SOLDIERS

IN

KING PHILIP'S WAR

Chapter 13, Part V 

The official list of those killed and wounded in the battle, including three of Capt. Gardiner's men killed previous to the battle, is dated January 6, 1675, and entitled:

A list of Major Saml Apleton souldjers yt were slayne & wounded the 19th Decemb. '75, at the Indians fort at Narraganset Killed., Wounded

Major Appleton, 4, 18

Capt. Mosely, 6, 9

Capt. Oliver, 5, 8

-

In the Company of, Capt. Davenport, 4, 11

Capt. Johnson, 4, 8

Capt. Gardiner, 7, 10

Capt. Prentice, 1, 3

-

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 104

-

Of the officers, Capts. Davenport, Johnson and Gardiner were killed, and Lieutenants Upham, Savage, Swain, and Ting were wounded.

Of the Connecticut troops, seventy-one were killed and wounded according to Hubbard; and according to the eminent historian of Connecticut, Dr. Benjamin Trumbull, seventy.

Capt. Gallop, 10 Mr. Hubbard's Account.
Capt. Marshall, 14 Of New Haven Company, 20
Capt. Seely, 20 Of Capt. Siely his Company, 20
Capt. Mason, 9 Of Capt. Watt his Company, 17
Capt. Watts, 17--70 Of Capt. Marshall his Company, 14--71

Major Treat, by tradition, is said to have been the last man to have left the fort, commanding the rear guard of the army; and of his captains, Gallop, Marshall and Seely were killed, and Capt. Mason mortally wounded.

Of the Plymouth forces, Major Bradford, commander, and Benjamin Church of the General's staff were severely wounded, and of the soldiers the killed and wounded in both companies were twenty, by best accounts.

The grave of the forty buried at Wickford was marked by a tree called the "grave appletree," which was blown down in the gale of September, 1815. The wounded were sent in vessels to Rhode Island, and well cared for.

Of the losses of the enemy there can be no reliable account. Capt. Oliver says, "By the best intelligence we killed 300 fighting men, and took say 350 and above 300 women and children." Mr. Dudley, two days after the fight, reckons about two hundred; Capt. Mosely counted sixty-four in one corner of the fort; and Capt. Gorham made an estimate of at least one hundred and fifty. The desperate strait of the Indians is shown by their leaving the dead in their flight. Indian prisoners afterward reported seven hundred killed.

The conduct of the Mohegan and Pequod allies is represented by Capt. Oliver as false, they firing in the air, but securing much plunder. I have found no other notice of their part in the battle.

CORRESPONDENCE

The following letters, written by Joseph Dudley, who was with Gen. Winslow as one of his staff or "Guard," and also served as chaplain to the army, are perhaps the most reliable official reports of the campaign that remain. The letter of the fifteenth is still preserved, as noted below. That of the twenty-first was published by Governor Hutchinson in his "History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay," London edition (1765), page 302. I have not been able to find the original of this last. The letter of the Council to Gen. Winslow, in answer to Dudley's first, is preserved,

as below noted, and in two copies -- the first a rough draft, the second a carefully written copy in Secretary Rawson's own hand.

Letter of Joseph Dudley.

May it please your Honnr Mr Smiths 15, 10, 75
I am commanded by the Generall to give your Honnr account of our proceeding since our last frm Pautuxet in the Sabath evening we advanced the whole body from Mr Carpenters with Intent to surprise Pomham & his Party at about 10 or 12 Miles Distance having information by our Warwick Scouts of his seat but the darkness of ye Night Difficulty of our passage & unskilfulness of Pilots we passed the whole Night & found ourselves at such Distance yet from ym yt we Diverted & Marched to Mr. Smiths, found our Sloops from Seaconk arrived since which by ye help of Indian Peter by whom your Honnor had the Information formerly of ye Number & resolution of ye Naragansets, we have burned two of their Towns viz: Ahmus who is this summer come down amongst them & ye old Queens quarters consisting of about 150 Many of them large wigwams & seized & slayn 50 Persons in all our prisoners being about 40 Concerning whom the generall prayes your advice concerning their transportation or Disposall all which was performed without any loss save a slight wound by an Arrow in Lieut. Wayman's face, the whole body of them we find removed into their great swamp at Canonicus his quarters where we hope with the addition of Connecticut, when arrived we hope to Coop them up, this day we Intend the removall or spoyle of yr Corn & hope to Morrow a March toward them, our soldiers being very chearful are forward notwithstanding great Difficulty by weather & otherwise, abovsd Peter whom we have found very faithfull will Make us believe yt yr are 3000 fighting Men though Many unarmed Many well fitted with lances we hope by cutting off their forage to force them to a fayr battle In ye Mean time I have only to present the Generalls humble service to your [sic] & to beg your Intense prayers for this so great Concern and remayn your

Honnors Humble Servant Jos: DUDLEY.

Goodale nor Moor arrived we fear want of shot.

My humble service to Madam Leveret Brother and Sister Hubbard & Dudley.

Amongst our Prisonrs & Slayn we find 10 or 12 Wampanoags.

[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 101.]

Answer of the Council to Gen. Winslow.Sr yr Intelligences and Advices subjected by Mr. Dudley the 15 & 16 Inst wee received this Morning being the 18th at eight of the clock. Wee desire to blesse God yt hee hath smiled upon you in yr first Attempts & hath delivered some of or enemys into yor hands & also to Acknowledge Gods favour in the supporting ye hearts of yor souldiers in such a severe season & keeping up their spirits wth courage and that you have received no more losse of men: But yet also according to God's wonted manner of dealing hee hath mixed the Cup wth some bitternes; in the losse susteyned in yor soldiers especially Mr Bulls house & ye people yre also yt the forces of Conecticut are not joyned wth you nor the vessell wth supplys of Ammunition & provision then arrived; Wee hope by this time both the vessell may be arrived & the Conecticut men conjoined wth you but least that should faile wee have sent a cart wth Ammunition; and an order from Gounr Winthrop for their forces to March speedily; Concerning the disposall of ye Indian prisoners; Our Advice is if any present to buy them, they may be sould there & delivered by your Orders or if that cannot bee then to secure them at the Island or els-where at yor best discretion; Wee have no more to add at present but our hearty prayers unto the Lord of Hoasts to appear wth & for you & all wth you, in all yor enterprises, for the Lord & his people and cover all yor heads in the day of Battle, So wth our particular respects & love to yrself & all ye Commandrs & Ministers; wee remajne

Yor respective friends & servants

Boston 18: December 1675 EDWARD RAWSON Secrety in the name
at one of the clock. & by ye order of the Council.
[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 102.]

Second Letter of Joseph Dudley.1

Mr Smith's, 21, 10, 1675 (Dec. 21, 1675).
May it please your honour,
The coming in of Connecticut force to Petaquamscot, and surprisal of six and slaughter of 5 on Friday night, Saturday we marched towards Petaquamscot, though in the snow, and in conjunction about midnight or later, we advanced; Capt. Mosely led the van, after him Massachusets, and Plimouth and Connecticut in the rear; a tedious march in the snow, without intermission, brought us about two of the clock afternoon, to the entrance of the swamp, by the help of Indian Peter, who dealt faithfully with us; our men, with great courage, entered the swamp about twenty rods; within the cedar swamp we found some hundreds of wigwams, forted in with a breastwork and flankered, and many small blockhouses up and down, round about; they entertained us with a fierce fight, and many thousand shot, for about an hour, when our men valiantly scaled the fort, beat them thence, and from the blockhouses. In which action we lost Capt. Johnson, Capt Danforth, and Capt Gardiner, and their lieutenants disabled, Capt. Marshall also slain; Capt. Seely, Capt. Mason, disabled, and many other of our officers, insomuch that, by a fresh assault and recruit of powder from their store, the Indians fell on again, recarried and beat us out of, the fort, but by the great resolution and courage of the General and Major, we reinforced, and very hardly entered the fort again, and fired the wigwams, with many living and dead persons in them, great piles of meat and heaps of corn, the ground not admitting burial of their store, were consumed; the number of their dead, we generally suppose the enemy lost at least two hundred men; Capt. Mosely counted in one corner of the fort sixty four men; Capt. Goram reckoned 150 at least; But, O! Sir, mine heart bleeds to give your honor an account of our lost men, but especially our resolute Captains, as by account inclosed, and yet not so many,

1 This letter is copied from the note in Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, vol. i. page 273.

but we admire there remained any to return, a captive woman, well known to Mr Smith, informing that there were three thousand five hundred men engaging us and about a mile distant a thousand in reserve, to whom if God had so pleased, we had been but a morsel, after so much disablement: she informeth, that one of their sagamores was slain and their powder spent, causing their retreat, and that they are in a distressed condition for food and houses, that one Joshua Tift, an Englishman, is their encourager and conductor. Philip was seen by one, credibly informing us, under a strong guard.

After our wounds were dressed, we drew up for a march, not able to abide the field in the storm, and weary, about two of the clock, obtained our quarters, with our dead and wounded, only the General, Ministers, and some other persons of the guard, going to head a small swamp, lost our way, and returned again to the evening's quarters, a wonder we were not a prey to them, and, after at least thirty miles marching up and down, in the morning recovered our quarters, and had it not been for the arrival of Goodale next morning, the whole camp had perished; The whole army, especially Connecticut, is much disabled and unwilling to march, with tedious storms, and no lodgings, and frozen and swollen limbs, Major Treat importunate to return at least to Stonington; Our dead and wounded are about two hundred, disabled as many; the want of officers, the consideration whereof the General commends to your honor, forbids any action at present, and we fear whether Connecticut will comply, at last, to any action. We are endeavoring, by good keeping and billetting our men at several quarters, and, if possible removal of our wounded to Rhode-Island, to recover the spirit of our soldiers, and shall be diligent to find and understand the removals on other action of the enemy, if God please to give us advantage against them.

As we compleat the account of our dead, now in doing, the Council is of the mind, without recruit of men we shall not be able to engage the main body.

I give your honour hearty thanks I am Sir, your honor's
for your kind lines, of which humble servant,
I am not worthy JOSEPH DUDLEY.
Since the writing of these lines, the General and Council have jointly concluded to abide on the place, notwithstanding the desire of Connecticut, only entreat that a supply of 200 may be sent us, with supply of commanders; and, whereas we are forced to garrison our quarters with at least one hundred, three hundred men, upon joint account of the colonies, will serve, and no less, to effect the design. This is by order of the council.

Blunderbusses, and hand grenadoes, and armour, if it may, and at least two armourers to mend arms.

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