of the State
By Holice, Pam, and Deb
Extra special thanks to Holice B. Young for transcribing book. The excellent work she does continues to help many researchers! Thanks also, to Pam Rietsch, for sharing her books with genealogists!
Exercises in vocal music, rhetoricals, orthography, calisthenics, penmanship, and drawing throughout the entire course of study.
The legislature of 1895 amended the Normal School Act of 1893 so that no diplomas could be granted to a student who finished the elementary course. But it was provided that an elementary certificate, valid for two years, might be issued. This certificate, if the holder thereof taught nine months subsequent to the time of his certification, might be renewed for three years. The amendment also required the registration of diplomas and certificates in the county where the holders thereof were teaching.
Chapter CL., Session Laws, 1895, also amended the law which enumerated the powers and duties of the state board of education, as follows: State certificates could be granted by the board--
of education had been created. The territorial board consisted of three members (one from each judicial district), appointed by the governor, together with the territorial superintendent. The membership of the board was
increased one in 1886 because another judicial district had been formed. This board, among other duties, was authorized to "have greater supervision of the territorial normal schools whenever the same shall be established by law."
The legislature, in 1890, created a state board of education similar to that of territorial days. The state board consisted of four members, appointed by the governor, at least two of whom were to be actively engaged in public school education, and the state superintendent was ex-officio a member of the board.
In 1897 the legislature created a new educational board, known as the state board of higher education, consisting of the members of the state board of education and, in addition, the president of the University of Washington, the president of the Agricultural College, and the president of the normal schools. The board was empowered to adopt courses of study for the normal schools and to fix preparatory requirements to adopt courses of study for the normal schools and the Agricultural College. "The board shall arrange such courses and adopt and enforce such regulations as will place the state institutions into harmonious relations with the common schools and with each other."
Amendments tot he school code were also enacted by the legislature of 1897, making it mandatory for the state board of higher education to provide courses for the normal schools in accordance with the following specifications: (1) Teaching in training school to be made compulsory; (2) An elementary course of two years, completion of which would entitle one to an elementary certificate valid for five years; (3) An advanced course of four years, completion of which would entitle one to a diploma, which, after two tears of teaching, would mature into a life diploma; (4) Courses for graduates of colleges and accredited high schools--a one-year course leafing to the same diploma as that granted those who completed the regular advanced course, and a two-year course, completion of which would entitle one to a life diploma to teach in the common schools. A general provision of the law prohibited he issuance of a certificate or a diploma short of forty weeks in actual residence, with at least twenty weeks of practice teaching in the training school.
In accordance with the provisions of the foregoing law, the State Normal School at Cheney in 1898-1899 announced the following course:
The elementary course consisted of the first two years of the advanced course. One and two-year course for college and high school graduates were outlined as follows:
First Year--Primary and advanced methods, forty weeks; psychology, elementary and advanced, forty weeks; studies in education, forty weeks; history of education, twenty weeks; methods in elementary science, ten weeks; methods in English, ten weeks; methods and review in United States history, ten weeks; methods and review in geography, ten weeks; methods and review in drawing, ten weeks; methods and review in arithmetic, ten weeks.
Second Year--Methods, thirty weeks; history of education, twenty weeks; philosophy of education, forty weeks; psychology, forty weeks; organization and management of elementary school, ten weeks; school supervision, ten weeks; teaching, twenty weeks.
Entrance requirements to the State Normal School at Cheney in 1898 were as follows: "Before being admitted to the normal department of the Stet Normal School students shall pass a final examination in all of the subjects required for a second-grade county teachers' certificate, except theory and art of teaching, civil government and school law. A second grade county teacher's certificate, which has not been in force more than two years, will be accepted in lieu of said examination, but, if students are found deficient in any of these branches, the faculty reserves the eight to have such students complete them in the subnormal department"
Further changes in the course of study for normal schools were made by the legislature in 1899, as follows: "The board of higher education shall prescribe the following course of study, which shall be uniform for all state normal schools of the state: (1) An elementary course of three years; (2) An advanced course of two years for those who have completed the elementary course; (3) An advanced course of two years for graduates from a four-year high school accredited by the board of higher education; (4) An advanced course of one year for graduates from colleges and universities. A student who completes any advanced course shall receive a diploma which shall entitle him to teach in the common schools of the state for a period of five years, and, upon satisfactory evidence of having taught successfully for two years during the time for which the diploma was issued, shall receive a life diploma issued by the state board of education. Graduates from accredited high schools shall
receive an elementary certificate after completing one year's work of the advanced course: Provided, that no one shall receive a diploma or certificate who has not been in attendance one school year of forty weeks, and who has not given evidence of ability to teach and govern a school by not less then twenty weeks' practice teaching in the training school; Provided further, that any of the foregoing certificate or diplomas may be revoked by the state board of high education for incompentency, immorality, or unprofessional conduct. The board of higher education shall also prescribe uniform rules and regulations for admission to and graduation from the state normal schools; Provided, That a student shall pass the examination required for the third-grade teacher's certificate before entering the second year of the elementary course, and shall pass the examination required for a second-grade teacher's certificate before entering the third year of the elementary course."
Course were prescribed by the Board of Higher Education as follows:
First Year--Grammar and composition, thirty weeks; English classics, ten weeks; reading, twenty weeks; vocal music, twenty weeks; physical culture, ten weeks; elementary algebra, twenty weeks; arithmetic, twenty weeks; botany, twenty weeks; physiology, ten weeks; drawing, twenty weeks; school economy and school law, twenty weeks.
Second Year--Rhetoric and literature, forty weeks; history, twenty weeks; vocal music, twenty weeks; elementary algebra, twenty weeks; plane geometry, twenty weeks; physical geography, twenty weeks; penmanship and bookkeeping, twenty weeks; drawing, twenty weeks; theory and observation of teaching, twenty weeks.
Third Year--History, forty weeks; voice culture and physical culture, twenty weeks; zoology, twenty weeks; physics, forty weeks; methods, forty weeks; elementary psychology and logic, twenty weeks; practice teaching, twenty weeks.
Fourth Year--Advanced algebra, twenty weeks; solid geometry, twenty weeks; Latin, forty weeks; biology, twenty weeks; physiological psychology, twenty weeks; chemistry, forty weeks.
Fifth Year--Civics and history methods, twenty weeks; masterpieces of literature, twenty weeks; geology, twenty weeks; history of education, twenty weeks; philosophy of education, twenty weeks; sociology, twenty weeks; practice teaching, forty weeks.
"High school graduates, or graduates of colleges and universities," says the Normal School announcement for 1899, "will elect from these courses. They will be expected to take mainly the professional work unless they can show acceptable grades in these branches from other institutions. In that event they will elect such other studies as they may most require.
"The clause in the law already quoted, requiring any one to have spent a full year of forty weeks here, and to have taught at least twenty weeks in the training school, will be broadly construed to cover the entire normal school system of the state. So that, if otherwise deemed competent, any one who has partially completed a year's work in one of the other normal schools of the state may Finnish it in this school and thus receive due credit for the entire year in working for a certificate or diploma."
At the beginning of the school year 1903, four courses of study were definitely outlined or student of the Normal School. The first, a three-year elementary course, gave on completion a certificate entitling the holder to teach elementary school for five yeas. Completion of the eighth grade would admit one to this course. Another course, known as Advanced Course A, was designed for graduates of the elementary course. It consisted of two years. On completing it a graduate was granted a diploma that became a life diploma after he had acquired two years of successful teaching experience. A third course, designated Advanced Course B, consisted of two years and was designed for graduates of four-year high schools. The diploma granted on completion of this course was the equivalent of that granted a graduate of the Advanced Course A. A five-year supplementary course was planned for those who entered after completing the elementary school with the intention of taking a course leading directly to a life diploma. Completion of this course entitled one to a certificate equivalent to that offered the graduates of Advanced Courses A and B. The college graduate course, consisting of one year, was not definitely outlines, students being permitted to elect their work in this course.
The department of manual and physical training was organized in 1903, Miss Myra H. butler was employed to take charge of this department. An English department, with Nicholas E. Hinch in charge, was also organized in 1903.
Efforts were being put forth in 1903 to raise the requirements for entrance to the Normal School. The catalogue of that year gives the following entrance requirements: (1) Diploma from an accredited high school, academy or institution of higher learning; (2) A certificate of ninth or higher grade standings; (3) A teacher's certificate; (4) By passing an examination in common-school subjects; (5) For the ensuing year, an eighth-grade certificate.
High schools were being established generally throughout the state in 1903, and the need for the normal school to maintain preparatory departments was diminishing. There were one hundred and five high schools in Washington in 1903, and that year five hundred and seventy-six pupils were graduated. Ten years earlier there were fourteen high schools in the state, and that year they graduated eighty pupils.
Recognition by the University of Washington of the courses of study offered by the state normal schools of Washington was made about this time. In the Normal School catalogue for 1904 the following announcement is made: "The authorities of the State University have passed the following by-laws regarding the admission of graduates from the advanced courses of the state normal schools into that institution: 'Graduates of the advanced courses of the state normal schools shall be admitted to nominal junior rank and required to carry eighteen hours a term for the two remaining years of the course. They shall be required to complete in the university two years of some one language, one year of some one science, one year of political science, one year of philosophy, a major study of twenty-seven term hours, and collateral of twenty-seven terms hours.'"
The recognition on the part of the University of Washington meant much for the state normal schools of Washington. It meant that graduates of high schools, desirous of obtaining a university education, but lacking the means, might attend a normal school and then teach for a few years in order to earn money to pay for two additional years of study in the university. Afterwards, if they desired to continue in the teaching profession, they would have the advantage of both normal school and university training. Since 1903 the Normal School has argued in behalf of the "normal-college" training.
Changes in the course of study for normal schools were made by the legislature of 1905 as follows:
"The board of higher education shall prescribe course of study for the normal schools of the state as follows: (1) An elementary course of two years, (2) A secondary course of two years, (3) Advanced courses of two years, (4) A complete course of five years, (5) An advanced course of one year for graduates from colleges and universities."
Under the provisions of this law a graduate of the elementary course was entitled to an elementary certificate, valid for two years in the common schools. A certificate from the secondary course was valid for five years. Completion of any advanced course entitled a student to a normal-school diploma that was valid for five years, and, upon the presentation of evidence of having taught satisfactorily for two years during the time for which the diploma was valid, the holder received a life diploma. Any student who completed the junior year, by vote of the faculty, might be awarded a secondary certificate. But no student was to be awarded a secondary certificate unless he was nineteen years of age, and had attended the same state normal school for one year of thirty-six weeks. Secondary certificates and normal-school diplomas could not be granted to students who had not taught successfully in the Training School, for eighteen weeks.
Requirements for entrance to the elementary course prescribed by this act were little, if any, more than eighth-grade graduation. In other words, a graduate of the course, two years above the eighth grade, if eighteen years of age, might be awarded a certificate to teach for two years. Completion of the elementary course, or of two years of high school work, would admit a student to the secondary course. Advanced courses of two years for high-school graduates and for those who had completed the secondary course led to a normal-school diploma. The five-year course, offering the same diploma as the two-year advanced course, was open to any person who had completed the ninth grade.
Regulations adopted b y the state board of higher education in 1905 defined "credit" to mean one hour per week for one semester, with only half credit given or laboratory or gymnasium work. The range of credits established for completion of the various courses was fixed as follows:
Elementary courses, eighty to eighty-eight credits; secondary course, eighty to eighty-eight credits; advanced course, seventy-five to eighty-five credits; complete courses, one hundred and ninety to two hundred and twenty credits; graduate course, thirty to forty credits.
In June, 1907, the state board of higher education designated the following as elective subjects in the normal schools: Practice teaching, ten credits; school administration, five credits; education, five credits; primary methods, four credits; mathematics, five credits; biological science, eight credits; physical
Science, eight credits; agriculture, eight credits; astronomy, five credits; geology and mineralogy, five credits; domestic science, five credits; domestic economy, five credits; manual training, eight credits; art, eight credits; music, eight credits; political and social science, eight credits; history, eight credits; English, twelve credits; foreign languages, sixteen credits. The principal of the normal school was authorized to organize classes in any of the foregoing subjects, provided at least five students made application for the work.
Authority to offer extension work in connection with the regular work of the normal schools was given by the state board of education in 1907, but nothing was done toward developing it at the State Normal School at Cheney, until several years later. A very important change in the course of study at this time, however, was the establishment of a rural department in 1908. N. D. Showalter, now president of the Normal School, took charge of this department in 1909.
Provision for a commission to revise and recodify the code of public instruction of Washington was made by the legislature of 1907. This commission was composed of the state superintendent of public instruction, the attorney general, and three members appointed by the governor--one a county superintendent, one a member of the school board of a city containing 10,000 or more population, and one a head of one of the institution of high learning.
Two years later the code was changed materially, with results that were almost epochal so far as the future of the normal schools of Washington was concerned. Tuition fees for students who did not sign the pledge to teach were abolished, the state board of higher education and the state board of education were consolidated, and provision was made whereby the holders of certificates obtained by examination might renew their certificates by attending an institution of higher learning.
When the state board of higher education was abolished in 1909, virtually all of its powers were transferred to the newly-created state board of education, which was composed of the state superintendent of public instruction, the president of the University of Washington, the president of the State College of Washington, the principal of one of the normal schools, chosen by the principals, and three persons holding Washington life diplomas, one a superintendent of a school district of the first class, one a county superintendent, and one a principal of a four-year accredited high school. Appointed members were to serve for two years.
Among the powers and duties prescribed by law for the board were: approving courses of study for normal schools, approving preparatory requirements for entrance to normal school, and placing the state institutions in harmonious relations with the common schools and with each other, and unifying the work of the public school system.
The first real impetus given to normal-school attendance was the amendment to the certification law, passed in 1909. According to the provisions of
this law as amended, a person holding a third-grade certificate, by attending an accredited institution for a year, might obtain a second-grade certificate; one holding a second-grade certificate, by attending an accredited institution of higher learning for one semester during the life of the certificate, or by attending a summer session of six weeks and doing satisfactory work in three subjects, might obtain a renewal; one holding a first-grade primary, a first-grade or a professional certificate might obtain a renewal by attending an institution of higher learning for one year during the life of the certificate and doing satisfactory work in three subjects.
Changes in the normal-school curriculum at this time required that advanced courses of two and three years be established, and that the secondary certificate should be valid for three years only rather then for five years. It was also provided that the holder of a normal-school diploma should not receive a life diploma until three years of successful teaching had been completed, but t was decreed that this teaching might be done either before or after receiving the diploma.
These changes in the school code furnished the basis for many rulings by the state board of education during the next two years. In June, 1909, the board passed the following resolutions: "That no normal school shall issue an elementary certificate to any student until such student has completed three quarters of work in the regular classes of the institution; that the principals of the state normal schools be allowed the privilege of outlining for the coming year such three-year advanced courses as they find necessary to accommodate the students of their respective institutions under the conditions outlined at the meeting of the state board of education, April 17, 1909."
On February 21, 1910, the following resolutions were passed by the state board of education: "That the elementary certificates shall not be renewable; that one year of high-school work, or a teacher's certificate, shall be required for admission to the elementary course during the school year 1910-11; that two years of high-school work shall be required for admission to the elementary course of study after September 1, 1911; that the following outline be adopted for the elementary course for the school year 1910-11: Tenth year--English, ten credits; mathematics, ten credits; science, five credits; history, five credits; electives, eight credits; physical training, two credits. Eleventh year--Education, five credits; music, four credits; agriculture, four credits; manual arts, five credits; English, five credits; American History, five credits; arithmetic, five credits; geography, three credits; physiology, three credits; reading and orthography, five credits; physical training, two credits.
"That, after September 1, 1910, no state normal school of Washington shall admit any student from a district maintaining a high school who has not completed the high-school course of his home district, unless: (1) He has a teacher's certificate; (2) he is more than nineteen years of age; (3) He has been promoted from the training department of a state normal school; (4) He beings a written request from the principal of the high school of his home district with satisfactory reason that he should be admitted to a normal school.
"On motion of Superintendent Cooper, seconded by Dr. Kane, it was expressed as the sense of the state board of education that it would be advisable
for the state normal schools to maintain summer sessions of nine weeks in length."
The foregoing resolutions were passed, undoubtedly, with a two-fold purpose in view: first, to raise the requirements for completion of a normal-school course; secondly, to encourage the growth of high schools, to the end that high school graduation might eventually be made the sole requirement for entrance to a normal-school course of study. Justification for such action is seen by observing the rapid growth of the high schools. In 1907-08 there were two hundred and seventeen high schools in Washington, and that year one thousand three hundred and seventeen pupils were graduated by high schools. Two years later there were three hundred and seven high schools in Washington, and two thousand seven hundred and eleven pupils were graduated from high school. Work was offered at the State Normal School at Cheney in the ninth and tenth grades after 1911 only for the benefit of those who came from communities where high schools had not been established.
Few changes were made in the course of study of the Normal School between 1911 and 1917. The rural work was extended, and some effort was made to do extension work, which had been authorized several years before by the ruling of the state board of higher education. But no great change in normal-school organization came until after the report of the legislative commission in 1916. On the basis of that report legislation was enacted in 1917 that started the normal schools of Washington on the road to teachers colleges. Provision was made that year for extensive normal-school extension work in the state, secondary certificates were abolished, third and fourth year courses of collegiate grade in normal schools were authorized, and a new certification law was passed, which required at least nine weeks of attendance at a normal-school, in addition to high-school graduation, as a prerequisite to the teachers' examination. This last provision has aided in building up of a large attendance at the summer sessions since 1918.
The changes in the course of study for the institutions of higher learning which were made by the legislature in 1917, also gave to the normal schools a monopoly of the training of teachers for the elementary schools, and, at the same time, precluded the training of high school teachers in the state normal schools.
The fourth year of work for normal school authorized by the state board of education on March 17, 1920, and on august 27 of that year the
four-year courses of study for the State Normal Schools at Cheney and at Bellingham were approved by the state board.
Special diplomas are awarded those who completed the third and fourth year course. These diplomas are valid for five years, and may be converted into life diplomas, after the required amount of teaching (twenty-four months) has been completed.
High-school work as a part of the normal-school course of study was abolished by Section IX., Chapter X, Session Laws, 1917, which read as follows: "Requirements for entrance to the University of Washington, the State College of Washington, and the state normal schools of Washington shall not be less than graduation from a four-year accredited high-school except for persons twenty-one years of age or over and except for students in the elementary science departments of the State college of Washington. This requirement may be waived as to summer school, short courses or extension work." By that act the goal toward which the State Normal School at Cheney had been striving for twenty-seven years was brought measurably nearer. The "high-school idea" had triumphed in Washington. At eh close of the school year 1916-17 there were four hundred and eighteen high schools in Washington, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine high school teachers and four thousand seven hundred and fifty pupils were that year graduated by high schools. It was no longer necessary for the teacher-training institutions to give high-school course.
Third-grade certificates were also abolished by the law of 1917, and new requirements were set forth for obtaining other certificates by examinations. Second-grade certificates, under the new act, became valid for a period of two year and could be renewed twice if, during the life of the certificate or a renewal thereof, the holder attended an "accredited institution of high learning for nine weeks, in which elementary teachers are trained, and did satisfactory work in three subjects." First-grade certificates, valid for five years, might be renewed if, during the life of the certificate, the holder attended for eight weeks "an accredited institution in which elementary teachers are trained and did satisfactory work in three subjects."
Abolishing the secondary course and making provision for new elementary courses, as well as for the three and four-year course, all of collegiate grade, necessitated the writing of new courses of study. In 1922-23 five two-year courses were outlined, primary, intermediate and grammar, rural, home economics, and manual arts, each leading tot he elementary normal-school diploma. An elementary course of one year entitled the student who completed it satisfactorily to an elementary certificate, valid for two years and non-renewable. For the completion of the one-year elementary course, a minimum of forty-eight quarter hours was required, and for the completion of any two-year elementary course ninety-six hours were required. Eighteen quarter hours constitute the maximum student load.
Requirements of the one-year elementary course in 1922-23 were as follows: English I and II, five credits; rural administration, three credits; Educational hygiene, three credits; mathematics, five credits; geography, five credits; primary or upper-grade methods, five credits; agriculture and biological science, five credits; observation and method, five credits; teaching, two and one-half
credits; penmanship, no credit; library methods, no credit; electives, nine and one-half credits.
Requirements for the completion of the four-year course were as follows: Education--psychology, five credits; observation and practice, ten credits; rural education, six credits; methods, five credits; principles of education, five credits; health education, three credits; physical training, three credits. Other requirements--English, ten credits; expression, three credits; mathematics, five credits; history and social science, ten credits; science and geography, ten credits; music and art, six credits. Electives: preferred departments, thirty-five credits; secondary department, thirty-five credits; free electives, forty-one credits. Total, one hundred and ninety-two credits.
Looking back over a period of thirty years, one is impressed not with the slowness of change in the curriculum of the State Normal School at Cheney, but with the rapidity with which the transformation has taken place. If one were looking for a "climax" or the breaking point of the period, one would perhaps give serious consideration to the year 1909. In that year tuition for all normal school students was abolished; provision was made for raising or renewing teachers' certificates by attending the Normal School; and resolutions of far-reaching importance were passed by the state board of education, resolutions which eventually removed from the Normal Schools course of study the first to-years of high-school work. Thereafter the Normal School began to set new attendance records and to break them almost as soon as they were established. The summer school took on a new importance, and the institutions began to develop a personality. The year 1909 might properly be designated the beginning of the "modern" period.
Almost equally important with the year 1909 was the year 1917. The institution had recovered from the fire of 1912, bigger and better in every way. A survey of the institutions of higher learning in the state has been made by a commission of experts, and the recommendations of that survey commission laid the foundation of a teachers college. New laws governing the course of study were passed, to which attention has already been called, preparatory work was abolished, extension work was authorized, advanced courses loomed up in the offing, and the campus of the Normal School was widened to include virtually all of the Inland Empire. Through the extension department the influence of the Normal School has gone directly into the schools and the homes of Eastern Washington, and by establishing courses the Normal School has had more to offer those who have come to take courses in residence.
The present year, 1923, has brought another great influence to bear upon the life of the Normal School. In 1927, as a result of the passage of a new certification law, teachers' examinations will be virtually abolished, and all who wish to enter the teaching profession in Washington will be obliged to attend professional schools. When the readjustments which will be necessitated by the operation of this law are complete, or nearly complete, it will be comparatively easy to require two years of professional work for an elementary certificate, and four years of such training before a normal diploma can be converted into a life diploma. When such legislation is enacted the State Normal School at Cheney will enter into a wider field of usefulness, and the teaching profession in Washington will take on a new dignity.
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