Heywood Broun, noted New York writer, speaking to strikers, spectators and sympathizers at a labor protest meeting in Toledo. The militant leadership for the Toledo strike was furnished by "The American Workers' Party," a communist group.

centers have joined the movement. In the South efforts among the negroes have not been very fruitful, although some headway has been made in certain sections.

"The Communist Party has a negro work department and a national negro organizer. This special department extends down through all communist units, including the District, the section, and finally to each unit or nucleus, with a responsible director.

"The task of the communists among the negro workers is to bring about class consciousness, and to crystallize this in independent class political action against the capitalist class; to take every possible advantage of occurrences and conditions which will tend to develop race feeling with the view of utilizing racial antagonism. At every opportunity the attempt is made to stir up trouble between the white and negro races.

"The negroes are made to believe that the communists practice complete racial and social equality and that only when a communist Government is set up in the United States will the negroes obtain equality and freedom from exploitation by the 'white bosses,' and in order to attract and impress the negro, the communists make a point of encouraging mixed social functions where white women communists dance with negro men and white men communists dance with negro women. It is openly advocated that there must be complete social and racial equality between the whites and negroes even to the extent of intermarriage.

"William Z. Foster, recognized as the outstanding communist in the United States and who appeared before the committee, testified as follows:

MR. ESLICK.*** Now, you used this expression, "The communists are leading the fight for complete equality and self-determination of the negroes." Do you believe in the social equality of the negro and the white man?

MR. FOSTER. I do; most assuredly.

MR. ESLICK. Do you believe in interracial marriages between negroes and whites?

MR. FOSTER. I believe that any person has a right to marry whomever they please, without regard to the color of their skin;***that there is no basis in science or anywhere else for the assumption that the negro is in any way inferior to the white man. Futhermore, whether you like it or not, the amalgamation of the races is taking place in the South, as well as every other country where races are in contact with each other.

MR. ESLICK. So you make no distinction between races?

MR. FOSTER. No, sir.

"Each year a number of American negroes are sent to schools in Russia where they are indoctrinated by the communists and then appointed to membership in the negro department of the national office.


"Manifesto of the Communist Party.—Modern Communism begins with the 'Manifesto of the Communist Party,' by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which appeared in January, 1848. The manifesto, which is also the bible of modern socialism, is, therefore, an important world document, as it is the foundation of the struggle of the working class for industrial and political emancipation.

"To comprehend either Communism or its half-brother, socialism, it is essential to understand the main principles enunciated by Marx and Engels. The basic thought underlying the manifesto is as follows:

'The history of all human society, past and present has been the history of class struggles; incessant warfare between the exploited and exploiter, between oppressed classes and ruling classes at various stages in the evolution of society; the struggle has now reached a stage of development when the exploited and oppressed class (the proletariat) can not free itself from the dominion of the exploiting and ruling class (the bourgeoisie) without at one and the same time and forever ridding society of exploitation, oppression, and class struggles.'

"First International.—The First International Association of Workers, based partially on the manifesto, was established on September

(text continues on next page)

Table of Contents
Back to Legacy