(cf. Browder and Ford, New York hearing. July 12, 1934) these objectives include:

1. The overthrow by force and violence of the republican form of government guaranteed by article IV. section 4, of the Federal Constitution.

2. The substitution of a soviet form of government based on class domination to be achieved by abolition of elected representatives both to the legislative and executive branches, as provided by article I, by the several sections of article II of the same Constitution and by the fourteenth amendment.

3. The confiscation of private property by governmental decree, without due process of law and compensation guaranteed by the fifth amendment.

4. Restriction of the rights of religious freedom, of speech, and of the press as guaranteed by the first amendment.

"These specific purposes by Communist admission are to be achieved not by peaceful exercise of the ballot under constitutional right, but by revolutionary upheavals, by fomenting class hatred, by incitement to class warfare and by other illegal, as well as by legal methods.

"In pursuance of the revolutionary way to power, the program instructs members of the Party to obtain a foothold in the Army and the Navy and develop 'revolutionary mass organizations in the decisive war industries and in the harbors'. The trade unions should be undermined and utilized as recruiting grounds for revolutionary workers. How faithfully these particular injunctions have been executed was demonstrated by Navy officers appearing before the committee and by officials of the American Federation of Labor.

"The American Communist Party is affiliated with the Third International which was created by officials of the Soviet Government and is still housed in Moscow with governmental approval and cooperation This affiliation is not one of general sympathy or broad uniformity of purpose and program; it is of a definitely organic character involving specific jurisdiction on the part of the governing body over the Communist Party of the United States."


"The section of the Communist International designed to reach young people in every country is known as the 'Young Communist International.' This is an integral part of the Communist International at Moscow. Section 35 of the constitution and rules of that body reads:

The International League of Communist Youth (Communist Youth International) is a section of the Communist International with full rights and is subordinate to the E. C. C. I.

"The E. C. C. I. mentioned in this paragraph is the executive committee of the Communist International.

"Being an integral part of the World Communist Party, the Communist Youth International has the same objectives and seeks to carry out the same methods as the International itself.

"Many of the citizens appearing before this committee have designated particular and emphatic attention towards an alleged violation of one of the conditions of the agreement between this country and Soviet Russia that preceded Russian recognition by this country.

"In the fourth paragraph of the pledge given to this country by Maxim Litvinoff on behalf of Soviet Russia, it was covenanted that Soviet Russia was—

not to permit the formation or residence on its territory of any organization or group, and to prevent the activity on its territory of any organization or group, or of representatives or officials of any organization or group, which has as an aim to overthrow, or the preparation for the overthrow of, or the bringing about by force or a change in the political or social order of the whole or any part of the United States, its Territories or possessions.

"The date of this pledge was November 18, 1933. Despite this pledge, about the middle of December 1933, within a month after this pledge by Maxim Litvinoff and his government, the executive committee of the Communist Internationale, sitting at Moscow, Soviet Russia, adopted resolutions of the 'Thirteenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist Internationale', which are applicable to the whole world, and of course to this country, which stated:

There is no way out of the general crisis of capitalism other than the one shown by the October revolution. (In Soviet Russia when the Communists overthrew the then existing government of Russia by force.) Via the overthrow of the exploiting classes by the proletariat, the confiscation of the banks, the factories, the mines, transport, houses, the stock of goods of the capitalist, the lands of the landlords, the church, and the crown.

"This resolution was approved and adopted on January 16-17, 1934, by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, at New York City, and by the National Convention of the Communist Party at Cleveland, Ohio, in April 1934, at which convention there were present 470 voting and associate delegates.

"The secretary of the Communist Party, Earl Browder of New York City, declared that the Communist Party of the United States is a branch of the World Communist Party; further there is complete accord and a direct political continuity between the executive committee of the Communist Internationale and the Party in the United States.

"This committee does not believe that the Communist movement in this country is sufficiently strong numerically nor an influence to constitute a danger to American institutions at the present time. Its increase in activity during the past year is plain evidence that unless checked, such activity will increase in scope and interferences so that it will inevitably constitute a definite menace. It is the duty of government to check and control, through appropriate legislation, the illegal actions and methods of such movements, without regard to the improbability of attainment, and to protect itself and its loyal citizens against such subversive attempts.

"The oppositions of the philosophies of Communism and the American ideals of democracy are so direct and so fundamental that they cannot exist together. Communism, moreover, is of foreign origin and is directed by an alien organization outside of the United States.

"The record shows that invariably Communistic agitation does not always lead to a realization of the objective, but instead results in the establishment of a dictatorship.

"It is essential to understand in considering the subject that the Communist Party of the United States is not a political party in the true American sense.

"Our own political parties are strictly domestic in their scope and purpose. They have no affiliations of any kind with similar groups in any foreign country. The truly American political party provides a mechanism by which citizens having a certain community of opinions elect their own candidates for public office and formulate the policies to which the candidates are pledged to pursue if and when elected.

"Under our political party system any citizen having proper residential qualifications cannot be denied the privilege of joining a party nor can he be expelled from it. He is not even bound to vote for the candidates of his own party, in truth, under the American system of parties the initiative rests wholly with the individual and assures him complete freedom of political actions.

"Opposed to our present form of government we see the un-American character of the Communist Party in the United States. It is a party recognized on an international scale, governed and controlled by a constitution and rules emanating from the 'Communist International', with headquarters at Moscow in the Soviet Union. and dedicated to the overthrow of government by violence and force.

"The program of the Communist Internationale plainly sets out:

The Communist Intemationale—the International Workers' Association is a union of Communist Parties in various countries; it is a World Communist Party

"The Communist Party of the United States is a section of this Internationale. As such, it is subject to the control and direction, first, of the World Congress of the Communist Internationale and, second, of the executive committee of that body. The International control of the Communist Party of the United States is intimate, membership in that Party being open only to

those who accept the program and rules of the given Communist Party and of the Communist Internationale, who join one of the basic units of a Party, actively work in it, abide by all the decisions of the Party and of the Communist International and regularly pay Party dues. (See par. 3 of the constitutions. p. 88.


"The committee has examined into the purposes and activities of many other organizations in this country. The bylaws and the membership applications of practically all of those investigated are of such a nature that any fair-minded, law-abiding citizen who did not investigate their real purpose could sign without any qualms of conscience.

"Investigation, however, has disclosed that many are in reality the
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