The Occasion of Philips so sudden taking up Arms the last Year, was this: There was one John Sausaman, a very cunning and plausible Indian, well skilled in the English Language, and bred up in the Profession of Christian Religion, employed as a Schoolmaster at Natick, the Indian Town, who upon some Misdemeanor fled from his Place to Philip, by whom he was entertained in the Room and Office of Secretary, and his chief Councellor, whom he trusted with all his Affairs and secret Counsels: But afterwards, whether upon the Sting of his own Conscience, or by the frequent Sollicitations of Mr. Eliot, that had known him from a Child, and instructed him in the Principles of our Religion, who was often laying before him the heinous Sin of his Apostacy, and returning back to his old Vomit; he was at last prevailed with to forsake Philip, and return back to the Christian Indians at Natick where he was baptised, manifested publick Repentance for all his former Offences, [15] and made a serious profession of the Christian Religion; and did apply himself to preach to the Indians, wherein he was better gifted than any other of the Indian Nation; so as he was observed to conform more to the English Manners than any other Indian.

Yet having Occasion to go up with some others of his Country men to Namasket, whether for the Advantage of Fishing or some such Occasion, it matters not; being there not far from Phillips Country, he had Occasion to be much in the Company of Philips Indians, and of Philip himself: by which Means he discerned by several Circumstances that the Indians were plotting anew against us; the which out of Faithfulness to the English the said Sausaman informed the Governour of; adding also, that if it were known that he revealed it, he knew they would presently kill him. There appearing so many concurrent Testimonies from others, making it the more probable, that there was certain Truth in the Information; some Inquiry was made into the Business, by examining Philip himself, several of his Indians, who although they could do nothing, yet could not free themselves from just Suspicion; Philip therefore soon after contrived the said Sausamans Death, which was strangely discovered; notwithstanding it was so cunningly effected, for they that murdered him, met him upon the lee on a great Pond, and presently after they had knocked him down, put him under the Ice, yet leaving his Gun and his Hat upon the Ice, that it might be thought he fell in accidentally through the Ice and was drowned: but being missed by his Friend, who finding his Hat and his Gun, they were thereby led to the Place, where his Body was found under the Ice: when they took it up to bury him, some of his Friends, specially one David, observed some Bruises about his Head, which made them suspect he was first knocked down, before he was put into the Water: however, they buried him near about the Place where he was found, without making any further Inquiry at present: nevertheless David his Friend, reported these Things to some English at Taunton (a Town not far from Namasket), occasioned the Governour to inquire further into the Business, wisely considering, that as Sausaman had told him, If it were known that he had revealed any of their Plots, they would murder him for his Pains.

Wherefore by special Warrant the Body of Sausaman being digged again out of his Grave, it was very apparent that he had been killed, and not drowned. And by a strange Providence an Indian was found, that by Accident was standing unseen upon a Hill, had seen them murther the said Sausaman, but durst never reveal it for Fear of losing his own Life likewise, until he was called to the Court at Plimouth, or before the Governour, where he plainly [16] confessed what he had seen. The Murderers being apprehended, were convicted by his undeniable Testimony, and other remarkable Circumstances, and so were all put to Death, being but three in Number; the last of them confessed immediately before his Death, that his Father (one of the Councellors and special Friends of Philip) was one of the two that murdered Sausaman, himself only looking on.

This was done at Plimouth Court, held in June, 1674. Insomuch that Philip apprehending the Danger his own Head was in next, never used any further Means to clear himself from what was like to be laid to his Charge, either about his plotting against the English, nor yet about Sausamans Death: but by keeping his Men continually about him in Arms, and gathering what Strangers he could to join with him, marching up and down constantly in Arms, both all the while the Court sat, as well as afterwards. The English of Plimouth hearing of all this, yet took no further Notice, than only to order a Militia Watch in all the adjacent Towns, hoping that Philip finding himself not likely to be arraigned by Order of the said Court, the present Cloud might blow over, as some others of like Nature had done before; but in Conclusion, the Matter proved otherwise; for Philip finding his Strength daily increasing, by the flocking of Neighbour-Indians unto him, and sending over their Wives and Children to the Narhagansets for Security (as they use to do when they intend War with any of their Enemies,) immediately they began to alarm the English at Swanzy, (the next Town to Philips Country,) as it were daring the English to begin; at last their Insolencies grew to such an Height, that they began not only to use threatening Words to the English, but also to kill their Cattel and rifle their Houses; whereat an English-man was so provoked, that he let fly a Gun at an Indian, but did only wound, not kill him; whereupon the Indians immediately began to kill all the English they could, so as on the 24th of June, 1675, was the Alarm of War first sounded in Plimouth Colony, when eight or nine of the English were slain in and about Swanzy. . . .

About this Time several Parties of English, within Plimouth Jurisdiction, were willing to have a Hand in so good a Matter, as catching of Philip would be, who perceiving that he was now going down the Wind, were willing to hasten his Fall. Amongst others, a small Party, July 31 [1676], went out of Bridgewater upon discovery, and by Providence were directed to fall upon a Company of Indians where Philip was; they came up with them, and killed some of his special Friends; Philip himself was next to his Uncle, that was shot down, and had the Soldier had his Choice which to shoot at, known which had been the right Bird, he might as well have taken him as his Uncle, but 'tis said that he had newly cut off his Hair, that he might not be known: the Party that did this Exploit were few in Number, and therefore not being able to keep altogether close in the Reer, that cunning Fox escaped away through the Bushes undiscerned, in the Reer of the English. . . .

Within two Days after, Capt Church, the Terror of the Indians in Plimouth Colony, marching in pursuit of Philip, with but thirty English-men, and twenty reconciled Indians, took twenty three of the Enemy, and the next Day following them by their Tracts, fell upon their Head-Quarters, and killed and took about an hundred and thirty of them, but with the Loss of one English Man; in this Engagement God did appear in a more than ordinary Manner to fight for the English: for the Indians by their Number, and other Advantages of the Place, were so conveniently provided, that they might have made the first Shot at the English, and done them much Damage; but one of their own Country-men in Capt. Church's Company espying them, called aloud unto them in their own Language, telling them that if they shot a Gun, they were all dead Men; with which they were so amazed, that they durst not once offer to fire at the English, which made the Victory the more remarkable: Philip made a very narrow Escape at that Time, being forced to leave his Treasures, his beloved Wife and only Son to the Mercy of the English, Skin for Skin, all that a Man hath will he give for his Life.

His Ruine being thus gradually carried on, his Misery was not prevented but augmented thereby; being himself made acquainted with the Sence and experimental Feeling of the captivity of his Children, loss of his Friends, slaughter of his Subjects, bereavement of all Family Relations, and being stript of all outward Comforts, before his own Life should be taken away. Such Sentence sometimes passed upon Cain, made him cry out, that his Punishment was greater than he could bear.

This bloody Wretch had one Week or two more to live, an Object of Pity, but a Spectacle of Divine Vengeance; his own Followers beginning now to plot against his Life, to make the better Terms for their own, as they did also seek to betray Squaw Sachim. of Pocasset, Philips near Kinswoman and Confederate. . .

Philip, like a Salvage and wild Beast, having been hunted by the English Forces through the Woods, above an hundred Miles backward and forward, at last was driven to his own Den, upon Mount-hope, where retiring himself with a few of his best Friends into a Swamp, which proved but a Prison to keep him safe, till the Messengers of Death came by Divine Permission to execute Vengeance upon him, which was thus accomplished.

Such had been his inveterate Malice and Wickedness against the English, that despairing of Mercy from them, he could not bear that any thing should be suggested to him about a Peace, insomuch as he caused one of his Confederates to be killed for propounding an Expedient of Peace; which so provoked some of his Company, not altogether so desperate as himself, that one of them (being near of kin that was killed) fled to Road-Island (whither, that active Champion Capt. Church was newly retired, to recruit his Men for a little Time, being much tired with hard Marches all that Week) informing them that Philip was fled to a Swamp in Mount-hope whither he would undertake to lead them that would pursue him. This was welcome News, and the best Cordial for such martial Spirits: whereupon he immediately with a small Company of Men, part English and part Indians, began another March, which shall prove fatal to Philip, and end that Controversie betwixt the English and him: for coming very early to the side of the Swamp, his Soldiers began presently to surround it, and whether the Devil appeared to him in a Dream that Night, as he did unto Saul, forboding his tragical End (it matters not) ; as he intended to make his Escape out of the Swamp, he was shot through the Heart by an Indian of his own Nation, as is said, that had all this while kept himself in a Neutrality until this Time, but now had the casting-vote in his Power, by which he determined the Quarrel that had held so long in Suspense.

1From Hubbard's "Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians of New England." Hubbard was graduated from Harvard in 1642 in the first class sent out by the college. In 1666 he was settled as minister at Ipswich Mass., and died in 1704. His qualities as a minister, his learning and his ability as a writer were praised by John Eliot, the apostle to the Indians.
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