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History of Lycoming County Pennsylvania
edited by John F. Meginness; 1892

CHAPTER XXII.

WILLIAMSPORT (CONTINUED).

THE FIRST JOURNALISTIC VENTURE AT WILLIAMSPORT AND ITS SUBSEQUENT HISTORY - SUCCESSION OF NEWSPAPERS TO THE PRESENT TIME - RELIGIOUS, HISTORICAL, LITERARY SOCIAL, AND MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS.


THE first newspaper founded in Williamsport was the Lycoming Gazette, by William F. Buyers. He was born in Sunbury, January 12, 1782, son of John Buyers, a prominent merchant, and learned the trade of a printer with Breyvogel. In Kennedy's Gazette of October 26, 1801, the statement is made that "William F. Buyers has now established a printing office at Williamsport," from which it is inferred that he entered on his career as a newspaper publisher immediately after completing his apprenticeship.

It would seem from this that. the Gazette was started in the autumn of 1801. Buyers was then in his twentieth year. He is first assessed in Loyalsock in 1802 with "one printing office." In 1805 he is assessed with "one house and lot, $75; one horse, $16; occupation, printer, $100;" total valuation, $191.

No copies of the first issues of the paper are known to be in existence. It was printed on very coarse paper 20x17, and had four columns to the page. The oldest known copies that have been preserved are dated 1806 and 1807, and they bear his name. A copy dated January 22, 1807, before the writer, is Volume V, No. 45, which would run it back to 1801. The early years of his publication were attended with many vicissitudes. He frequently missed a publication day, and doubtless was often on the point of giving up his enterprise in despair. But he struggled on and succeeded in founding a newspaper which has had many eminent men including a Governor and chief justice-connected with it.

Buyers published the Gazette alone until 1808, when William Brindle became associated with him as a partner, and he soon after disposed of his interest and returned to Sunbury. Some time in 1812 he established the Sunbury Times, which he continued until 1816 or 1817. On the breaking out of the war of 1812 Buyers raised a company and was made captain. It was attached to the Seventy-seventh Regiment. On the 13th of December, 1815, he married Miss Martha, daughter of Alexander Hunter, of Sunbury; in 1815-18 he served as commissioner of Northumberland county. In the meantime (1816) he was a Federal candidate for Congress, but was defeated. His death occurred at Sunbury, June 27, 1821, at the age of thirty-nine.

Buyers on his retirement from the Gazette was succeeded by I. K. Torbert, and the publication of the paper was then continued by Brindle & Torbert for a short time. The former then retired, when Torbert continued alone until 1819. Ellis Lewis, who had partly learned his trade with John Wyeth, of Harrisburg, then became associated with him., He afterwards became celebrated as a jurist, and reached the high position of chief justice of the Supreme court of Pennsylvania.

How long the partnership of Brindle & Lewis lasted is unknown. When, Torbert retired Lewis published the paper until July, 1821, when he sold to Tunison Coryell, who conducted it until August 1, 1823, when it was purchased by Henry Miller and John Brandon. This firm lasted until August 1, 1827, when Miller sold his interest to Col. James Cameron. The firm of Brandon & Cameron only lasted till the 19th of December, 1827, when William F. Packer - afterward Governor of Pennsylvania purchased Cameron's interest. (Cameron commanded a regiment at the first battle of Bull Run and was killed.) The firm of Brandon & Packer survived until August 17, 1829, when Packer purchased the entire concern and became editor and purchaser. December 19, 1832, he associated John R. Eck with him as a partner and they published the paper until May 11, 1836, when Packer retired and Eck conducted it till June 21, 1837. At this date it was consolidated with the Chronicle, a rival paper, and continued by John R. Eck and C. D. Eldred, under the title of the Gazette and Chronicle, until May 9, 1838, when Eldred retired and Eck again became sole editor and publisher, and be continued as such until June 20, 1838, when he sold out to Eldred. The latter then dropped the Chronicle, and resuming the original title of Lycoming Gazette, continued until the 13th of August, 1840. These were warm political times and the Gazette was a potent factor in the advocacy of Democratic doctrines.

In 1840 C. W. Fitch purchased the paper of Eldred and continued as its publisher up to February 10, 1842, when John F. Carter became associated with him; May 7, 1842, Fitch retired and Carter continued it alone. He was a brilliant and fascinating writer, but was regarded as somewhat slippery as a politician. On the 11th of February, 1843, John B. Beck became a partner; and March 4, 1843, he became publisher, with Carter as editor, which arrangement lasted till November 18, 1843, when Carter, owing to political dissatisfaction, retired and was succeeded by Hamlet A. Kerr as editor, with Beck still as publisher. Kerr continued as editor till August 17, 1844, when he retired and the firm was changed to Beck & Company. Political strife was rife about this time.

On the 24th of June, 1846, C. D. Eldred, who was the "Company" with Beck, became editor and publisher, and continued as such until February 17, 1850, when P. T. Wright associated himself with Eldred. Beck subsequently became sheriff of the county, member of Assembly, and State Senator. He died, October 25, 1890. The brilliant and erratic Carter died at Washington during the early years of the war.

Eldred & Wright conducted the paper until February 17, 1851, when the former retired and Wright published and edited it until February 17, 1855, when J. W. Clark, son-in-law of Governor Packer, took an interest as partner. The firm of

Wright & Clark existed till August 17, 1855, when the senior member retired. For many years Mr. Wright has been the chief editor of the, Philadelphia Record. Clark published the paper one year, when he sold out to Atwood & Wilson, February 17, 1856. The latter retired, August 18, 1856, and N. L. Atwood continued till January 21, 1857, when he disposed of the establishment to Clark & Higgins. It was published by this firm up to September 24, 1865, when it passed into the hands of Charles T. Huston & Company.

For more than half a century the Gazette had been published as a weekly newspaper, but an important change was about to take place in its history. The firm of Huston & Company resolved to make it a daily, and on April 9, 1867, the first number was issued as a six-column evening paper. December 9, 1807, A. E. Scholl purchased an interest and it was published under the firm name of Huston, Scholl & Company up to January 1, 1868, when A. J. Trout became a partner, having purchased the third interest of Thomas Smith (the "Company") and the firm was changed to Huston, Scholl & Trout.

On the 20th of May, 1868, the daily was enlarged to a seven-column paper and issued in the morning instead of evening. This firm continued until the 23d of December, 1868, when Scholl sold his interest to A. J. Dietrick, and the business was conducted under the firm name of Huston, Trout & Company. No further change occurred until the 27th of February, 1869, when A. J. Trout sold his interest to A. J. Dietrick, and the firm was changed to Huston & Company. On the 21st of July, 1869, Dietrick purchased Huston's interest and, became sole proprietor, with John F. Meginness as editor. Under this arrangement the paper was published until November 22, 1869, when it was consolidated with the West Branch Bulletin under the title of Gazette and Bulletin, and published by the Gazette and Bulletin Publishing Association, with a capital stock of $50,000. Peter Herdic, then in the zenith of his career, was the capitalist and held a controlling interest. E. W. Capron, who was editor of the Bulletin, became editor of the Gazette and Bulletin, with John F. Meginness as city editor; and J. B. G. Kinsloe, Capron's partner, was made publisher for the association.

Up to this time, a period of sixty-eight years, the Gazette had been a Democratic paper, but after consolidation with the Bulletin it became Republican in politics, and has so continued to the present day. The new management changed in a few years by the retirement of Capron, who was succeeded by Meginness as editor. About 1873 Kinsloe sold his interest to Herdic, who became sole owner of the plant. The services of A. J. Dietrick were then secured as publisher, while there was no change in the editorship.

April 14, 1874, Herdic engaged C. E. Fritcher as publisher, with James H. Lambert, of New York, as editor, when Meginness resumed his old desk as city editor. This combination continued until May, 1876, when Lambert resigned to take charge of the St. Louis Times as managing editor. This involved another change in the staff. The editorship again devolved on Meginness, and J. J. Galbraith was appointed city editor, and served until the autumn of 1882. Fritcher soon acquired a controlling interest and the paper was conducted with spirit until the spring of 1889, when he sold his interest to Orange Brown, who became owner and manager. On the 9th of November, 1889, after a continuous service for over twenty years, Meginness resigned to engage exclusively in literary pursuits. He was soon after succeeded by his son, W. W. Meginness, who has continued as editor up to the present 'time. When J. J. Galbraith retired in 1872 he was succeeded by James B. McMath as city editor, who still fills that position.

From being first printed on a cheap band press the Gazette and Bulletin has steadily progressed until it uses a fine cylinder press, stereotypes its forms, and prints from a continuous roll. It is an eight-page quarto morning paper.

Fred. Kurtz, editor and publisher of the Reporter, Centre Hall, Pennsylvania, owns the old band press on which the Gazette was first printed ninety years ago. It came into his hands by purchase, and is, still used to print handbills.

A weekly paper called the Lycoming Advertiser was started in 1815, by Simpson & Gale, and continued about six months.

The Lycoming Chronicle was commenced September 26, 1829, by A. Boyd Cummings, and continued until January 9, 1833, when he was succeeded by his brother, Alexander Cummings, who published it until September 7, 1836, when C. D. Eldred became a partner. This firm existed until April 12, 1837, when Cummings retired and Eldred conducted the paper until it was consolidated with the Gazette, June 21, 1837. A. Boyd Cummings, the founder, donated Brandon park to the city a year or two before his death. It was so named in commemoration of his only sister, who was the wife of John Brandon, one of the publishers of the old Gazette from 1823 to 1827. Mr. Cummings died in Philadelphia, March 1, 1891, in his eighty-fifth year. Alexander Cummings was one of the founders of the New York World; then of the Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, and The Day, in the same city. He was Governor of the Territory of Colorado before its admission in 1876, and died, March 7, 1879, while serving as United States consul at Ottawa, Canada.

The Free Press was commenced in July, 1836, by R. F. Middleton, who published it about one year, when it passed into the hands of Cramer & Reed. It was also published by Loehr & Middleton a short time, and discontinued in 1838.

The publication of The Freeman was begun about 1839 by John R. Eck and continued by him until 1840, when W. P. & James R. Coulter purchased the materials and commenced the West Branch Republican, which was discontinued in 1842. The materials were bought by John Sloan, who started the Lycoming Sentinel. It lived about a year, when The North Pennsylvanian was founded on its ruins by John F. Carter, but it died in about six months.

The Jackson Democrat was launched in 1845 by J. M. Newson and G. W. Armstrong. The former soon retired, when Armstrong and S. S. Seely published it about a year.

On the 4th of June, 1851, John F. Carter commenced the publication of the Lycoming Democrat for the purpose of making war on some of the Democratic leaders. It was a lively paper for a time; June 28, 1851, John R. Eck became a partner, but retired November 29, 1851. Carter conducted it till the fall of 1852, when it died, aged a year and a half.

The Independent Press was established out of the materials of the Lycoming Democrat in April, 1852, by J. W. Barrett; in the fall of 1855 he sold out to a company and F. A. Van Clove was employed as editor. After issuing a few numbers he discontinued publication. No paper was issued till the spring of 1856, when publication was resumed by J. W. Barrett and C. H. Butt. The former retired, October 18, 1856, and was succeeded by Jesse Fullmer. About 1860 Daniel Bower became connected with the paper. Leonard Ulmer was also the editor for a short time. Early in 1861 it was suspended.

A German weekly paper called Der Demokratische Burger (The Democratic Citizen) was started in July, 1852, by Lewis Kurtz. He continued it for three years, when he removed to Rochester.

On the 6th of June, 1860, the West Branch Bulletin was started as a semi-weekly by John M. McMinn and the Rev. Cyrus Jeffries. It was projected as a special advocate of the railroad enterprises centering in Williamsport, as well as the development of the resources of the West Branch valley. It dropped back to a weekly paper, November 17, 1860, when it passed into the hands of P. C. Van Gelder & John R. Campbell. This firm continued until the 31st of January, 1861, when Van Gelder became sole* proprietor; October 26th of the same year, J. D. Wallace became one of the proprietors and chief editor. The firm of Van Gelder & Wallace was dissolved, August 12, 1862, and Van Gelder again became the sole proprietor. On the 1st of January, 1862, John A. Woodward purchased a half interest and the firm became Van Gelder & Woodward; April 1st of the same year E. W. Capron added a power press and a caloric engine and became a partner. It was then a six-column paper, having been reduced on account of "war times." May 30, 1863, it was enlarged to a seven-column sheet; June 6th Mr. Woodward sold his interest to his two partners, and the firm became Van Gelder & Company, who continued the publication until June 4, 1864, when J. B. G. Kinsloe purchased the interest of Van Gelder, and the firm became E. W. Capron & Company. On the 3d of August, 1868, the daily Bulletin was started as a campaign paper of four columns, but it met with so much encouragement that it was continued after the election of November following, and was enlarged to five columns and published daily until its union with the Gazette, November 22, 1869.

In the summer of 1867 Col. L. L. Tate, a veteran newspaper publisher, came to Williamsport and started the daily Lycoming Standard. Charles W. Emery was one of the editorial staff. In 1869 Andrew Hopkins purchased a half interest, and in November of the same year he became sole owner. Soon afterwards he sold to other parties, and W. P. Furey became the editor. He was succeeded in a short time by H. L. Dieffenbach; then came Joe W. Furey and William Dillon, who conducted the daily a short time and then discontinued it.

Colonel Tate's next venture was the weekly Sun and Democrat, which he started in July, 1870, and in 1880 sold out to J. Sallade & Son, who merged it in the daily Banner under the title of Sun and Banner. The last paper started by Tate was the Lycoming Chronicle, which he issued in 1880, and carried it on until his death, which occurred April 30, 1883, in his seventy-third year.

On the 4th of October, 1860, The West Branch Democrat, Charles T. Huston editor and publisher, was started. In 1865 the material of the old Lycoming Gazette was purchased by Charles T. Huston and Thomas Smith, and the firm became Huston & Company. The name of Gazette only was retained. In April, 1867, the initial number of the Daily Gazette was issued by Huston, Scholl & Trout, and July 21, 1869, Mr. Huston withdrew, A. J. Dietrick having secured the interests of all the partners. Huston then Wok up his residence at Athens, Pennsylvania, where he started a paper called The Gleaner.

While conducting the Gazette in the spring of 1866, Mr. Huston was visited by Governor Packer and ex-Chief Justice Lewis. Both had been connected with the, paper years before, and while in the office they gave an interesting account of their experiences as newspaper publishers. And to show that he had not forgotten his trade, Packer took up a stick and set type with the ease and correctness of a veteran at the case, while Lewis looked on to see that he did it right.

The Independent Press made its bow to the public in 1862, with John R. Campbell publisher and Leonard Ulmer editor. It scarcely survived a year.

In June, 1874, E. B. Haines commenced the publication of The Weekly Banner; February 1, 1875, he issued an evening daily, which he continued until October 9, 1879, when the plant was sold to G. E. Otto Seiss, who, on the 26th of February, 1880, sold to J. Sallade & Son; they amalgamated it with the Sun and Democrat under the title of the Sun and Banner, and Charles T. Huston was recalled from Athens and made chief editor. He served in that capacity until J. M. Wolf & Company purchased the plant, when Henry M. Wolf became editor. On the 18th of April, 1882, a stock company was organized under the name of the Sunland Banner Publishing Company, in which J. W. Sweely secured a controlling interest, July 7, 1884; Mr. Sweely at once assumed the editorial and business management of the Sun, and has since continued its publication. The Sun is equipped with a perfecting press, stereotypes its pages, and prints from a continuous roll, It is an eight-column evening folio, and circulates nearly 5,000 copies, daily, a circulation approached by few inland Pennsylvania dailies. Its weekly circulation is over 4,000 copies. Among its home constituency it has earned the reputation of being particularly industrious in its efforts to assist and promote the industrial interests and development of Williamsport. It is one of the leading journals of the West Branch valley, and is a vigorous exponent and defender of Democratic principles.

When E. W. Capron disposed of his interest in the Gazette and Bulletin to Herdic in 1872, he soon afterwards commenced the publication of a little afternoon daily, called The Epitomist. It only existed for a few months.

In October, 1872, J. J. Galbraith and W. R. Bierly launched a new afternoon daily which they called The Register. It ran along at a lively pace until 1874, when it was suspended. The material used. in its publication had formerly belonged to The Epitomist.

The Times, edited and published by Alexander C, Wilson, appeared April 4, 1877, as a weekly, and was soon followed by an afternoon daily edition. It only lasted a few months, when it suspended for want of support. Wilson was for a number of years employed on the New York Times as an editorial writer and for ten years was in charge of the London office of the Associated Press.

On the 4th of April, 1875, The Sunday Times made its appearance. It was a quarto sheet of forty-eight columns and was published by E. S. Watson, S. S. Hetherlin, and J. B. McMath; Emanuel Andrews was the owner of the material. Before the close of the year Watson and McMath withdrew, leaving Mr. Hetherlin sole publisher. About the middle of April, 1876, Watson took the place of Hetherlin and ran the paper for a few months, when it was finally discontinued. This was the first Sunday paper in Williamsport. The material was purchased by G. E. Otto Seiss and moved to his book store to be used in starting a job office.

A German paper, the Susquehanna Zeitung, was started as a Republican, journal in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1862, by Karl Volkmar; in January, 1864, he moved the plant to Williamsport. At the close of the war the Zeitung came out as an independent journal. From March, 1872, to November, 1875, a partnership existed between Mr. Volkmar and Jacob Heilhecker. When the latter retired Mr. Volkmar continued alone for two or three years, or until his death. His son, William Volkmar, then published the paper until December 15, 1888, when it was purchased by Carl Tewell. He changed the name to Pennsylvania Tribune and is still the publisher.

Contemporary with the Zeitung, the Sendbote, a German Baptist church paper, appeared under the control of Rev. Hendrick, and was published about two years. In 1864 Jacob Heilhecker started the West Branch Beobachter, which had about one year's existence. In 1869 the National Democrat sprang into being, under the control of a Mr. Stephen, and was published here till 1872, when it was removed to Wilkesbarre, where it afterwards suspended. The West Branch Beobachter was resuscitated in 1872 by some parties in Philadelphia. It has been controlled for a number of years by George Wolf, of Williamsport.

The second Sunday paper, The Breakfast Table, was founded March 7,1879, by John G. Hammer, J. Willis Dietrick, and S. Vin Derrah. About a year afterwards J. W. Sweely became associate editor; then, in a short time, Harry Sterner and Sweely became sole publishers. The former soon retired and Sweely continued alone until May, 1887, when George S. Lenhart, the present publisher, purchased the plant. In March, 1889, he changed it to a Saturday paper.

The Dickinson Liberal, published by the Belles Lettres Union Society of Williamsport Dickinson Seminary, is a magazine of fourteen pages, which appears monthly from October to June of each year. It was established in 1877. Editor for 1892, W. W. Hartman.

The Rev. T. F. Caskey, rector of Trinity church, started The Parish Dial in January, 1876. It was a monthly magazine of thirty-two pages and contained a "record. of the lights and shadows of parish life." Mr. Caskey continued it for several years, or until the close of his rectorship. It was well edited and in its mechanical execution it was unexcelled.

The National Standard, a Greenback organ, was started in 1877 by Peter Herdic and edited by J. W. Schuckers. The editor had been a confidential clerk to Salmon P. Chase when he was Secretary of the Treasury and afterwards became his biographer. The Standard was published about two years.

Star of Hope, a temperance paper, by A. B. Tate and H. H. Hanks, was commenced September 1, 1877. In 1878 J, D. Wallace became the editor, Tate still continuing as publisher. W. C. Dickson was also associated with, it. It suspended some time in 1882, when a monthly called Facts appeared. It existed nearly a year and then suspended.

What developed into the third Sunday paper, called Pennsylvania Grit, was originated by the Rev. Henry M. Wolf, when he was editor of the daily Sun and Banner. It was originally a literary edition of the daily, published on Saturday. Rev. J. M. Scott, then pastor of a Baptist church in Jersey Shore, aided Mr. Wolf in the conception of the idea, and became a contributor. In this way Grit was started in. December, 1882. About this time Rev. Wolf retired from the editorship of the daily on account of political disagreements, but he felt that Grit was his own property. The Daily Times was then offered for sale, when, in connection with D. Lamade and W. W. Foster, Wolf purchased the material and the trio issued the paper as a Saturday venture. May 26, 1884, Wolf retired from the firm; and on the 16th of March, 1884, Grit appeared as a Sunday paper. In the meantime George W. Reanhard had become a member of the firm. The first issue yielded a trifle over $4! The publishers, having no machinery, were obliged to have their paper printed on the press of the Sun and Banner. After much hard work and many discouragements, the paper began to grow steadily, and their receipts soon averaged $40 a week, but the expenses were more than double that sum. Foster now became discouraged and sold his share to Fred. M. Lamade and retired. The new firm struggled along and finally succeeded in getting the paper on a paying basis. They now own a substantial building and have a magnificently equipped office, fast cylinder presses, stereotyping and engraving departments, and a circulation of 100,000 weekly. . Their machinery is driven by electricity. This is what grit accomplished.

In the month of December, 1885, Rev. S. P. Hughes, pastor of St. Paul's Lutheran church, commenced the publication of St. Paul's Quarterly, a paper devoted to church matters. Among other excellent features, it gave an interesting and valuable history of the church from its foundation in 1871. The quarterly was continued by Mr. Hughes until his retirement as pastor in the summer of 1891.

The Keystone News, published on Saturday as a literary family paper. made its appearance the first week of December, 1885, and ceased to exist the following April. The editor was Elmer E. Burlingame, with Noah L. Houghton as manager. The material of the defunct News was purchased by several parties and the Merchants' Printing House, a job printing concern, started therewith, which is now connected with the daily Republican.

Some time in 1885 The Labor Record was founded by W. M. Hoover and several associates, under the auspices of the Knights of Labor, and was the mouthpiece of that organization. It was published about two years, when, in 1887, it was purchased by Dan Riley, who ran it until February 22, 1890, when it was suspended.

The Dental Reformer, a monthly devoted to the interest of the dental profession, was started in 1886 by A. S. Rhoads and C. W. Huntington, dentists. It was discontinued at the end of two years.

The Historical Journal, a monthly record of local history and biography, was started May 1, 1887, and published one year, by John F. Meginness. It was in magazine form, with thirty-two to forty pages in each number. One thousand copies were printed, but at this writing it is almost out of print.

Pennsylvania School Monthly, a sixteen-page quarto, devoted to educational interests in Lycoming county, made its appearance in January, 1888. H L. Brewer was the first editor with Fred. Ruffhead as business manager. Prof. W. W.

Kelchner soon became editor, Ruffhead continuing as manager until the latter part of 1890, when the entire paper was sold to W. R. Leathers. It was suspended with the issue for March, 1891.

On the 19th of September, 1887 the Lycoming Recorder was commenced by Mr. Huston as a weekly Democratic paper. It was discontinued, November 5, 1888. The Williamsport Weekly News, a campaign temperance paper, was issued by Irwin & Huston from April until June, 1889, and resumed in September of the same year and published until November, 1889, under the auspicies of the Prohibition County Committee.

Music and Mirth, a monthly magazine, devoted to the interest of musical organizations, was started in May, 1887, by Charles T. Logue. It has a good circulation among those who love music.

The Item made its first appearance as an afternoon paper March 21, 1888. The owners were E. F. Wolf, Robert Mulligan, Orlando S. Moritz, Samuel Gerstenlauer, W. M. Hoover, and Gustavus Guilka, all practical printers, and they ran it on the co-operative plan as an independent paper. It was continued until August 27th of that year, when the plant was purchased by Elmer E. Person, who published it until April, 1889, when the Republican Publishing Company was formed. On May 18th it appeared under the new name, Williamsport Republican, and on that date the weekly edition was established. John Bailey was business manager and H. L. Collins was editor. In October of that year Messrs. Bailey and Collins retired from the paper, the former to enter the mercantile business and the latter to accept a position on the Philadelphia Record. Mr. John P. Dwyer, of Renovo, assumed the editorial and business management of the paper, which continues the same. The Republican was the first of the Williamsport newspapers to build a complete establishment for its business, and has occupied its handsome four-story building on Government place near the postoffice since early in the year 1891. The office is well equipped with first-class presses, and the machinery is driven by electricity.

Ripples, an illustrated weekly journal of humor, sports, society, and current events, was. first published June 28, 1890, by L. R. Kantner and E. F. Whitmer. In November of the same year it was sold to the junior partner, and by him sold to T. C. Foster, December 16, 1890, who is the present publisher. There are eighteen pages to each number.

The Church Chronicle, published monthly, by pastors of St. Mark's congregation, came into existence several years ago, and is still continued. The present editor is Rev. George G. Kunkle.

Industrial Union was the title of a handsome weekly quarto, with six columns to the page, issued April 23, 1891, W. B. Thompson, manager. It was "published under the auspices of the Farmers' Alliance in the interest of the industrial classes." Three numbers ended its career.

Vade Mecum, "a monthly journal of practical knowledge," made its bow to the public, June 6,1891. It contained eight pages with two columns to the page, and was edited and published by P. M. Coup. Two thousand copies of each issue were printed and distributed. It existed three months.

The Union, a monthly folio, three columns to the page, under the management of W. B. Thompson, appeared in September, 1891. It is "devoted to the interests of the various labor unions and their members."

The Band World, a fourteen-page monthly publication, devoted to music and the interests of the Distin Musical Instrument Manufactory, made its appearance in December, 1891. Brua C. Keefer manager.

The Mirror, a sixteen-page quarterly, devoted to men's wear, made its appearance in March, 1892. Published by Silverman Brothers & Company; editor, Joseph E. Austrian; associate, Fred. C. Ruffhead; business manager, Charles R. Harris. Handsomely illustrated.

The Otzinachson, a monthly magazine, devoted to literature in general, was started in April, 1892, by M. L. Fisher and H. B. Mingle. It contains fourteen pages to each number.

The Index, a monthly publication in the interest of the Prohibition party, was commenced in April, 1892. The names of H. T. Ames, chairman, and C. W. Huntington, secretary, appear as the responsible publishers.

Children of the Brave, a monthly magazine of sixteen pages, devoted to the interests of sons and daughters of veteran soldiers, sailors, and marines, was founded in May 1892, by J. Ward Diehl.


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