MELVILLE WESTON FULLER, Chief Justice of the United States, was born in Augusta, Maine, February 11, 1833; was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1853; studied law, attended a course of lectures at Harvard Law School, and was admitted to the bar in 1855; formed a law partnership in Augusta, Maine, and was an associate editor of a democratic paper called The Age; in 1856 became president of the common council, and served as city solicitor; removed to Chicago, Illinois, in 1856, where he practiced law until appointed chief justice; in 1862 was a member of the state constitutional convention; was a member of the state legislature from 1863 to 1865; was a delegate to the democratic national conventions of 1864, 1872, 1876, and 1880; the degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the Northwestern University and by Bowdoin College in 1888, and by Harvard in 1890; was appointed chief justice, April 30, 1888, confirmed July 20, 1888, and took the oath of office October 8, same year.
STEPHEN JOHNSON FIELD, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was born at Haddam, Connecticut, November 4, 1816; removed with his family, in 1819 to Stocksbridge, Massachusetts, where he spent ten years of his boyhood; in 1829 accompanied his sister to Asia Minor, her husband, Rev. Josiah Brewer, having undertaken an educational mission to the Greeks; remained two and a half years for the most part in Smyrna and Athens, and learned to speak and write the modern Greek language; graduated from Williams College in 1837; began the study of law in 1838 in the office of David Dudley Field, and in 1841 became his partner, and so remained for seven years; in 1848 traveled extensively in Europe; returning from Europe started for California in November, 1849, arriving there December 28, 1849; located in Marysville in January, 1850, and was elected first alcalde of that city; under Mexican law the alcalde was an officer of limited jurisdiction, but in the anomalous condition of affairs he was called upon to administer justice, punish crime, and to enforce necessary police regulations until relieved by officers under the new constitution; was elected to the second legislature, and was a member of the judiciary committee and framed the laws creating the judicial system of that state; from 1851 to 1857 he practiced his profession and was then elected a judge of the supreme court for six years from January 1, 1858. A vacancy occurring on the bench, he was appointed judge to fill it on the 13th of October, 1857; became chief justice in 1859; in 1863 was appointed by President Lincoln to his present position; in 1866 Williams College conferred upon him the degree of LL.D., and by the regents of the University of California in 1869 a professor of law in that institution
JOHN MARSHALL HARLAN, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was born in Boyle county, Kentucky, June 1, 1833; was graduated from Center College, Kentucky, in 1850; studied law at Transylvania University; practiced his profession at Frankfort; was elected county judge in 1858; was elector on the Bell and Everett ticket; removed to Louisville and formed a law partnership with Hon. W. F. Bullock; in 1861 raised the Tenth Kentucky Infantry Regiment and served in General Geo. H. Thomas’ division. Owing to the death of his father in the spring of 1863, although his name was before the senate for confirmation as a brigadier-general, he felt compelled to resign; was elected attorney-general by the Union party in 1863 and filled the office until 1867, when he returned to active practice in Louisville; was republican nominee for governor in 1871. His name was presented by the republican convention of his state in 1875 for the vice-presidency; was chairman of the delegation from his state to the national republican convention in 1876; declined a diplomatic position as a substitute for the attorney-generalship, to which, before he reached Washington, President Hayes intended to assign him; served as a member of the Louisiana Commission; was commissioned an associate justice of the United States supreme court November 29, 1877, and took his seat December 10, same year.
HORACE GRAY, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, March 24, 1828; was graduated from Harvard College in the class of 1845, and from the Harvard Law School in 1849; was admitted to the bar in 1851; was appointed reporter of the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts in 1854, and held the position until 1861; was appointed associate justice of the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts August 23, 1864, and chief justice of that court September 5, 1873; was commissioned associate justice of the supreme court of the United States by President Arthur, December 19, 1881.
[NOTE—Hon. Samuel Blatchford, associate justice, died at Newport, Rhode Island. July 7, 1893. The vacancy on the supreme bench caused by his death has not yet been filled.]
DAVID JOSIAH BREWER, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, was born in Smyrna, Asia, Minor. June 20, 1837; is the son of Rev. Josiah Brewer and Emilia A. Field, sister of David Dudley, Cyrus W., and Justice Stephen J. Field. His father was an early missionary to Turkey; was graduated from Yale College in 1856 and from the Albany Law School in 1858; established himself in his profession at Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1859, where he resided until he removed to Washington to enter upon his present duties; in 1861 was appointed United States Commissioner; from 1862 to 1865 was judge of the probate and criminal courts of Leavenworth county; from 1865 to 1869 was judge of the district court; from 1869 to 1870 was county attorney of Leavenworth; in 1870 was elected a justice of the supreme court of his state, and re-elected in 1876 and 1882; in 1884 was appointed judge of the circuit court of the United States for the eighth district; was appointed to his present position, to succeed Justice Stanley Matthews, deceased, in December, 1889, and was commissioned December 18, 1889.
HENRY BILLINGS BROWN, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, was born in South Lee, Massachusetts, March 2, 1836; was graduated from Yale College in 1856; studied law for some time in a private office; attended lectures both at Yale and Harvard law schools, and was admitted to the bar of Wayne county, Michigan, in July, 1860; in the spring of 1861, upon the election of Mr. Lincoln, was appointed deputy marshal of the United States, and subsequently Assistant United States Attorney for the eastern district of Michigan, a position he held until 1868, when he was appointed judge of the state circuit court of Wayne county, to fill a vacancy; held this office but a few months, and then returned to active practice in partnership with John S. Newberry and Ashly Pond, of Detroit, which continued until 1875, when he was appointed by President Grant district judge for the eastern district of Michigan, to succeed Hon. John W. Longyear; on December 23, 1890, was appointed associate justice of the supreme court, to succeed Justice Samuel F. Miller; was unanimously confirmed December 29, and took the oath of office January 5, 1891; received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Michigan in 1887, and from Yale University in 1891.
GEORGE SHIRAS, JR., Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, was born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, January 26, 1832; was graduated from Yale College in 1853; attended the Yale Law School in 1854; Was admitted to the bar of Pennsylvania in 1856; practiced law in Pennsylvania till his appointment to the supreme bench; received the degree of LL D. from Yale University in 1883; was one of the Pennsylvania presidential electors in 1888; in July, 1892, was appointed to succeed Justice Joseph P. Bradley; took the oath of office October 10, 1892.
HOWELL EDMUNDS JACKSON, of Jackson, Tennessee, was born in Paris that state, April 8, 1832; in 1840 his parents removed to Jackson; received a classical education. graduating from West Tennessee College in 1848; studied law two years at the University of Virginia and in Jackson, under his kinsman, Judges A. W. O. Totten and Milton Brown; graduated from the Lebanon Law School in 1856, in which year he located in Jackson and engaged in the practice of his profession; removed to Memphis in 1859, where he continued the practice of the law; served on the supreme bench by appointment on two occasions, and was once a prominent candidate for supreme judge before the nominating convention; relocated in Jackson in 1876; was elected to the state house of representatives in 1880 on the state credit platform; was elected to the United States senate as a democrat in 1881, and served till April 12, 1886; was appointed United States circuit judge by President Cleveland, and nominated for associate justice by President Harrison; was confirmed by the senate February 18, 1893, and entered upon the duties of the office March 4, 1893.
First Judicial Circuit— Mr. Justice Gray, of Boston. Massachusetts. Districts of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.
Circuit Judges—Le Baron B. Colt, Bristol, Rhode Island, and William L. Putnam, Portland, Maine.
Second Judicial Circuit____ _____ ______. Districts of Vermont, Connecticut, Northern New York. Southern New York, and Eastern New York.
Circuit Judges—William J. Wallace, Syracuse, New York; E. Henry Lacombe, New York City, and Nathaniel Shipman, Hartford, Connecticut.
Third Judicial Circuit—Mr.Justice Shiras, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Districts of New Jersey, Eastern Pennsylvania, Western Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
Circuit Judge —Marcus W. Acheson, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and George M. Dallas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Fourth Judicial Circuit—Mr. Chief Justice Fuller, of Chicago, Illinois. Districts of Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
Circuit Judges—Hugh L. Bond, Baltimore, Maryland, and Nathan Goff, Clarksburg, West Virginia.
Fifth Judicial Circuit—Mr. Justice Jackson. Districts of Northern Georgia, Southern Georgia, Northern Florida, Southern Florida, Northern Alabama, Middle Alabama, Southern Alabama, Southern Mississippi, Eastern Louisiana, Western Louisiana, Northern Texas, Eastern Texas, and Western Texas.
Circuit Judges—Don. A. Pardee, New Orleans, Louisiana, and A. P. McCormick, Dallas, Texas.
Sixth Judicial Circuit—Mr. Justice Brown, of Detroit, Michigan. Districts of Northern Ohio, Southern Ohio, Eastern Michigan,. Western Michigan, Kentucky, Eastern Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and Western Tennessee.
Circuit Judges—William H. Taft, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Horace H. Lurton, Clarksville, Tennessee.
Seventh Judicial Circuit—Mr. Justice Harlan, of Chicago, Illinois. Districts of Indiana, Northern Illinois, Southern Illinois, Eastern Wisconsin, and Western Wisconsin.
Circuit Judges--W. A. Woods, Indianapolis, Indiana, and James G. Jenkins, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Eighth Judicial Circuit——Mr. Justice Brewer, of Leavenworth, Kansas. Districts of Minnesota, Northern Iowa, Southern Iowa, Eastern Missouri, Western Missouri, Eastern Arkansas, Western Arkansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, and Territories of New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah.
Circuit Judges—Henry O. Caldwell, Little Rock, Arkansas, and Walter H. Sanborn, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Ninth Judicial Circuit—Mr. Justice Field, of San Francisco, California. Districts of Northern and Southern California, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Territories of Alaska and Arizona.
Circuit Judges—Joseph McKenna, Suisun, California, and William B. Gilbert, Portland, Oregon.