LYCOMING county, in addition to one city and nine boroughs, is divided into forty-two townships, or civil subdivisions. In area the county is the second largest in the State, having, according to the figures of the Land Office, 1,213 square miles. Centre is the largest, containing 1,227 square miles. Of the townships of Lycoming county, Pine is the largest in area, containing 48,640 acres, and all others will be compared with it when speaking of relative size. Porter is the smallest, containing 2,880 acres, and therefore is the forty-second in size. Mill Creek is the youngest. The geological references are condensed from a forthcoming exhaustive work on the geology of the county by Abraham Meyer. The census of 1890 gave the county a population of 70,579.
Muncy is the mother of all the townships in Lycoming county, north of the river. It was created by order of the court of Northumberland county, April 9, 1772, sitting at Fort Augusta, and was the sixth of the seven townships into which that great county, just formed, was divided. Its original boundaries were defined as follows:
Beginning on the west side of the West Branch of the Susquehanna opposite the end of Muncy Hill; thence up the West Branch to opposite the mouth of Lycoming; thence crossing the Branch up Lycoming to the head thereof; thence by a southeast line to the Muncy Hill; thence along the top of the same to the West Branch, and crossing it to the beginning.
Whilst the southern and western lines are clearly defined, the northern and eastern are indefinite, until the range of Muncy Hills is struck. It is clear, however, that a great territory was included within these lines, a territory that has since served to make fully twenty townships. And, although Muncy was the first 120 years ago, she has been so mercilessly shorn of her territory that to-day she stands the twenty-seventh in relative size in the county, and has an area of but 9,440 acres.
Muncy derives it's name from the Monsey tribe of Indians that once dwelt within its borders. When it was erected Mordecai McKinney was appointed a justice of the peace. He was followed by Robert Robb, who was appointed July 29, 1775, and again on the 26th of October, 1791. The first constable was John Robb.
An Early Boundary Line. - The indefinite northern boundary line seems to have concerned many of the inhabitants early in the present century, and a commission was appointed to more clearly define it, judging from the following curious report addressed to the "Judge of the court of common pleas for the county of Lycoming," found among the old papers relating to the township:
We the subscribers being named by Joseph Priestley, Jr., on the one part, (acting in behalf of the settlers on the back parts of Muncy township, in the beech woods,) and sundry inhabitants of the front part of Muncy township aforesaid, to take into consideration and report what may appear to us as a proper boundary line between the said township and one to be erected, (if agreed to by the court,) including the back parts and the settlements above alluded to, on conferring together now agree to give it as our sense that it will be proper that a line be ginning at Muncy creek at the Indian picture, and extending westwardly or northwestwardly, until it intersects the road as it now stands, leading from Abraham Webster's towards John Hill's, two miles to the north of the said Webster's; and from thence westwardly or southwestwardly, corresponding with the general course or direction of the Allegheny mountain, until it strikes Loyalsock creek, shall constitute the said division line and be the northern boundary of Muncy township aforesaid.
December 7, 1803.
BENJAMIN WARNER, JR.
If the first line was indefinite the second was very little better, but it was, probably, the best the commissioners could do in that wilderness region by following "the course or direction of the Allegheny mountain." As a base line it was certainly substantial. The Mr. Priestley referred to was a son of Dr. Priestley, of Northumberland, and he was interested in a large body of land in that part of the county.
Disintegration. - Before Lycoming county was created, (April 13, 1795,) the work of disintegrating the territory which composed the great township of Muncy was commenced. At February sessions, 1786, the Northumberland court, on petition, authorized the erection, of Loyalsock township from the territory,) lying between Loyalsock and Lycoming, creeks. This was the first division, and it was necessitated by the increase of population. The next reduction was in 1797, when Muncy Creek township was formed by dividing Muncy. In 1804 Shrewsbury was organized, and Muncy lost the greater portion of her immense mountain fastnesses in the north. In 18218 territory enough to form Penn township was taken from her. This took what then remained east of Big Muncy creek. Six years later, or in 1834, Wolf township was cut off. And finally, in 1878, after an era of peace and prosperity of almost half a century, the spirit of secession seized the people of the southern portion of the mother of townships and another division was demanded. A line was run from east to west over the hills some distance above the center of her now reduced domain, and the northern section-about one-third of, the territory then remaining was organized into a township and called Mill Creek. The vote on the question of division was pretty evenly divided, there being 122 in the affirmative an . d 104 in the negative. The reason for division was an allegation on the part of the seceders that the residents of the northern part of the territory were not fully assessed and therefore did not pay their full share of the taxes.
Muncy as now constituted is bounded as follows: On the east by Wolf, on the north by Mill Creek, on the west by Lower Fairfield, and on the south by the river and Muncy Creek township. Thus stands the great original township of 1772, shorn to comparatively small proportions. Considering her extent and surroundings, it is not likely that she will soon be disturbed again; indeed she should hot; she should stand as the monument of our corporate beginning.
The census of 1890 gives the township a population of 701. The enumeration made in 1796 gave the township 378 taxables. In 1800 this number had fallen to 140. This was caused by making now townships out of her territory.
Historic Ground. - The township covers historic ground. Within her borders stood Fort Muncy, whose thrilling history has already been described. Here Samuel Wallis, the landed king, had his seat; here his Muncy Farms were located, and bore be carried on his great operations for the times. Every foot of ground in this part of the township is associated with the most thrilling incidents connected with our colonial history, and to repeat them here would be but a repetition of what has been given in the earlier chapters of this work. Near the river stood the great Indian mound which has been a puzzle to antiquarians for a hundred years, and within sight of it is one of the oldest burial ground in the county, now known as Hall's cemetery. There Capt. John Brady was buried in April, 1779, and there his ashes still repose. The grounds are kept in good condition, and a visit to the spot. where so many of the early settlers were laid is calculated to call up recollections of the stirring scones through which they passed, and the trials, sorrows, and privations which they endured.
In this cemetery members of the Hall family, who became owners of the princely estate founded by Wallis, are laid and neat but unostentatious marble tablets mark their graves. When the great estate, changed hands early in the beginning of the century, it came to be known as "Hall's Farms," a title which has still adhered to it. W. Coleman Hall, Esq., is the present owner of the original farm and the man-sion erected by Mrs. Elizabeth Hall in 1821. This stately old building adjoins the stone house built by Wallis in 1769. It is without doubt the oldest house in Lycoming county, and older by three years than the township of Muncy. The wide spreading elms, planted under the direction of Mrs. Wallis when she came there a bride 123 years ago, still stand, though showing signs of great age.
Early Land Transactions. - As early as November 3, 1786, Reuben Haines, of Philadelphia, conveyed to Catharine Greenleafe a tract of land in Muncy township containing 3,380 acres in consideration of 5s! October 20, 1794, Caspar Wistar Haines, Josiah Haines, Bartholomew Wistar, and Josiah Matlack, executors of Rueben Haines, conveyed these and other lands, amounting to 19,703 acres, including contiguous tracts, making a grand total of 24,311 acres, to Robert Morris, "the financier of the Revolution," for $24,314.75. This land did not all lie in what is now Muncy township, but it was all Muncy then, as described in the deed, and took in "the head waters of Loyalsock and Towanda creeks." Under date of April 3, 1795, Robert Morris conveyed one-half of the above lands, containing 12,7591 acres, to Dr. Thomas Parke, for 12,759.75 "Spanish milled dollars." Each tract making up this great total averaged from 403¾ to 439½ acres, and each one had a name, some of which are noted as follows: Davidsbrook, Ilchester, Newmarket, Beverly, Marlborough, Shotwell's Delight, Birmingham, Haverford, Hainesfield, Epping, Catharinesburg, Wooldrington, Castleton, Windsor, Rendle, Warrington, Greenleafe, Glasshouse, Bosworth, Davidsborough, Wistarsborough, Haines Park, Vermont, Reliance, Confidence, Tiverton, etc. - These names were nearly all of English origin, and many of them are still in use about Philadelphia, the seat of the Quaker settlements.
On the 10th of April, 1795, Dr. Parke transferred his part of the purchase to Williamina Bond for what he paid for it. Robert Morris did not long remain owner of his share of the purchase. Executions were issued against him for debt by the Supreme court of Philadelphia, directed to the sheriff of Lycoming county, and his lands were seized by Samuel Stewart, the first sheriff, and sold, bringing 12 cents an acre for the best. Stephen Hollingsworth was the purchaser. Altogether Sheriff Stewart sold in 1798 the enormous total of 177,000 acres of land belonging to. Morris, for $8,570. These lands were scattered all over Lycoming county, which comprised a vast domain at that day. The Muncy township lands were a "mere drop in the bucket," compared with his possessions. The records of these sales are still in existence and show the different "blocks" disposed of and the prices they brought.
The first deed recorded in Lycoming county recites the Reuben Haines transfer to Catharine Greenleafe, and the transactions which followed. These transfers led to the, Quaker settlement in Muncy township. One of the oldest families is that of Haines, and descendants still reside there. Samuel Wallis was of Quaker extraction and his presence attracted. others of the same faith, and thus the colony was. founded, grew, and flourished. It is related that Wallis was the first man to import English hounds into the township. These dogs were in great demand among the neighbors, and fabulous. prices were offered for them. Tradition says that Henry Shoemaker was so anxious to possess one that he offered to exchange one of his best horses for a young hound.
Geology and Topography. - Geologically Muncy township differs but little from those adjoining it. In the southwest corner occur Clinton shales (No. V), above which is Lower Helderberg (No. VI) limestone, which, on passing across the township, is exposed at Penn's Dale. Next above are. observed the Chemung measures (No. VIII) covering about the entire area of the northern part of the township. The mineral, developments are quite meager. The surface is rolling, the land is rich, and finely cultivated farms are seen on every hand.
Wolf run and Carpenter's ran are the principal streams. And although one of the first grist mills in that part of the valley was built on the latter stream by Samuel Wallis, there are none in the township today. Thomas Green once built a mill on the west side of Penn's Dale, and William Ellis one on the east side, but both have long since ceased to exist. There are no saw mills either. Cultivated fields now cover the site of the ancient forest.
Muncy township embraces a region of unsurpassed rural beauty and fertility. Though among the least in size, after being shorn of its magnificent proportions of 100 years ago, its agricultural resources are great. Prosperity, wealth, and culture are evidenced by the fine farms and attractive homes seen on all sides. For years -the township has been a favorite place of summer resort for people from. The large cities. And today Mrs. Elizabeth Ashhurst, of Philadelphia, Rev. A. D. Lawerence Jewett, and Mr. Granville B. Smith, both of New York city, and the heirs of William Ellicott, have fine summer residences in its stately oak groves or on its commanding elevations.
Villages. - Penn's Dale is the only village in the township. It was originally founded by Friends, many of whom settled in and around the place. They were attracted thither by early land transactions.
The village was originally called Pennsville then Hicksville. About 1829 Job Packer started an industry which he called the "Elizabeth Town Pottery", but no one seemed to take kindly to the name. Packer died about half, a century ago and was succeeded by a man named Fox. The pottery was finally abandoned. When the postoffice was named Penn's Dale that gave it an official character and the title now seems to be permanently fixed.
There are, two stores in Muncy township - one at Penn's Dale and one at Hartley Hall. There is a hotel at the latter place, which is the junction of the Philadelphia and Reading, and the Williamsport and Worth Branch railroads.
Postoffices.- Muncy township has two, postoffices, viz: Penn's Dale and Hartley Hall. The former was established January 18, 1841, and called Wolf Run, Jacob, A Haines was appointed. His successors have been John B. Jones, appointed January 12, 1847; John. Neece, March 29, 1855; Thomas V. B. Neece, March 7, 1863,; Joseph
Masters, August 9, 1,869; J. J. Parker, November 22,,1875; Ira J. Parker, April 30, 1886. On December 27,1889, Wolf Run was changed to Penn's Dale and Ira D. Parker appointed postmaster. He is the present incumbent.
Hartley Hall, a title formed by combining the name of Colonel Hartley with, Hall, owner of the estate, was established May 16, 1877, and W. Coleman. Hall appointed postmaster. He was succeeded by James Shoemaker, April 14, 1879; Joseph B. Eisenhart, March 15, 1881; William C. Painter, April, 17, 1882; George W. Heiny, September 30, 1885. He is the present incumbent.
Schools. - Although the township is small it has five school houses. They are named Penn's Dale, Hall's, Bush, Centre, and Oak Grove.
Churches. - The Friends' meeting house at Penn's Dale was founded in 1799, and is one of the oldest places of worship in the county. It succeeded a log building which had been used several years for a church and school house, and occupied nearly the same site. The 'first meetings of the Friends in this township were held at the house of Samuel Wallis, and it is said that he built the log meeting house, William Ellis, father of Hon. William Cox Ellis, was active in promoting the erection of the Penn's Dale house of worship. The names of some of the earliest members are yet recalled. Jesse Haines, a minister of that meeting, was frequently heard in preaching and prayer to the close of his long life, which was only six days short of a century. Mercy Ellis, who, according to the belief of Friends, that women as well as men are commissioned to preach the Gospel, was also a minister, and continued to exercise her gift up to her eighty-seventh year of her age.
One of the first marriages in that house was William Watson and Hanna Walton, in 1800; Job McCarty and Jane Walton, in 1808; Jacob Haines and Rachel Ellis, in 1815; John Warner and Louisa Atkinson, in 1821, Henry Ecroyd and Catharine Whitacre, in 1823. Many others of later date have followed. The simple yet solemn ceremony of the Friends and their Are previous to allowing a marriage to be performed, seem to have been blessed and rarely has the vow to be "loving and faithful until death" been broken in the history of their church.
Meetings were held here as early as 1791 or 1792, according to the journal of James Kitely, (See Gernerd's Now and Then, No. XVIII, 1878,) the old time schoolmaster. On the 11th of April, 1793, he enters in his journal: "This day week-day meeting opened. James Cresson and Abraham Yarnal, from Philadelphia, and Ruth Ann Rutter, attended said meeting. " .... May 5th he notes: "Joseph Moore, John Parish, and John Elliot sat in meeting with us, being on their way to an Indian treaty." They returned in September, and on the 8th of that month "sat at meeting with us." Other extracts 'from the journal read: "10 mo. 6. Jesse Haines, from Wilmington, sat with us and appeared in a short, sound testi-mony."… "17. - Thomas Nickers sat with us." .... "11 mo. 7. - Attended week-day meeting. Our esteemed friend and able minister, John Simpson, attended also, and appeared in a large, clear, sound testimony."... "20. - Opened evening school; a number of young men attended, whose education appears deplorable." .... "1795, 10 mo. 26. - Set out on foot for Philadelphia, and was extremely fatigued by the time that I reached it. Attended quarterly meeting." .... "11 mo. 12. - Deborah Darby and Rebekah Young attended our Fifth-day meeting. They had two meetings before at S. Wallis's on First and Second days. Deborah remarked that there were many of other societies who were nearer to the Kingdom than many of our own members were." . . . . "13. - This day I was called on to serve as a juryman the mournful case of Robert Reynolds, who was accidentally shot in the wilderness by one of the company whom he was out with on a hunting diversion. He greatly deplored his mournful situation, saying that "he was out as a thief in the night." ...... "1796, 1 mo. 11. - Opened school again." "21. - Being week day meeting we had the company of that eminent minister of Christ Jesus, John Wigham, of Aberdeen, Scotland, accompanied by Ebenezer Crisson, of Philadelphia – who appeared in a sound, clear, and living testimony, and was large therein.".... "24.- Being First day we had the company of our self- denying friend, Joshua Evens, from the Jerseys."…."10 mo. 16. - At meeting we had the company of. James Wilson and Samuel Pennock. James told us that it was dangerous to build a large super- structure of religion upon a small foundation,"… "1799, 10 mo. 12. - Being First day, we had the company of Abel Thomas and Amos Lew., Abel exposed the hypocrisy of such as confine their religion to sitting demurely in meeting for an hour or two, once or twice a week. Although, his ministry, was lively, yet it was not powerful enough to keep several of our members on the foremost seats from sleeping most of, the time!"
Many eminent Quakers visited the settlement at that early date. The James Wilson alluded to was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a judge of the Supreme court. He was heavily interested with Samuel Wallis in land transactions and was largely the cause of his financial ruin.
Father Kitely, the quaint old Quaker schoolmaster, was an Englishman by birth, but came to Muncy from York in 1790. He was an active member of the Society of Friends, and one of the earliest schoolmasters in the valley. The humble log Structure in which he taught was on his little farm of fifty acres, directly' north of the fine farm of the late B. Morris Ellis, near Hughesville, James Kitely died in 1827, aged nearly ninety-three years, and was buried in the Friends' burying ground at Penn's Dale. Elizabeth, his wife, died in 1839, aged nearly ninety-seven years, and was buried by his side. They had three children; Deborah, Isaac, and Tamar. Deborah, the mother of John Warner, died at the age of eighty-three, Isaac at about eighty, and Tamar.(Eves) reached the great age of her father. It is said of the twenty-five or more boys who composed his school some eight or ten lived far beyond the limit of three score and ten, as their ages ranged from eighty to ninety years each. John Warner, who was born July 17, 1797, lived to the great age of ninety years, three months, and twenty-five days, dying November 12, 1887, at Penn's Dale.
In addition to the Friends' meeting house at Penn's Dale, there are three other churches in the township, viz: Episcopal, at Hall's, near the site of Fort Muncy, built by W. Coleman Hall, Esq.; the Union church, near the Ives farm, on Carpenter’s run, and the White church, on the west side of the township.
Of the forty-two subdivisions of Lycoming county, Fairfield township: is the only one that the most careful 'search has failed to develop the exact date of, its creation. The records are either lost or mislaid., But the time of its organization, within less than a year, can be determined by other official records. At August sessions, 1825, a petition to divide Muncy township, on account of the territory being too great for the assessors and collectors, was read in court, and a new township prayed for. At that time Muncy township was bounded on the west by Loyalsock creek. The court in answer to the petition appointed Andrew D., Hepburn, Daniel Grafius, and Robert Allen, viewers, with instructions to make examination and report. No record of their report can be found, but an old quarter sessions docket covering the years 1825 and 1826 shows that at the December term of the latter year the overseers of Mahoning township, Columbia county, appeared in a suit against the overseers of Fairfield township, in the case of one Elizabeth Worley, a pauper, the latter overseers. having appealed from an order of removal. A rule was granted to take testimony. From this it appears that Fairfield was a township then, and that it must have been erected between August sessions 1825, and December sessions 1826. It was' probably erected during the latter half of 1825, or early in 1826,
Fairfield as now constituted is the twenty-ninth in size in the county and contains 9,067 acres. It is bounded on the east by Muncy, north by Upper Fairfield, west by Loyalsock and the borough of Montoursville, and south by the river. Bennett's run and Tule's run are small streams passing through its central part to the river, while Loyalsock washes its western border.
According to the census of 1890 the population was 468. There are no manufactures of any extent, and farming is the principal occupation.
Geologically the township consists of Clinton shales (No. V) next the river, above which Lower Helderberg limestone (No. VI) occurs, but mostly concealed. The next that can be observed is Formation (No. VIII) in its subdivisions, forming the entire surface of the township. There have been no mineral developments. Limestone, is observed east of Montoursville at two points, where it has been quarried and burned for lime. Heavy deposits of clay exist in the township which are suitable for brick making.
The surface of the township is rolling and there are many fine farms on the river bottom and along Loyalsock creek.
Settlements were made early in the southern part of the township, and as the inhabitants were victims of the Indian raids, their history would be but a repetition of what has already been given. Fort Muncy was in sight on the east, and the borough of Montoursville was built on land taken from the southwestern corner of Muncy township, which has a history dating back to the appearance of the first white men. The great highway, which was the first road laid out from Northumberland to Lycoming creek, runs across the southern end of the township. It was laid on an Indian trail which had been traveled by Count Zinzendorf, Bishop Zeisberger, and other eminent Moravian missionaries, as early as 1742.
Governor Shulze. - Among the prominent men who have lived in Fairfield may be mentioned Gov. John Andrew Shulze. When he retired from the office of Governor in 1,829 he came to Lycoming county, and in 1831 he purchased a tract of land containing 500 acres, for $12,000, from John Cowden. This splendid farm then adjoined the eastern line of the borough, but it has since been included within its limits. Soon after making the purchase he put up a handsome brick house which was regarded as a fine improvement for that time, and it was called the "Governor Shulze residence," and it is known by that title at the present time.
As the purchase of this farm marked the beginning of the financial ruin of the ex-Governor, its history is herewith given. It originally consisted of two tracts owned by Samuel Wallis. When he died his administrators sold it, in 1801, to Col. Samuel McLane, and he sold it in 1803 to Abraham DuBois. In 1805 DuBois transferred it to Samuel Denman, who in 1811 conveyed it to Thomas Cadwalader. He sold it in 1815 to John Cowden, a party thereto, by having entered into an agreement with John Faransworth in 1813 for the sale of the tract, and agreed upon the payment of one-half of the purchase money to execute the property, to Faransworth. The latter died without having received his deed, but left a will dated April 5, 1825, in which he gave full power to his executors to sell and convey any part or all of the land. John Burrows and Samuel Lloyd were appointed executors, but Lloyd was afterwards relieved by the court from serving. Burrows then sold the farm to Shulze and the deed was perfected and signed by Cowden and wife, April 18, 1831.
As a farmer the ex-Governor was a failure, and in the management of his business he was unfortunate. Through endorsing and other causes he became involved, and the more he struggled to get out of debt the deeper he got in. He was public spirited and liberal.. He gave an acre of ground and $100 towards building a church. It was built in 1838 or 1839, and was called the Union Church, because the Lutherans and Presbyterians were to have the privilege of using it. In after years it was called the "White church," because of its color. The building still stands.
As years passed away the ex-Governor became more deeply involved and was harassed by lawsuits. In 1844 a judgment was entered against him in favor of William Cameron, of Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, for $3,835.49, upon which a writ of fieri facias was issued. Hugh Donnelly was sheriff and he levied on the farm. An inquisition was held and the property condemned, and in September, 1844, a writ of venditioni exponas was issued. Later the court granted the sheriff leave to amend his levy so as to divide the farm into two parts. In October following the sheriff sold it in two parts. The first part, containing 254 acres and 101 perches and the brick house, was purchased by John Ott Rockafellar for $9,900; the second part, containing 242 acres and 141 perches, with a two-story dwelling house, bank barn, etc., was purchased by George Tomb, of Jersey Shore, for $7,600. The sale footed up a total of $17,500. The Rockafellar portion was afterwards purchased by Oliver Watson, Esq., and later it was sold to George W. Lentz, and it now belongs to his daughter, Mrs. Delos S. Mahaffey. Her husband has turned it into a stock farm and made a trotting course near the barn for the exercise of horses. The other part still belongs to the heirs of General Tomb.
After being dispossessed of his fine estate the ex-Governor took up his residence for a short time in Montoursville, but fortune was against. him and as he was constantly harassed with executions he grew poorer and more despondent. The books in the prothonotary's office contain many unsatisfied judgments against him. Finally, broken down in health, discouraged, and without means, he moved to Lancaster in 1846, where he died in 1852, in his seventy-eighth year.
The Rawle Cottage. - Ex-State Treasurer Henry Rawle owns a fine cottage a short distance east of the Shulze farms, which is embowered in a grove of native oaks. The land originally belonged to the Muncy Farms, once owned by Samuel Wallis, and subsequently by Mrs. Elizabeth Hall, who gave it to her daughter Louisa as her share of the estate when she married F. W. Rawle, Esq. Hon. Henry W. Rawle was one of their children. The tract was named Fairfield in the original application for the land, and from it the township takes its name. The stone house was built by F. W. Rawle, and it has been so enlarged and embellished by Henry W. Rawle, the present owner, as to make it one of the most attractive places in the country.
Schools and Churches. - At the present time there are four school houses in the township, viz.: Baxter, Clees, Road, and Keeber. There is but one church in the township, Methodist Episcopal, and no postoffice.
UPPER FAIRFIELD TOWNSHIP.
The taxable inhabitants residing in the lower part of Fairfield township petitioned the court at May sessions, 1851, praying to be set off from the upper or northern part and a new township erected. They alleged that the township was so large that assessors and collectors were inconvenienced by being compelled to travel long distances. They therefore prayed that the township be divided by running a line east from a point on Loyalsock between the residences of Dr. Charles Lyon and Mr. Bubb, to Simon Dewalt's farm. In answer to the petition the court appointed R. Montgomery, C. Gudykunst, and Benjamin Bear commissioners to examine into the matter of complaint and report, they did as directed and reported in favor of division, September 12, 1851. Strong opposition was made to the proposed division by the upper part of the township, but the court overruled the exceptions that had been filed and directed the township to be organized and called Pollock, in honor of Hon. James Pollock, who was then president judge, whilst the lower part was to remain as Fairfield township.
After two years the people became dissatisfied with the name of Pollock, on account of his politics, and appealed to the legislature for a now name. This was, granted by the passage of an act, January 29, 1853, declaring that hereafter the township "shall be known by the name of Upper Fairfield."
The township is bounded on the east by Mill Creek, on the north by Plunkett's Creek, on the west by Eldred and Loyalsock, and on the south by Fairfield, the parent township. It is the twenty-second in size in the county and contains 11, 200 acres.
Geologically this township consists of the Chemung measures (No. VIII), which are located in two belts across the county, alternating with two belts of Red Catskill (No. IX). Along the most northern belt are a number of exposures of I the glacial moraine in its movement across the county, passing north of Loyalsockville. The fossil ore passes across Upper Fairfield and a good exposure is seen just above the county bridge over Loyalsock creek, which contains some fossil casts. Several localities have been observed where flagstone might be quarried. The surface of the lower, part of the township is rolling, with fine farms, while the northern part becomes mountainous, and a portion of it forms part of the south escarpment of the main Allegheny range. Along Loyalsock creek are some good bottom farms.
Pioneers. - Among the early settlers in what is now the territory of Upper Fairfield township were the Obourns, Rookers, Rothfuses, Heylmans, Entzes, Rentzes, Sweelys, Wilkinsons, Bastians, Buckleys, Waltzes, and Slagenwhites. According to the census of 1890 the population was 771.
Villages. - There are three small villages or hamlets in Upper Fairfield, viz: Loyalsockville, Farragut, and Fairfield Centre. The first, located on Loyalsock creek, contains two stores, one tavern, and harness, shoe, and blacksmith shops; the second, one store and Smith shop, and the third, one store and one grist mill.
Postoffices. - There are three postoffices in this township, viz: Loyalsock, Farragut, and Fairfield Centre. The first was established July 6,1854, and Stephen Tomlinson appointed postmaster. His successors have been: Ezra W. Sweely, appointed April 18, 1864; Joseph 0. Budd, present incumbent, March 24, 1870. The postoffice at Fairfield Centre was established January 16, 1871, and Adolph Maeyr was appointed postmaster. He was succeeded by Charles C. Maeyr, July 19, 1890, and he by Henry S. Drick, January 21, 1892. Farragut was established December 29, 1886, and George Marker made postmaster. He is still in office.
Mills. - Loyalsock creek washes the western, borders of the township. . Among the principal streams may be mentioned Mill creek and Crocker run. All these streams empty into Loyalsock. The Loyalsock Mills are owned by F. A. Hayes; George Jones has a mill run by water at Fairfield Centre. Stabler & Company's mill is run by steam; E. H. Harman also operates a steam portable mill, and John M. Entz a water saw mill.
The Churches are Loyalsockville Evangelical, Obourn Lutheran, Mt. Zion Evangelical, near Reeser's, Heilman Evangelical, German Baptist at Stabler & Company's saw mill, Methodist Episcopal church at Farragut, and the church of the Good Shepherd (Episcopal) at Baxter's.
Schools. - Upper Fairfield has five school houses, named as follows: Loyalsock, Farragut, Fairfield Centre, Heilman's, and Pleasant Hill. The report of the superintendent for 1891 gave the average number of months taught as six by four male teachers and one female.
MILL CREEK TOWNSHIP.
At March sessions, 1878, a petition was filed praying, for a division of Muncy township, and commissioners were appointed to inquire into the matter. A favorable report was made and it was confirmed at September sessions following, and a vote of the qualified electors on the proposed line ordered: "Beginning at a point on the east line of Upper Fairfield township, near Frick's school house, thence S. 87' E. 1,118 perches to the west line of Wolf township, near a log bridge over Wolf run." The election was hold December 10, 1878, and resulted in 122 votes in favor of division and 104 against. The question of division having carried in the affirmative, Judge Cummin, February 25, 1879, ordered that a now township be erected and called Mill Creek.
This is the youngest of the large family of townships into which "Old Muncy" is now divided. It is the thirty-sixth in size and contains about 8,000 acres. The heads of Mill creek rise in and drain most of the territory hence the name. It also contains the sources of Carpenter's run.
Pioneers. - Among the first settlers in what is now the territory of Mill Creek township were Jonathan Collins and Samuel Hall. Among those who came a few years later were Thomas Nunn, Henry Klees, George Klees, Abraham Lockard, John Lockard, Joseph Wilson, Peter Moon, and Merrick Reeder. Many of the descendants of the robust pioneers who made the earliest improvements still occupy the lands their ancestors cleared. By the census of 1890 the population was 345.
Economic Resources. - Geologically this township consists of the Chemung measures (No. VIII) crossing it on the south side, where is located a belt of Red Catskill (No. IX); and again on the north, by a belt of the same extending up the side of the mountain, while a very narrow strip of Pocono (No. X) extends to the top of the mountain, forming, with the inferior formation, a part of the south escarpment of the main Allegheny range. The fossil iron ore (No. VIII) passes through the township along Mill creek. The vein was opened thirty years ago. There was also some exploitation for copper.
The soil is about the same as we find on the undulating surface of Wolf, Shrewsbury, an(I Penn townships, and is equally productive, readily producing all kinds of cereals and fruits. Agriculture constitutes almost all the business of the occupants of the soil, as the valuable timber has nearly all been removed. Some of the farms present quite a thrifty appearance. Portions of the territory would afford a fine field for sheep raising.
Fine flagstone are found along the base of the mountain. They are similar in quality to those quarried a short distance east in Wolf township. Martin Swank and J. Mathias Fague have, furnished some beautiful stone for paving.
As the timber is nearly exhausted there are but two saw mills in the township. One, a steam mill, belongs to Mathias Anstadt; the other, a water mill, is owned by John L. Jones.
Huntersville, located on the line of Wolf township, contains the only postoffice in the township and it bears the name of the village. It was established, August 25, 18499, and Joseph Webster was appointed postmaster. His successors have been Robert B. Webster, appointed June 25, 1853; George Hartman, June 6, 1859; Isaac Kleese, June 8, 1860; Abner Kleese, May 13, 1872; John O. Waters, May 23, 1873; George Bussler, October 9, 1873; J. Edler, March 20, 1880; George Bussler, April 11, 1881; C. C. Mayr, April 14, 1886; Eberhart Mayr, present incumbent, May 23, 1890. Eleven postmasters in forty-one years.
Huntersville has one store and one blacksmith shop, and three houses comprise the balance of the improvements. The substantial looking stone schoolhouse might be claimed by the village, but it is in Wolf township, as the public road here is the line that divides the provinces.
Churches. - Mill Creek has three churches. The Methodists have two the Centennial, so named because it was built during that year, and South East, at Huntersville. The Lutherans have one, located a short distance northwest of Huntersville, known as Trinity church.
Schools. - There are three school houses in the township, viz - Gortner's, Hites's, and Baier's. The school report for 1891 shows that the average number of months taught was six; average pay of, female teachers, $30 per month; total number of scholars, ninety-four.