History of Washington
By Holice, Pam, and Deb
Extra special thanks to Holice B. Young for transcribing this series of books. The excellent work she does continues to help many researchers! Thanks also, to Pam Rietsch, for sharing her books with the world!
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A new state arises on the federal field--No easy task top record its gradual culmination--Washington as it was--the wilderness primeval--the name of Washington--its earlier life and history to be traced--the romance of history--A simile--Blind trails and paths of error--roads tht end only in bewilderment--"Prove all, hold fast the good"--Three fields from which to glean--falsehood leads to the finding of the real--The field of legendary lore--Journals and personal experiences--Accredited history and undisputed evidence--The mist of distance--The witness-box of probability--"With charity for all and malice toward none."--Statistical proofs--Prophets not always approved--a subject too large for our space--The dusty road--A prayer for patient indulgence--"Put yourself in his place."
THE OPENING OF THE FORST DOOR--COLUMNS AND HIS GREAT DISCOVERY
Every age produces a hero--Condition of the world in the days of Columbus--Need of new fields--Columbus not the first discoverer of America--Former visitors--Early life and history of Columbus--Birth, parentage, and education--Becomes a sailor--Causes leading to his enthusiasm for discovery--Stories of unknown limits--Efforts to obtain recognition of his projects--Appeals to Portugal in vain--Also to John the Second--Referred to the Junta, who decide against him--A mean attempt to steal his plans--Unsuccessful--He goes to Spain--Scene at the convent door--The friendly prior--Obtains audience with Ferdinand and Isabella--The Council of Salamanca--Rejected b y the court, he appeals to wealthy nobles of Spain--Disgusted and about to ask aid of France--Recalled to court--Another Audience--Ferdinand declines, but Isabella approves, and fits our an expedition--Difficulty of obtaining sailors--Pinzon comes to the rescue--The fleet sails--Fears of the sailors and mutinous murmurings--Firmness of the admiral--Variations of the compass--Mute messengers from the land--The three days of probation--The light on the port bow--Land at last--His eye the first to dicover it--Character and base reward of Columbus
THE OPENING OF THE SECOND DOOR--BALBOA'S DISCOVERY OF THE PACIFIC
Character of Balboa, who dies unjustly on the scaffold--Romance of the Darien expedition--the double treaty--Balboa's native bride--Entangling alliances head to war--His men quarrel over donated gold--The Cacique's rebuke--Balboa first hears of the Pacific--Determines to verify the report--Returns to Darien to make preparations--Send gold to the Spanish King--Learns that for alleged crimes he is to recalled to Spain--Determines to forestall official action by the discovery of the Pacific--Balboa's soldier bloodhound--His Indian allies--Sets out from Darien--Adventures by the way--Reaches the mountain top alone and beholds the Pacific--Dramatic situations--Addresses his followers--"To Deum Launamus"--The Indians wonder, but assist at the raising of the cross and memorial mound of stones--He descends to the shore--Alonzo Martin, the first European to float upon the waters of the Pacific--Balboa reaches the strand and takes formal possession--He wades into the sea and declares it and all its borders a territory of the Spanish crown--Melodramatic ceremonies--A grandiloquent proclamation--Honors the Trinity by cutting crosses with his dagger on three adjacent trees--Concluding remarks.
THE OPENING OF THE THIRD DOOR THROUGH THE DISCOVERY OF THE STRAIT OF MAGELLAN
Openings remarks--Personal history of Magellan--Neglected by Portugal, he takes service with Spain--Did he know beforehand of the existence of the strait?--He is placed in command of a Spanish fleet and sets sail--Winters at Port St. Julien--Jealousy among his officers causes mutiny--He puts it down and punishes the mutineers--Sends out explorers--Loss of the Santiago--A native visits his ships--Curious account of Patagonian giants--Attempts to capture them lead to difficulty with the natives--the mutineers tried, sentenced, executed or marooned--Death better than marooning--the fleet, after religious ceremonies, change their winter quarters--See an imaginary eclipse--Finally sail for the strait--Discover and enter it--The question of his previous knowledge of it again discussed--One ship has already been wrecked--Another now deserts him--Adventures attending the passage of the Strait of Magellan--discovery of native buildings and graves--Final passage and extrication from the Strait--the experiences of Columbus--Balboa and Magellan compared--Strain's Darien expedition quoted in proof of great difficulties to be overcome--Small cost of these early expeditions, and singular details of their outfit--False economy oftimes fatal to success.
OTHER ATTEMPTS TO PENETRATE "THE NORTHERN MYSTERY"
The term Northwest coast--Truth born of error--rivalry of early explorers--The northern mystery--A wave of discovery--Drake's piratical expedition--Parallel between Drake's and Magellan's experiences--Did Drake discover the Bay of San Francisco?--Conflicting opinion--Influence of Drake's voy-
age on modern diplomacy--Cruise of Cavendish--Policy of Queen Elizabeth--The Golden Hind--Unsuccessful attempt to colonize La Paz--Vizcaino surveys the California coast and reaches 42 degrees north--Discovers Cape Oxford and returns--Flores goes a degree higher--Vizcaino, failing in attempts to colonize California, returns to Spain and dies--Sprain ceases to explore the North Pacific--Her reasons for so doing.
DUTCH AND RUSSIAN VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION TO THE NORTHWEST COAST
Discovery of Cape Horn--Behring's first voyage of exploration to the northeast--Its failure--The Javanese junk--Behring's second voyage--Mysterious disappearances of his consort's boats and their crews--Their descendants discovered--sufferings and death of Behring--Loss of his ship--Survivors of his crew build a smaller vessel and return--Skins brought back by his sailors find ready sale in Siberia and lead to establishment of Russian fur trade on the Northwest coast.
REVIVAL OF SPANISH INTEREST IN NORTHWEST DISCOVERY
Spain plans new expeditions of discovery on the Northwest coast--Escapes a war with England by mediation of France--Cruise of the Santiago--Attacked by scurvy--Coasts the shore--Lands and trades with natives--Driven seaward by gales--Enters Nookta Sound--Observes Mount Olympus--Returns to Monterey--Important results obtained, but not being published, are useless--another expedition undertaken--Attacked by Indians and boat's crew killed--Ships separated by a gale--One returns to Monterey--Still another expedition sent out, but returns without material result--War between Great Britain and Spain puts a stop to Spanish exploration on this coast.
BRITISH EXPLORATIONS ON THE NORTHWEST COAST
Cook's visit to our shores--Significance of his instructions--Reaches the Northwest coast--Explorations hindered by fogs--Storm prevents the sight of the Strait of Fuca--Not finding it, Cook denies its existence--Anglo Saxon versus Spanish geographical names--Appropriateness of native appellations--Midshipman Vancouver--Bold adventure of John Ledyard--Killing of Captain Cook--Captain Cook dies--Lieutenant Gore, of Virginia, in command--Revolution in trade with China--the fur fields of the Northwest coast--Cook as a discoverer--Our geographical knowledge a general contribution.
CONCLUDES THE EXPLORATION BY SEA ON THE SOUTHWEST COAST
The Nootka Sound imbroglio--English mercantile rascality threatens war between England and Spain--Honest acknowledgment--Visit of La Perouse--Berkley's voyage--Captain Meares enters, names, and surveys the Strait of
Juan de Fuca--Dufflin, his first officer, makes further discoveries--Yankee enterprise sends Boston ships to the Sound--Exploration of the Columbia and Washington--Significance of names suggest patriotic thoughts--Captain Gray the first circumnavigator under an American flag--Discovers the mouth of the Columbia--Quimper's explorations--Vancouver arrives on the coast--Makes careful surveys--Hears of Gray's discovery, but disbelieves it--Gray returns, verifies, and names it after his ship--Scientific versus practical methods--Vancouver makes a second visit--Admits the existence but belittles the value of Gray's discovery--Lieutenant Broughton sails up the Columbia, ignores Gray's visit, and impulsively takes possession for the British crown--A A Rhode Island vessel "leads him out," "ciens Romanus sum"--A tribute to Vancouver--Conflicting claims of three different and differing nationalities to territory on the Northwest Coast.
DESTRUCTION OF THE AMERICAN SHIP BOSTON AND MASSACRE OF HER CREW, AS TOLD BY ONE OF THE ONLY TWO SURVIVORS
The Boston, a trader, puts in for wood and water--anchors five miles north of Indian villages at Friendly Cove--Visited by the natives and their kind, Maquina--Dress of the kind and his chiefs--Presents of salmon--The captain invites the King to dine--Peculiar diet of the natives--Watching the armorer--the Captain's fatal gift--the King breaks it and declares it "no good"--Maquina insulted by the angered Captain--Suppressed rage of the Chief--He understand English--Lulled into security--A savage's revenge--Assault on the armorer--Desperately wounded, the king interferes, and he escapes for a time--Imprisoned in the steerage--Awful suspense--Ordered on deck--A dramatic reception--the gory knives--"You say no, daggers come"--The row of heads--Jewitt ordered to recognize them--He becomes the king's slave and workman--Promises obedience and fealty--His life spared by the King against the remonstrances of his warriors--The King binds up his wounds and orders him to take the ship to Friendly Cove--Particulars of the massacre.
ASSAULTS OF CIVILIZATION ON THE EASTERN WILDS OF WASHINGTON BY EXPLORATION AND EMIGRATION OVER LAND
Opening remarks--A pleasant change--From sea to shore--False reports stimulate inland exploration--La Page's chronicles--A second Balboa--The Shining Mountains--Vereudrye's expedition--Alexander Mackenzie, the Columbus of transcontinental travel--His able and far-reechoing plans for British aggrandizement of the Northwest--Thomas Jefferson the father of western exploration--Ledyard's fruitless effort--Balked by Russia--Michaux's frustrated by France--President Jefferson's confidential message to Congress-Lewis and Clarke's expedition--Charms of a wilderness life--Travels and explorations better than light reading--Great distances traversed by Lewis and Clarke--Route taken--Wonderful success--Excitement caused by it--Suicide of Lewis--Jefferson's tribute to the dead explorer--Soldiers and trappers turned back by Indians--Wier's prophecy--The Oak Point settlement--Captain Bonneville's
expedition--Captain Wyeth's fishing and trading scheme--Two attempts prove failures--Keeping Indians school--Pursuit of knowledge under difficulties--The only arithmetic in Vancouver--Wyeth's failure a public gain--Tribute to the pioneer preachers of Washington and the far west--Results of inland exploration--Concluding remarks.
HOW WASHINGTON WAS WON FOR THE UNION--THE STORY OF DR. WHITMAN'S
FAMOUS TRANSCONTINENTAL RIDE
The American too often misrepresented--Dr. Marcus Whitman--British intrigues in the Northwest--English preserves and French Canadian gamekeepers--Americans regarded as poachers--How they kept the Yankees out--Immense value of the fur trade--Apathy of government and ignorance of our statesmen as to value of the Northwest--Senator's Benton's mistake--The God Terminus--The British Fur traders' feast--Dr. Whitman their accidental guest--Premature rejoicings--Whitman determines to frustrate their plans--His hasty departure with Dr. Lovejoy--Whitman's transcontinental ride--sufferings by the way--Lovejoy gives out, but Whitman presses on--Arrival at St. Louis--Is the treaty signed?--A race against time to Washington City--Arrivals just in time--Appeals to Congress and the Cabinet--The nation aroused--"On to Oregon!"--Two hundred wagons inline--British fur traders discourage Whitman's followers, but in vain--The emigrant army enters Oregon--A tribute to Whitman.
THE STORY OF THE BOOK
By the trappers' fire--The Indians hear of "the Book"--A council of the tribe--They determine to obtain the Book--Send out messengers--They cross the mountains--Arrive in St. Louis--Interview General Clarke--He takes little interest--They visit the churches, the ball-rooms--See altars and pictures of saints, but cannot find the Book--Pathetic farewell speech of the messengers--Overheard by General Clarke's clerk, who publishes it--Action of the missionary boards--Dr. Whitman sent out--Returns and appeals to the people--The doctor's bride--Their wedding journey--Rev. H. H. Spaulding and wife--Tribute to pioneer womanhood--Catlin warns not to go on--rough experiences--Kicked by a mule and upset by a cow--They celebrate "Independence Day" at South Pass--Take possession of the country--Nature's register--Solemn ceremonies--Comparison with Balboa--Whitman's old wagon and its work--They reach the Columbia--Twelve links in the chain of events tht bound Washington to the Union--Is it chance or Providence?
THE GREAT FUR COMPANIES OF THE NORTHWEST AND THEIR INFLUENCE UPON
AMERICAN EMIGRATION AND SETTLEMENTS
Furs the inducement of the north, gold of the southern occupancy of this continent--The secretly aggressive policy of the fur companies--A condition of
their license to trade--Their personnel and plans of operation--They labor for British supremacy--Their report to the home government--An admirable system--Birth, territory limits, and charter of the Hudson's Bay Company--King Charles's magnificent gift--A very moderate rental--Treatment of the natives--A prohibitory law well enforced--Indians kept employed--Utilizing the native--"John Bull versus Uncle Sam--John's tender pocket--No competition tolerated--Evans details their methods and system of recruiting--A service difficult to desert--Insensible fetters--The Hudson's Bay finds a rival and enemy in the Northwest--Formation and development of that company--Their methods and system of trade--Powerful influence of this new organization--Both agents of the British government--Methods of the two companies compared--The Selkirk project--A bloody skirmish--Both companies in evil case--the rivals merge into one--The Hudson's Bay absorbing the Northwest--Spoiling the spoiler
SETTLEMENT AND CAPTURE OF ASTORIA
Mr. Astor forms the Pacific Fur Company--His far reaching and liberal plans--Generous offer to the British Northwest Fur Company--Duplicity of that corporation--They dispatch an emissary to forestall him--Astor makes a grave mistake in selecting his partners--Articles of organization--British doubts overland parties--Arrival at Astoria--Capture of the Tonquin and massacre of her crew--Lewis blows up the ship--the massacre avenged--Torture of survivors--Thompson too late--Erection of trading posts--Difficulty of obtaining employees--Enmity of the British--The ship Beaver dispatched--Building of Fort at Astoria--Description of the place--Many discouragement's--The situation--War declared between England and America--Taken advantage of by the Northwest Company--Mr. Astor betrayed and sold out by his partner, MacDougal--Sad ending of a noble enterprise--The British capture Astoria--Dramatic incidents
SEARCHING OUR TITLE--TREATS OF THE VALIDITY OF OUR TITLE--ITS CONTESTANTS AND EFFORT FOR FINAL "QUIETING" BY TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN
Opening remarks--A clear title all-important--A skeleton search--Four claimants in the field--Russian pretensions--Spain's assertions--We fall heir to the Spanish rights--Russia not a contestant--Diplomatic tournaments of contending cabinets--English arrogation versus American right--England's arguments--Seeking for possession only--Asserts no exclusive right--Evan's lucid exposition--America's case as presented--A full statement--Negotiations begun 1807--Another attempt to settle boundaries in 1814--The Northwest undervalued by us--Unfortunate Treaty of Joint Occupancy--Opinion of Henry Clay--Many diplomats doctor the "Oregon Question"--Meagre results--England practically, the United States nominally in possession--Mistakes of our representatives--The question in congress--Oregon finds friends and opponents also--
Benton's god Terminus--Bills lost and revived in other forms--Benton, newly converted, now "wants the earth"--Sensible suggestions of General Jesup--President Monroe on Oregon--Floyd to the rescue--Debates in Congress--"Masterly inactivity"--Webster denies any eight of England--Exposes her duplicity and arrogant pretensions.--The matter still unsettled.
OUR BOUNDARIES DEFINED AND OUR RIGHTS SECURED
Congress at last awakened to the necessity of legislation--The American people aroused and interested--Dr. Whitman's arguments a powerful factor--Influence of the Oregon question on the Presidential election of 1844--"Fifty-four forty or fight"--Declaration of the Democratic convention--The Whigs also favor it--President Polk's message affirms our right--congressional action--Arbitration proposed by Great Britain and declined--Influence of the slavery question--Diplomatic negotiations renewed--Buchanan's farewell despatch--Notion of abrogation given to England--Arbitration again offered and refused--England submits to treaty--Politics action of President Polk--Democratic Cabinet versus Whig Senate--he submits it to the Senate and asks advice--Articles of the treaty--Senate advises its acceptance--It is so accepted--British claims secured--The fur companies; little bill--Benton is pleased, but Uncle Sam makes a bad bargain--"Fifty-four-forty or fight" cut down to 49 degrees--Benton's singular speech--Vancouver's Island undervalued--A minor point settled afterward--Great Britain, without a claim, wins her case--Pro-slavery her strongest ally--Virtue of persistency at a happy moment--Opinion of Robert J. Walker--General result and general disappointment--the long controversy finally ended.
PEOPLE WHO PRECEDED US
The Indians and their attitude toward and influence upon the settlement and progress of Washington--The original Indian--From whence did he come?--Various Theories--The glacial period--Organic changes--Savagery and barbarism defined and bounded--Savagery divided into three classes--Savages of Puget Sound--Original Indians the curse of our coast--Early atrocities--Cooper's model--native nature and character--Some private views--"Tenderfoot" versus "old settler"--Opinions diametrically opposed--folly of present systems exposed--The remedy--Two courses open to our Government--Failure of efforts to advance the Indian--The irrepressible conflict--Indian occupancy considered--Has he been cheated?--Mistakes of Eastern sentimentalism--Two personal anecdotes--Did the Indian really possess the land?--Continuation of savagery impossible--The savage and the settler compared--Indians of Washington--Influence of the fur companies on their treatment of the early settlers--Why fur traders and the natives were agreed--Indian hatred of Americans--American martyrs of the early settlements in the Northwest--No poetry in the savage of the Sound.
INDIAN PECULIARITIES--THE ABORIGINES OF WASHINGTON--THEIR MANNERS'
CUSTOMS, AND CHARACTERISTICS
Indian characteristics in general--Their religion--Strange fancies--the lobster god--The enchanted loon--Wawa, the great mosquito--Coyote, the superior spirit--Coyote overcomes Wawa--The origin of mosquitoes--The chipmunk legend--How the Indians first obtained fire--Coyote's stratagem--the five blind hags--Water nymphs--Indian Neptunes--Patron spirits--Indian reasoning--Isle of the dead--Fated curiosity--Dances--Courtship and marriage--Wedding rites and gifts--Indian mothers-in-law--Naming of children--Murder and its penalties--Ceremonies of expiation--Medicine men--Their frauds and devices--Mode of graduation--Spirit power--Strange professors--Their influence and peculiar methods of treatment--Indian horror of the spirits of the dead--Fancies and superstitions--the dead--Mourning and modes of sepulture--Canoe burial--The dead-house--Rehabilitation of the dead--Ancient ossuaries--Mystic influences of the wild rose bush--Indian and pale-face superstitions-compared--Concluding remarks.
WASHINGTON INDIANS OF TODAY--THE GENEROSITY OF PATSY, THE "POTLATCH" GIVER
The word "potlatch" and "cultus potlatch"--Patsy, the wealthy giver--Arrival of the guests--Picturesque scenes--the Indians camp--distribution of food--The great potlatch house--Shupald described--aunt Sally--Opening speeches--Indian songs--Wild dances--The Fourth strangely celebrated--Better to give than receive--the Indian ball--Revival of old memories--The Klootchmen--the potlatch proper--Distribution of the gifts--Patsy's presentation speech--Bags of silver money--The savings of a lifetime "potlatched"--Reduced to poverty, but high in the social scale--Aunt Sally's song of triumph--
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