1683Le Sueur probably visited Sioux Falls to buy furs which he shipped by flatboat to the mouth of Mississippi.
1700Le Sueur's traders from Fort L'Huillier (Mankato, Minn.). traded on Big Sioux River at Flandreau and Sioux Falls.
1743Verendrye visited western part of South Dakota and claimed soil for French king. Planted lead plate inscribed with arms of France, near Fort Pierre.
1745De Lusigan visited Big Stone Lake to call in unlicensed traders.
1750Teton Sioux at about this date, having driven Omahas from Big Sioux and James river valleys, reached Missouri River and engaged Rees in forty years' war.
1775Oglala Tetons discover Black Hills and soon afterward drive Kiowas from that region.
1780Yankton and Yanktonais Sioux, about this date, having been driven from western Iowa by Ottos, came up and settled in James River valley.
1785Pierre Dorion, afterward guide to Lewis and Clark, married a Yankton woman and settled in trade at mouth of James River.
1787Joseph Garreau settled with Rees at mouth of Grand River.
1794Trudeau builds "Pawnee House" on east side of the Missouri, opposite Fort Randall, in Charles Mix county. Sioux finally conquer Rees and drive them from their strong position in neighborhood of Pierre. The Rees retreat up river and settle with relatives at mouth of Grand River.
1796Loisel, or L'Oiselle, builds post on Cedar island, between Pierre and Big Bend.
1801Charles Le Raye, a French Canadian merchant, taken prisoner by the Brule Sioux, was carried through the Dakota country for three years, and visited many points of interest.
1804Lewis and Clark explore Missouri valley through South Dakota, en route to Pacific.
1805Pierre Dorion conducts party of Sioux chiefs to St. Louis.
1806 Lewis and Clark return from Pacific, passing through South Dakota.
1807Manuel Lisa undertakes trade with Indians at head of Missouri. Sergeant Nathaniel Pryor attempts to conduct Big White, a Mandan chief who visited Washington with Lewis and Clark, to his home and is attacked and driven back by Rees, assisted by Minneconjou Teton Sioux under Black Buffalo. Four whites killed, nine wounded.
1808St. Louis Missouri Fur Company organized for trade on Upper Missouri. Established post in Loisel house on Cedar Island.
1809Manuel Lisa, for St. Louis Missouri Fur Company, safely conducts Big White to his home in North Dakota. Finds Rees friendly.
1810Loisel post burned with large stock of furs.
1811Astorian party go up Missouri to Grand River, where they buy horses of Rees and go thence up Grand River toward Pacific. First recorded exploration of northern Black Hills region. Manuel Lisa finds Sioux excited over "Prophet craze" and believes it due to hostile English influence. Reports condition to General Clark, Indian agent.
1812Red Thunder, Flathead Yanktonais chief from Elm River, Brown County, with son, Waneta, and twenty-two Sissetons, enlist to serve English in war against Americans.
1813Manuel Lisa made subagent for Missouri River Sioux and keeps them friendly to American interests.
1815Teton Sioux sign treaty of friendship at Portage des Sioux. Black Buffalo dies there July 14. Given military funeral.
1816Pawnee House burns.
1817Fur trade revives. Joseph La Framboise builds Fort Teton at site of Fort Pierre. First continuous settlement.
1822La Framboise builds trading post at Great Bend of Big Sioux (Flandreau). Fort Tecumseh built at site of Fort Pierre, by Columbia Fur Company. Fort Recovery built upon American Island at Chamberlain, by Missouri Fur Company. (It is possible this post was built ten years earlier to compensate loss of Loisel post, and was headquarters of Manuel Lisa during War of 1812-1815.)
1823General Ashley, lieutenant governor of Missouri, en route to Yellowstone, with cargo of goods and one hundred men, attacked by Rees at Grand River and thirteen men killed and ten severely wounded. Colonel Henry Leavenworth, with 220 men, marches from Fort Atkinson, near Omaha, to punish Rees for attack on Atkinson. At Yankton, July 3, Sergeant Samuel Stack- pole and six men drowned by overturning of boat. Leavenworth is joined by Joshua Pilcher, manager of Missouri Fur Company, with forty volunteers at Fort Recovery. General Ashley and eighty men join party at Cheyenne River. Seven hundred and fifty Sioux Indians volunteer for the campaign. August 9 Ree towns reached and besieged. Rees punished and beg for terms. First general military movement in Dakota.
1825 General Henry Atkinson and Dr. Benjamin O'Fallon sent up Missouri with an escort of 476 men to make treaties for trade and intercourse with Indian tribes. Very successful. Destroy English influence with Indians. First Fourth of July celebration in Dakota. Wamdesapa, a Wakpekuta chief, kills his brother Tasagi and is driven from his tribe. Settles on Vermilion River in South Dakota.
1828American Fur Company absorbs Columbia Fur Company and becomes dominant in Dakota trade.
1831Pierre Chouteau, Jr., navigates first steamboat, the Yellowstone, on upper Missouri, reaching Fort Tecumseh. Revolutionizes fur trade methods.
1832Fort Pierre built to succeed Fort Tecumseh. George Catlin, famous painter of Indian pictures, visits Fort Pierre and paints many likenesses. ( Frederick Le Beau, a trader, kills Francois Querrel, an employee, at mouth of Cherry Creek, on Cheyenne River. Le Beau arrested by order of William Laidlaw, burgeois of Fort Pierre, and sent to St. Louis in chains.
1837Great smallpox epidemic on Missouri River. All tribes suffer severely. Mandans practically destroyed.
Brief History of South Dakota
by Doane Robinson, A.M.
Secretary of the State Historical Society of South Dakota
Copyright 1905, 1912, 1919 by Doane Robinson
Return to Links Page
Copyright ©Virginia A. Cisewski, 2000