History: 1923 Wood Co., Wisconsin Agriculture

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----Source: History of Wood County, Wisconsin compiled by George O. Jones, Norman S. McVean and others : illustrated. H. C. Cooper, Jr. & Co., 1923, CHAPTER XIII.

----1923 History of Wood Co., Wisconsin Agriculture




The approximate land area of Wood County is 517,760 acres. Reference to the report of the soil survey of Wood County made by the Bureau of Soils of the U. S. Department of Agriculture shows the following facts:

The earliest settlements in this territory were made in the fifties. The sandy regions were occupied first, as the tree growth here was almost entirely pine, which was the only timber handled by the early lumbermen. Hardwood at first was of little value, and where clearings were made in hardwood sections the timber was frequently burned. The first farms were small, and large areas of land remained in the cut-over stage for a considerable length of time before they were subdivided. Agricultural development has been much slower on the sandy soils than on the heavier lands in the northern two-thirds of the county. Agriculture is more highly developed in the section around Marshfield than in any other part of the county, although settlements were made in some of the' sandy sections considerably earlier. Practically all the general farm crops now grown were produced in the early history of the county, but the relative importance of a number of crops has changed considerably. Hay and oats have always been the most important crops from the standpoint of acreage. The censuses of 1880, 1890, and 1900 indicate that those years an acreage of rye somewhat greater than that of corn, while at present the reverse is true. In 1879 the acreage of wheat was over five times as great as in 1909. Buckwheat, peas, and beans are apparently not as extensively grown as they were 10 or 15 years ago. The greatest development has taken place in dairying and in the production of crops associated with this industry. The dairy production in 1909 was approximately seven times as great as in 1899. This rapid growth still continues, as is indicated by the fact that from 1910 to 1913 the number of cheese factories and creameries increased about 25 per cent.

The agriculture of the county at present consists chiefly of general or mixed farming, with dairying as the most important branch. The chief crops grown, in order of acreage, according to the census of 1910, are hay, oats, corn, rye, potatoes, barley, buckwheat, wheat, and peas. All of these may be considered in part as cash crops, for some of the hay and corn and a considerable proportion of the small grain are sold directly from the farm. The greater part of the production, however, is used in feeding live stock and finally finds its way to market in the form of dairy products, beef, or pork. A considerable quantity of grain and hay is used as feed for work stock. Potatoes and various garden vegetables are grown mainly as subsistence crops, but small quantities are placed upon the market.

Hay is grown more extensively than any other crop. The 1910 census reports 33,951 acres in all tame and wild grasses, with a production of 53,494 tons, or an average yield of over one and a half tons per acre. About 67 per cent of the hay consists of timothy and clover mixed and about 15 per cent of timothy alone. Little clover is grown alone. Minor hay crops consist of wild marsh grass, millet, small grains, and alfalfa. Tame hay is grown by far the most extensively on the Spencer silt loam. On account of the acid condition of the soils alsike clover is grown to a considerable extent. Red clover does well on land where the fertility has been kept up and thrives on new land in spite of the acidity, but on run-down fields it is not so successful.

Oats in 1909 occupied 14,664 acres and gave a production of 396,762 bushels. This crop is grown to only a small extent in the southern part of the county on the sandy soils, the greater part being produced on the Spencer and Vesper silt loams and the Gloucester silt loam, rolling phase, in the-central and northern parts of the county.

The acreage of corn in 1909 was less than half that of oats. Corn, however, appears to be gradually increasing in acreage, owing partly to the rapid increase in dairying and partly to the recent introduction of varieties that can be matured nearly every year.

Rye was grown on 6,297 acres in 1909, with a total production of 78,206 bushels. This crop is grown most extensively on the sandy soils and does better on such land than any of the other small grains. It is grown with success on some of the drained marshlands in the southern part of the county. Barley in 1909 occupied only slightly more than half the acreage devoted to rye. It is mostly grown in the northern half of the county, where silt loam soils predominate. The present acreage of wheat is small, being little more than one-tenth of that in 1899. Buckwheat is quite a common crop on the reclaimed marshy lands in the southern part ,of the county, but its total acreage is small.

Potatoes are quite an important crop, occupying 4,610 acres in 1909. The sandy areas produce most of the crop grown for market. Potatoes are grown for home use in all parts of the county and on practically all the various types of soil. Peas are not grown as extensively as in former years. In 1909 the production was 3,664 bushels, while in 1899 it was 15,365 bushels, and in 1889, 17,682 bushels. More peas are now canned than formerly, but the canning industry has not yet become very important.

Cabbage is an important crop, especially in the vicinity of Pittsville, where it is grown on a commercial scale. In nearly all parts of the county it is grown for home use. Tobacco is grown on a very small total area, mainly by settlers who. have come from tobacco-growing regions. Such crops as beans, radishes, lettuce, onions, carrots, strawberries, and bushberries are grown on most farms. Cranberry growing has been quite extensively developed in the southern part of the county, chiefly on peat lands. Wisconsin is the third state in the United States in cranberry production, and within the state Wood County ranks first. The Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station maintains a branch station near Cranmoor, where special attention is given to questions relative to cranberry growing. A more detailed account of this industry, revised by Arthur E. Bennett, may be found in the latter part of this chapter.

Fruit growing receives but little attention in Wood County. Much of its area is not especially well adapted to fruit production. The level, rather poorly drained heavy soils are not suited to the growing of tree fruits. Apples are grown more extensively than any other tree fruit. They are produced mainly in the more rolling parts of the county.

The live-stock industry is an important branch of farming. The 1910 census reports 32,561 head of cattle in the county, of which 18,465 are dairy cows. In 1909 there were 9,343 calves sold or slaughtered, 7,148 other cattle, 9,326 hogs, and 2,459 sheep and goats. Dairying is the most important branch of live-stock farming. The number of dairy cattle in 1919 was 42,473; value, $2,952,407. The principal dairy products are cheese and butter. A small quantity of milk is retailed in the towns. Holstein blood predominates in dairy herds. The use of pure bred sires is gradually improving the stock. There are numerous herds of pure bred cattle. The tendency at the present time is to send milk to cheese factories rather than to creameries. The number of cheese factories is increasing quite rapidly, while creameries are decreasing in number. In 1910 there were 17 cheese factories and 27 creameries, while in 1913 there were 32 cheese factories and 22 creameries. The dairy products reported in 1909, exclusive of those used in the home, amounted in value to $610,475. Some beef cattle are raised within the county, but the number is much smaller than that of dairy cows. Most of the calves sold are from dairy herds. Hog raising is an important source of revenue. This industry is carried on in connection with general farming and dairying. The character of the soil and topography has an important influence upon crop production in this county. On the heavy soils of comparatively level surface, which are cold and backward in the spring, corn does not do nearly so well as on soils of the same texture having a more rolling topography. Fruit and truck crops are but little grown in the regions where heavy, nearly level soils predominate. In the southern and southeastern parts of the county, where sandy soils predominate, the topography is not so important a factor. Except on the lowest sandy areas the natural drainiage is good and frequently excessive. It is generally recognized by the farmers that the heavy soils are especially well adapted to the production of hay. Drainage increases their adaptation to small grains and corn. The sandy soils are considered better adapted to rye than to other small grains, and a number of the sandy types are considered better for potato culture than the heavy soils. It is recognized that the northern part of the county, where heavy soils predominate, is better adapted to general farming and dairying than the southern part, where sandy soils and marshes abound.

The methods of farming followed are about the same as those practiced throughout the general farming and dairying districts of Wisconsin and adjoining states. The silo is in daily use on dairy farms, and a considerable part of the corn crop is handled as ensilage. Hay is stored in barns or stacks and used mainly as feed for stock, though large quantities are also sold. Considerable grazing is available on cut-over tracts, and cattle, sheep, and goats are used to advantage in clearing new land. A considerable area of cleared land deficient in drainage is used for pasture. Throughout the northern half of the county, and including the greater part of the region where heavy soils predominate, most of the farms are well equipped. The farm houses are generally well built and in good repair. Most of the barns are built upon a stone or concrete foundation, with a cement floor, and have storage room for hay and grain. Modern stable equipment is used in dairying. Silos are often built of concrete. Milking machines are in use on a number of farms. The farm machinery in use is modern. The work horses are mostly of the heavy breeds, such as Percheron and Belgian. The cattle are mostly of mixed breeding, with Holstein blood predominating. Pure bred sires are common. Throughout the sandy parts of the county and in some sections of heavy soil where drainage is most deficient the farm improvements are as a rule below the average. On the lighter soils the work horses are lighter in weight, and modern machinery is not in as common use.

On the heavy, level or nearly level soils a rather conspicuous cultural feature is the practice of plowing fields in narrow lands, so that a dead furrow left at intervals of two to four rods will act as a ditch to help carry off the surface water. This practice greatly assists in promoting surface drainage and usually insures fair drainage without the use of tile. On some of the large tracts of reclaimed lowland in the southern part of the county traction plows are used.

On the heavy soils a rotation in quite common use consists of corn, small grain for one or two years, and timothy and clover, from which hay is usually cut for two years. The field may be pastured a year before being again plowed for corn. On the sandy soils a rotation frequently followed consists of small grain, clover, and potatoes. In no part of the county has the question of crop rotations best suited to the soils been given careful consideration by the majority of farmers. Barnyard manure is the only fertilizer used to any considerable extent. Farm labor is not so difficult to obtain as in some sections of the United States. In many cases women and children assist with the farm work. Farm hands hired for the year or by the month are usually paid from $25 to $40 a month. Married men are usually given a house, fuel, and garden. During haying and harvesting seasons the wage for special help is about $2 per day.

The average size of the farms in Wood County is 105 acres. Land holdings range in size from a few acres to several thousand acres. In the sandy and marshy region a considerable area is held in large tracts. Some cut-over land in other parts of the county is also in large holdings. In 1910 there were 2,706 farms in the county, occupying 54.8 per cent of its total area. Of the land in farms, 38 per cent is improved. The 1910 census reports 92.9 per cent of the farms operated by owners, 6.1 per cent by tenants, and 1 per cent by managers.

In 1900 the average value of farm land in the county was $14.40 per acre, while in 1910 it was $32.36, having increased 125 per cent. Prices depend upon the extent of improvement, location, quality of soil, and other factors, and are variable in all parts of the county. In the vicinity of Marshfield, where agriculture is the most highly developed, farms frequently sell for $100 to $125 or more an acre, while in the sandy regions partly improved farms sell for $25 to $50 an acre. Cutover hardwood land in undeveloped parts of the county ranges in selling price from $20 to $30 an acre. The unimproved sandy and marshy soils in the southern part of the county are usually held at a figure considerably lower than this.

Agricultural Experiment Station.-In 1912 the State University obtained possession of an 80-acre tract near the southeastern corner of the limits of the city of Marshfield, and in 1913 began its operation as an agricultural experiment station along both soil and agronomic lines. In 1919 a 100-acre tract adjoining the original station farm was offered for sale at a reasonable figure. Through the efforts of the Marshfield Chamber of Commerce and others interested in the agricultural development of Central Wisconsin an option on this tract at $150.00 per acre was secured. On account of its strategic location every effort was made to obtain possession of this land for experimental work, and a bill for the necessary appropriation, introduced in the Legislature, passed unanimously. In July, 1919, full possession was given the University of this newly acquired tract. The soil is the Colby silt loam which covers an area of over 5,000 square miles in Central Wisconsin, so that information gained through the experimental work is widely applicable. F. L. Musbach has been in charge of the work from the beginning, and has carried it on with great success. An inestimable amount of good has been done through the knowledge gained as to just what crops are best suited to the soil and as to the proper methods of cultivation to apply in raising these crops.

The following statistics from census reports show the acreage and production of the principal crops as reported at the last five census years. The crop figures apply to the previous year's harvest.

Hay-in 1880, 7,945 acres, 9,543 tons; in 1890, 23,842 acres 23,501 tons; in 1900, 28,880 acres, 38,275 tons; in 1910, 38,306 acres, 57,846 tons; in 1920, 50,655 acres, 81,877 tons. Oats-in 1880, 2,101 acres, 54,284 bushels; in 1890, 6,245 acres, 203,181 bushels; in 1900, 11,829 acres, 331,740 bushels; in 1910, 14,664 acres, 396,762 bushels; in 1920, 21,781 acres, 643,398 bushels. Corn-in 1880, 1,529 acres, 43,442 bushels; in 1890, 1,841 acres, 57,789 bushels; in 1900, 4,763 acres, 105,070 bushels; in 1910, 6,713 acres, 154,710 bushels; in 1920, 8,908 acres, 278,856 bushels. Rye-in 1880, 1,728 acres, 17,511 bushels; in 1890, 3,023 acres, 37,944 bushels; in 1900, 5,417 acres, 72,830 bushels; in 1910, 6,297 acres, 78,206 bushels; in 1920, 10,385 acres, 121,111 bushels. Barley-in 1880, 79 acres, 1,507 bushels; in 1890, 145 acres, 3,293 bushels; in 1900, 1,754 acres, 42,500 bushels; in 1910, 3,801 acres, 91,622 bushels; in 1920, 3,105 acres, 76,743 bushels. Wheat-in 1880, 11,906 bushels; in 1890, 901 acres, 15,428 bushels; in 1900, 2,289 acres, 34,240 bushels; in 1910, 244 acres, 2,784 bushels; in 1920, 1,339 acres, 17,433 bushels. Buckwheat-in 1880, 61 acres, 588 bushels; in 1890, 414 acres, 5,439 bushels; in 1900, 832 acres, 8,920 bushels; in 1910, 523 acres, 3,329 bushels; in 1920, 1,567 acres, 18,560 bushels. Potatoes-in 1880, 56,756 bushels; in 1890, 1,560 acres, 15,366 bushels; in 1900, 4,169 acres, 273,625 bushels; in 1910, 4,610 acres, 318,446 bushels; in 1920, 4,720 acres, 297,943 bushels. Peas-in 1880, 3,133 bushels; in 1890, 17,682 bushels; in 1900, 1,010 acres, 15,365 bushels; in 1910, 229 acres, 3,664 bushels; in 1920, 90 acres, 1,045 bushels. Beans-in 1880, 419 bushels,; in 1890 326 bushels; in 1900, 158 acres, 1,110 bushels; in 1900, 17 acres, 426 bushels; in 1920, 90 acres, 679 bushels.

Condensed statistics from the Department of Commerce census for the years 1910 and 1920 showing the growth and development of farm property, values, etc., for the period covered. The figures for 1910 apply to April 15 that year, while those for 1920 apply to January 1.- Number of farms in 1910, 2,706; in 1920, 3,066; increase 13.3 per cent. There were two colored farmers in 1910 and 14 in 1920, the others being white. The value of land and buildings in 1910 was $12,525,492; in 1920 it was $26,- 493,976, an increase of 111.5 per cent. The number of farms operated by owners and managers in 1910 was 2,541; in 1920 it was 2,836; increase 11.6 per cent.

The number of farms operated by tenants in 1910 was 165; in 1920 it was 230, an increase of 39.4 per cent.

The total number of acres of land in farms in 1910 was 283,782; in 1920 it was 321,907; increase 13.4 per cent.

The number of improved farms in 1910 was 107,957; in 1920 it was 137,063; increase 27.0 per cent.

The statistics in regard to crops for the years 1909 and 1919 respectively were as follows:

Oats-The number of acres harvested in 1909 was 14,664; the quantity harvested was 396,762 bushels. In 1919 the number of acres harvested was 21,781; the quantity harvested was 643,398 bushels.

Corn-The number of acres harvested in 1909 was 6,713; the quantity harvested was 154,710 bushels. In 1919 the number of acres harvested was 8,908; the quantity harvested was 278,856 bushels.

Rye-The number of acres harvested in 1909 was 6,297; the quantity harvested was 78,206 bushels. In 1919 the number of acres harvested was 10,385; the quantity harvested was 121,111 bushels.

The total value of cereals raised in 1919 was $5,095,502.

The quantity of tame or cultivated grasses raised in 1919 was as follows:

Timothy-Number of acres, 4,851; amount raised 7,410 tons.

Timothy and clover mixed-Number of acres, 36,675; amount raised, 65,062 tons.

Clover alone-Number of acres, 901; amount raised, 1,337 tons.

Alfalfa-Number of acres, 20; amount raised, 42 tons.

Of wild, salt or prairie grasses there was a total of 6,596 acres or 5,887 tons. The number of acres of hay harvested in 1909 was 38,306; the quantity harvested was 57,846 tons. In 1919 the number of acres of hay harvested was 50,655; the quantity harvested was 81,877 tons.

The figures for domestic animals in 1910 are not very closely comparable with those for 1920, since the latter census was taken in January before the breeding season had begun, while the 1910 census was taken in April and about the middle of the breeding season and included many spring calves, colts, etc. They are, however, as follows:

The number of farms reporting domestic animals in 1910 was 2,619; in 1920 it was 2,992.

The number of horses reported in 1910 was 6,996; the number in 1920 was 9,313. The number of mules reported in 1910 was 11; the number in 1920 was 46. The number of cattle reported in 1910 was 32,561; the number in 1920 was 43,424; dairy cattle 42,473; value $2,952,407.

The number of sheep reported in 1910 was 5,549; the number in 1920 was 3,385. The number of sheep shorn was 2,654; wool produced, 19,392 pounds; value, $10,238. The number of swine reported in 1910 was 8,136; the number in 1920 was 13,887.

Miscellaneous crops- Sixty acres were sown to flax, which produced 501 bushels of flaxseed. Of tobacco 48 acres were cultivated, the amount raised being 56,082 pounds. Of sugar beets grown for sugar there were six acres, with a product of 37 tons.

The number of maple trees tapped was 11,540, the product amounting to 173 pounds of sugar and 3,040 gallons of syrup.

Of small fruits, aside from cranberries, there were 32 acres in strawberries, producing 55,037 quarts, and four acres of raspberries, producing 1,905 quarts. Poultry and bees (1919)-- Chickens, 134,871; other poultry, 2,682; value of all poultry, $120,124. There were 1,880 hives of bees, with a total value of $9,938. The first Brown Swiss cattle introduced into Wood County were brought in by the Sherry Lumber Company during the old lumbering days, but the herd was allowed to dwindle out. This next effort to establish a herd was made by Joseph Lusk of Auburndale village, who purchased several head from H. W. Ayers of Honey Creek, Walworth County, Wis. Mr. Lusk was then well advanced in years, and was unable to push the breeding, and about 1908 he closed out his herd. About that year Joseph Havenfang of Richfield Township, Wood County, was making a local reputation in breeding the Brown Swiss cattle and today he has a fine herd. In 1913 or 1914 Charles Wundrow of Marshfield Township became interested in the breed and has since built up a fine herd. Another excellent herd of the same breed was brought into Wood County by W. A. Drollinger, who came here from Marathon County in 1919, and whose farm is on Section 28, Auburndale Township. The popularity of the Brown Swiss cattle has kept increasing and during the last three years they have been entered in exhibitions at various county fairs throughout the state. There are now 300 head or more in Wood County, and they are rapidly taking a prominent place in the great dairy herds of this section, being generally acknowledged to be as good as the best and better than many others. They are a hardy breed and well adapted to the climatic conditions of this part of the country.

Wood County Guernsey Breeders Association.-In regard to this association the following facts were furnished by William Burhop of Marshfield, proprietor of Willowmoor Farm:

On June 22, 1907, there was organized at Marshfield the Marshfield Guernsey Breeders Association, with a membership of 24. C. I. Morrison was its first president, W. E. Hargrave its secretary, and John Lipien its treasurer. At that time there were but two pure bred sires owned by members of the association, and the females owned were merely high grade. The object of the association was to improve the Guernsey herds, not only around Marshfield, but throughout the entire county, and this object has been well achieved, as there are today above 500 head of pure breds owned by the several members scattered throughout the county. In 1916 the name of the organization was changed to the Wood County Guernsey Breeders' Association. In 1920, for the betterment of the Guernsey interests, the county was divided into local clubs, and five such were organized, each club being officered by a president, a secretary and a treasurer. These clubs were the Marshfield Club, the Rock Township Club, the Vesper Club, the Wisconsin Rapids Club, and the Pittsville Club. Annually the officers of these clubs hold a meeting for the discussion of such principles as may be worked out for the betterment of the parent association and the bringing of the Guernsey herds to a higher point of perfection in this section of the state. From time to time the Association sends out good judges to purchase additions to the herds of its members. These men are always on the alert, so that they may procure from different parts of the country the very best strains possible. But not only does the Association buy the best to be had, but they also distribute their surplus to other sections of the country.

In the spring of 1921 the Association financed the project of bringing from the Island of Guernsey 34 head of native heifers at an expense of several thousand dollars. This purchase was made by Charles L. Hill of Rosendale, Wis., as agent for the Association. These young heifers were received in June, 1921, and were allotted to the members for use in the "Junior Calf Club" work throughout the county. The present officers of the parent association are: A. P. Bean of Vesper, president, and J. G. Breidenbach, secretary and treasurer. A sale of pure breds is held annually by the Association at the pavillion of the Central Livestock Breeders Association, located in Marshfield. The Wood County Guernsey breeders made a good showing at the National Dairy Show held at St. Paul in the fall of 1922 and received very favorable recognition as being among the leaders of all the country.

A more intimate and detailed account of various agricultural activities in the county, relating largely to the work of farmers' organizations, is contained in the reports of the county-agricultural agent. His report for the period covering from July 1, 1920 to November 20, 1920, mentioned a joint picnic of the two cow-testing associations of the county, successfully held at Marshfield on August 19, and the organization of another cow-testing association at Arpin, which was officially started November 1. A Wood County Duroc Jersey Breeders Association was also organized. Some work was also done in certain sections of the county relative to the control of fire-blight in orchards. A meeting of the bee-keepers of the county was held and a two-day school bee was arranged for Nov. 29 and 30 at Marshfield. A three-day Farmers' Institute and also a Woman's Institute was held at Wisconsin Rapids on Nov. 18, 19 and 20, and a corn, grain and potato show was held in connection. Eight other Farmers' Institutes were arranged for other parts of the county. Attention was also given to the tuberculin testing of cattle. Some saving was also effected by a committee appointed on the purchase of feeds.

The report of R. A. Peterson, county agricultural agent, for the period Dec. 1, 1920, to Dec. 1, 1921, shows that the year 1921 was one of great progress in agriculture: "Organization has been the slogan for the year, and practically every community in the county has a working unit of one kind or another that is serving its interests in numerous ways, as the period of this report closes. Ten local Holstein Clubs have been organized and these have been federated into a Wood County Holstein Breeders' Association. The County Association has a membership of 241. Four local Guernsey Clubs have also been organized in the year, and these too have been federated into a Wood County Guernsey Breeders' Association. Seventy Guernsey breeders are members of this organization. "The organization of these Clubs and County Associations was not the final act in the program, but was merely a step in the line of progress. Definite programs of work for 1921 were outlined and adopted by each Club, including such items as resolutions to test cows for production either by official test or through Cow Testing Associations; to support a Boys' and Girls' Calf Club of ten members; to test herds for tuberculosis; to show at local and county fairs; and to have a community show herd; to work for the more general adoption of pure bred herds, etc.

These programs were followed rigorously, with splendid results. Several community picnics were held to a decided advantage, supported by liberal attendance, good programs, cattle exhibits, plenty to eat, enthusiasm, and the good time spirit. Most of the clubs held meetings at regular intervals, which were well attended and interesting. Topics of local interest were taken up, outside speakers were sometimes present, and plans were made for the work to be done.

Three new cow-testing associations were also organized, bringing the total number operating in the county at one time to five. The new associations started were as follows: Marshfield, March 15, Auburndale, April 1, and at Rudolph on the same date. Attention was given the new associations and the older ones as well. The Richfield Association was organized in 1920 and finished its year's work in June, 1921. The Arpin Association was organized to start work Nov. 1, 1920, and finished a very successful year on Nov. 1, 1921.

"Five hundred twenty-seven cows were on test in this association. Of those finishig the year's work, the average production was 7,000 pounds of milk and 260 pounds of butterfat,-average cost of feed $68.00, average profit above cost of feed $67.00. Twenty-four hundred and eighty-one cows were the total number under test in the five associations. The testing association work eliminated a large number of boarder cows, increased the value of the good cows by revealing their producing qualities, stimulated interest in better feeding 'methods, and developed a friendly spirit of competition between members. More silos and milk

houses were built, drinking cups were installed, more milking machines were purchased, barns were remodeled and many other good things resulted. Better prices were paid by outside buyers for cows with testing association records.

"Sixty-five boys and girls were members of the Wood County Boys' and Girls' Calf Club in 1921. Most of the calves grown were pure breds and were of the Holstein, Guernsey and Brown Swiss breeds. The members of the club were assisted in their work by letters of advice, regular printed lessons on care and feeding of calves, and by personal visits. The calves belonging to the club members were in many cases the first pure-bred cattle to be owned on the. farm. The calves were grown nicely, and the interest of both club members and parents in the project was of the best. Forty-two of the calves were shown at the Central Wisconsin Fair at Marshfield. Only four of these were grades. The Calf Club showing was one of the features of the Fair. The members carried away many fine ribbons in both the Calf Club and the open classes and close to $300 in prize money. Four of these calves were also shown at the State Fair at Milwaukee. Ten of the Guernsey calves were selected from the County Club and shown at the National Dairy Show in St. Paul, winning second place as a club showing.

"The several banks of the county co-operated nicely in financing the Calf Club movement. A large part of the calves were obtained locally, six others, pure-bred Holstein heifers, were purchased from southern Wisconsin breeders, and 32 purebred Guernsey heifer calves were imported direct from the Isle of Guernsey, and most of these went to the boys and girls.

"A community Calf Club contest was arranged at the County Fair, and five entries were received in this class from the following places: Auburndale, Vesper, Marshfield, Marshfield-MacMillan, and Nasonville. 'The awards were made in order named.

"Wood County was represented at the State Fair by a county herd of 30 animals evenly divided between the Guernsey and the Brown Swiss. The herd won fifth place as a county exhibit. Eighteen first prize ribbons were carried away by our cattle, besides a number of lesser prizes, and several hundreds of dollars of cash premiums. Wood County cattle also showed to advantage at several other fairs-Marshfield, Wausau, Stevens Point, Baraboo, Madison, Chippewa Falls, Merrill, La Crosse, and the National Dairy Show.

"A county agricultural exhibit was put on at the State Fair with the co-operation of the Agricultural Committee and proved a very creditable one, though the extremely dry season was a handicap in the exhibit, since the quality of the fruit and vegetables available was far from the usual grade of Wood County products. A free trip to the State Fair was furnished two of the boys belonging to the Wood County Boys' and Girls' Calf Clubs. This trip was furnished by the State Department to counties where considerable club work was being done.

"An Agricultural float representing Wood County and called 'Better Livestock' was put up and shown at Rhinelander on August 10, 1921-the occasion of a large agricultural convention-and served to advertise our county nicely.

"A Wood County Duroc Jersey Swine Breeders' Association was also organized. The association has grown nicely and at the present time has a live membership of 25 of Wood County's leading Duroc breeders. A number of good meetings were held by the association in the year, at which several of the leading Duroc breeders of the state were present and gave information, advice, and encouragement to the members of the new organization. Results were apparent in the year's work in the growth of the association, many of the new members getting their foundation stock, and in the plans that have been made for future sales, and for future showings at the Marshfield Fair. Wood County as a dairy county can combine its dairy interests with those of the swine industry to a decided advantage.

"The potato crop is an important one in the Kellner district, and the soy bean has been found to be especially valuable on the light soils common in this region. To best carry on development work covering both potatoes and soy beans, a Potato and Soy Bean Growers' Association was organized at Kellner. A definite program that would tend to standardize the potato crop of this district so that only the two or three leading varieties best adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions would be grown, was outlined and adopted. The dry weather made the potato crop a failure so that the projects did not materialize, but the same work will be put forth for 1922 and results are expected.

"A definite program was adopted relative to soy beans also. Four varieties were tried out, the Ito San, the Black Eyebrow, the Mammoth Yellow, and the Little Blacks. The Manchu variety would also have been included but the seed was not available. The Ito San and Black Eyebrow varieties came through nicely as general purpose plants-good for seed, hay, silage, or to turn under as a green crop. The Little Blacks showed up nicely as a seed crop and also for hay, but are a little short for silage. The Mammoth Yellow, a southern grown plant, the seed of which was purchased by many because of its cheapness, failed to compare with either the Ito San or the Black Eyebrow varieties. A demonstration tour of the several soy bean fields was held August 24, and the results were gratifying from the standpoints of both the attendance and the interest shown. The soy bean plots varied from one-half acre to ten acre fields, many of the farmers having their first experience with the crop. Seed of the good varieties is now available in the community., "The Kellner Soy Bean and Potato Growers' Association has also developed as a social or Community Club, with a membership at the present time of 60 farmers. Regular meetings are held on the third Monday night of each month, speakers being secured to address the meetings on subjects relating to the industry. On August 24, the Kellner Association staged a 100 per cent Community Picnic, which brought forth an attendance of close to 600 people.

"A Soy Bean Growers' Association was also organized at Babcock. The Babcock Association has a membership of 22 farmers. A definite program covering variety tests of beans for seed, hay, silage, green manuring crops, effect of inoculation and of liming, was adopted and most excellent results have been found. The Manchu variety was also grown here in addition to those mentioned in the Kellner list and proved very satisfactory as a general purpose crop. The acreage of soy beans was greatly increased and since seed is now available in the community the acreage will be still greater next season. Several fine meetings have been held some of a business nature, others of a social tone.

"Organization work has also gone on among the women of the rural districts of Wood County. Miss Gladys Meloche, extension specialist from the College of Agriculture has been active leader, and the county agent has co-operated with her in arranging meetings, furnishing transportation, etc. Fifteen women's clubs were organized in the county, each with an appointed leader. The clubs were federated into a Wood County Rural Life Club, which is headed by a committee of three ladies, Mrs. E. E. Miner (chairman), of Marshfield; Mrs. J. T. Holland, of Auburndale, and Mrs. F. W. Jones, of Wisconsin Rapids. Several meetings have been held by the county organization and 248 meetings were held in the year by the local clubs. Miss Meloche conducted a series of four meetings with each club. The work covered had to do with the making of dress forms and with the remodeling of clothing, etc. The work of Miss Meloche was greatly appreciated.

"The agricultural agent was also active in supporting the Central Wisconsin State Fair at Marshfield. The livestock breeders were encouraged to show their animals at the Fair both in the open classes and as a part of community exhibits. The Calf Club department was superintended by the agricultural agent and the showing of 42 calves was a feature of the Fair. The Township Agricultural Exhibit was also encouraged. Five 'excellent exhibits were in place in spite of the discouraging season. The exhibits were placed in the following order: Hansen, Auburndale, Seneca, Marshfield, MacMillan, and Hiles. A beautiful silver cup was presented to the town winning first honors, by the Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune. The management of several of the dances held in the sales pavilion at Marshfield for the purpose of financial aid to the standing debt was also cared for so that some of the necessary finances resulted.

"Co-operation with the local Breed Clubs and the Chamber of Commerce resulted in the boosting of the Market Day at Wisconsin Rapids, May 10. About 50 pure-bred cattle were shown in the parade. Over 400 little pigs were sold to good advantage on that day, and 13 pure-bred bulls sold for $700. The Market Days held monthly have also given good results. About 50 bushels of soy bean seed was supplied to farmers through the office of the county agent. Over 300 acres of soy beans were grown in Wood County in 1921.

"Demonstration plots of various kinds were also established. Three one-acre plots of Ped. 16.11 wheat were grown in the different parts of the county to a good advantage. This wheat is a rust resistant variety developed at the Marshfield Experiment Station. A one-acre demonstration lot of small fruits was established on the farm of Wm. Jackson near Wisconsin Rapids, through co-operation with the State Horticultural Association. Ten boys were enrolled in a potato growing project to determine the value of 3-8-6 fertilizer on the growth of potatoes. "A limestone campaign was put on in the county at the Farmers' Institutes last winter with the result that orders were taken for 560 tons of limestone. This was delivered to 70 farmers in amounts varying from two tons to 30 tons. There is need of many times this amount of limestone to correct the acid condition of Central Wisconsin soils. Seventeen hundred people were in attendance on Wood County Day at the Marshfield Experiment Station. Thirty-eight pure-bred heifers were purchased for $6,000 and distributed to Wood County breeders. Eighteen thousand one hundred pounds of picric acid-surplus war explosive-was distributed to 181 Wood County farmers at a saving of $2,300, for use in blasting out stumps.

"Co-operation of the members of the County Agricultural Committee, of Principal S. G. Corey of the County Agricultural School, of E. H. Perkins, director of Vocational Agriculture, of the County Superintendent and supervising teachers, of the farmers and the business men of Wood County, and the banks, and the liberal support of the press has made possible the results outlined above." Butter and cheese manufacture.-The first creamery in Wood County is said to have been established in April, 1889, by William H. Carey, Walter Dickson and Frank Rourke. They bought cream at 15 cents an inch, made it into butter and shipped it to Philadelphia, where it sold for 11 cents. In those days cream was bought by the inch, and each inch made only a pound of butter. As the proprietors lost four cents on every pound, therefore, the enterprise was soon abandoned. But in time more favorable conditions prevailed, and after the butter could be sold at a profit in markets nearer home, the business began to pick up and the number of creameries increased.

According to the best information obtainable the first cheese factory in Wood County was started in August, 1885, in Nasonville by Herman F. Thiel (see biography). The next were established at about the same time as the first creamery, in April, 1889-one at Rudolph and one in Sigel-by Lawrence M. Nash and his partner, W. T. Jones, in association with E. C. Rossier and Charles Ecklund. For a number of years past the cheese making industry has been assuming greater importance, taking precedence over butter manufacture. The northern part of the county in particular is studded thickly with cheese factories, and vast quantities of the product are shipped from Marshfield, which is one of the most noted cheese shipping points in the world.  

A report of J. Q. Emery, state dairy and food commissioner, contains the following facts in regard to the butter, cheese and general dairy interests of Wood County. The figures in regard to some items are given for four different years for the sake of comparison:

In 1916 the number of cheese factories was 50; number of butter factories 21. In 1918 there were 58 cheese factories and 20 butter factories. In 1920 the number of cheese factories was 63, that of butter factories 17. In 1922 there were 64 cheese factories, 8 butter factories and 11 receiving stations.

The number of pounds of cheese produced in Wood County in 1915 was 4,534,- 988, the value being $647,886.18. 1917-Pounds, 6,999,036; value, $1,620,500.14. 1919-Pounds, 9,405,966; value, $2,807,358.02. 1921-Pounds, 9,966,224; value, $1,762,148.92. The figures for 1921 apply to American cheese only, no brick, limburger and Swiss cheese being produced. Cottage cheese also is not included. The value of the cottage cheese, skim milk, pri-most, cooked, buttermilk and cream cheese produced in 1921 was $2,437.80.

The number of pounds of butter produced in Wood County in .1915 was 1,815,- 905; its value, $480,381.95. 1917-Pounds, 994,595; value, $466,150.45. 1919- Pounds, 1,450,672; value, $773,361.63. 1921-Pounds, 3,082,414; value, $1,210,- 888.19

The value of condensery products, ice cream, whey, skim milk in 1921 was $405,459.03.

In 1921 the number of pounds of milk delivered to receiving stations was 114,010; its value, $3,300.21. The number of pounds of cream delivered to receiving stations the same year was 788,145; its value, $124,635.13.

The Cranberry Industry (revised by Arthur E. Bennett). Not the least of the resources of the Wisconsin Valley, and in particular of Wood County, is that of the cranberry industry. Its history is almost a romance. Nowhere on the American continent, except in the choicest irrigated districts, has wild and apparently worthless land been taken from the state of nature and developed and made so valuable.

Thirty years ago much of this land could be purchased for the back taxes at 50 cents an acre. Today the best marshes are worth $500 an acre. In early days there were no roads, no telephone, no free rural delivery, no homes in this seemingly worthless, marshy country. Today it has all the modern improvements, splendid roads, and every cranberry grower has the telephone and the free rural delivery at his door. Many have become wealthy and own magnificent homes in the city, though working on their marshes during the season.

The cultivation of the berry necessitates ditching, damming, draining, and flooding the marshes at the proper season of the year, the plants or vines being under water from November until May. The early settlers here found the berries growing wild, and their gathering, both in this state and in Michigan, was done entirely by the Indians. About 90 years ago the first cranberries were planted and cultivated in the New England States, an abundant supply having been secured before that from the wild marshes. Their systematic cultivation in Wood County began about the early seventies and by 1880 there were some large marshes under operation, the berries selling in the market at from $2.50 to $4.50 a bushel. They were not troubled much with the blight common in the New Jersey marshes, or the worm to be found in the marshes of Connecticut, and the growers made some 30 per cent on their investment in the land. In 1880 the marsh operated by Bearss & Alexander, situated on the line between Cranmoor and Port Edwards Townships (sections 16 and 21), and containing 120 acres, all under cultivation, yielded about 3,600 bushels. In 1876 the John Arpin marsh, then of 40 acres, in Section 33, Cranmoor Township, yielded 1,200 bushels. In 1877 the marsh fire destroyed a great deal of the marsh and for a time the crop was very light, but in 1880 it was 400 bushels. In 1893 there was further damage from fire.

Today the Wisconsin Valley produces about 40,000 barrels of cranberries a year, the state of Wisconsin about 50,000, and Wood County about 25,000 barrels. An acre of good cranberries may produce as much as 100 barrels, or a barrel of cranberries for every square rod, though the average is much under that amount, being not more than one-third, or about 100 bushels to the'acre. The market price varies greatly from time to time, depending on general or special conditions. Thus, while the United States was engaged in the World War it was low, owing to the difficulty in obtaining sugar. In 1919, according to the U. S. census, there were 437 acres of cranberries cultivated, the amount produced being 1,885,128 quarts. In 1921 the average price obtained by the growers was $15.00 and some berries sold much higher than that. The general average for the last 15 years-from 1907 to 1922-has been about $8.00 per barrel.

The cranberry picking season begins about September 1 and lasts for two or three weeks, or longer, according to the size of the crop. A marsh of 60 to 70 acres will employ about 30 people, who nowadays are nearly all men. The growers provide sleeping quarters for them, as well as cooking and dining facilities. On the Arthur E. Bennett marsh in Cranmoor Township, and perhaps on one or two others, there is a room which is used for dancing and entertainments.

It was not long after the cultivation of the cranberry had been started here on a systematic basis that the growers found themselves confronted by various problems that it took them some time to solve. For their ultimate solution they owe a large debt of gratitude to Judge John A. Gaynor, a man who took a keen interest in solving such problems as well as in the promotion of various enterprises for the good of the community.

One of these early problems was the question of water supply and drainage. Here Judge Gaynor's legal training stood him well in hand. He saw that the rule of common law would prove ruinous to the industry, but that the water must be handled according to the rules of civil law; and to this end he succeeded in placing a law on our statute books for the benefit of the growers. In the matter of water supply and control the previous practice had been for each grower to look out for himself regardless of his neighbor's rights or interests, but Judge Gaynor saw that while a farmer might do this in a way, the cranberry men could never do it save at their own ultimate loss. He got them to understand and trust each other, to exercise. fair play and work together in the common cause. They soon got into the habit of going to him for advice, and that advice was on the side of compromise whenever possible and against strife and litigation. Most of the important contracts, deeds and concessions for water and outlets-and there were many of them-were drawn by him, and few if any court controversies or law suits arose out of his contracts. He followed the principle of a square deal at all times to everybody.

He was a recognized authority on drainage and drainage laws, and was always called in when the University needed counsel on these matters. He was one of the attorneys appointed to help draw the present drainage laws as they now exist on our statute books. When the Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers' Association was organized about 1883, its members met for the first time at Kruscki's marsh at Cranberry Center. Judge Gaynor was there, and it is said that he attended nearly every meeting of the Association up to the time of his death. His legal and scientific training was a valuable asset to it, and though he had many able coworkers, his natural place was recognized. to be that of a leader. He set to work to find out the cause of failures, to get the growers to study the causes so as to avoid them, and to control conditions. He made them see that new and better methods must prevail. Up to the time he took hold it had been either a feast or a famine; there was no permanency, no certainty of a crop, but under his guiding hand, conditions improved. The hardest problems he revolved in his mind until they became simple. He always had his reasons, and he always listened to the other fellow's reasons. He knew that brains mixed with the soil were the best fertilizers, and used to say that if a grower lost a crop he ought to be able to sit down in the middle of his patch, examine the vines, then tell what had happened, and when and why, and what could be done to prevent it, and he often demonstrated his own ability to do this.

The two yearly meetings of the Wisconsin Cranberry Growers' Association were very valuable, but the problems to be solved would be solved too slowly consistent with the rapid development of the industry. Some one should be on the job steadily. Here again Judge Gaynor proved a useful factor. In 1893 he was a member of the state legislature. He knew that the state sometimes went into the charity business. It certainly was pitiful to see our poor infant industry struggling when a few hundred dollars from the great state of Wisconsin could put it on its feet. He therefore introduced a bill (Chapter C 236 Laws of 1893) asking the state to make an annual appropriation of $250 to be used exclusively for this purpose of procuring and publishing information relative to the cultivation and production of cranberries. Notwithstanding the smallness of the sum asked for a strong protest was made against the passage of the bill, which was cried down as class legislation and a dangerous precedent. Judge Gaynor met his opponents by the statement that he believed in helping infant industries, as well as infants, and that such industries should only be helped while young. Other industries, like horticulture, in which wild varieties had been domesticated and improved, had netted handsome sums and developed into permanent resources of the state of Wisconsin. Why not do this for the cranberry? His reasoning prevailed and the bill was passed. This appropriation was the first important step in the governmental aid to our industry, out of which arose larger and larger inquiries which even involved the use of funds out of the agricultural department of the United States government. Now there is hardly a phase of the industry which has not been investigated. The passage of this act meant the establishment of a permanent industry of cranberry raising in Wisconsin and the birth of a cranberry experimental station. In fact Judge Gaynor had such a station in mind when he drew up the bill. The Association immediately made provision for the establishment of three experimental stations. These were soon after consolidated into one station and finally located where it is now, in Section 27, Cranmoor Township. The station took up all kinds of problems. The society believed in the best varieties. Other industries had proven that with the same labor two dollars' worth of fruit could be raised where only one dollar's worth had been raised. From this time on the industry took a new turn, for the experimental station has wrought many changes possible through the small state appropriation already mentioned.

Greatly through the efforts of Judge Gaynor, the experimental station of the society was doing good work. It had collected 150 different specimens from all parts of the world. What to do with them? In his broad knowledge of government and affairs he knew of the good work the University of Wisconsin was doing for farming and for horticulture. Why not use the scientific training of these brainy professors to help solve some of the cranberry problems? Judge Gaynor had already paved the way for this work. He had taken up single problems of blight, terminal buds, and cross-fertilization with such University men as Professor Goff and Dean Henry. He found that they were eager to help. To these men he presented new and interesting problems unknown to them. It was not long before he had a number of the professors interested. He gave them problem after problem that they could not answer. Soon the professors of the agricultural school became interested in cranberries and the problem of their culture. Judge Gaynor sent them vines as early as 1899. These they planted at the University that they might study them better. It was not long before Dean Henry and later Dean Russell saw the problems and the future possibilities of our cranberry industry.. They were willing to use a portion of the State University funds to investigate our problems and to help us. We still have and we have had for years a portion of the University money which is used for extension work in the interest of cranberrying. The far reaching effect of this work initiated by Judge Gaynor could not then be foreseen. Today the University has tackled almost every problem, from soils to plant pathology and physiology, from insects and weeds to fertilization. The solution of these difficulties will be of inestimable value to future. generations.

Again the great agricultural department of the United States government was investigating the problem of irrigation and drainage. The government men were at work in Wisconsin. We have problems of irrigation and drainage. Here again Judge Gaynor co-operated with the University and men were sent here to survey and establish levels and to make a map of everything of value to the cranberry men in the town of Cranmoor.

Judge Gaynor believed that cranberrying should be made comfortable, attractive and convenient, and did what he could to counteract the isolated life of the marsh. Isolation made men narrow and suspicious. Neighbors should know and like each other. He did much to organize a telephone system among the marshes. When the rural free delivery was inaugurated he was right on the job and helped pull the wires so that the marshes were among the first to enjoy rural free delivery. Fires threatened marshes. He co-operated in getting legislation and fire wardens for marsh interests. One of the early annoyances was the want of standard measures and sizes. He was on a committee and succeeded in getting a standard size cranberry barrel, a standard picking box. When he had discovered the Prolific variety at Walton, Mich., it was he who went and got them for us. He was active in getting exhibits at the numerous state fairs and the World's Fair at Chicago, at Paris and at St. Louis. He did much to establish a method of describing the various varieties. He was interested in creating a demand for cranberries and increased consumption. His horizon for the cranberry industry seemed to cover everything.

It is also necessary to mention the system of co-operation as worked out by him and applied to various public utilities and public interests, especially the system applied to our Co-operative Sales Company. The system of competition was one of destruction. Instead of allowing outsiders to exploit our crops, he believed that those who had a common interest should unite and pull together-should organize and market their own products. The Cranberry Sales Company will ever be a monument to his name.

Judge Gaynor was the author of a number of articles bearing on cranberry culture, embodying the information and knowledge he had gained through years of personal study and investigation, either personal or in collaboration with others. The most important of these were "Preparing the Soil for Planting," the "Preparation of the Vines," "Cross-fertilization," "False Blossoms," "Blight," and "Fertilizers," instructing the growers even in the botany involved in the industry.

To his brother, James Gaynor, the industry is indebted for the invention of an improved grading machine, of which the following description was given in an article in the Booklovers Magazine for December, 1905:

"The genius that does the work is the mill or grader-a two-story machine run by hand and the force of gravitation. The berries are received by the hopper upstairs as they come in from the bog. The stems are mostly caught by the screen; the finer trash is blown out below by the fan that revolves in the cylinder. Now the berries fall on a long table, having a succession of slats and grooves under strong cross-pieces. The grooves are open all their lengths at the bottom, the space between their slides widening by degrees, making four changes. As a grader the machine is wonderfully simple and intelligible. The berries poured out on the table roll promptly into longitudinal grooves. The pea-sized ones drop through at once and land in the first bin. They are wizen little dwarfs bound for the canning factory or the dye-pot, if indeed time permits bothering with them at all.

An endless apron tracks along under the slats, and thrusts up every six inches or so an erect loop of wire in each groove, thus pushing the berries along in single file with no chance whatever for delay. The grooves widen, and all the "seconds" fall through. Next the "standards" disappear, and then the "fancies" in the next section. Only the "extra fancies" dance along to the end of the table and jump triumphantly off into the small and special box ordained to receive them. And shall mere size take precedence of quality in the rating of cranberries? Nay, verily. The test of character comes next. The berries of a given size roll down the shute together. But at the bottom their paths separate. The sound ones, with a strong rebound, jump over the bar into the bin. The soft and wormy ones have little spring left in them. They fall short and roll ignominiously into the box underneath. If by chance one such gets over, the keen-eyed girl drops him summarily into the tin funnel, and he goes to join his kind in the garbage-box.  

The sound berries are not so. They roll cheerfully down the gang-plank and into the waiting barrel." On some marshes other types of grading machines are used, but the description of the Gaynor machine above given indicates sufficiently their purpose and the ingenious manner, in which, generally speaking, it is accomplished. The Wisconsin Cranberry Sales Co. was incorporated March 23, 1906, under the laws of the state of Wisconsin, with the following objects: "To act as agent in the sale of cranberries; to establish uniform packages for the marketing of the fruit; to adopt rules to prevent fraud, and to promote reliable clearing, grading, and packing; to promote a demand for and sale of cranberries; to procure reasonable shipping rates" and to carry on horticultural experiments in an endeavor to better the cranberry growing industry by the application of scientific growing methods. The company was capitalized at $2,500. The first directors were: E. G. Dano, Mather, Wis.; S. A. Warner, Warrens, Wis.; Alvin Day, Tomah, Wis.; H. R. Laing, Berlin, Wis.; E. P. Arpin,A. C. Bennett, and John A. Gaynor, of Wisconsin Rapids, Wis. The directors met for the first time April 19, 1906, and at this meeting elected E. P. Arpin president and A. C. Bennett secretary and treasurer; Mr. Arpin has held the office of president continuously since the organization. Bylaw No. 5 shows the method of financial operation: "Dividends shall be declared equal to all stock holders until the amount paid for the stock has been repaid, after which dividends shall be declared and special assessments be made to stockholders in proportion to the amount of business handled for each stockholder, and special assessments shall not be made on business done until all capital stock is paid in full." By-law No. 6 gives the requirements for membership in the company: "Only persons, firms, and corporations engaged in the business of growing cranberries in the state of Wisconsin can become stockholders herein, and each such cranberry grower who desires to become a member of this corporation may do so by signing an application therefore and furnishing to its board of directors satisfactory proof that he is a reliable and careful cranberry packer, together with a promise and pledge that he will obey all rules and regulations of this corporation in the matter of cleaning, grading, packing, and shipping of cranberries; five days' notice of such application shall be mailed to all members and in the absence of good reasonable objections from three or more stockholders, the application may thereupon be approved by the board of directors, and upon such approval the applicant may become a member by complying with the constitution and by-laws." Bylaw No. 13 states the relation between the company and its sales agent: "The board of directors shall make contract with the sales agent, who shall furnish a suitable bond to protect the company and its members in handling of its property and prompt remittance of moneys received as well as the faithful and honest performance of the duties of said sales agent." By-law No. 14 shows the methods adopted to secure uniform practice in preparing the cranberries for market: "The directors shall engage one or more inspectors to superintend the grading, packing, and shipment of cranberries." By-law No. 15 says further: "Any allowances or losses made on account of poor packing, or grading, or defects, shall be charged to the grower responsible therefore."

At a meeting held April 19, 1906, the firm of U. P. Chaney & Co. was elected sales agent for the company, the firm consisting of U. P. Chaney and his brother, C. M. Chaney. In 1907 U. P. Chaney organized the National Fruit Exchange, afterward known as the American Cranberry Exchange; this company, with headquarters in the East, acts as selling agent for the Wisconsin company, the New Jersey Cranberry Sales Co., the New England Cranberry Sales Co., and the Growers' Cranberry Sales Co., and its business is transacted by delegates from these several sales companies. It has been carrying on national advertising since 1918. A new organization of the Wisconsin company was effected in August, 1919; new articles of incorporation were drawn up, and the company became the Wisconsin Cranberry Exchange, a non-stock corporation; its mode of transacting the business of the growers is very similar to that of the original company, except in the conduct of its finances. The new corporation, having no stock, distributes no dividends.

Mr. U. P. Chaney, still at the head of the American Cranberry Exchange, which, as has been mentioned, he founded, and which now handles more than 65 per cent of the whole cranberry crop, has this to say, in regard to the functions of the entire co-operative cranberry industry: "We can name only the opening price; thereafter the supply and demand in the markets will regulate the price. It is our duty to assemble all useful information that will enlighten us as to the probable demand, to estimate the crop carefully, and then to determine a price which we believe will be sustained when the first fruit reaches the market in quantities and that will move the entire crop. We cannot control prices. We can only stabilize markets, by stimulating the demand through advertising, by careful packing, and by fitting the supply to the demand in each market through judicious distribution of shipments."

A four-page paper devoted to the interests of cranberry growing, the title of which was "The Cranberry Grower," was started by W. H. Fitch in January, 1903, and was issued at Cranmoor, this county, where Mr. Fitch was postmaster, for about two years, when, as it proved un-remunerative, it was given up. Mr. Fitch, who was himself a grower, and also for about 15 years secretary of the Cranberry Growers' Association, was associated in the publication of the paper with A. B. Sutor and W. A. Drumb of Wisconsin Rapids. This was the only paper ever issued in Wisconsin in the interest of cranberry growers. Mr. Fitch was succeeded in the office of secretary of the Wisconsin Cranberry Growers' Association by his son, Joseph Fitch, who served as such for ten years. Both are now deceased, having lost their lives at the same time, when their house took fire, being asphyxiated by an escape of gas from a defective fire extinguisher. Joseph succeeded in carrying his father out of the house.

Drainage in Wood County (contributed by B. M. Vaughan, of Wisconsin Rapids).- Wood County originally contained approximately 100,000 acres (15614 square miles) of land, too wet for profitable use in agriculture. The greater part of this area was transferred by the United States to Wisconsin, by the "Swamp Land Grant" of 1850, in trust for drainage. Much of it lies in that great flat basin (old lake bottom) that occupies central Wisconsin, and thousands of acres were "floating bog." The vegetation on these wet lands was largely moss, swamp weeds and wild grasses, of little or no commercial value. Occasionally a small area was covered with small tamarack or spruce. Wild cranberries were found in scattered patches. Among these lower lands were slight elevations, known as "islands" on which grew some timber.

About 1870 cranberries began to be cultivated quite extensively, in favorable locations, on these marshes, but on account of insect pests and fungus, frost and fire hazards they were an uncertain crop. In the period from 1870 to 1892 these cultivated cranberry bogs probably reached 3000 acres, in Wood and adjoining counties. Appurtenant to these cultivated cranberry bogs, probably 15,000 acres more were used for reservoirs, to store the water necessary in cranberry growing. The seasons of 1892, 1893 and 1894 were extremely dry in central Wisconsin, in many places drying these marshes to a depth of several feet. During these years great fires swept over the whole of these dried-out swamp areas, destroying practically all vegetation. Following these fires small tracts of these dried marshes were farmed, and in many cases yielded remarkably good tame crops. But the years following the great fires were normally wet, and the dried out lands gradually filled with water and returned to marsh conditions. The dry seasons demonstrated that most of these lands had not enough water-supply to make them safe profitable cranberry prospects, and that when dry enough they would produce good farm crops.

When these burned marshes again became too wet for farming, their owners naturally turned to drainage, as the obvious way of making them of value. A few pieces were privately drained, with good results. But most of these marsh areas lacked sufficiently deep drainage outlets. The man desiring drainage often must have an outlet beyond his own land, through the land of others. In most cases, the man who owned the land through which this outlet must be dug, would not pay any part of the cost, and in many cases would not permit the outlet to be dug across his land.

As the constitution prevents one person forcibly taking for his private use the property of another, drainage of these large tracts by private enterprise was effectually blocked. To justify the forcing of drainage across the lands of these stubborn land owners, and to require them to pay a share of the cost of drainage which would benefit them, that drainage must also benefit the public,-or, as our statutes put it, must "promote the public health or welfare."

The Wisconsin drainage laws then provided for such public drainage. Under the drainage district law, owners of much of these marsh and swamp lands went into the Circuit Courts and asked that drainage districts be organized. Among these land owners earliest to take hold of the public drainage problem, in Wood County, were James E. Ingraham, James Q. Daniels, Lawrence Ward and Anton Brost, all of them residents of the town of Remington, in Wood County. Each had large holdings of marsh.

The first of these projects to be organized in Wood County was the Remington Drainage District. It contained something over 21,600 acres, within the county, and was organized Sept. 2, 1902. Later, lands in Jackson County were annexed to that district. The Kert Creek Drainage District, with something over 7,000 acres, was organized in 1905. The Cranberry Creek Drainage District, with an area of 19,000 acres (of which about two-thirds was in Wood County) was organized in 1906, and the Wood County Drainage District, with an area of about 5,000 acres, was organized in 1913. All of these were organized in the Circuit Court of Wood County. The Dancy Drainage District, organized in the Circuit 'Court of Marathon County, has about 3,000 acres in Wood County.

Under the Town Drains Law, repealed in 1919, several town drains were constructed, but these drainages were usually too small to be of much use.

After the passage of the "Farm Drainage Law" in 1919, three farm drainages were put in under that lar,--one in the towns of Seneca and Hansen, one east of the city of Marshfield and one in the village of Vesper, the three aggregating about 6,500 acres.

Altogether the public drainage projects in Wood County include approximately 61,500 acres and in them have been dug something over 165 miles of open ditches, most of which were originally dug from seven to nine feet deep, with a bottom width of from 4 to 36 feet. Besides these open drains, something over seven miles of tile have been laid in these public projects.

Before these drains were constructed, most of the lands now served by them, were so wet that they contained no settlers and practically no public roads. The few private roads that entered them were so near impassable that they were seldom used, except in winter and at cranberry harvest time. They followed no definite lines but wound from island to island, with corduroys between the islands to make them passable at all. Much of this marsh area, not covered with floating bog, had peat so soft and deep that it was dangerous for man or animal to try to cross it. Some of the peat had a depth of 18 or more feet.

Now over 40 miles of good highways run through or on the border of the drained areas. Several of these highways are patrolled, trunk highways. Many fine farms, with commodious farm buildings, are within the drained districts.

The lands in these drainage districts and farm drainages are not yet all sufficiently dry for general farming. Some require more drains. But most of them are drained enough for successful dairying, and probably two-thirds of them enough for general farming. They produce, when properly drained and intelligently worked, very satisfactory crops of tame hay, alsike clover, Sudan grass, ensilage corn, soy beans, oats, rye, flax, buckwheat, cabbage, sugar-beets, onions, parsnips, carrots, tomatoes and small fruits. Acre-yields of 40 to 70 bushels of oats, 18 to 25 bushels of rye, 10 to 20 tons of cabbage, 175 to 400 bushels of potatoes, 400 bushels of onions, 112 to 212 tons of tame hay and 18 to 26 bushels of buckwheat are not unusual on these soils. High grade and pure bred cattle do well upon the drained lands,-both dairy and beef breeds.

At the Wisconsin State Fair, for 1922, the exhibit of produce grown on drained marsh land, rivaled in excellence the exhibits of most of the older counties of the state, and nearly one-half of that exhibit was grown on Wood County drained marsh. Seeing the improvement of these publicly drained areas, has encouraged many land owners, who have outlets available, to start private drainage. Most of this private drainage is tile. The Gault farm in Hansen Town, has many miles of tile drain. There are altogether something like 56 miles of private tile drain and many miles of private open ditch in the county. These drained lands are not gold mines, but when sufficiently drained and properly farmed, they can be relied on to produce more and better crops, and fully as good net cash returns, as the best surrounding high lands.

The' County Fair.--A county agricultural society was organized in Grand Rapids in the early seventies, or possibly the late sixties. It was conducted for profit and was unsuccessful. In 1877 the project was revived but on a different plan, the idea of profit making being abandoned. A meeting of citizens was called June 9 at Grand Rapids, of which Dr. G. F. Witter served as president and S. D. Lord as secretary. The meeting was largely attended by citizens of Grand Rapids and Centralia and delegations from the towns of Seneca, Rudolph, Grand Rapids and Saratoga. All books and records of the previous association had been burned in a fire which occurred in March, 1873, but it was ascertained that of the original fund $25 still remained in the hands of H. B. Philleo. At the next meeting, held June 20, 1877, the subscription list showed a total of 104 names, at the fixed price of $1 per share. The society was then formally organized and incorporated as the Wood County Agricultural and Mechanical Association, with the following officers: D. G. Witter, of Grand Rapids, president; A. G. Cady, of Seneca, vice president; S. D. Lord, of Grand Rapids, secretary, and Seth Reeves of Grand Rapids, treasurer. There was a board of directors composed of fourteen members, namely: Joseph Hasbrouck, Grand Rapids; Thomas J. Cooper, Centralia; John Edwards, Port Edwards; E. A. Bentley, Seneca; James Ranhan, Sigel; Jasper Cottreau, Rudolph; John Connor, Auburndale; J. B. Grieves, Marshfield; S. N. Nason, Lincoln; F. W. Pitts, Wood; George Hiles, Dexter; James Joy, Remington; John McCartney, Saratoga; and John Timm, town of Grand Rapids. A committee on grounds was appointed and at the next meeting it was reported that the committee were unanimous in agreeing that the Worden Race Course-the land on the East Side, south of the stand-pipe, where the three schools, Normal, Manual Training and High, .are now located-was the most suitable site and that they had made an offer for it. On July 18, the offer was closed and the Association became the lessees of the ground for one year, with the privilege of either buying or leasing it for a term of years. The first fair was held there October 8, 9 and 10, 1877, and was in all respects a great success. In 1878 final arrangements were made by which the Association was to have the use of the grounds for Fair purposes and its meetings were held there every year until 1894 or 1895. In the later years the fair ran chiefly to horse racing of a kind that many patrons did not favor, so gradually patronage was withdrawn and the fairs failed to pay expenses. The agricultural regions near .the city were then mostly undeveloped; so the stockholders, feeling that there was not sufficient demand for their wares, decided in February, 1897, to dispose of the -grounds and discontinue the fair. They voted to surrender their stock and deed -the grounds to the city of Grand Rapids, in consideration of which the city paid the debts of the organization, to the amount of about $1,600. The resolution of the stockholders under which this land was deeded over was passed Feb. 23, 1897. The next day the deed to the land was duly made and recorded.

Several of the stockholders, however, dissented from this action and started an action in the circuit court to restrain the Association and the city from consummating the deal. This action, entitled "J. D. Witter et al vs. The Wood County Agricultural and Mechanical Association," was fought for several years and by different attorneys, the city being made a party to the action. Finally the case went to Brown County, Wis., on a change of venue and was there decided in favor of the city and the Association as represented by B. M. Vaughan, who was city attorney at the time. The contending parties signed a quit claim deed to the property in favor of the city in 1901. The last president of the Association was L. M. Nash and the last secretary T. A. Taylor. No agricultural fairs were held in Wood County for some eight or nine years thereafter, or until the present Association was formed.

The Central Wisconsin State Fair Association, the annual meetings of which are held in Marshfield, was organized Feb. 9, 1903. The president was C. I. Morrison, the secretary Geo. H. Welton, and the treasurer W. W. Noll. Dr. H. A. Lathrop was also active in the work of organization. The Association took over the grounds of the Marshfield Driving Park, which had operated race meets here intermittently since 1890. These grounds covered 30 acres and had been taken on a mortgage by W. H. Upham, who turned them over to the city of Marshfield. It is leased by the city to the fair association. The property included some buildings- a grandstand, stables and exposition hall. In 1912 the Association built a round barn supposed to be the largest round barn in the world. It accommodates 250 head of cattle and is provided with a concrete floor and metal stanchions. In 1920 the present grand stand was built. It is constructed of concrete, includes a band stand, and has a seating capacity of 3,000.

The annual fairs are held late in August or early in September, the exhibits running largely to dairy stock, hogs, some sheep and horses, together with poultry, agricultural crop products, cheese, etc. The premiums each year amount to about $5,000 and are confined to stock exhibits, domestic arts and fancy work. Horse races and automobile and bicycle races, etc., are among the features of the fair, which for the last ten years has been uniformly successful, though the attendance has occasionally suffered from bad weather, as in the present year, 1922. The officers of the Association for 1922 are: J. C. Kieffer, president; A. P. Bean, vice president; F. A. Noll, treasurer; and R. R. Williams, secretary. In 1920 the total receipts were $39,839.17; the total disbursements were $38,954.63, of which $22,873 was for improvements, which was more than any other county in the state spent on this item.

The race track, which was operated as the Marshfield Driving Park previous to the formation of the Central Wisconsin Fair Association, which took over the grounds, was started by popular subscription, W. H. Upham being active in the work. M. H. Wheeler, W. G. Hinman and H. A. Lathrop were appointed a committee to select the site, and that finally chosen was determined on chiefly because a survey by Mr. Hinman showed that of the three under consideration it would require the smallest amount of grading and filling. The land was owned by Henry Mauer.  


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