SOLDIERS

IN

KING PHILIP'S WAR

Chapter 23, Part I 

XXIII

CAPT. JOSHUA SCOTTOW AND HIS MEN

JOSHUA SCOTTOW came to Boston with his mother Thomasine, who joined the church September 21, 1634. He with his brother Thomas joined the church May 19, 1639. He married Lydia (???), and had Joshua, b. Sept. 30, 1641, and died soon; Joshua, b. Aug. 12, 1643; Lydia, bapt. June 29, 1645; Elizabeth, b. July 29, 1647; Rebecca, b. October 10, 1652; Mary, b. May 11, 1656; Thomas, June 30, 1659, grad. H. C. 1677. Capt. Scottow was of the Artillery Company in 1645, Ensign in 1656, and Captain afterwards. Elizabeth Scottow m. Thomas, son of Major Thomas Savage, and had a large family. Rebecca m. Benjamin Blackman, April 1, 1675, and Mary m. Samuel Checkley.

Capt. Scottow was a very energetic man, an enterprising and eminently prosperous merchant. He was largely engaged in foreign commercial transactions, and from 1654-7 was the confidential agent of La Tour in his business with our colony.

In 1660 Mr. Scottow bought of Abraham Jocelyn, of Blackpoint, two hundred acres of land, including the hill since known as "Scottoway's Hill;" and in 1666 he purchased of Henry Jocelyn the "Cammock Patent," which at the granting to Thomas Cammock in 1631 consisted of fifteen hundred acres of land lying between the Blackpoint and Spurwink rivers. Cammock left his entire estate to his friend Henry Jocelyn, with the care of his widow during her life. Jocelyn married the widow Margaret, and some twenty years afterwards conveyed the property as above, together with seven hundred and fifty acres outside the Patent, remaining upon it, however, as agent for Mr. Scottow. Capt. Scottow removed to Blackpoint settlement about 1670, and engaged with great energy in improving his property there, and in his fishing and commercial transactions.

The first mention I have found connecting Capt. Scottow with the Indian war is in the Colonial Records, vol. V., p. 57, at the session of the Court convened October 13, 1675, as follows:

Upon the sad intelligence from Saco & the great danger of all those parts, it is ordered, that there be 50 soldiers immediately from Boston and Charls Toune sent away in some vessel or vessells for the releife of those parts, and that they be under the command of Leiftennt Scottoway, and that Major Clarke take care that this order be effected as to the dispatch of the men, & furnishing ammunition and prouission for the voyage.

The "sad intelligence" was connected with the attack upon Saco, the details of which are in Major Walderne's letter of September 25, 1675, given heretofore; Robert Nichols and his wife were killed just before this by the Indians who had made an unsuccessful assault upon Major Phillips's garrison at Saco.

But previous to these occurrences, Capt. Scottow had fortified and provisioned his house and gathered into it as many of the people as would come. His garrison was the Jocelyn House on the "Neck," distant from the farms of many of the inhabitants, who reluctantly abandoned their homes, cattle and crops to the ruin which was daily threatened. It seems evident that Capt. Scottow, with the small number of undisciplined men under his command, mostly inhabitants, and those employed by him, was in no capacity to send out a relief party to other parts of the town; and when the Indians attacked some of these still remaining on their farms, it was plainly imprudent to risk any small party such only as he could have sent, to the almost certain ambushment and destruction, to which the burning, and firing of guns seemed to invite them. His enemies sometime afterwards sought to injure him by bringing charges of neglect to help his neighbors, among other charges preferred against him. The Alger brothers, Andrew and Arthur, had a large estate at that part of Scarborough known as Dunstan, and so named by them for their old English home, and they had there a fortified house, but upon the opening of hostilities evidently withdrew their families into Sheldon's garrison at Blackpoint. 

When Major Walderne had returned home he left sixty of his soldiers to garrison the different settlements, Saco, Falmouth and Scarborough, and these were distributed according to the need, at Scottow's, Sheldon's and Foxwell's garrison-houses. Capt. John Wincoll was posted at Foxwell's with a company of soldiers, and in October was assisting the settlers to harvest their corn. One of Capt. Wincoll's soldiers, Peter Witham, was detailed to help the Algers get their grain, and said that a few days after, as they with some of their relations were getting their goods from their houses, they were attacked by the Indians, when Andrew was killed and Arthur mortally wounded; and the said Witham, fifty-three years afterwards, being then seventy-two years old, testified that he helped to bury both the Algers. Mr. Hubbard gives the date of the attack upon the Algers October 9th, 1675.

The events of the war in Scarborough immediately following the above, are shown in the following letter from Capt. Scottow:

Honoured Sr.
After all due submission to yr self wth the Honoured Councill, these are to declare ye state of ye affaires at prsent, since yt sent by Jo: Short or men being sent up ye rivr to secure those barnes of corne left wch accordingly they applyed ym selves to doe and to repaire or water-mill (being or onely relief for grinding) they met wth no opposition nor could have sight for 3 daies of above one Indian upon the 3d of this currt they having finished one mans corne & upon landing of it in canoes 19 of or prtie being there were assaulted and surrounded by at least 60 or 80 Indians & had bin all cut of had not Srt Tippet come in with his prtie to their timous relief who was on ye other side river to help wheat &c. out of another barne whereupon the enimy retreated into the bushes it being a foggy day could not soe well discerne wt execution they did upon ym disinabling one Indian soe as to leave his speare behind him, much firing on both sides, one of us wounded one drowned by hasting into a cano, next day a country souldier of his own accord went downe ye marsh & hollowed & an Indian came up to him being of Piscataquay & his acquaintance they prlied and smokt a pipe of tobacco together ye Indian having laid down his gun & he seemingly did ye same, a small rivr prting ym.

(ye larger narrative C. Winkall & myself have sent to Majr Walden to be conveyed unto ye Majr Genll I refer yr Honours unto) ye substance of ye discourse was they willingly would have peace, & kept 2 women two casco children, foure men prisoners to ddlr up if it might be &c. if not let time and place be appointed & they would fight ye english & as it was misreported to C. Winkoll & myself they would stay 48 hours for an answer but it seeme it was ye next day the Indian put his signall next day but none having an order to treat him, or men therefore secure the wheat threshed out & a shallop being there to fetch it of they sent none to discourse him, upon wch they ye enemy as they had done ye day before & yt during the parlee fired stacks of hay and some houses; or men yt afternoon being pinched for want of bread and of victualls, could not be prevailed with by their officers to continue in ye farme house which they had fortified until further order wch was designed a retreating place upon fighting ym though a small revr pted ym & ye Indians rendezvouze, in order to fighting ym I had visited ye next garrison and drawn of wt I durst to assist or soldiers up ye rivr, but towards ye evening understanding or mens resolves, sent ym up bread &c. with an express charge not to desert ye place wthout further order, but it could not come to ym soe as to hinder their moving downe wch was upon the 5th day currt in the night next morning we designed ye sending ym all up as soone as ye tide would p'mit, & had ordered all to yt end but upon ye sight of theire enemies burning of yt house wch they had fortified & of my barne of corne which was left unburnt there wth advice of Capne Winkoll & the rest of ye officers, we altered or designe & this day purpose wth all or strength to fetch in the inhabitants corne left in their deserted houses, the enemy firing all before ym in wch doing an opportunity of fighting ym may also psent wch or souldiers long for but we want fixed armes divers of these sent, not servicable & two or three disenabled in or last ingagement, please to dispatch or supply of flints &c. sent for in my last to Majr Clark we are in distress for want of ym, especially bread not having but two dayes bread left at a cake a day wth ye allowance I reduced or souldiers unto at first coming, wch bread is borrowed from fishermen and myself we have no grinding nearer than Piscataquay, not else but begging prayers and yt ye deluge of sin wch I grieve is among or souldiers as well as inhabitants may be stopped by reason whereof this overflowing scourge pursueth us (this place being now ye seat & center of ye Eastward war) Casco & Kenebec being all quiet & peace as by yesterdies intelligence I understand,

I humbly subscribe myself
ffrom ye Head quarters at Blackpoint yrs & ye Countries
at 3 : o :clock in ye morning this 6th most humble servt
9br 1675 JOSH: SCOTTOW.

(Postscript.)
May it please you to take notice that instead of the 50 designed here are but 38 sent divrse of ym insufficient for service & some soe mutinous that we cant with safety inflict ye punishment they deserve, for the pursueing of my comition here is need of 100 men completely armed and bread sent, for flesh I hope we have enough.

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, pp. 44-5.

The following letter is evidently in answer to the above from Capt. Scottow:

COUNCIL'S LETTER TO CAPT. SCOTTOW

Capt. Scottow. We received yor letter & saw another sent by you to Majr Walderne; we pceive ye Indians do sometimes allarum you and obstruct ye getting in of provisions & corne if such another overture as that Indian made yt met ye soldier in ye marsh for a treaty of peace to deliver ye english prisoners should be made againe wee advise order & som of you there to treat wth ym & see what termes you can come to & Apoint a cessation of armes untill their offers may be considered by us & endeavour to procure ye delivery of prisoners & wee will deliver as many of theirs yt are at Boston. peace is better if it can be obtained upon good termes & som pledges or hostages given; for security; as for a supply of more men we cannot comply wth you therein; wee have so many places to strengthen yt wee cannot doe alle; wee are sure you have as great a proportion as most places of ye like concernement, we here you want neither corne, flesh nor fish & so long you be in straits & though yor mills ly at a distance yet a samp morter or two will make a supply to pvent any great sufferings as for sending of Bisket we dare not give yt p'sedent, for all other places garrisoned by the country soldiers are p'vided for with victualls by ye people they secure; it is enough for ye Country to pay wages & find ammunition; our armies yt are in motion require more yn the Country is well able to beare especilly yor easterne parts are concerned to ease the publicke purse what they may because they know of nothing yt was ever put into it from thense. Therefore wee desire you to make the best Improvement you can wth the strength you have for your owne deffense & offense of the enimy until God send beter times; wee have inclosed the printed laws to restrayne mutinous soldiers let ym be read to ye soldiers. And notice taken of ym yt transgresse; & if you find yourself too weeke to deale wth them let ye ringleaders bee sent to prison wth evidense of ye fact; wee have not more at psent but desire the Lords psence blessing & protection to be wth & over you alle remaine your loving friends postscript if you find our soldiers any Burden or inconvenience to you you are Authorized hereby to dismise ym or any of ym either thither or to Majr Walderne Past this letter by the councill the 15th of Endorsed--"Councills letter to Capt. Scottow 16 : 9 mo. 1675." Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 59.

Details of the service from October 25, 1675, to May 1676, are given in the following Journal which is preserved in manuscript in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society. The manuscript is evidently a copy, made probably in 1676, when his use of the troops was called in question. This shows that much of the damage done in Scarborough was effected either before he had men or means to prevent it, and afterwards in spite of his best endeavors. These extracts contain the substance of the journal.

EXTRACTS FROM A MANUSCRIPT JOURNAL OF CAPT. SCOTTOW

Narrative of a Journall of the diverse marches & improvement of Boston souldiers sent to Black Point.

1676.1 (8) 25. Sievr. Sergt landed 15 men. I disposed 6 of ym to ffoxwell's garrison at Bluepoint, 6 to Shelden's garrison, and retayned 3 of ym, received a ltre from Major Pendleton and answered it.

26 and 27.  no disturbance. I went and viewed the fortifications at the several garrisons, and discharged Mr. ffoxwell from his charge at Bluepoint, being a quarreling, discontented pson.

29. Tho: Michell arrived with 23 soldiers who landed two houres before day.

30. sent ye 6 scouts up ye river to discover ye enemy and view a house wch ye enemy ordinarily possessed, returned seeing 3 Indians.

31. that night two hours before day sent up 60 men under the conduct of Capt. Winkall who landed before day to save wt corne they could of our Inhabitts & fight ye enemy if found, they having appeared not long before at ffoxwell's Garrison and shot a scout as appeth pr C. Winkolls ltrs No. 2. Answered Maj. Pendleton's ltre No. 3.

(9) 1,??dispatched a shallop to Boston wth lters to Hon: Gour and council for flints, bread &c.

2. In the afternoon about 29 inhabitants were set upon by 70 or 80 Indians and had almost surrounded ym had they not been timously relieved by Sergt Tipping who came to their relief, beat ym into ye swampes and gagned an Indian Speare.

3. Sergt Tipping sent down for recruit of powder &c. wch I sent up by ye two carpenters and others who were come down. . . . . I sent up 28 lbs of powder in a box and 90 lbs shot &c. that day there fell out a parlee betweene a country soldier & an Indian. (1This date is plainly a mistake made at the time of copying, in the summer of 1676. The Journal itself was kept in 1675.)  Capne Winkoll came down yt night, we gave advice of the whole to Maj. Walden and yt we intended to fight ye Indians.

4. they fell firing barnes of neer houses, haystacks and all before ym. Ye souldiers having got about 100 bush: wheat and other graine, and a shallop sent to bring it downe they could not be prevailed upon wth all by their Sergt (as I was informed) to continue any longer being pinched for want of bread by an unworthy planter, though they wanted no flesh.

5. As soon as I heard of their intention I sent up 1/4 of all the biskit I had with tobacco and rum for their incouragemt, and an expresse charge to fight ye enemy as appe'th by the witnes of John Libby, Bouden and Howell No. 1 and the order delivered ffoxwell to carry up; but no Cano could be got though I used my utmost indeavr, they came down about 10 o'clock in the night . . . . .

6. or men went up headed by Capne Winkoll to secure what corne of or inhabitants was left in the N. East side in the deserted houses, and of barnes, hoping to meet ye enemy in ye march, wch accordingly fell out, dividing themselves into 2 parties one of them was first ingaged by a party of Indians, not above 12 shewing themselves, and the other by about 16, they were engaged also and had 2 skulking skirmishes, beat ym into ye swampes. One of the Boston souldiers was mortally wounded in ye breast. Or men retreated carrying off their wounded man.

November 7.  Being Lord's day, the enemy, early in the morning burnt those houses and barnes our Capne saved the day before -- they burnt also 8 or 9 deserted houses belonging to Jo : Libby and children. As soon as these fires were discovered all the souldiers and Inhabitants hasted to next garrison which was little above musket shot of them: the tyde being up and spryng tyde the bridge was overflowed which obstructed their passage witness Willet and Tydy &c. As soon as they could pass being headed by Capne Winkoll and Topping they scour the round of the towne on the N. East supposing ye enemy was gone that way to fire those houses they being only left unburnt, they met with no Indians in the march the wholeday; met Lieut. Ingersoll and 12 Casco men who came to joyn with our men to search out and fight the Indians -- that night there fell a small flight of snow.

8. We staid in our quarter till midnight got 2 shallops.

9. Landed 70 men 3 hours before day at Blue Point to find out ye enemy, they had a tedious march the whole day through swampes marshes and creeks sometimes to the knees, others to the waist in snow and salt-water -- saw some Indian tracts but could find no Indians; Lieut. Ingersoll and all his men returned discouraged home.

10. Our men returned to their quarters.

11. A mysty wet day, no handling arms nor marching.

12. Much wind at N. West, no gitting over rivers, ye canos on ye other side imployed to git in Cummins corne of Sacho to Bluepoint.

13. Capne Winkoll, Sgt Tipping and our company got over ye river and marched to find Indians and drive cattell; the enemy fired two deserted houses at Sacho while or men were on this side and brot home between 20 and 30 head of Sacho cattell.

14. Sabbath day -- no disturbance -- buryd Sam: Ryall wounded a week before. 

15. no mocion. 

16. marched to drive in cattell, were disappointed by a Quaker who drove them into the woods from us. 

17. Indians came -- from across ye water. 

18. Capne Winkoll and the country souldiers wch was attending drove cattell for Cummins and Rogers inhabitants of Sacho. 

19. drove cattell for Macshawin, inhabitant of Sachc. 

20. I received orders from Majr Walden to fit out Lieut. Ingersol to Majr Pendleton wch I wrote to him I was upon doing. 

21. No disturbance being Sabbath day. 

22. Sergt Topping and or men went to Dunsten to drive in cattell. 

23. Lieut. Ingersoll came to ye head quarters with 12 men and wth orders from or Major to make them up to 60 or 70.

24. I made up his number to 60 men, supplying them with 8 biskit cake a man of mine own store . . . . Lt Ingersoll went up in the night to Bluepoint, landed before day with 2 shallopes, marched up the country to the head of Sacho Falls.

25-27. Continued out one night, returned to ye headquarters and he dismissed our souldiers; Lt Ingersoll returning to Casco; sent me a ltre, to send him up 45 souldiers &c. towards his towne of Casco it being alarumed in his absence by one house burning and a man wounded. Lt Ingersoll came himself to our headquarters to demand the prty . . . . he was satisfied with 20 men, and I made up Maj. Pendletons relief 20 wch were dispatched with all speed -- great wind at N. West. 

28. Mr. Neales house burnt at Casco. 30, Sergt and his compy returned from Casco.

(10) 5. Tho: Michell arrived from Boston with a license to myself to come to Boston, and order to send ye Boston souldiers home if care was not taken to provide for ym.

The rest of the Journal gives account of his arrangement to leave home for Boston, taking one half the Boston soldiers with him, and disposing the remainder, numbering nineteen, at various fortified houses where needed: seven at William Sheldon's; six at Mr. Foxwell's; four at Scottow's, being "the Sergt, Steward, drum and a cooke to provide for them when they should all draw up to their head-quarters." Capt. Scottow sailed with the soldiers, from Blackpoint, on January 8th, and arrived in Boston on the 11th.

He returned to his charge at Blackpoint April 9th, 1676, and a treaty being in progress by Major Walderne, with the Indians, he arranged with his soldiers to go into his woods and cut "palisado pines," for fortifying his garrison house.

There can be no doubt that Capt. Scottow was of great help in promoting the interests and assuring the safety of the people at Blackpoint; and yet he experienced the most bitter hostility and opposition from many of the inhabitants, among whom were some of the most reliable and respectable. Richard Foxwell was doubtless jealous of the large interest and influence which his extensive property gave him, as well as his loyal adhesion to the Massachusetts Court. In common with many others of the early settlers, Foxwell looked upon Scottow as a new comer, who with his Boston ideas and manners came to usurp the rightful position of those who had held the settlement from the beginning; and it is probable that jealousy and envy largely induced the bitter hostility and the very serious charges that were preferred against Capt. Scottow.

No further trouble with the Indians seems to have disturbed Blackpoint until August, 1676. Capt. Scottow busied himself settling his accounts and strengthening his garrison; but upon presenting his accounts for settlement by the court, he found that several of his enemies had presented complaints against his management, and a remonstrance against the payment of his accounts, as follows:

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