three hundred and twenty acres, which was the west half of section nine, and in February, 1910, added to it three hundred and twenty acres adjoining it, lying in section eight, so he is now owner altogether of nine hundred and sixty acres in Logan and Fairdale precincts. He engages in mixed farming and stock raising; running a large bunch of high grade Shorthorn cattle, also raises a herd of hogs each year which he disposes of at the nearby markets. His place is completely equipped with substantial buildings and improvements of all kinds, and he is classed among the progressive and well-to-do residents of Howard county.
   Mr. Irvine was joined here in 1873 by his father, mother and two brothers, other members of the family coming here prior to that time, so that all were early settlers in the locality. Mr. James Irvine, senior, died here November 13, 1906, while the mother passed away in 1881. On November 28, 1876, our subject was united in marriage to Margaret Jane Welsh, daughter of Peter Welsh, who is an early settler of Howard county, the ceremony taking place at the home of her parents in Kelso precinct. Mrs. Irvine's family were natives of Canada, settling in Howard county about 1876, and both her mother and father died here. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Irvine, namely: Martha Jane, Adelaide B., George L., Glenn W., and Clarence S., the first two married, while the three others are single.
   During 1884 to 1890 inclusive, Mr. Irvine was county commissioner of Howard county, and at other times held precinct office. Politically he is a democrat.



   One of the early settlers of Valley county, who has been identified with much of the history and development of that region, is Carl Lueck, who owns a large farm, and raises considerable stock. He was born in the village of Kleinsabien, province of Pomerania, in Germany, May 9, 1857, and is the fifth of six children born to William and Hannah (Beig) Lueck, both of whom died in Germany. He has one brother living in Germany, and the others are deceased. He received his education in his native land and reached manhood on his father's farm. He emigrated to America in 1881, crossing the North Sea from Stettin to Hull in the "Otto," and embarked at Liverpool, April 27, on the "Spain," landing in New York the 8th of May. He came direct to Merrick county, Nebraska, and after spending two years there, he came to Valley county in the month of January, 1883, making his home here since that time. He secured a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres on the northwest quarter of section ten, township seventeen, range fifteen, and improved and developed it until he had a well-equipped stock and grain farm. He is a successful man of business and has now acquired six hundred and forty acres of fine farming land, lying in sections three, nine and ten, where he raises considerable stock. He has been active and interested in local affairs, helped organize school district number fifty-nine, of which he served as moderator for several years. He is well and favorably known in his part of the county and is counted a useful, public-spirited citizen, with a reputation for honest and upright dealing.
   January 13, 1883, Mr. Lueck married Miss Johanna Marks, a native of the village of Oenhausen, Westphalia, Germany, who came to America in 1872. She is a daughter of Ernest and Charlotte Marks. They settled in Dane county, Wisconsin, and moved on west to Valley county in 1880. Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Lueck, namely: Helena J., died in infancy; Frederick William, of Valley county; Otto R., at home; Hannah S., married F. F. Cook and they live in Valley county; Carl H., junior, at home; Minnie, deceased; Martha L. and Henrietta Susan at home. The family are prominent socially and have a large circle of friends. Mr. Lueck, with his family, is a member of the Evangelical church, and he is a republican in politics.
   Like the typical pioneer of the west, Mr. Lueck lived for a time in a sod house. Deer and antelope were to be found in the country when he came, and one antelope was secured for the family larder. Among the early privations of the first settlers were the dry years, especially 1894, when Mr. Lueck raised nothing but a little corn.



   Among the pioneer settlers of Madison county, Nebraska, who came to this locality in the early seventies and endured many privations and hardships in the early days, is William L. Will, who now resides in section thirty-six, township twenty-two, range one, where he is surrounded by a host of good friends, and many acquaintances and neighbors, respected and esteemed by all with whom he has to do.
   Mr. Will is a native of Vermont state, where he was born August 20, 1846, and is a son of William and Phoebe (Roach) Will; the father was born in England, and in the very early days came to America, embarking in a sail boat; he died when our subject was but a child of four years. The mother was a native of Vermont state, a daughter of Phineas Roach, and died in 1897.
   In 1870 Mr. Will came to the west, locating in Madison county, Nebraska, where he took up a homestead in section twenty-eight, township twenty-one, range two; here he put up a sod house in which he lived fourteen years, then building a good frame house.
   In those early days of pioneer life on the western frontier, Mr. Will experienced many hardships and discouragements. Columbus, thirty-five miles distant, was the nearest market



place, taking two days to cover the journey to and fro. Grasshoppers were a great source of destruction during the first years of residence here and in 1873 and 1874 they devoured the entire crops of those years; prairie fires were another danger that had to be fought and almost continually checked, the rolling, seething mass of flames utterly destroying everything in their path, leaving nothing but wide stretches of blackened ground where a few moments before had waved the green grasses of the open prairie. Our subject and family often fought these fires to save their lives and property.
   In 1870 Mr. Will was united in marriage to Miss Sarah Jane Harris, a native of Indiana, and daughter of Warren H., and Susan (Harris) Harris. Mr. and Mrs. Will are the parents of five children, namely: Phoebe, Dr. C. L. Will, Myrtle, Roxy, Lewis, and Murl.
   In 1901 Mr. Will took charge of the Hurne ranch, the land where he now resides, and has a fine home where he and his family enjoy the esteem and respect of a host of friends.



   Stillman Gates has one of the pleasantest homes of Sargent, Nebraska, surrounded by a beautiful lawn and well kept flowers and shrubs. He has lived there since the spring of 1909, retired from active life, and owns thirty-eight acres of well improved land in the place. He is a native of Chautauqua county, New York, born October 6, 1835, eldest of the five sons and three daughters of Lorison and Salome (Felt) Gates. The father was born in New York and the mother in Vermont, and they were married in Ellington, New York, December 4, 1834. Stillman Gates has in his possession his grandfather's gun, which was made in 1803, an original flint-lock, made over into a cap lock, and later arranged to take shot for amunition [sic]. In the spring of 1837 the family moved to Huron county, Ohio, where they lived until 1852, and where the following children were born to them: Lorison, Salome, Ira, Jane, Hosea, Goodwin and Ruth. In the fall of 1852 they came to Porter county, Indiana, their home for a number of years. The father was an ordained minister of the Christian church, and held different pastorates in Ohio. Several years before his death he moved to LaPorte, Iowa, where he passed away September 17, 1902, in his eighty-ninth year. His wife had died in Porter county, Indiana, January 3, 1869. Of their eight children, but three now survive: Stillman, Hosea and Jane. Hosea lives in Fort Dodge, Iowa, and Jane, Mrs. Clark, lives in Estherville, Iowa.
   Stillman Gates left home about the time he reached his majority, and was married in Wheatfield, Jasper county, Indiana, April 2, 1857, to Mary McNeal, daughter of James and Hope (Gifford) McNeal of St. Lawrence county. Five children were born to this union: James Lorison, married and living in Arkansas, has seven chidden: Herbert, married and living at Broke Bow, has eleven children; Harry S., married and living in Omaha; Frederick A., deceased; Salome, wife of Oliver L. Swick, of Custer county, has six children. Thus it may be seen that Mr. Gates has twenty-four living grandchildren. He lived in Indiana after his marriage for many years and there his wife died. He now has one great grandchild, a daughter born to Mrs. Howe Gates, son of Herbert P. Gates.
   Mr. Gates was married (second) in Jasper county, Indiana, to Susannah Brown, January 12, 1873. In the spring of 1877 they moved to Tama county, Iowa, and in June, 1879, he made a trip with a horse to Custer county, Nebraska, looking for a location. He then made an entry on homestead on section five, township nineteen, range twenty, also a timber claim, and returned to Iowa. In December of the same year he moved with his family from their Iowa home to the homestead, having a four-horse team and wagon, with a house, six by sixteen feet, on wheels. They made the trip in the dead of winter and encountered many hardships before reaching their destination. During the early years they did their trading at Grand Island, making many trips over the road, Gates postoffice in Custer county was, named for Mr. Gates and for many years he served as postmaster. The local church and school house were built on his farm. He was one of the first settlers in his locality and for many years was active in the upbuilding and growth of community, being the friend of progress along all lines. He served for a number of years as justice of the peace and in other local offices. He had a country store at Gates and was one of the best known men in the county. He owned five hundred and sixty acres of choice land, and was successful as a farmer and stockman. In the spring of 1909 he retired from the farm and moved to his present place in Sargent, where he has every convenience obtainable and enjoys the well earned ease to which he is entitled.
   On January 11, 1910, at Taylor, Loup county, Nebraska, Mr. Gates was united in marriage with Mary A. Cummins, an old resident of Nebraska, coming in 1884. Her maiden name was Downing and she was born in New York state, a daughter of Henry and Mary Downing. She has two brothers living, John Downing, living on the old home place, in St. Lawrence county, New York, and George E., of De Kalb, New York. By her first marriage she has four surviving children, namely: Frank Calkins, married and living in Wyoming; Eva, wife of Robert Ledger, of Garfield county, Nebraska, has two children; Theodore Calkins, married and living in Sargent, has three children; Lillian, wife of Fred Robbing, of Pawnee county, Nebraska. Another daughter, Gracie, married Frank York and died in 1905, leaving one daughter, Inez. Mr. York lives in Garfield county, Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Gates have a



wide circle of friends and are active in moral, educational and all progressive lines.



   The present prosperity enjoyed by the people of the great state of Nebraska is in reality due to the efforts of those men of perseverance and stalwart determination who came to the state when it was still young, before it had developed into an agricultural and commercial centre; when the howl of the lonely coyote or the distant thunder of the hoofs of the flying bison took the place of the whir of farm machinery or the chime of church bells.
   John H. Koester, the subject of this sketch, was born in 1852 in Germany, the son of H. and Tena Koester. As his father was a small farmer, John remained at home and secured a good education, helping on the farm when not engaged in study.
   In 1869, he decided to come to America, and with relatives, came by steamer to New York, thence by train to Iowa. They remained in this state until 1884, when they removed to Cedar county, Nebraska. Here, after a short time, Mr. Koester bought a quarter-section of fine land from W. A. Pollock, who was one of the original settlers, which is situated in section thirty-six, township thirty, range two, east.
   Here Mr. Koester had lived ever since, adding improvements from time to time until now his farm is regarded as one of the most valuable in that community.
   For the first four years after coming to Cedar county, Mr. Koester "batched it" in his little house, but becoming tired of a lonely life, married Miss Hannah Clawson in 1888. Three children have been born to them, all of whom are living, Katie M., Carl H., and Frank E.
   Mr. and Mrs. Koester have made hosts of friends in the community and are much respected by all who know them.



   The gentleman above mentioned is one of the prosperous younger members of the farming and ranching community of Merrick county, Nebraska, whose entire career has been passed in this state, he being born here March 31, 1877; three and a half miles north-east of Chapman, where his father was a pioneer. Our subject was second in a family of seven children born to William and Margaret (Donovan) Laub, who had five sons and two daughters. The father came to Merrick county, Nebraska, in company with his brother, Frederick Laub, in the spring of 1871 and homesteaded land in the north-east quarter section thirty-two, township thirteen, range seven. In October, 1874, Mr. Laub, Sr., married Miss Margaret Donovan, and all their children were born on the old homestead farm in Merrick county. The father's death occurred at his home in Central City, October, 1907, survived by his widow and five children. A biographical sketch of the father appears on another page of this work.
   John P. Laub, subject of this sketch, was brought up on the farm and received the usual schooling and also had the advantage of a business college course. He went out in life for himself about his twenty-first year, and has been engaged in various enterprises, such as farming, hardware business, owner and operator of a threshing machine; and is now engaged in the cement business.
   Mr. Laub was married to Miss Minnie Hollister, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Hollister, at their home in Chapman, Nebraska. Mrs. Laub is also a native-born of Merrick county. Mr. and Mrs. Laub have two children: Donald Roy, and Robert Neal. Mr. Laub is a Merrick county boy, who is known as one of the most energetic young business men of the county, and is affiliated with the republican party, having been committeeman of his county on the central committee.
   Both Mr. Laub and his wife can be classed amongst the pioneers of Merrick county. They are well known young people, having many friends.



   The state of Illinois has given her quota of settlers to the West, and among the most worthy of these in Nebraska, may be mentioned Oscar F. Hunt. He was born near Chicago on June 16, 1850, and is a son of Stephen G. and Louisa (Salsbury) Hunt, both of whom are now deceased. The family settled in Knoxville, Iowa, in 1852, remaining there up to 1857, at which time they went to Huntington county, Indiana, which was their home for about eight years, Oscar attending the country schools in their vicinity. From there they returned west, settling in Knox county, Missouri, and it was while they were making this trip across the country that news reached them of the assassination of President Lincoln, which left an indelible memory upon our subject's mind.
   While in Missouri Mr. Hunt learned the carpenter's trade and followed the work there for several years, coming to Nebraska in 1886. He was undecided in which part to locate, but traveled on through the state until he reached the in June (sic), his family following in September of that year. The tract on which he first located has been his home up to the present time, and he northern border line (sic), and arrived in Knox county has improved it wonderfully, planting groves, remodeling the buildings, etc. When he took this place there was no brush or a tree large enough to furnish even a switch, and so rapidly have those Mr. Hunt planted grown that the largest have already been felled for fuel, and the second growth is coming on. Mr. Hunt's first



employment after reaching the vicinity, was with Bayha Brothers as a carpenter, and after a short time he began independently, since then having worked at Santee, Yankton, Sioux City and Mason City, Iowa, and has gone as far west as Seattle in his work. In 1898 Mr. Hunt retired from the building business and engaged in farming, having a fine tract of land in a splendid location, and is making a success of it. He was also a homesteader in Lyman county, but sold out after proving up on the land.
   On March 30, 1873, Mr. Hunt was united in marriage to Miss Amanda Hiatt, who is a native of Ohio. They have three children, as follows: Anna M., wife of Chas. Wort, they having recently moved to Butler county, Missouri; Fred L. who for eighteen months was in the army, stationed in the Philippines as quartermaster sergeant of Company C, First South Dakota Volunteer Infantry; and Flora B., still living with her parents on the home farm.
   Mr. Hunt is a republican in politics, and takes a lively interest in state and national affairs. Both himself and wife are members of the Baptist faith.



   Among the well-known pioneers of Nance county who have for many years worked hard to accumulate a competence, and when this has been accomplished, has retired to make way for others, we mention the gentleman above, who is now enjoying the fruits of an honorable and successful career. He is now a resident of Fullerton, where he owns a beautiful home and enjoys the esteem and friendship of a large number of congenial people.
   Archibald S. Campbell was born in Greene county, Tennessee, May 26, 1836, and is the second in order of birth in a family of ten children in the family of Adam and Susannah Campbell, who were natives of that state, and spent their entire lives there, the former dying in his sixty-ninth year and the mother at the age of sixty-two, at the old homestead. Our subject lived in his home county until he was twenty-one years of age, receiving his education there, and following farming during this time. He was married there to Miss Nancy Jones at the home of her parents, on September 24, 1854, her parents being also life residents of Greene county. The newly-married pair settled on a farm, and remained in that vicinity for three years, then, with their little son, Landon W., left the county, traveling overland by team and wagon to Atchison county, Missouri, where they located on a tract of unimproved land, and began to make a home for themselves. This they operated up to the spring of 1883, at that time coming to Nance county, Nebraska, which was still a thinly-settled region. Mr. Campbell purchased land in both Boone and Nance counties, engaged in the stock business, raising and shipping cattle, etc., and also farmed considerable land. During those early years, he at different times owned and operated large tracts of land, and also handled real estate extensively, doing a loan business throughout the section, and became especially well known to the non-resident property owners, handling a great deal of business by reason of his prompt attention to their wants, and having a high reputation for honesty and integrity.
   At one time Mr. Campbell owned about 1800 acres of land in Nance, Boone and Greeley counties, but as it advanced in value, he sold until at the present time he owns three hundred and twenty acres in Nance county, and the same amount in Thomas county, Kansas.
   In 1893, Mr. Campbell moved to Fullerton, purchasing some land just inside of the city limits, on which he built a fine home, which is situated on a high spot near the outskirts of Fullerton, giving a splendid view of Loup river valley and from which the entire town can be seen. This is one of the most beautiful locations in the town, having elegant trees, fine lawns, and is one of the show places of Fullerton. During the year 1862, Mr. Campbell lived in Omaha, and well remembers the early days of Nebraska, becoming familiar with the exact conditions then existing relative to land values, the opportunities afforded settlers in the region, etc. At that time John I. Redick, of Omaha, offered our subject sixty acres of well improved land lying within what is now the town site of that place, on the basis of fifteen dollars per acre, and this land is at the present time valued at $4,000 a front foot.
   Mr. and Mrs. Campbell have had nine children, eight. of whom are still living, namely: Landon W., married, father of two children, and residing at Oberlin, Ohio; Martha Susannah, wife of Dr. I. C. Murphy, of Fullerton; William A. T., married, father of two children, living in Seattle, Washington; Jacob N., married, having a family of six children, also living in Fullerton; Mary Helen, wife of G. H. Ellsworth, two children, they living in Iowa City, Iowa; John B., married five daughters, living in Nance county; Robert A., of Wenatchee Valley, Washington, and Albert B., of Seattle, Washington. The family is prominently known throughout the region and have been identified with its social life during their residence here. Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are members of. the Presbyterian church, and at the present time, Mr. Campbell is an elder of the church.



   Alexander Maring, a retired farmer residing at Atkinson, Nebraska, is a native of Belmont county, Ohio, born April 10, 1841, and lived there until thirteen years of age. He is a son of Moses and Eleanor (Monroe) Maring, natives of New



Jersey and Pennsylvania, respectively. In 1854 the family removed to Appanoose county, Iowa, then on the frontier, where deer and other game were plentiful, and furnished a large part of food for the settlers.
   At the outbreak of the war, Mr. Maring offered his services and became a member of Company D, Sixth Iowa Volunteers, enlisting July 17, 1861, and serving until the close of the hostilities. The first important battle in which he participated was Shiloh, and there he received a baptism of fire. He was also a participator in the siege of Vicksburg, the second battle at Jackson, the assault on Mission Ridge and the battle of Knox. While spending the winter at Scottsboro, Alabama, Mr. Maring veteranized, December 25, 1863, and took a thirty-day furlough before the activity of spring affected the army. He took part in the Atlanta campaign, and after the fall of that stronghold, marched with Sherman to the sea. The regiment was in Goldsboro, North Carolina, when word reached them of General Lee's surrender, and were near there when they heard the sad tidings of Abraham Lincoln's death. After his participation in the grand review at Washington, which was the most impressive military pageant of modern times, Mr. Maring returned home. They made the journey from Washington to Parkersburg, West Virginia, by rail; traveled thence to Louisville, Kentucky by boat, and were there mustered out, being later paid and discharged finally at Davenport, Iowa, July 27, 1865.
   Near the end of the war and while on furlough, Mr. Maring lived on the home farm until his marriage, then rented land and began farming on his own account. He first made a visit to Nebraska in 1873, and worked one season six miles west of Belleview. At that time Omaha was a comparatively small town, giving little promise of developing into the present large and important city. In 1879 he rented land in Missouri two years, then purchased one hundred and twenty acres of land near New Town, Missouri, remaining there until his return to Nebraska, which was made in 1884. He has, since that time, been a resident of Holt county and at first pre-empted a quarter section of land four and one-half miles south of Emmet, which he later converted into a timber claim. He also homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land there, and carried on farming on this land until 1908, when he purchased a house in Atkinson, and moved into it. Mr. Maring's marriage occurred, April 3, 1863, near Centerville, Iowa, when he was united with Miss Lucinda Maring, daughter of Jacob and Rebecca (Bruce) Maring. Six children were born to them, namely: Leander, deceased; Logan is living on a Kinkaid homestead in Garfield county; Thomas has a ranch, eight miles south of Atkinson; John occupies the home farm, south of Emmet; Joseph, a twin of William (who is deceased), has a ranch eighteen miles northeast of O'Neill.
   In politics Mr. Maring is a republican, and while living nearer to O'Neill was an active and prominent member of the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic. He is a highly honored citizen, and can look back with pleasure on the record won while in his country's service.
   Mr. Maring well remembers the events of the blizzard of January 12, 1888, and was out in the storm most of the afternoon of that day, getting his stock under shelter. After coming to the state, he lived four year's in a sod house before erecting a frame dwelling, and he and his wife experienced the usual difficulties and hardships that attended pioneer life there. Antelope were plentiful when they first settled there, and when a boy in Iowa, Mr. Maring frequently saw black wolves, although they had been exterminated before he reached maturity. He would consider the wonderful development made in the West since he left his native state as almost incredible had he not been a witness of it. The open country of the early days has given place to thickly settled communities, and Mr. Maring and his family have contributed their full share in the advancement of agricultural and commercial activity in the region where they now live.



   One of those who has achieved considerable distinction among the old settlers is Mat Dreesen, who is the owner of a fine farm in Cedar county. He has spent many years of unremitting toil, but is now reaping the benefits of his thrift and careful management.
   Mat Dreesen was born in Wisconsin in 1870, and in 1873, in company with his parents and brother, he took the long trip across the plains to Cedar county, Nebraska. He still retains possession of the timber claim which the parents took up at an early date.
   Many and obvious disadvantages were to be contended with by the settlers at that time. The nearest market towns were Sioux City and Yankton, and going to market meant a long and tedious trip. Grasshoppers and prairie fires in summer, and blizzards in winter, were also to be reckoned with. Even so late as 1894, the crops were destroyed by the hot winds prevailing throughout the season. However, most of them persisted in their efforts to make a habitable country out of those forbidding plains, and the years have told the story of the success of these tried and true pioneers.
   In 1893, Mr. Dreesen was married to Miss Maud J. Suing. Four children have been born to them: Lillian, Frederick, Elmo and Otis. Mrs. Dreesen, is a daughter of Bernhard and Magdeline (Kock) Suing. Her parents were



natives of Germany, and were married in Baltimore, but came to Nebraska in 1886. Mr. Dreesen is treasurer of his school district, number fourteen. We present a family group portrait of Mr. Dreesen and family on another page.

M. Dreesen and Family.


   E. Lorenzo Sargent, one of the prominent business and professional men of Cedar Rapids, Boone county; Nebraska, is possessed of exceptional ability, and has made a place for himself among the leading residents of his community by his honest efforts and energetic labors.
   Mr. Sargent is a native of Lempster, Sullivan county, New Hampshire, born on July 1, 1846, and was the ninth of ten children in the family of Asa and Charity Sargent. He remained on his father's farm until his fourteenth year, assisting in the farm work and attending the local school, living, in his early years, the usual life of the New England farm boy. His father died when he was five years old, and the mother kept her family together on the farm until each was ready to start out for himself.
   Lorenzo Sargent secured work in the cotton factory, and followed that employment for two years, then went to Oakland county, Michigan. His later education was received in the Utica schools, and in 1864 he enlisted in Company D, of the Twenty-second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, saw hard service with his regiment. He was mustered out at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on September 8, 1865, going immediately to Marshall, Michigan, where he was a teacher in the High School for one term. He then made up his mind that he wanted to enter the mercantile field, and began work in a hardware store, receiving as wages his board and room, soon advancing until he had gained a good position in the line of work he most desired. He remained in Marshall for seven years, then went to Olivet, Michigan, where he started for himself, carrying on a successful trade for several years.
   He then came to Boone county, Nebraska, and he purchased a piece of land close to what is now the town of Cedar Rapids, building the first house in that place, and was the first white man to settle there. This is now a thriving town, with a population of one thousand people, and is one of the cleanest and most progressive little villages in the whole state of Nebraska.
   Mr. Sargent farmed and carried on a successful stock business up to 1889, at which time he opened his office and engaged in the real estate, insurance and loan business. He is a member of the Boone County Bar Association, and is connected with several lodges being confidential adviser for numerous non resident property owners, as well as very many of his home people. He has for the past twenty five years been a member of the school board, has served as village clerk, and takes an active interest always along educational and moral lines.
   Mr. Sargent was united in marriage in Rochester, New York, on June 1, 1870, to Miss Rosa B. Sherman, who was a native of that place, and daughter of former Chief of Police Sherman. To them has been born one son, Winfield R., who is married, and a well-known citizen of Cedar Rapids, being connected with the American Order of Protection. He has three children.



   Through exceptionally good management and persistent labor, the gentleman named above has acquired a well-developed farm, and is enabled to enjoy the comforts of modern farming. He is one of the progressive and successful farmers of this locality, and for many years has been identified with the agricultural development of this section of the country.
   Mr. Schmutz is a native of the province of Holstein, Germany, where he was born September 29, 1853, the son of John and Margaret Schmutz. He received his education in Germany, and spent the years of his childhood and young manhood in the little village where he was born. In 1882, our subscriber left his native land for America, believing that here alone he would be able to find the opportunity to make the most of himself. He came first to Iowa, where he remained four years, and worked out; then, in 1886, he came to Wayne county, Nebraska, and located, later purchasing the farm which is still his home. He has made many improvement since buying the farm, and it is now one of the best-equipped in the community. Mr. Schmutz owns one hundred and sixty acres of land.
   December 14, 1888, Mr. Schmutz was united in marriage to Miss Helen Lage, and they were the parents of five children named as follows: Emma, Ida, Adele, Henry and John, who died when eight years old. Mr. Schmutz died November 2, 1909.



   Reuben Dickinson, retired farmer, resides in Schuyler, Colfax county, Nebraska, where he one of the foremost and most substantial citizens of the locality. He is one of the oldest settlers of Colfax county, having lived here close to twoscore years. He has always been a potent factor in the upbuilding of his home county and state, and has been amply rewarded for his steadfastness to the best interests of all, now being a well-to-do, prosperous citizen.
   Mr. Dickinson is a native of England, his birth occurring in Cambridgeshire, Isle of Ely, April 2, 1846, a son of David and Mary (Wright) Dickinson, natives of Lincolnshire, England. He was fourth in the family of five children, and has one brother residing m England, and a sister in



Oklahoma. His father died in Colfax county, Nebraska, in the year 1881, and the mother passed away in England in the early fifties.
   Mr. Dickinson grew to manhood in his home country, receiving the usual school advantages, and later engaging in farming. In May of 1864, he came with his uncle and aunt to America, locating in Camden, New Jersey, for a few months. He then went to Henry county, Illinois, where he followed farming part of the time, and when not engaged in that, was employed on the railroad.
   On December 28, 1865, Mr. Dickinson was united in marriage to Miss Alice Parson; a native of Illinois, her birth occurring in Whiteside county. The marriage took place in Atkinson, Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson have had twelve children born to them, whose names are as follows: Mary R., wife of John Clement, they having four children, and residing in Yuma, Colorado; Louisa, also married she and her husband, Alfred Childrey, and four children being residents of Stanton county, Nebraska; David is married, has seven children, and resides in Stanton county, Nebraska, Edward, also married, has one child, and lives in Stanton county; Joseph resides in Missoula, Montana; William, married, lives in Stanton county, and has one child; Emily, who resides at home, is a student in a Lincoln business college; Alice, wife of Homer Pont, has three children, and resides in Colfax county; Frank is a student at Lincoln University; and Harry, Beulah and Viola, all of whom are deceased. Mrs. Dickinson died on May 14, 1902, on the home farm, deeply mourned by her husband and family and many kind friends.
   In the spring of 1873, Mr. Dickinson came with his wife and three children to Colfax county, Nebraska, taking up a homestead of eighty acres on the north half of southwest quarter of section eighteen, township twenty, range four, which remained the home place about six years. He then moved on his farm of two hundred and forty acres, which was located one mile east of the old homestead place, living on this farm, which he had purchased, until 1904. Mr. Dickinson then retired from farming, and moved to Schuyler, where he purchased a good home, and now resides.
   On January 27, 1904, Mr. Dickinson was united in marriage to Miss Ann Russell, also a native of England, the marriage ceremony taking place in Atkinson, Illinois. Mr. Dickinson is a prosperous man of affairs, and owns two hundred and sixty acres of fine farm land, aside from good city property in Schuyler. He has served as school moderator for his district, number thirty-two, in the early days. In the early seventies, Mr. Dickinson helped to organize United Brethren church, and has been active in many other ways in the best interests of his home county and state.
   Mr. Dickinson has passed through the many hardships and trying experiences that beset the early settler on the western frontier. He is widely and favorably known.



   The gentleman above mentioned is counted among the oldest settlers in Holt county, Nebraska, and since locating here in 1873 has taken a foremost part in the development of this region, and has one of the most beautiful homes in Holt county. Mr. Montgomery is of the opinion that the average man here is much better off financially than in Illinois, which is his former residing place, as the land here costs less and crops grow just as well with less labor, one man taking care of one hundred and sixty acres as easily as he could fifty acres in Illinois. Since locating here, Mr. Montgomery has had fair success every year, with the exception of 1894, when his crops were burned out by hot winds, and that year every one suffered some loss. Our subject has two hundred and forty acres of good land in Antelope county, and four hundred and eighty acres in Holt county.
   Mr. Montgomery was born April 8, 1858, in Warren county, Illinois. His father, Alfred, was born in 1822 in the state of Kentucky, as was also our subject's mother, who was Nancy Thompson. She died when our subject was a small boy. In the year of 1881, Mr. Montgomery came to York county, Nebraska, and worked there for two years. In 1883, he came to Holt county, where he took up a homestead in section twenty-five, township twenty-seven, range nine, and, buying a log house, moved it on this claim, living in this house five years, and planted twelve acres of fine trees on the land. This claim is still his residing place, where he and his family reside and enjoy the respect and high regard of all who know them.
   On October 5, 1887, Mr. Montgomery was united in marriage to Miss Luella Miller, and Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery are the parents of six children: Alfred; Hugh; Thomas and Theodore H. (twins); Frank, and George.
   Mr. Montgomery devotes a great deal. of attention to fine stock, and has a splendid lot of high-grade Shorthorn milch cows, and also about sixteen head of good work horses.



   William E. Bishop, a large land-owner of Pierce county, Nebraska, has done his share toward the development of the agricultural resources of that region. He is a man of wide experience, and his good business judgment and integrity have placed him among the prosperous men of his county. Mr. Bishop has an elegant home in the beautiful little city of Pierce, where

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