was in the springtime, too, when the rivers were full, and, in managing his two yoke of oxen and two span of horses, the preacher frequently had to be out in water waist deep. That, with mud and other delays, made the journey sixteen days longer. There he remained from 1853 to 1857, living through the Rogue river gold fever and two Indian wars. The war of 1855 in Southern Oregon arose in the following way, as reported by Wilbur: Three hunters in the mountains picketed their horses; and upon their return, in twenty-four hours, one animal was missing. Accusing some Indians near by of stealing it, and meeting a denial, they cruelly murdered two of the tribe; although in a short time they found that the horse had simply strayed down the mountains and was feeding in the meadows.  This outrage excited the Indians, who rallied and fell upon an immigrant train, and began massacring the settlers. The miners in turn formed a company and began almost as indiscriminate a retaliation, attacking Indians who knew nothing of the disturbance on either side. Thus the alarm spread; and the whole country was in arms.

     During this whole period Wilbur went wherever and whenever he pleased, and although surrounded by Indians, at one time being stopped by a band of warriors in the road, was never harmed. He thus spoke of the cause of his immunity: "They did not harm me because I was unarmed. I have had, I believe, more experience with Indians than any man on the coast; and I never carried a knife, pistol, nor any other weapon; nor did I ever have occasion to defend myself, and have never been injured by them." It was partly his confidence in their fairness, which appealed to their kindlier nature, and partly his perfect fearlessness, which overawed them, that thus enabled him to walk without peril in their midst. During his sojourn in Southern Oregon, he erected the institution known as the Wilbur Academy, to which he contributed one thousand dollars in money, and sixty acres of land, from his own means. It cost four thousand dollars.

     His next move back to the Willamette valley, being appointed presiding elder of the Willamette district in 1857. Having a keen business head, he saw many opportunities for buying land or lots cheap, and in this way made a large number of purchases all the way from Umpqua to Walla Walla, which rose in value and placed him in easy financial circumstances. It was in this way that he obtained means for his large benevolences. Being again in the Portland district, he paid a visit, in1859, to his field in the wilds, "east of the mountains." At The Dalles he bought a Cayuse horse for the journey; but the brute took occasion to run off soon after, leaving the itinerant to foot it across the hills to the Blue Mountains. He was on the march fifty-four hours without a meal. He could have gotten one at The Dalles; but that was the wrong direction. The result of his tramp was the organization of a church of seven members at Walla Walla, the purchase of a block of land, and the erection of a small church edifice thereon. That city then consisted of about five houses of very narrow dimensions. It was not all serene for the elder. While he was preaching some of the baser men of the place, got up a cattle auction within fifty feet, trying, perhaps, to make an equally attractive show.

     In 1860 began Wilbur's work for the Indians on the Yakima reservation, which has become famous throughout the Union. The Yakimas, with a number of other tribes, were wild, sullen, and wholly averse to civilization. There were some three thousand assigned to that reservation; and even upon that ample domain there was no wild living for that number. Their only interest in remaining was for the government annuities; and their only incentive was fear of the troops. Mr. Wilbur was appointed superintendent of instruction, and at once opened a school, gathering in the children; and his wife, without asking a cent of pay, immediately began the process of cleaning, training, teaching and winning them. The work was but well under way, about a year after his appointment, when Kendall, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, dismissed Wilbur without explanation. Upon his proffer of service without pay, he was sent from the reservation.

     He appealed to the government, however, and was not only sustained, but was appointed as agent, with plenary powers. As he assumed the entire administration of the agency, his aim of Indian training was to bring his wards tot he point of self-support. No annuities were allowed except for an equivalent in work. In a short time grains, vegetables and cattle, sufficient for sustenance, and even for export, were produced.  The children at the schools were taught different trades. A steam mill (saw and grist) and house were put up by the Indians worth fifteen thousand dollars. They also built four churches of a seating capacity of two hundred each, and one of six hundred and fifty, completed in every particular by themselves. For twenty-two years the Wilburs remained at their post, bringing their Indians up to a very high level of thrift and prosperity. in 1882 they were reluctantly, after repeated resignations, allowed to go; and they took up their residence at Walla Walla.

     Father Wilbur died at Walla Walla in 1887, - one of Oregon's best loved and most renowned pioneers; a man of virile qualities and a noble heart; ready for all sorts of work; a great philanthropist; faithful to his ministry and his God; and well worthy to stand in that noble company of Methodist preachers embracing, besides himself, Lee, Leslie, Waller, Hine, and others who wrought with them and after them in the same fields and with like devotion.

     HON. GEORGE H. WILLIAMS. - Judge Williams alone among the citizens of our state, and of the Pacific coast, has had the distinction of occupying a place in the highest councils of the nation, - in the cabinet of a President. He was also regarded by President Grant as the man most fit and able to hold the position of chief justice of the United States. The bitter struggle following his nomination to this supreme position is well remembered for the sectional feeling displayed and the dissent of certain members of the senate which led the Judge to withdraw his name. Our state was therefore denied the honor designed by our most

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popular President. It is not, however, to recall the personal bias or envies of the past, - they have been long forgotten and forgiven, - but to remind ourselves that it was upon an arena no less great than that of the nation that Judge Williams has passed the most intense years of his life, and that it is as one of a group of men the first among Americans - a company composing our "Great Round Table" in the most eventful years of our history - that he has been accustomed to move. In his long shadow that stretches from our state to the national Capitol, we not only thing ourselves a little greater, but feel more strongly the ties that unite us to the national life. A statesman is not worth much except as a patriot, and in nothing is there more assurance of the permanence of our central government than in the pride and honor which the states feel in a field of action commensurate with the abilities of their chosen and loved men, where they may project their masterful endeavors. While we could make no exception of any of our senators or representatives that have been at Washington, remembering the fiery Baker and the noble and jovial Nesmith, it is only justice to allow the national dimensions of Judge Williams.  He was a positive additive power in the senate during his term; compacting dispersed and wavering feeling, and giving form to uncertain tendencies; and was, moreover, able to defend his policy before great audiences in all parts of the union.

     He was born in New Lebanon, Columbia county, New York, March 26, 1823, and removed at an early day to Onondaga county, receiving his education at the Pompey Academy. He studied law with Honorable Daniel Scott; and at the age of twenty-one was admitted to practice in New York. In the same year, 1844, he removed  to Iowa Territory, practicing law; and in 1847 was elected judge of the first judicial district of that state at the first election after the formation of the state government, serving five years. In 1852 he was one of the Presidential electors at large, and canvassed the state for Franklin Pierce. In 1853 he was appointed chief justice of Oregon Territory; and was reappointed by Buchanan in 1857. He terminated his services in this position by his own resignation, and resumed the practice of law. He became a member, however, of the constitutional convention to form the constitution for Oregon, and was chairman of the judiciary committee. While in this responsible position he was active in opposing the introduction of slavery into Oregon; and, as a constitutional convention required the popular vote upon that question, was active in presenting the question before the people; and in 1860 in the formation of a Union party; and was subsequently very earnest in supporting Lincoln's administration and in suppressing the Rebellion. In 1864 he was elected senator in Congress; and was a member of the committee on finance and public lands, and also of the reconstruction committee.

     Among the measures which he introduced into the senate and which became laws, are the following: An act creating a new land district in Oregon, with a land office at La Grande; an amendment to the act granting lands to the State of Oregon to engage in the construction of a military road from Eugene City to the eastern boundary of the state, granting odd sections to supply any deficiency in the original grant; various acts establishing post roads; a general law to secure the election of United States senators; the "Tenure-of-office act," which kept Republicans all over the United States from being turned out of office by Andrew Johnson, - vetoed by the President and passed over the veto; a resolution against the importation of coolies; an act to provide a more efficient government of the insurrectionary states, called the "Reconstruction act," under which all the Southern states were reconstructed, - vetoed and passed over the veto of President Johnson; numerous appropriations for Oregon; an amendment to the act of 1861 relative to property lost in suppressing Indian hostilities in Oregon; an amendment to the Judiciary act of 1789; an amendment to the act granting lands to ad in the construction of a railroad from the Central Pacific in California to Portland in Oregon; an act fixing elections in Idaho and Washington Territories on the same day as the election in Oregon; an act to pay two companies of Oregon volunteers commanded b Captains Walker and Olney; an act to strengthen the public credit; an amendment to the act granting lands to aid in the construction of a railroad from the Central Pacific to Portland, by which the grant was prevented from reverting to the government; an act granting lands to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from Portland to Astoria and McMinnville; a resolution to facilitate the building of a lighthouse at Yaquina Bay, and other lighthouses on the coast of Oregon; an act granting certain lands to Blessington Rutledge, a citizen of Lane county; a resolution to increase the pay of assistant marshals in taking the census of 1870; an act extending the benefits of the Donation law of 1850 to certain persons; an act creating a new land district in Washington Territory, with a land office at Walla Walla.

     Senator Williams entered the senate at the most exciting and important period in the history of the government. A great war had just closed. One-third of the states of the Union were disorganized. To restore them was a great work, no less difficult than had been the suppression of the rebellion. From the first Judge Williams took a prominent part in the debates of the senate and wielded a power second to none in that body, and far greater than any new member. He soon became a recognized leader among the first men of the nation, many of whom possessed great talent, unbounded ambition, long experience in the senate, world-wide fame, with prestige of old populous and powerful states to sustain them in their efforts to lead and control their associates and to shape legislation.

     He originated the most important measures of a political and national character which passed Congress during his term of service, - the Reconstruction law, and the Tenure-of-office act. While ten states

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were in a condition of anarchy, and our wisest and most experienced statesmen were quarreling among themselves and waging a fierce contest with President Johnson as to how these should be restored to their proper places in the Union, Senator Williams brought forward his military Reconstruction bill; and after long and earnest debate it passed both houses and became a law notwithstanding the opposition of the President and of the Democratic party. Under this law and its amendments, chaos was converted into order, peace was established, and the Union was permanently restored on a free and prosperous basis.

     When the President was dispossessing of office the loyal men who had elected him, and filling their places with those unfriendly to the reconstruction measures, Senator Williams prepared a bill to regulate the tenure of office. This was passed over the President's veto and saved the Republican party. The Senator did much also during those days to give Oregon a reputation abroad and to build up the state at home. His bills for the welfare of our state were carefully nurtured, well adapted to the conditions then existing, and in their working have been the means of developing our domestic and interstate commerce and opening for us the markets of the world.

     In 1871 he was appointed one of the joint high commissioners to frame a treaty for the settlement of the Alabama claims and the Northwestern boundary, and other questions in dispute with Great Britain. In that capacity he bore himself with his usual dignity; and his counsels proved of material value. Indeed, his part in predetermining the decision of the Northwestern boundary in favor of the United States is something that has never been generally known; and his sagacity and foresight probably gave us the territory in dispute. Being appointed on the commission as a citizen of the Pacific coast, he was expected to keep special watch of the disposition of the Northwest boundary. The dispute is familiar, and is presented elsewhere in this work. Great Britain was fully determined, and by diplomatic correspondence was committed, to maintain that the boundary ran through the Rosario strait; while the United States contended that the center of the Canal de Haro was the true line. It was a point of especial difficulty both from the inflexible position of each nation, and from the obscurity of the words of the treaty by reason of their reference to the "channel" which was imperfectly known at the time they were written.

     As the only probable solution of the vexed question, it was proposed in the commission to refer the whole matter to the decision of the Emperor of Germany. Seeing at once that this was a loose and dangerous expedient, without some determining canon to serve as a guide, and that in the interest of harmony the Emperor might easily yield to a disposition of the question upon other than its legal merits, Judge Williams refused to agree to the Emperor's arbitration except with the proviso that his decision should be strictly an interpretation of the treaty of 1846; that he should not decide de novo, but simply explicate the meaning or intention of the agreement already made. So cogently did he present these views that the commission finally acceded, being compelled to recognize that in no other form could it be worthily submitted. This virtually decided the question in our favor; for the Emperor could allow that the treaty intended nothing else but the main of most-used channel, which proved to be the Canal de Haro. By this, the United States secured the San Juan and other islands.

     In December, 1871, he was appointed attorney-general of the United States by President Grant, and for three years fully sustained the rights and dignity of the government. Here again it is not generally known to how large an extent the force and pith of the President's policy with reference to the Southern states was in the hands of Judge williams. To govern these states was the difficult point in the whole question of administration. It was during the time of the Ku Klux outrages; and the laws defied by the clans must be maintained by the attorney-general. President Grant devolved upon him the entire charge of the disturbances and political affairs of the Southern states, so far as concerned the government; and the Secretary of War was direct to wait upon his instructions as to the movement of troops into the disquieted regions. At the time of rival governments form a number of the Southern states, each seeking the recognition of the President, Attorney-General William's advice was closely followed, in accordance with which the Democratic government of Arkansas and the Republican government of Louisana was recognized. The contending parties in Alabama agreed to submit their claims to him; and his plan of settlement was accepted, restoring peace to a distracted people.

     In 1872 he made a tour of the South, delivering addresses in Richmond, Savannah, Charleston and other Southern cities, declaring the purpose of the President to maintain fair elections, and that every voter should be allowed to cast his ballot according to his preferences. The full vote in the election following, and the return of Republicans from Virginia, South Carolina, Arkansas and some other Southern states, proved the imp0ression made by his words. Since that time, with the change of administrative policy, the Republican party has made but little showing in those states.

     In 1874 his name was presented to the senate for the place of chief justice left vacant by the death of the illustrious Chase. It was hard for the old East to admit that the West was entitled to such an honor as would be bestowed by the elevation of the Oregon statesman; and after a contention which promised to be a great controversy, and which well-nigh threatened the disruption of the Republican party, the Judge withdrew his name, much to the regret of President Grant, who was willing to stake upon his confirmation the success of the administration.

     Since his return to unofficial life the Judge has made his home at Portland in our state, practicing law and giving essential aid to all of our great public causes. he has been constantly sought for heavy political campaign work, and to grace the festivals of our metropolis with his felicitous addresses. Much interest has centered in his recent utterances respecting historical christianity; and a lecture

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prepared and delivered by him upon the divinity of Christ is regarded as an invaluable contribution to this discussion.

     JOHN P. WILLIAMSON. - This active business man and capitalist of Union county, Oregon, was born in Philadelphia in 1851, and spent the years of his infancy upon a farm. At the age of four he came with his parents to Iowa, three years later to Missouri, and in 1862 crossed the plains to the Grande Ronde valley. He recalls many interesting scenes and incidents of that journey, - among others how his elder sister, in following the well-known maxim of the traveler of the early day, to wit, "Get out and walk," was chased through a cut-off by two Shoshone Indians, - and how as an Atalanta she outstripped them and came back to the train amid the cheers of the company.

     The Oregon home was made at the old town of La Grande, and the stock and grain there raised were early sufficient to afford an ample sustenance. There the father remained until his death in 1884; and there the aged mother still resides.

     The education of our subject began in a log house in Missouri, and was continued in the district school in the Grande Ronde. As he grew to manhood the choice was offered by his father of five hundred head of cattle or a college education. he chose the latter, and by two years of earnest work at Monmouth Academy, and by further application, secured a diploma from the National Association of Business Colleges.

     In 1873 he began an extensive tour of the gold mines of Eastern Oregon, in part for the digging of gold, but even more in order to make a practical examination of the topography and geological formation of our mountains and mineral belts. To a man of his education this was not only a delightful series of studies, but put him in possession of invaluable information.

     In 1880 he was chosen principal deputy sheriff of Union county, and served two years. Failing by thirty-nine votes of election as county clerk, e then devoted his attention exclusively to the development of the quartz mines of that section.

     In 1887 he was married to Miss Minnie Wilkinson, the daughter of a prominent merchant of La Grande, and a native of the beautiful valley in which he proposes to pass the remainder of his days. he dwells in a home of peace and beauty, blessed also by the presence of a beautiful little girl, his only child.

     S.B.  WILLIAMSON. - Raising cattle on the hills, and allowing them to fatten in the summer and to starve in the winter, is being superseded by the more profitable as well as more humane method of feeding large bands in the winter to be ready for the market at any time. The Blue-Mountain region is peculiarly fitted for this manner of preparing animals. The range in the hills is good; and the rich bottom lands produce large crops of hay, grain and roots. One of the pioneers in this line is the gentleman whose name appears at the head of this article. He conducts his business in partnership with his brother-in-law, Mr. R.J. Rogers. They have five ranches, five and one-half miles east of La Grande, on the Oregon & Navigation Company's line; on Catherine creek, two miles east from La Grande, and on the Grande Ronde river. They ship each month some three hundred animals, of which about two-thirds are sheep. This business finds its chief outlet in the markets of the Sound, and is but the beginning of greater things.

     Mr. Williamson is a pioneer of 1862, having crossed the plains in that year with Captain Yount, a veteran of the Mexican war. He was in the same company with Mr. Harvey McAllister of the Grande Ronde. The father of our subject, with his five children, made the trip without trouble except for high water in the streams. They reached the Grande Ronde in the autumn, and found tow clap-board shanties where LaGrande now stands. Taking a ranch near this point, the Williamsons began their pioneer life. In the fall of 1862 they prepared ground for a crop, and the following season raised an abundance of vegetables and grain. The iron for the plow which they used was forged by a smith in The Dalles and cost fifty dollars; but the crop amply repaid them for all expenditures. Potatoes sold readily for ten cents per pound; grain (they had twenty acres of wheat and barley) was twelve and a half cents, butter one dollar a pound, and watermelons two dollars and a half apiece. Gold dust was the only money in use. Time was also spent in the gold mines fifty miles east of LaGrande; and the elder Williamson realized profits. He passed the bounds of his life in 1886, aged sixty-one years.

     It was in 1870 that Mr. S.B. Williamson engaged in the cattle business with the success above described. He was married in 1878 to Miss Susan, the daughter of the pioneer H. McAllister, and has a family of three children, Ruth, Thomas, and Louise. In addition to his cattle he has some three hundred horses of improved stock. He uses Shorthorn and Hereford cattle for improving his herds.

     Mr. Williamson is a substantial citizen of LaGrande, of the most progressive character. He is one of the men who has made the state and is earnest for improvements of all kind.

     JAMES A.A. WILSON. - Mr. Wilson is one of our characteristic Oregonians of the early times, whose career the pen would willingly linger upon. He was born in Carrol county, Mississippi, in 1841, and in 1853 with his father crossed the plains to California. Remaining as an assistant in that state until 1858, he made a visit in that year to the northern coast, stopping off at Victoria; and, after an inspection of various points, he made a residence near McMinnville, where in 1859 he was married to Miss Susannah Owens. He continued here in farming and stock-raising until 1863, in the meantime driving one band of cattle to California, on one occasion being hemmed in by Pitt river Indians for seven days and nights, during which he did his sleeping on horseback.

     In 1863 he removed to the Grande Ronde valley with cattle, packing and driving stock to Idaho until 1870. Having located a place in The Cove, Oregon, he began in the latter year a regular course of farming and stock-raising, which he pursues to the

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present time, meeting with large success. There at The Cove is his home; and his cattle and sheep dot the ranges. He has brought up a family of nine children. His three eldest sons are prominent land and stock owners in the valley, one of whom B.G. Wilson, was clerk of Union county two years.

     ROBERT BRUCE WILSON, M.D. - A well-known figure both in the earlier and alter stages of Portland's development was that of Doctor Robert Bruce Wilson, the son of Holt Wilson, of Virginia. He was born June 12, 1828, in the historic city of Portsmouth, in the Old Dominion, of which his father was an honored and substantial citizen. At an early age he finished a thorough course of medicine at the University of Virginia, but n so doing became deprived of sight in his left eye, a loss peculiarly unfortunate to one in his profession.

     Joining in the impulse common to the most enterprising and adventurous men of the time, he made his way around Cape Horn to California in 1849, and set out with pick and shovel for the mines, but true to his vocation soon reassumed professional life. After practicing for a short time in San Francisco, he accepted the position of surgeon on the steamer Gold Hunter, running down the California coast. While in that service the steamer made in December, 1850, a trip to Portland; and the Doctor decided to cast in his lot with that then new settlement. Thus was begun a career in his profession to which he did eminent credit throughout, working with an ardor greater than a simple desire for a livelihood, or even for wealth, would warrant.

     He never refused the calls of duty, but responded alike to rich and poor. He was an earnest student, keeping always fully abreast of the times, and taking advantage of the latest ideas and inventions that might render his endeavors more effective. thus he became a power not only in alleviating distress, but in elevating the tone of his profession, which, in those days of isolation from the outer world, before telegraph and railroad communication, might have been in greater danger of being lowered. It is difficult to estimate the value to our city of a man possessed of his culture, and of conscientious application to his profession. He had that peculiar force of character, and, as it may be said, that ideality, which held him true to the requirements of his chosen occupation, and which would in any case or in any part of the world have kept him in the lead, both in the scientific and the practical, or in the applied department of medicine. He was one of those men of whom Oregon furnishes a number of examples, who preserve within themselves the motives to high and assiduous endeavor.

     In September, 1854, he married the eldest daughter of Captain John H. Couch, the eminent pioneer of Portland's commerce; and in the course of a singularly happy married life he had a large family of sons and daughters whom it was his great privilege to live to see grow up, not only to revere his example, but, in the persons of his sons, to take up with credit the walk and profession that he had adorned.

     With the exception of a three-years' trip to Europe, his labors were uninterrupted, and naturally told on a constitution not too robust. He died of pneumonia, after a short illness, in August, 1887, having prepared for himself the reward of a life not spent in vain, and leaving the world better and richer by the leaven of his culture and kindly heart.

     WILLIAM WILSON. - Mr. Wilson was born of Irish parents in 1835. "His father and mother were Irish; and he is Irish still." His parents secured to him a common-school education; and his father, falling a victim of the cholera in New York in 1848, William assumed the management of his affairs and conducted the business until 1852, when he left home and started for California. On the Isthmus he was stricken with Panama fever and laid three weeks among strangers, convalescing only to realize the fact that his money and ticket were missing. He finally shipped, as he supposed, for California; but in fact he was aboard a trader, and for twenty-one months had to sail upon the sea, going to almost all parts of the word, but finally in Valparaiso was relieved by the American consul and sent to California. There  he first found work in the humble capacity of a sand-cart driver, but in 1855 was able to establish for himself a hack and dray business, in which vocation he continued until 1859, when he was off to Frazer river and mined near Yale, British Columbia. The next year he prospected the Frazer, and was one of the discoverers of the Caribou gold mines. He made money there and was familiar with such men as Steel, Cunningham, Loren, Dillon, Kiethby, Williams, Whitney and Sweeny.

     In 1862 he was one of a party of seventeen who attempted a new route from Fort Alexander on the Frazer to Victoria, via the "Bentic Orsu" route. Having constructed rafts, they attempted the descent of the Bellacola river to the mouth of the Bentic. The raft soon succumbed to the elements; and the men, provisionless and friendless, were three days and three nights in making the twenty-four miles to the point of intended embarkation on shipboard, snow having fallen to the depth of six feet during that time. In their extremity a suggestion was made that Mr. Wilson's dog be killed for mutton. But Wilson objected to the slaughter of his favorite; and the party had to forego the feasting. The natives, not knowing the value of money, would trade dried salmon for only brass buttons and neckerchiefs. Embarking on a trader, they were a month or so in arriving at Victoria. There Mr. Wilson found employment as stage driver until the spring of 1863, when he returned to his Caribou diggings. In 1864 he struck out for the Idaho gold fields, working his passage thither from The Dalles with a pack-train. Arriving in Idaho City, money-less, he got a job shoveling tailings, worked all night, and when relieved in the morning was obliged to suggest to the foreman that he had not eaten for twenty-four hours.

     Having made a stake he prospected in what is now Southeastern county, Oregon, over the ground which the writer is safe in asserting will twenty years hence be the grand mining camp of the world.

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That fall he came to La Grande and later assisted the elder Beagle in whipsawing lumber for his sluices, which demonstrated that at the head of the Grand river existed gold mines which Mr. Wilson's grandchildren will read of with wonder. His experiences in the Pacific Northwest as related by himself would fill this volume. Suffice it to say that the writer feels safe in alleging that Mr. Wilson has experienced many of the vicissitudes incident upon laying the foundations of the empire which we at present enjoy.

     He was night watchman of the town of La Grande for twenty-two months. He served four years in the capacity of jailer under A.C. Craig, the first sheriff elected in Union county, and followed that with four more years in the same capacity under Craig's successor, Arthur Warnick.

     Not having seen his mother, who lived in New York, for twenty-one years, he paid her a visit in 1873, and takes pride in relating that she is in good health and spirits at the advanced age of fourscore. In 1874, the seat of government being removed from La Grande to Union, Mr. Wilson returned to San Francisco, and after four years in city life came back to the Grande Ronde valley, making his home at Union, Oregon; and there we find him engaged in a profitable business. He was married in December, 1883, at Baker City, to Miss Barbara Oth, by whom he has two sons and a daughter. Besides his town property and stock, Mr. Wilson is the owner of six hundred and forty acres of Union county land.

     ROBERT WINGATE. - Among the many enterprising and successful representative men to whom the city of Tacoma owes so much for her present advanced position among Pacific cities, and for the assurance of future success, Robert Wingate deserves an exalted place. He is a Scotsman by birth, but is thoroughly identified with the land of his adoption, and is warmly attached to her popular institutions. He was born near Glasgow, Scotland, on the 17th of March, 1840. He received a thorough common-school education at the Western Academy in Glasgow. His father was a coal expert, a mining engineer, and the lessee of several coal mines. Upon leaving school, the son Robert entered upon an apprenticeship, beginning at the lowest round, and received under that practical father a training exclusively restricted to coal-mining. That mining education was only acquired by passing through every gradation.

     In his eighteenth year he became underground foreman in the Craig End Colliery. That continued to be his duty until, at the age of twenty, he had been promoted to the position of superintendent, called in Western Scotland manager. In that station he acted until 1864, greatly maturing his knowledge and experience, and being invested with great responsibility. During that year he came to California, bearing with him highly commendatory testimonials as to his knowledge, experience and reliability from the coal inspectors of the Western district of Scotland. His first experience on the Pacific slope was in the employ of Robert William Watt, in quartz-mining in Grass valley, Nevada county, California. He only continued at that for a short time.

     In September, 1864, he returned to California and assumed the management of the Eureka and Independent coal mines at Mount Diablo. The Independent mine was about seven hundred feet deep, and had been considered the most difficult mine in the whole region. It had been worked for three years, and had always been regarded as a failure. In the twenty-fifth year of his age, Mr. Wingate took charge. two hundred and fifty thousand dollars had been expended; and until then there had been no prospect of a return for the investment. Mr. Wingate was a man of great pride as to his proficiency in utilizing labor; and his highest ambition was to procure a successful development and a profitable return for mining labor. To him at that time salary was but a secondary object. He looked ahead; - he aimed to acquire reputation in his profession, which he intended to secure in the successful accomplishment of the best results to his employers.

     His administrative ability was remarkable, his energy untiring. He asked no men under his charge to go where he himself would not go; and working with them he gained them to his purpose, and imbued them with the same ambitious hopes that he himself entertained. His control over men was singularly great. He selected the men he needed. He fully appreciated the task expected of them, and aptly understood the method of stimulating them to the greatest service. Every man was tried and tested. Each were then associated with him in his purpose to accomplish a named result; and seldom did his personal will-power fail to secure cordial co-operation in his plans by those who were under his charge. He himself visited and inspected every part of the work, not as a spy to observe who were guilty of short-coming, but by his presence to encourage labor and suggest his views. In fact he labored with them as one of themselves; and thus he succeeded by example and personal presence in winning to himself hearty and zealous coadjutors, who gladly seconded him in the performance of his designs.

     Under his administration of affairs, that mine for the first time in its history became a success. His management gave infinite satisfaction and great joy to the German stockholders. When he took charge, the shaft was twenty-two feet long, nine feet wide, and was all twisted. It required to be entirely re-timbered. When engaging his services, the company had asked the length of time required to place the mine in a working condition. His answer was ninety days. the company appropriated thirty-five thousand dollars to meet the expenses and disbursements, and allowed him three months. His arrangements were all so skillfully made, and so successfully executed by his employés, that in seventy-eight days he was taking out coal. Thereafter the mine has continued to be a success and a source of large profit to its owners. the compensation the company allowed to Mr. Wingate was three hundred and fifty dollars per month; and he continued to manage its mines until August, 1869.

     From there he went to the Eastport mine at Coos Bay, Oregon. That mine had been producing only in a small way. Again Mr. Wingate's administrative abilities were called in requisition; and again

638                                            HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

he organized systematic, co-operative labor and development. The result was soon apparent in a largely increased output of coal; and for the first time the mine yielded profit. It paid a dividend of one per cent on an inflated stock of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

     At the beginning of 1875, Mr. Wingate located in San Francisco, where for three years he devoted himself exclusively to the pursuit of a mining expert. within that period he had visited Vancouver Island,  British Columbia, and done considerable prospecting for coal. His examinations resulted in his recommending R.D. Chandler to open the South Wellington mine. Subsequently Mr. Chandler employed Mr. Wingate to go to Vancouver Island and open that mine, which he successfully accomplished during the year 1878. At the close of that year, Mr. Wingate came to Tacoma. In the month of November, 1879, he prospected the rich and extensive coalfields in the vicinity of Carbon river, in Pierce county, for the Carbon Hill Coal Company, and opened and developed the coal mines at Carbonado. He continued in charge of the mining operations of that company at Carbonado for two years, at which time those mines were sold to Charles Crocker. Mr. Wingate then came to the city of Tacoma, Washington territory, with his family, and has from that time made his residence in that city.

     Mr. Wingate is emphatically a man of work. He has never been idle, but has been and continues to be one of the most enterprising, active and public-spirited of Tacoma's citizens. No public enterprise is projected that fails to receive his substantial encouragement; and every plan for the promotion of the public welfare has the benefit of his hearty goodwill and zealous co-operation. He is a man of broad and charitable views, aiding every movement for the advancement of education, morality or the well-being of the community. Of large physique, with a brain and heart in proportion, Robert Wingate is one of the biggest, broadest and best of Tacoma's substantial men. The architect of his own fortune, the trusted and zealous laborer for the best interests of those who secured and recognized his services, he is now reaping in comparative ease, not inactivity, however, the well-earned reward of integrity, industry, devotion to business, and the natural accretion resulting from wisely made investments in real estate, dictated by sagacity and far-reaching views as to the possibilities of the great Northwest. None to a greater extent enjoys the confidence of the business men of the community in which he dwells; and none more than he deserves the affectionate regard of his fellow-citizens for his works of charity, and for an enlarged and unstinted sympathy with every movement which makes the community better adapted for the homes of men, women and children.

     Mr. Wingate, since his adoption of Tacoma as a residence, has practiced his profession of mining engineer. He has been a successful operator in real estate, and has attained wealth by judicious investments. coal, however, has been his specialty; and liberally has he expended money and time in prospecting and locating coal mines. At present he gives considerable attention to the duties of the office of vice-president of the Olympia & Chehalis Valley Railroad Company, and as a director in the Tacoma National Bank, in both of which corporations he is a large stockholder. The portrait which accompanies this sketch presents features which unmistakably portray the strong will, the earnest purpose, the unselfish and disinterested liberality and sterling integrity which are the characteristics of him who has largely contributed to the rapid development and assured future prominence of the city of Tacoma, his adopted home.

     LYMAN WOOD. - This popular gentleman, recently auditor of King county, Washington, was born in Gallatin county, Illinois, February 25, 1839, and lived at that place until he moved with his parents in 1845 to Moline, Rock Island county, Illinois. Here he was educated and grew to manhood. On the 11th of August, 1862, enlisted in Company K, One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regiment, Illinois Volunteers. He served until May, 1863, when he was mustered out on account of disability. During the winter of 1863-64, he was employed as clerk in the office of the adjutant-general of Iowa.

     His home was still at Moline, Illinois, until he removed with his little family to Lancaster county, Nebraska, in 1871, building the first dwelling-house in the town of Firth in that county, and keeping boarders for a time until a hotel could be erected. He was married at Davenport, Iowa, May 22, 1865, to Mrs. Nellie Allen, daughter of Benjamin and Rebecca Shanks, the first pioneers of Joliet, Will county, Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Wood have one child, Enoch Wellington. Mrs. Wood had two children by her previous marriage, William F. and Fannie, the latter having been the wife of Mr. C. Hoisington, of Firth, Nebraska. Soon after reaching maturity and entering upon married life, they both passed away with consumption.

     Mr. Wood came to Seattle May 1, 1882. His first employment after arriving here was a two months' job of grubbing, - clearing lots on Lake Union. He next went to work at shingling, and afterwards at carpentering, working on the new Arlington Hotel from the sills to the roof. He next served about one month as day clerk at the Arlington, after which he became general delivery clerk at the Seattle postoffice, remaining in that position for one year. He next served as deputy assessor for one year under Mr. Chilberg, and one year with William H. Hughes. He was then elected clerk of the board of city schools, serving one year, and in November, 1886, was elected county auditor for the term of two years, which expired March 4, 1889.

     Mr. Wood has been known on this coast and wherever he has resided as a hard-working and able man, popular with the people, and trusted alike by the rich and the poor. Although having won his daily bread by manual labor, and having never acquired a fortune, he has held prominent public positions, and has from boyhood to the present time borne an unsullied reputation as a n honest, faithful, liberal-minded and conscientious man. In Nebraska he was postmaster for about five years at Firth, and

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deputy clerk of the district court at Lincoln. He was also adjutant of Farragut Post, No. 25, G.A.R., and a member of Friendship Lodge, No. 47. I.O.O.F., at Firth. In official life in Washington Territory he showed himself pleasant and accommodating, and continually inspired those around him with life and energy. During much of the time that he was in office he employed as many as twenty-one clerks; and over sixty different ladies and gentlemen were in one way or another employed by him. He was called the ladies' friend, as they voted for him; and he proved consistent, and remembered them when he came to the bestowment of favors. The Grand Army, The Odd Fellows, The Knights of Labor and the Liberals, of which organizations he is a member, are proud of his record, and respect him for his uniform kindness. He is now living on a pre-emption claim on Whidby Island.

     The son of a pioneer, David R. Wood, and the grandson of a pioneer, Beder Wood, who came from Rochester, New York, to Gallatin county, Illinois, in 1815, while that state was still a territory, our Mr. Wood, by his enterprise and willingness to do pioneer work upon the Pacific coast, proves himself to be one of the most useful men of the people.

     THOMAS A. WOOD. - It is gratifying to observe that to a large extent those who first lived in Portland, Oregon, and took the rough blows and made the numerous shifts of the early days, have kept their position in the ranks, and as Portland has grown have become her men of wealth. Ladd, Reed, Corbett, Failing, Lewis and about a hundred others illustrate this fact, and so also does our subject Mr. wood.

     One so much a real-estate speculator as he should be the son of a speculator; and such we find to be the case. His father, William W. Wood, was one of the men who created Illinois, and made her rapid growth the wonder of the sixth decade of our century. He founded Woodborough in Montgomery county, and there, in 1833, Thomas was born. At an early age he assisted his father in his many operations, when only ten years old being competent to hire and discharge men on the farm and in the store.

     The great conflict culminating in the Civil war absorbed the interest of his early life. His family was Democratic and from South Carolina, whence the grandfather removed at an early date to Illinois. But they were abolitionists, the grandfather freeing his slaves upon arriving at the frontier. An uncle was so outspoken against slavery as to have a reward of five hundred dollars publicly offered for his head at St. Louis. In 1852 Thomas, at the age of nineteen, crossed the plains to Oregon in Captain Gilliam's company, and upon his arriving began business by buying apples at six dollars a bushel, and selling them from his little stand at one and two bits each. He soon found a place in the grocery store of W.S. Ladd, and later was employed with S.J. McCormick, the original stationer and bookseller of Portland. He was receiving one hundred and twenty-five dollars per month in that position; but, feeling a desire for more education than he had yet received, he left his work, and, crossing back, entered Delaware College, Ohio.

     Soon after this the war broke out, and he became very active in raising recruits. he made a three-months' tour of speaking in a county that he mentions as tolerably strong copperhead, and there secured three companies. He was offered the rank of major, but declined, accepting in lieu thereof the chaplaincy of Holman's battalion, Frémont's body-guard. Serving one hundred days, he returned to college, and graduating came out in 1862 again to Oregon, making the journey alone wit his wife and two men. He began business here the second time as dealer in turpentine, but afterwards became a member of the Methodist conference, preaching at Roseburg, Salem, Vancouver and again at Salem, in all a period of nine years. Removing to Portland, he opened a museum, a collection of natural curiosities.

     In 1876 he took up the real-estate business; and in this has continued to the present time with great success. In 1883 he laid out the town of Sellwood, and is at present developing the delightful suburban retreat at Garden Home or West Portland. He has also been active in a public way to improve the city and state, being one of the number to solicit funds for the Board of Immigration, securing pledges which will produce an income of twenty-five hundred dollars a month.

     As an Indian fighter, Mr. Wood served in the company of Colonel Backenstock in 1855, and saw some skirmishes in the Coeur d'Alene country, and was nearly captured at the Des Chutes. As a pioneer, he was first to build a quartz mill on Pine creek, and operated the Gem gold mine. He was the first to build and run a flour-mill in the Grande Ronde, and was a member of the first party to set a flag on the top of Mount Hood. He has a fine family, as follows: William Hosea, Edward C., Virginia A., Emma R., Mary B., John and Nellie. His home has a refinement secured not only by wealth, but by the mental culture of his father and mother, and the morality pervading all its members.

     A.P. WOODWARD. - Those who had the sharp work of quieting the Indians, and of defending the homes and families of the Whites in 1855-56, did not at that time suppose that their work would ever be of historic interest. But the time is coming when every name of the veterans will be inscribed as with letters of gold upon the records of the state.

     One of these veterans is Mr. Woodward. He was born in Muskingum, Ohio, and, after the manner of many Westerners, spent his early days in gradually passing westward, moving by slow stages through Illinois and Iowa. In 1852 he came across the plains with a party numbering fifty. Young Woodward having, however, fallen sick on the way, was left in the Grande Ronde valley to recover. This led to his residence of two years in the Walla Walla valley; and in 1854 he went out into Idaho with Major G.O. Haller and Captain Olney to quiet the Indian disorders consequent upon the Ward massacre. That campaign occupied the

640                                                        HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

entire season; and upon their return in 1855 they tendered their services in the general outbreak of that year. Woodward was in Major Rains' expedition to Fort Hall.  He was among those who captured and hanged some of the Indians. Later in the year he was detailed with Captain Olney to warn the Whites in the Walla Walla valley of their danger, and to conduct them to The Dalles. This was a hazardous undertaking, requiring both endurance and courage, but was successfully accomplished within twenty days. At The Dalles the young soldier found the Oregon Volunteers just arriving from below, and took service with them, and passed through the seven-months' campaign that succeeded.

     In the winter of that campaign he was sent, in company with one Cayuse George, a white man, to carry a message to The Dalles, to hasten the forwarding of troops, as the Indians were harassing the soldiers above and pressing heavily upon their lines of communication. He also went down to Portland and communicated with the governor. Upon his return to the field, he was met by severe weather, which filled the mountains with snow and the Columbia with ice. He crossed the ponderous floes and ice fields of the river to and fro on the section below the Cascades, and above that point made the frozen river itself his pathway. He and his pony met with no mishap, but rounded the mouth of Hood or Dog river outside of the broken ice and air-holes always to be found at its junction with the Columbia. Leaving his animal there, the messenger passed on to The Dalles, still traveling on the ice. Rarely is such a journey possible; and it is never very safe. That was in January, 1856. The following summer he left the volunteers and took service with the regular army as messenger, serving until 1858. During that time his duties called him into the most difficult and dangerous positions, often bringing him within an inch of death.

     Returning to civil life, he settled on a farm fifteen miles from Walla Walla, making that his home until 1883, when he removed to the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon, and engaged in farming. There he lives happily with his family of six children.

     HENRY H. WOODWARD. - The life of a pioneer of any country is a hard one. But the pioneer of the Pacific coast had really more to contend with than his early brother of any other state east or west of the great Mother of Waters. His daily life was not only one of almost unendurable hardship and privation, with the eternal gnawings of want; but it was also beset with imminent danger; and he was in continued dread of death from the poisoned arrow of the red man, or his more fortunate fellow who used a gun. The pioneer of this coast held himself in ever readiness to go to the front, at a moment's call, to assist in the subjugation of the various bands of Indians who held retreats in the mountain fastnesses which chain and interchain the country on every side, and who were continually swooping down upon the little handful of settlers in every section, and ofttimes massacring them before the news of their arrival could be sent form house to house.

     Taking a complete history of all the tribes that ever inhabited this continent, as far as we have any knowledge, the tribes which roamed the Pacific coast at will for untold ages, were the most treacherous, brutal, savage and warlike, perhaps because they were virtually cut off from the rest of the world; and, while the march of civilization was gradually pressing its way westward, and their kindred tribes in the more eastern states were being treated with and placed under control, they were as wild as the more primitive bands which preceded them centuries before. Then they firmly believed this country was their undisputed own. Indeed, it had never before been disputed; and generations had been born, and had lived and passed away, in lone possession. To them  it was the greatest mark of injustice, intrusion and outrage to see the white man within the limits of their domain; and, like the owners of all other firesides, with them it was to do or die. They defended the right of their broad home with the same zeal, fervor and ferocity with which the humblest  among us would defend his little cottage home and cheery fireside against the destroying element of his all.

     But the bravery, valor and undaunted spirit of those who came before to hew and prepare the way for those to come after shall not be forgotten. The history of their lives, trials and dangers will be written upon the tablets of the living, that all may read and know just what it took to make this country one of the grandest the sun ever shone upon.

     Among those who came to the coast in an early day, and who passed through the many trying vicissitudes of pioneer life, is Mr. H.H. Woodward, the subject of this biography. he first saw the light of day on December 30, 1826, at Sheffield, Yorkshire, England. His parents were highly respected, and enjoyed the lives of good livers, as his father was a master plumber and conducted an extensive business for himself. J.H. Abraham gave Mr. Woodward a commercial education, he having sustained the loss of his parents at the early age of thirteen.

      Having a natural inclination for a seafaring life, he was entered as an apprentice to William Tindall, a shipowner in London, to become a mariner, with whom he remained fully five years, giving entire satisfaction both as an apprentice and as a finished master of his business. Afterwards he was appointed master of his business. Afterwards he was appointed third mate of the Persia. That wa before his term of indenture had expired, which shows the confidence which was reposed in his youthful ability. Later he made five voyages in the ship to Ceylon, East India. Afterwards he shipped in the Pearl, which was also owned by Mr. Tindall, on a voyage to the South Sea Islands. That was in 1849. The vessel was chartered by some Frenchmen to sail to San Francisco, where it arrived in December of that year. It was there seized by the United States authorities for being a British vessel carrying a foreign cargo. The captain did not know that it was necessary for Congress to ratify the new treaty. But that treaty settled all disputes, and gave the hands leave of absence ashore, at will. Mr. Woodward preferred to go ashore, and being tired of the high seas, found employment on the steamer McKim,

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which plied between Sacramento and San Francisco. He remained until the spring of 1850, when he turned his attention to mining, casting his first luck on the Yuba river. In the fall of that year he gave up the hunt for gold as a lost mission, and returned to San Francisco, from which place he started for the Umpqua river, Oregon, in the Minerva with Captain Toney, which they entered November 27, 1850.

     In the spring of 1851 he established what is now known as Smith's ferry, on the main Umpqua. He disposed of the ferry the following winter, and engaged in the packing business to the Southern mines, also to Randolph, Coos county, which he followed for three years.

In the spring of 1854, Mr. Woodward took a claim under the Donation act, on the south fork of the Coquille river, in Coos county, Oregon. A treaty soon followed with the Upper Coquille tribe of Indians; and our subject was engaged by General Joel Palmer to collect them for the purpose of negotiating a treaty between them and the government, which he did to the General's great aid. He not only did that, but also was instrumental in inducing the tribe to go to Port Orford, under the escort of Agent Benjamin Wright, who was killed in the fall of 1855 in the massacre at Rogue river. Many of the Indians were very superstitious; and some of them could not be induced to place themselves under the protection of the government. They remained very hostile, under  the Chief Washington, who was the instigator in all of the "cussedness" in that locality.

     At the breaking out of the Rogue river war, all the settlers in Mr. Woodward's locality had left for safer retreats. Having no protection, he also thought it best to leave; so he enlisted as a private in Company I, Second Regiment of Oregon Mounted Volunteers, under Captain W.W. Chapman. Our subject served his full three months, that being the time for which he had enlisted. The Indians were still in the mountain fastnesses; and, the settlements being without protection, he re-enlisted in the company as second sergeant until May 14, 1856, when he was honorably discharged from the military service of the territory of Oregon.

     The hardships and perils which Mr. Woodward underwent in that short time on the frontier as a soldier would fill a volume. When peace was restored he returned to his farm on the Coquille. The Indians had taken everything from the place that was loose at both ends; and that which they found fast they had destroyed. Our subject was financially embarrassed when he returned to his farm. In fact, he lacked three cents of having any kind of change. His only possessions consisted of the horse which he owned before the war, and which served him faithfully all through the service, a rifle, hunting knife, saddle, bridle and two blankets. But he though of the many who did not own as much as he did; and, consoling himself with the fact that there were many others in the same fix, he went to work, and was soon "on his feet" again. With this start he again commenced packing, and farming on his Donation claim in Coos county.

     In 1867 he disposed of his claim and other property, and removed to Roseburg, Douglas county, Oregon, and engaged as a book canvasser for A.L. Bancroft & Co., of San Francisco, in whose employ he remained several years. For him canvassing was not profitable, as he was sadly deficient in that essential to success in that line, - cheek. He quit canvassing and engaged as warehouseman with Marks & Co., of Roseburg, in whose employ he remained until 1884, when he left for a voyage to visit the scenes of his childhood and an only sister. In July, 1875, he returned to Roseburg. During his trip abroad, Mr. Woodward wrote and published a small volume of poems, consisting of two hundred and eight pages, a few copies of which he brought to Oregon. On his return to Roseburg, he found that positions were not plentiful, and he again entered the employ of Bancroft & Co. He remained with that firm for several years, when he again entered the service of Marks & Co. as warehouseman, and remained until 1886, when he left that firm's employ to reside on a small property he had in Roseburg, where he continues to live.

     Mr. Woodward has managed, by the close practice of economy and frugality, to save enough out of the buffetings of business to keep him in comfort the balance of his life. "Lyrics of the Umpqua" is the title of his last volume of poems; and a ready home market brings him a well-rounded income alone. The work was published by the Alden book concern of New York City, and is a very neat piece of typographical work. The work is dedicated to the "Pioneers and Veterans of the Northwest Coast of the United States of America," and consists of some two hundred pages.

     Mr. Woodward served the county of Coos as supervisor of a road district in1863. A year prior he taught a district school one term in the same county. In 1857 he acted as judge of election in Johnson's precinct. He also served as justice of the peace two terms, one by appointment under Judge S.S. Mann, and the other by election in 1886-87. In  1880 he had the honor of being appointed one of the enumerators of the census of the United States, his labors in that capacity being concentrated in Douglas county.

     Mr. Woodward is now in the afternoon of life, with the morn well spent; and he has nothing to look back to with regret. During all of these years, he never found it meet to take unto himself a companion for life. He never saw that woman with whom he ever had the least desire to join his destiny; so he has led a life of signal unity. He is now waiting for the setting of his day's sun, when he will close his eyes to the scenes of this world with the profound comfort of a life well spent, and the unwavering consolation of having done his full duty on every occasion where time with its changes has called him.

P.A. WORTHINGTON. - Weston, Oregon commands as fine a prospect as any city in the Inland Empire. It grows handsome itself very largely in proportion to its increase in population. This is becoming one of the pleasant features of towns and cities on the plains of the Columbia. These grassy hills and plateaus, destitute of timber for scores of

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miles, seem weary and monotonous in their very extensiveness. But the villages, cities and the better class of rural houses are now places of water and trees, arbors, turfy lawns and plazas, fruits and flowers, and are therefore of a nature of a retreat from the magnificent prairies and rolling plains which are at one time green and purple with young grass, later buff and tawny with the same grass sere, or a few weeks in winter white with snow. Weston is one of these places; and one of the handsomest residences there is that of Mr. P.A. Worthington.

     His home is an index of his prosperity; and we find, upon inquiry, that he is one of the foremost men of the place. His career illustrates how men in the Northwest rise from a capital consisting of their hands and their brains to a competency. Born in Eastern Tennessee in 1853, he move to Missouri in 1874; and, crossing the plains with horse-teams in 1875, located permanently at Weston. Knowing the ins and outs of carpentering, he went to work with his hands at his trade; and, when work of this kind did not offer, accepted any manual labor. After a time he found an opportunity to keep books, and spent thus two yeas at the desk. This led the way to a position as clerk in the large mercantile establishment of Saling & Rees. When that firm dissolved partnership, he was prepared to go into business in the firm of Saling & Co., one of the strongest in Umatilla county.

      He was married in 1878 to Miss Cora A. Saling; and it is undoubtedly much due to her that he has secured such great prosperity. They have one daughter, Helen. Mr. Worthington is still a young man, and has a hold upon the business of the country which should lift him into the front rank of the men of affairs. He had faith in the Weston country when many declared it too rough and dry for any practical use except for grazing. He now reaps the reward of his confidence.

     GENERAL GEORGE WRIGHT. - The work of this stern and skillful soldier in quelling some of the Indian wars of the Pacific Northwest was so conspicuous that the reader who has learned the story of his campaigns will be anxious to know the general features of his life. Born in Vermont in 1803, he received an appointment to West Point, from which he graduated in 1822. He was early introduced to the Indian warfare of the frontier, spending the first nine years of his army life at various places in the great West. In 1831 he went to Louisiana, where he remained till 1836. He then took part in the Florida Indian war. After this he spent several years in quiet, to again enter the field on the outbreak of the Mexican war. In this he served with great distinction under both Taylor and Scott.

     He came to the Pacific coast in 1852 as a major in the Fifth Infantry. He took a leading part in the military operations in the Pacific Northwest in the great Indian wars of 1855-56 and later. His exploits in those events, and especially his thoroughness in dealing with the Indians who had handled Steptoe's command so roughly, have been chronicled many times. In 1861 he was ordered to San Francisco to relieve General Sumner, receiving in September of that year his promotion to a brigadier-generalship. He remained in San Francisco till 1865, when he was transferred again to Oregon. He set sail for his old department on the ill-omened steamer Brother Jonathan, which was wrecked on the coast of Southern Oregon on the 30th of July; and the old hero, with his wife and three hundred other passengers, was drowned.

     JACKSON WRIGHT. - Mr. Wright's life on this coast embodies bits of a sharp experience with Indians as may be found in the records of any of our pioneers. He was born in Missouri in 1842, and in 1850 came to Oregon with his father Lazorus Wright, who took up a Donation claim on Myrtle creek, and was a captain in the war of 1855-56. He removed to the Grande Ronde valley in 1863, where he lived until his death in 1885.

     At the age of twenty-two our subject engaged in business of his own, and in 1868 was married to Miss Marindia J. Richardson of Myrtle Creek. It was in 1861 that he met with the attack from the Indians. In company with Captain Bailey of Eugene, driving a band of eight hundred and sixty-two cattle, bound for Washoe, he met with an attack from the Pitt river Indians, by whom Bailey and Samuel Evans were killed, the former shooting down before his death seven Indians in as many minutes. The rest of the men escaped, leaving the cattle to the savages. Six hundred and forty-seven of them belonged to Wright, for the loss of which he has never been reimbursed by the government.

     In 1874 he came to the Grande Ronde valley, engaging in sheep-husbandry, finally investing in real estate, and now owning eight hundred acres of excellent land at the north end of the Cove, Oregon, upon which he has a fine residence. Amid pleasant surroundings, with his nine children and two grandchildren, he possesses the happy life of the Eastern Oregon farmer.

     WM. T. WRIGHT. - Mr. Wright, who has demonstrated the practicability of fruit culture in the Umatilla country, was born in Massachusetts in 1830. His father was a molder and worker in iron furnaces, and in 1840 moved to Ohio, where Mr. Wright as a boy received a common-school education, and remained with his parents until of age, when he engaged in stock-dealing on his own account. In 1853 he came to California, mining, gardening, speculating and stock-dealing. In 1859 he returned to Ohio and engaged in the oil-well region at Mecca and in Pennsylvania. Ten years later he went to the plains of the West with the intention of raising stock in Kansas, and he also engaged in milling in Missouri.

     In 1879 he crossed the plains to Umatilla county, Oregon, and pre-empted the tract of land immediately northwest of the town of Milton. He commenced experimenting with the different fruits of the country, raising one year three thousand pounds of strawberries and eight thousand pounds of grapes upon one acre of land, and other fruits in proportion. This marked success stimulated others to

                                                                                    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.                                                                                        643

 develop small portions of the so-called gravel flat; and as a consequence large profits were realized. These are now well covered with orchards, vineyards, etc.; and these hitherto unvalued lands are now as productive as any. Mr. Wright has four acres in grapes of twenty varieties, and has demonstrated without a doubt the value of that quality of land for growing all kinds of small fruits.

     In October, 1883, he purchased and plated North Milton, which addition to that town is rapidly growing. The Peacock Roller Mills, the Milton Paper Mills, and the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company's depot grounds are situated in that region.

     W.T. WRIGHT. - Among the many who with their parents braved the dangers and endured the hardships of the pioneer's life, Mr. Wright whose portrait is herewith presented, deserves a prominent place.

     He was born in 1845 in the state of Illinois, and in 1852 with his parents came the over-memorable "plains across." Although he was then a small lad, the terrors of that trip, over the long, dry, dusty and ofttimes dangerous roads, with slow, toiling ox-teams, are still vividly remembered by Mr. Wright, after a lapse of more than a third of a century; and their recollection will never be effaced. Arriving at the present site of Portland in the early winter of 1852, with a depleted purse, but rich in a strong determination to win in the battle of life, and to assist in the great work of building up a state, the father, George Wright, went to work, and until 1861, when he left for the mines of Idaho, was recognized as one of Portland's substantial and worthy citizens. He is now living in Union, Oregon, surrounded by all the comforts of life, and enjoying the respect and confidence of all who have every known him.

     In 1882, somewhat against his judgment, he was persuaded by his fellow Republicans to accept the nomination for county clerk. The county was Democratic by about two hundred majority; but his popularity carried him through; and he was elected, and served out his term, making a splendid officer. While in that office, in 1883, he organized the First National bank of Union, of which he is now and has been since its organization cashier and manager, controlling a majority of its stock. The success of this bank has been all that anyone would wish, and, considering its situation, almost wonderful; and it proves Mr. Wright to be financier worthy of a larger and more extensive field.  His whole business career has been very successful; and at the early meridian of life we find him possessed of an ample competence and laying more extensive plans for the future. He is possessed of large landed interests in Union and Baker counties; and doubtless his future operations, guided by conservative and well-governed business principles and extensive experience, will be as successful as have been the past.

     In politics Mr. Wright is an earnest Republican, - not for office, for that he has not sought, but from principle, - and has not failed for many years to attend the state conventions of his party as a delegate from his county. He is well-informed, a great reader, and wields a trenchant pen.

     Mr. Wright is a zealous Mason, advanced to the degree of Knight Templar, and has enjoyed in the order every mark of distinction which his brethren could show. In 1883 he was elected grand master of Masons of the state of Oregon, having previously served as senior and junior grand warden and deputy grand master. His administration of the affairs of that high office was wise, discreet and able, and stamps him as an executive of high ability. His interest in the affairs of Masonry is shown by the fact that for fifteen years he has not missed an annual communication of the grand lodge, in which body he is an influential member. He is also an Odd Fellow, and a member of the A.O.U.W.

     In 1870 Mr. Wright was married to Miss Belle Mallory, a native of new York. They have a family of eight children, all strong, active and intelligent. He has a splendid home, and is surrounded by all the comforts and luxuries of life. Possessed of a vigorous constitution and sound health, his p0rospects for a long, useful and happy life could not be better. He is a man of strong character, self-reliant, slow in forming attachments; but, when once formed, they are lasting. He is devotedly attached to his family; and his home is one of the most pleasant that can be found. His life has been a successful one; and his future seems to be unclouded save with roseate shadows.

     HON. HENRY L. YESLER. - There are two very distinct types of men - those that think, and those that act. One of the former class finds his satisfaction in reaching a conclusion. One of the latter class finds his satisfaction in performing a deed. The man of thought must of necessity act more or less; but his acts are characterized by hesitation, doubt, or perhaps carelessness. He may be borne along by the activity of others, his choice of this or that being overruled by the general stream of the world's or the community's business. His performances may turn out well, or ill, not so much from anything which he does or leaves undone, as from the drift of the circumstances of others' creation. He may think like a Socrates, or like a Diogenes, and like them go barefoot, or live in a tub. Such men are of the greatest use to the world, and in the course of their lives may make plain and simple a world of discordant facts by discovering the true theory of their relation; but their tremendous mental fervor seldom goes outside of their own brains.

644                                                     HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST - OREGON AND WASHINGTON.

     On the contrary, the man of action, while he thinks, plans and examines, does all his thinking merely to carry it into some visible effect, to form an empire, to make a state, to build a railroad or mill, to open a farm, or to make a home. The thinker is conscious chiefly of the process of his thoughts, and cannot well hold his mind upon anything else. The actor is chiefly conscious of what he is doing, and usually has no sensation or remembrance of the course of thought which led him to his deed. His actions seem to be intuitive; and there is no appreciable period between impression and performance. His hands and feet move with the operations of his mind; and at every important turn his acts are impulsive. When a man has this type of temperament or character joined to a strong and accurate brain, he can do almost anything. The greatness of his exploits are limited only by the field or age in which he is born; and even in any place or time he will find room for greatness.

     We need not look to the bright - or dusty- names of the world's history - to Alexander or Hannibal or Caesar, to Fulton or Arkwright or Grant or Sheridan - for examples of the men of action. It is a mistake to suppose that we must go a thousand miles away from home, or a few centuries back in the world's history, for the first and best qualities. We find them on the Pacific coast as well as on the Atlantic or in Europe. We have them here, perhaps in the rough quartz, not yet refined by the process of history, in which the trivial, the "common and unclean" is separated and lost out of sight from the perfect and enduring.

     We are led to these reflections from observing how many of the pioneers of the Pacific slope have been almost typically men of action. Brought face to face with dangers and difficulties by sea or land, having before them the solution of Indian troubles, and of the problem of existence when the means of subsistence were the most scanty, their faculties for prompt and courageous action seemed to have been sharpened; and a thousand hard experiences have crystallized into a second nature distinguished by penetration and facility. This type of mind, so largely developed by the conditions of pioneer days, shows itself in the business men of the coast. We sometimes hear that our business is sluggish, that our methods are superannuated, and that our leaders are slow. But the cold statistics show that per capita the people of the Pacific Northwest produce more than any other people in the world. The volume of business done here per year is enormous. it is true that our great resources have been scarcely touched as yet. Gold, silver, lead, iron, copper and coal lie undug and almost unknown. The plow has scarcely scratched our fields. The orchards of the future are not yet planted. We have water-power sufficient for the world, five falls of the Columbia being sufficient to supply force, to be conveyed away by electric cables, for all the manufactories of the Union; and all yet remain in their primal wilderness.

     It is yet to be fully recognized that Washington and Oregon have facilities enjoyed by no other part of the world for great world-wide enterprises. When we mine mill and manufacture for the world, we shall reap the full benefit conferred upon us by the bounty of nature. In a few lines has this been done, and with the most satisfactory results. Our wheat, our fish and our lumber o to all parts of America and the old world.

     We may appropriately name this ere; for Mr. Yesler, of Seattle, of whom we are writing, is the pioneer  in the manufacture of Puget Sound lumber for the world's market. He is one of our Western men of action, whose nerves are not far from his brain; and he, of all men, was the first to put into practical and remunerative effect, if indeed, he did not first conceive, the plan of opening the great forest of the Sound to the markets of all ports. California, Mexico, Central America, the Pacific coast of South America, the South Sea Islands, Japan, China, the Straits Settlements and Australia are now regular consumers of Puget Sound lumber; and timber grown on our shores floats on every sea in the world. This gigantic business once existed only as an idea in Mr. Yesler's brain. Beginning with his efforts, it now exists as a notable part of the world's commerce. It is yet, however, but upon the threshold of its future magnitude. There are two hundred billion feet of timber left standing, despite the ravages of the axe and fire. It will last a century at four times the present rate of consumption; and by that time the second growth, now from ten to fifty years old, will be ready for the saw. This presupposes some care of our forests, however.

     Washington Territory is indebted to Washington in Maryland for her pioneer in the timber business; for Mr. Yesler was born there in 1810. He resided in that city until he was of age, when he removed to Ohio, remaining nineteen years. In 1851 he came to Oregon with his family, and worked in Portland at his trade of a carpenter and millwright. Desiring some employment more in the nature of a business of his own, he went to California soon afterwards, operating a mine at Magnolia. Still feeling himself capable of greater things, and having a penchant for the seacoast, he sought a place for some great lumbering business, with an opening on tide water, with a world of timber to draw upon, and with the world for his market. This he found on Puget Sound, at Seattle, where he put up a steam sawmill of a capacity of fifteen thousand feet per day, - a "little mill," but the forerunner of all the mills on the Sound. From the establishment of this enterprise we may date the prosperity of Seattle itself. In those early days, 1854, the only available labor was Indians, whom the proprietor employed in large numbers, treating them so honestly and kindly that in the difficulties of the succeeding year he was able to be of the highest service to the territory.

     Governor Stevens, looking for a man to visit the hostile savages and propose terms for agreement, could find no one more fully possessing their confidence than Mr. Yesler, who therefore made the hazardous trip and carried the reply of the chiefs to the governor, and, upon his request, went the second time alone with two friendly Indians to the hostile camp, and brought back with him one hundred of the Indians lately on the warpath, delivering them at the executive mansion. This transaction involved a personal

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prowess and sagacity, marking Mr. Yesler as a man of very high practical ability. Upon another occasion he saved the settlement from massacre by timely word sent to the naval authorities.

     When the territory was organized, he was made auditor, and held the office several terms. He has been commissioner of King county a number of times, and twice mayor of Seattle. These honors have all been in recognition of his ability and dignified discharge of public duties. During his last term as mayor, in 1885, occurred the Chinese riots. Although not a friend of foreign labor, he did not flinch from the suppression of mob violence.

     While thus occupied with public duties, and also conducting a large real-estate business, Mr. Yesler still continues the operation of his mill, which now has a capacity of eighty-five thousand feet per day. His frame is but little bent by his seventy-nine years of activity. His geniality and hospitality only expand with the widening of his field of life. It is his chief enjoyment to receive his friends and old acquaintances in his opulent home, and recall with them the scenes of past times, and, like enough, to prognosticate the events of the new times that are coming.

     No less mindful is he to entertain strangers, the newcomers, who, human-like, may begin their Western life with something of home-sickness or diffidence. It is also in his home, and homes like his, that distinguished visitors from abroad gain those favorable impressions of our coast and her people, which, carried back with them to the older centers of business and society, do us the most substantial good. Although thus occupying so prominent a public and social position, he has never forgotten to be a good neighbor to those in narrow circumstances, and has always lent a helping hand to those requiring aid.

     Mr. Yesler has been the creator of a great business, is universally known, and will ever be remembered as one of the noted founders of the Pacific Northwest.

     JUDGE HUGH G. YOAKUM. - Judge Yoakum, who enjoys a very high reputation as a man of probity and fidelity in public affairs, was born in Tennessee in 1831, and removed to Missouri in 1834. He was married in 1851. In 1863 he came to Oregon, settling in Lane county, and in 1867 made his permanent home on the Umatilla river, near the town of Nolin. The domestic circle was sadly broken by the death of his wife in 1886. But his daughter, Minnie Lee, and two sons, D.J. and H.C., still remain at the farm.

     In political life Mr. Yoakum has taken a prominent part, having been elected justice of the peace in 1868 and again in 1870. In 1872 he was chosen county judge, and was re-elected in 1876. Entering upon the duties of the latter office, he found affairs at loose ends, and the county heavily in debt. The clerk of the former court had taken the privilege of issuing county warrants of which the board of commissioners have found no record; and the stub books were destroyed. The presentation of these warrants, which still continues to a limited extent, made strict economy necessary. Vigilance was further repaired as to expenses, by the disproportion of crime in the county, made by its being the rendezvous of miners, etc., and by the extra pay of three per cent allowed witnesses, jurors, etc., - on account of the greater expense of travel in that region. From all these reasons improvements were not largely made; but the county was put in splendid shape for them now. For his ability shown in office, as well as for his sterling qualities in private and personal life, Judge Yoakum is held in high esteem by all his fellow-citizens and the community generally.

     EDWARD THOMAS YOUNG. - Young's Hotel, at the capital of Washington Territory, is a conspicuous building, well known to the traveling public and to the members of the legislature, and is the pride of the city. Its proprietor, whose name it bears, is a native of London, England. He was born in 1846. At an early age he crossed the water and lived with his parents at Newcastle, Canada. Subsequently he went to Bruce county, near Lake Huron, where he worked at the carpenter's trade and general building, and acquired the means to cross the continent.

     He came with a brother, William, to Santa Barbara, and there still further increased his capital by strict attention to contracting and building. Sickness, however, set him afloat once more; and in Oregon he found employment as bridge builder on the Oregon and California Railroad. Advancing northward, he reached Olympia in 1869. He still continued hi trade of house and general building, and in 1872, after a brief sojourn in Old Tacoma, started the restaurant and bakery at Olympia, afterwards known as the New England Bakery and Restaurant, conducting it with such satisfactory results as to warrant him in enlarging his business by the lease of the Tacoma Hotel. Three years and eight months of operating that house enabled him to make the building his own by purchase; and he has since kept it up to its old mark of popularity, indeed, passing that mark with each successive season.

     In 1882, in company with his wife, he made a tour of the Eastern states, visiting his old home in Canada. Upon his return to the United States he visited Washington City, and secured the order for the opening to settlement of a strip of land fifteen miles wide and sixty miles long across the entire reservation of chief Moses. His efforts at the same time went far towards throwing open the entire reservation to the public. The valuable silver quartz mines there, in which he and others were interested, was his incentive to accomplish the work of opening the country for settlement.

     Mr. Young is president of the Eagle Mining Company of Mount Chopaaca and Smilkimeen mining district, Okanagan county. This county has been created since the reservation was thrown open. It previously formed a part of Stevens county.

     Arriving home from his trip, he again assumed the management of his hotel, adding such improvements as the progress of the times and growth of the city demanded.

     He has filled public offices, having been mayor of Olympia, and member of the council ten years

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