Perseverance and diligence are the stepping stones to success. These characteristics, supplemented by honesty and good citizenship, are among the many attributes possessed by the gentleman herein named. Mr. Greenland has resided in eastern Nebraska for the past twenty-one years, and is one of the representative men of the west, highly esteemed by all who have met him either in a business or social way.
     Mr. Greenland is a native of the city of Sneek, Holland, born August 31, 1869, and is a son of Andrew and Katherine (DeJony) Greenland. He was second in a family of nine children, and has one sister living in Holland, and another in Germany, the other children being deceased, as is also the mother, who passed away November 3, 1880; the father is still living in his home country.
     In 1889 Mr. Greenland came to America, sailing from Rotterdam to New York in the steamer "Obdam." Locating near David City, Nebraska, he engaged in farming on rented land for two years, and in 1901 came to Valley county, purchasing one hundred and sixty acres of land adapted to stock raising. In 1909 he sold this farm and bought a quarter section of good stock and grain land in section thirty-two, township nineteen, range fourteen, which he sold to advantage in the spring of 1911, and with the proceeds purchased the east half of section twenty-five, township eighteen, range sixteen, securing possession in March, 1912; of this, two hundred acres is arable land, with forty acres sowed to alfalfa. The remainder is devoted to pasture.
     Mr. Greenland was married in Butler county on February 18, 1892, to Miss Nellie Kuindersema, who was born in Holland and came to America in 1891.
     Mr. and Mrs. Greenland have been blessed with two children, Katie, who resides under the parental roof; and an infant, deceased. Mrs. Greenland's mother lives in Holland, where the father died in 1904; she has one sister, and four brothers living in Holland. Mr. Greenland, in 1909, made a trip to his home country, remaining about three months, visiting his relatives.
     Mr. Greenland is one of the younger men among the earlier settlers of eastern Nebraska, and is well known in Valley county, where he has resided for the past eleven years. He is a highly esteemed and progressive citizen, and he and Mrs. Greenland and daughter Katie are surrounded by a host of good friends and acquaintances. In politics he is a republican.



     Albert Mantey, proprietor of one of the most valuable estates in Madison county, Nebraska, has been a resident of that locality for many years. He is prominently known throughout the northeastern part of the state as one of the foremost farmers and stock men in Nebraska. Mr. Mantey resides on section thirty, township twenty-four, range two, where he lives in his pleasant home surrounded by a host of true friends and many good neighbors and acquaintances. After many years of hard labor and much discouragement and hardship, he is now enabled to live in comfort and peace in the latter years of his life.
     Mr. Mantey is a native of Germany, his birth occurring in the province of Posen, Prussia, November 17, 1839; he is a son of Martin and Bettie (Volker) Mantey, who also were natives of Germany.
     Mr. Mantey grew to manhood in his native land, receiving the usual schooling, and after reaching the prescribed age, served as a soldier the allotted time specified in the German Empire; that each male shall serve three years in the army upon reaching the age of twenty-one years.
     In 1866, Mr. Mantey left his native land for America, embarking on the steamship "Germania," and was on the sea two weeks, sailing from Hamburg, Germany, to England, thence coming by way of Southampton to New York City.
     After arriving in the United States, he came westward and located in Chicago, Illinois, where he worked in a tobacco factory for three years. In 1868 he came to Omaha, Nebraska, where he worked at whatever his hands found to do, his first employment being secured from the Union Pacific railroad, and later he worked as a plasterer. He then proceeded still further west, and in 1869 settled in Madison county, Nebraska, where he took up a homestead claim which still remains his home farm. He first built a log house on this land, which has now been replaced by a good frame residence.
     In those first days of settlement on the western frontier, Mr. Mantey and family experienced many hardships and discouragements, as did all those brave sons who came to this raw, unsettled country to make a fortune for themselves. The grasshopper pests that devastated that region in 1876 and other years, were about the greatest source of anxiety and privation, they destroying every spear of vegetation to be found for miles around, after their flight leaving nothing but bare ground, where a short time before had been growing and promising crops. Deer and antelope were plentiful in those early days and were frequently seen in herds grazing on the open prairies. As late as 1894, our subject lost the entire crops of that season by the hot winds that were a result of the terrible drouth of that year. But those times have passed on to history, and have been replaced by a period of prosperity and plenty and the experiences of the old timers who came to this land and made possible this prosperous condition, are scarcely comprehended by the people of these later days.
     Mr. Mantey was united in marriage January



6, 1875, to Miss Adeline Stolle, a native of Oldenburg. They are the parents of seven children, whose names are as follows: Laura, Clara, Martin, Rudolph, Otto, Albert and Edward. They are a fine family, and enjoy the respect and esteem of all who know them, and their friends are many.



     Jacob Sautter, born in Indiana on the 18th of March, 1855, was the third of six children in the family of Michael and Nannie Sautter. The mother died when Jacob was a small boy. The father remarried, eight children being born of this union.
     Jacob Sautter was born on the farm and he remained there until his twenty-first year, when he began to shift for himself. He was married on October 17, 1876, to a distant relative, Miss Katie Sautter.
     Mr. Sautter, with his wife and son Jacob G., came to Greeley county, October 20, 1879, his brother John, also accompanying him. He took a homestead on the southeast quarter of section twenty-four. township eighteen, range eleven. He also purchased one hundred and sixty acres from the railroad in section eighteen. The original homestead is now owned by his son Jacob G., who is married and living on the old farm.
     Greeley county has been the home of Mr. Sautter since he first came here in 1879, and he has therefore been closely identified with the growth and development of the county. He is a successful and prosperous farmer and stock raiser, having extensive land holdings in this County.
     Two brothers of Mr. Sautter, John and Michael, came here in the pioneer days; John now resides in Scotia, and Michael resides in Spokane, Washington.
     Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Sautter, Jacob G., Edward, Nannie Bell, now Mrs. Fred Miller, and Ella Florence, now married to Samuel C. Van Skike, of Scotia. Mrs. Sautter died in Scotia on September 14, 1910. Mr. Sautter and family had made their home in that city since 1905, prior to that date having resided on the old homestead.
     Owing to his long residence in the North Loup Valley, Mr. Sautter possesses a wide circle of friends and acquaintances and he holds all enviable reputation as a citizen. In politics he is a republican; is a member of the German Methodist Episcopal church and of the Modern Woodmen of America.



     A typical pioneer of western Nebraska is represented by the gentleman above named. He has lived in this section of the country for many years and has been a part of the growth and development of this locality, building up for himself a substantial home, and fortune by his perseverance and thrift. He is the owner of a well improved estate and has gained his possessions entirely by means of his own efforts.
     Mr. Most is a native of Germany, having been born in Hesse-Cassel in 1861, the son of Henry and Martha Most. He spent his childhood in Germany, and it was there too that he obtained his education.
     In 1865, Mr. Most came to America with his parents, where land was cheaper than in his own country. They came first to Cass county, Iowa, where they remained several years.
     Our subject then came to Woodburg county Iowa, and settled on a farm, but owing to his wife's health he moved to Cedar county in 1888, and bought the farm formerly owned by A. K. Stewart. He at once set about improving it, so that now it is one of the finest equipped estates in the locality. He engages in diversified farming and has also been very successful in stockraising, to which pursuit he has given considerable time during the last few years. His estate now comprises a tract of five hundred and sixty acres of excellent land.
     Mr. Most was married in 1885 to Miss Maggie Lamb, of Iowa, and they are the parents of five children, named as follows: Edith. now Mrs. Soren Jensen, junior; Floyd, who assists in farming the home place in addition to his own operations; Forest, also a farmer, Ruth and Keneth [sic].



     John Kalal, a prominent farmer and stockman, living on section three, township thirty, range six, is well known throughout Knox county as a progressive and successful agriculturist, highly esteemed by all who know him. Mr. Kalal and his parents have done much to improve the agricultural interests of Knox county, and have also been instrumental in bettering the conditions of their vicinity; and they are a few of the many sturdy sons of foreign shores who came to this western country when it was but a wilderness, peopled by the Indians who roamed the plains, monarchs of all they surveyed.
     John Kalal is a native of Bohemia, and was born in 1864, and is the son of Frank and Mary (Kubes) Kalal, both natives of Bohemia. When our subject was but six years old, he, with his parents, left his native land for America, sailing by way of Bremen to Baltimore. After arriving in the United States, the family went to Chicago, Illinois, where they remained three years, and then moved to Knox county, Nebraska, where they took up a homestead in 1874, one-half mile southeast from Verdigris. They also took up a tree claim. They built a log house, and lived on this homestead for a number of years. In those early



days of the wilderness this little family endured the hardships and dangers that so many of the venturesome pioneers experienced in the first days of settlement of the far west. The grasshoppers destroyed all their crops the first three years in succession, which was a very discouraging start for a settler in a new country. The Indians were always a source of danger and uneasiness, which fact did not add to the comfort of the early settler; but these experiences have passed to history, and the comparative comforts of modern civilization stand out in great contrast to the hardships and dangers endured by the early pioneers of this western country.
     Mr. Kalal grew to manhood's estate on the home farm, and at the age of twenty-two years, in 1884, took up the homestead where he now lives. This homestead he has improved and added to, until he owns three hundred and sixty acres of fine land and a comfortable home.
     Mr. Kalal was united in marriage in 1892 to Miss Josie Franck, and they are the parents of six children, whose names are as follows: Lottie, William, Aggie, Bennie, Elmer and Edith.



     John Delaney, well and favorably known as a prosperous and successful farmer of township thirty-five, range twelve, section twenty, in Boyd county, has met with decided success in his chosen career as an agriculturist, and is the proprietor of a pleasant home and a well improved farm, where he and his family live and enjoy the respect find esteem of a large circle of friends and acquaintances.
     Mr. Delaney is a native of Pennsylvania, the Keystone state, his birth occurring in the year of 1859. His parents, William S. and Catherine (Sells) Delaney, were farmers by occupation, and out subject was born on a farm. From Pennsylvania, he, with his parents, moved to Michigan, where he remained ten years. Mr. Delaney's father served in the civil war, enlisting in Company H, One Hundredth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and served from 1861 to 1865. He served in the south, and was wounded at the battle of Bull Run.
     In 1881, Mr. Delaney, subject of this sketch, came to South Dakota, where he lived for ten years. In 1891, he moved to Knox county, Nebraska, where he took up a homestead, on which he first put up a dugout, the usual style of dwelling in those days; he later built a sod house, and this was replaced with a good frame house.
     Mr. Delaney now has a good farm on which he has fifteen acres of fine orchard, and he has made good improvements on his land.
     Mr. Delaney was united in holy matrimony February 16, 1888, to Miss Minnie Conway, a native of New York City, whose parents were Patrick and Mary (Haley) Conway, natives of Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. Delaney are the parents of five children, whose names are as follows: Katie, Grover C., Mary, Lillie and Alice, all at home except the first born, who is in Springfield, South Dakota. Mr. Delaney is a democrat, and a progressive man of sterling qualities. Mrs. Delaney is a member of the Catholic church at Baker.



     Hubert Reid, a prosperous agriculturist and one of the leading citizens of section fourteen, Dublin precinct, is an early pioneer of Boone county, Nebraska. The Reid family is one of the three original families to settle in that part of the county. The home place is one of the most pleasant spots in that section, and has been the residence of the family for over thirty-five years.
     Mr. Reid is a native of Ireland, born on January 23, 1846, the second eldest of seven children born to Moses and Sarah Reid. Hubert grew up in Ireland, sailing for America in 1869, his first settlement being made in Delaware county, Iowa, and that remained his home for about three years, at which time he came to Boone county, Nebraska. He was married in Delaware county, Iowa, in March, 1872, to Miss Jane West, a native of Ireland, who came to the United States in the same year as Mr. Reid. There were in the party emigrating to Nebraska, Mr. and Mrs. Reid, Mr. and Mrs. John Maxwell and two children, and William Dobson, coming by team and wagon all the way, and all became homesteaders, the first in their portion of Boone county. Mr. Reid's location was on section fourteen, township nineteen, range eight, and this still remains his home farm, being finely equipped for stock and grain raising, having good buildings of all kinds. The place contains four hundred and eighty acres, besides this Mr. Reid owns six hundred and forty acres of Texas land. He is prosperous and successful, and is one of the truly old time pioneers of western Nebraska. He has taken an active part in the upbuilding of Boone county, and has been a member of the school board of district number fourteen for a great many years.
     To Mr. Reid and his estimable wife have been born the following children: John, Sarah, Elizabeth, Margaret, Rachel, James, deceased; and Harold, all married but two - Elizabeth and Harold - the latter attending school. Their oldest child, George, died at eighteen years of age.



     One of the most prominent and progressive farmers of Wayne county, Nebraska, is Mr. Harry Tucker, who owns a fine farm in section thirty-four, township twenty-seven, range one, east. He is one of the respected citizens of that locality, and is classed among its self-made men. He is now well-to-do and enjoys a comfortable home, surrounded by many of the luxuries of life.
     Mr. Tucker was born in Devonshire, England,



in 1863. His parents, Thomas and Elizabeth Tucker, were both natives of that region, the father following the occupation of a shepherd.
     In 1877, it was decided that Mr. Tucker should seek to take advantage of the greater opportunities afforded the poor man, and although quite young at the time, he came over to America alone.
     He went first to Mills county, Iowa, where he remained for nine years.
     In 1885, Mr. Tucker came to Nebraska and worked at different places and looked for a location for three years. In 1888 he came to Wayne county, Nebraska, and bought his present home. Since his possession, it has been improved in every way. Many new buildings have been erected, and the farm is under a fine state of cultivation. Among the most valuable improvements may be mentioned a fine orchard of two acres which he set out. There is also a good growth of timber in a small grove which he planted since owning the place.
     Mr. Tucker was married in 1888, to Miss Laura Bell Hill, of Illinois. Four children have been born to them, upon whom they have bestowed the following names: Mable, Homer, Raymond, and Norene.
     Mr. Tucker is awake to the best interests of the community in which he resides, and lends his influence to all measures affecting its best development and is regarded by all as one of the most influential and substantial citizens.



     Henry Sydow, a prominent farmer and stock raiser living on section twenty, township thirty-four, is well known throughout Stanton county as one of the progressive and intelligent citizens of the locality. He has extensive land interests here and enjoys a home of great comfort, and is esteemed and respected by all with whom he has to do. He is counted among the younger generation, but has been in this county for nearly thirty years.
     Mr. Sydow was born in 1874, in Brandenburg, Germany, his parents, Fred and Henrietta Sydow, being natives of that city.
     In 1884, when but ten years old, the subscriber left his native land, with his parents, coming by steamship from Bremen to Baltimore. They came direct to Stanton county, where they bought a farm, paying twelve dollars and fifty cents per acre. Their first dwelling was a dugout with a straw roof, which was their home for two years. They then built a small frame house, twelve by fourteen feet. Since that time, the little frame house has also been superseded by a beautiful modern home, in which the subscriber still lives.
     Coming a little late in the settlement of the county, Mr. Sydow missed some of the hardships which vexed the souls of the earlier settlers, but still he did not entirely escape all discouragements. He has had the opportunity of watching the development of this section from a wild, uncultivated country with but few settlers, to its present state of prosperity, with tilled fields, where before was open range, and thriving communities where before was naught but wilderness.
     In 1901, Mr. Sydow was united in marriage to Miss Minnie Thieman, of Stanton county. Four children have come to bless their home, upon whom they have bestowed the following names: Mattie, Elsie, Clara and Louise.
     Mr. Sydow has always taken a commendable interest in local affairs, and is always to be found in the front whenever any measure tending to the betterment of his community is proposed. He was elected highway commissioner in Dewey township, and is one of its efficient officers.



     Located very pleasantly in section twelve, township twenty-eight, range seven, Antelope county, Nebraska, is to be found the gentleman whose name introduces this biographical sketch. He has been identified with the history of this county from a very early date, and his contribution to the making of northeastern Nebraska, through his industrious habits, honesty of purpose, and force of character, has helped materially in its growth. Our subject's desire to live the best American life possible has made him, known as one of the leading and influential early settlers of the county.
     Mr. Bonge was born October 30, 1858, and is a native of Germany, from which country he sailed for America on a steamboat, embarking from Hamburg when he was a small boy, coming to the state of Illinois with his parents, where his father, Marks Bonge, followed the occupation of gardener near Bloomington, in that state; but in Germany, in the village of Mina, the father had learned and followed the trade of masonry and plastering. He died in the year 1895. The mother is living at the advanced age of ninety-three years.
     Mr. Bonge came from Illinois to Antelope county, Nebraska, in 1885, and later bought some land from Mr. Lewis Shoemaker, who had formerly homesteaded the tract.
     Mr. Bonge was married in 1884 to Miss Matilda Speck, who died thirteen months later. On July 21, 1888, he was again married, this time to Miss Sarah Petzal, and they are the parents of five children, who are named as follows: Bertha, Edith, Vera, Earl and George.
     Mr. Bonge now owns two hundred and forty acres of good land, which contains eight acres of trees, and where he enjoys a comfortable home and is respected by all who have the pleasure of calling him friend and neighbor. In politics he is a republican, and a German Lutheran in religious affiliations.




     From the German fatherland came many thousands of the sturdiest citizens of the American Republic, and many of them have developed the fertile prairies of Nebraska into a highly cultivated country, supporting many lines of business and industry. Among those who left the shores of Germany to better their condition in a new and growing western state, was August Lubeley, the leading hardware merchant of Hartington, a portrait of whom appears on another page.
     Mr. Lubeley was born in the village of Werenghausen, near Finnentorp, province of Westphalia, Germany, April 22, 1851. He was ninth in a family of ten children born to Bernard and Gertrude (Knoche) Lubeley, both of whom died in the old country, the former in 1863, and the latter in 1891, a few weeks subsequent to her son August's return to America after a four months visit to his old home; this visit was opportune, had he delayed another year he could never again have seen her.
     In 1873 Mr. Lubeley embarked for America at Bremen, on the "Hansa," and landed in New York June 25, after a voyage of fourteen days. His eldest sister had married and come to America in 1856, her husband having settled at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and August joined them the 1st of July. Here he lived and engaged in carpentry until April of 1873, when he migrated to Nebraska. He settled in St. Helena, the county seat at that time, and secured work at his trade. He continued to reside here until Hartington was laid out in September, 1883, when he came to the new county seat and managed the local yards of the Wilcox Lumber company, of Yankton, four years, when he formed a partnership with the late John Lammers under the name of A. Lubeley & Company, Mr. Lubeley taking entire management of the business. In 1897, Mr. Lubeley sold his interest in the lumber business and bought the firm's interest in the implement business in which they had been engaged several years. A stock of hardware was added to the implements, and in 1905 the latter stock was closed out, leaving only the hardware business, in which Mr. Lubeley with his sons is now engaged. Besides a complete line of shelf and heavy hardware, the firm deals in tinware, plumbing, steam-fitting, and their allied branches. They enjoy an extensive trade for miles around the county seat their accommodating manners and square dealing have won for them the largest patronage in their line of any house in this region.
     Mr. Lubeley was married in St. Helena, May 5, 1875, to Miss Elizabeth Stratman, who was born in Oedinger Berg, province of Westphalia, Germany; her parents, John Peter and Elizabeth Stratman, came to America in 1860, enduring two years amongst the guerilla [sic] bands that unmercifully robbed those not in sympathy with them. In 1862 Mr. Stratman moved his family to New Vienna, Iowa, and in 1863, came with friends across the prairies, driving ox wagons to the new land of Nebraska. Their crops were devastated by the grasshopper pests that caused them hard times. Mr. Lubeley had no crops to lose at that time, but he lost many days' work because the settlers had no money with which to buy lumber and erect necessary buildings in the village and on farms.
     Mr. and Mrs. Lubeley have ten children, all living and doing well, a family of which every American should be proud. Their children are: August F., who has secured a homestead in Wyoming; Franciska, wife of William Habel, who has a homestead in Gregory county; Frederick W., a traveling salesman in the hardware department of Paxton & Gallagher, of Omaha; Matilda, housekeeper for Reverend Joseph Lubeley of St. Louis; John, associated with his father in the hardware business; Louis F., physician in charge of St. James hospital at Butte, Montana; Mary, has been teaching since graduating in the high school in 1907; Rosa, clerks in one of the big dry goods stores in Hartington; Annie, an excellent housekeeper, is the main stay of the home; and Veronica, who graduated from high school in June, 1911.
     Mr. Lubeley came to Nebraska a few months too late to experience the great blizzard that brought down three days' destruction in April of that year, beginning on Easter Sunday, the twelfth. He was living in St. Helena in October 1880, when the three days' blizzard inaugurated the winter of the deep snow that caused the big flood of March, 1881. During this Mr. Lubeley worked two nights building boats with which to rescue flood sufferers across the river in South Dakota.
     These were perilous times, but brought out the metal of the pioneers who were always ready to lend a helping hand, give comfort to the sorrowing and distressed, and speed to the rescue of those who were in danger. Such are the people of the west, and of such metal are Mr. Lubeley and the pioneer sons of the western frontier.


August Lubeley


     Sven G. Schultz, proprietor of one of the finest estates in Cedar county, has been a resident of his locality for a number of years and is well known there. He is a representative Swedish-American citizen, interested in the public welfare and caring for his private interests with creditable ambition and determination to succeed. He was born in Sweden in 1848, a son of Olaus and Anna (Nelson) Schultz, who were farmers there. He was reared and educated in his native place and his earliest associations were with agricultural conditions, so that it is but natural he should choose a farmer's life. He has chosen well in de-



ciding to be a tiller of the soil, as his present success attests. His father was a soldier and served thirty-eight years in the Swedish army.
     In 1869 Mr. Schultz left home and sailed front Gothenburg to New York. He started for the west and bought a soldier's claim in Nebraska, which he improved and developed. He has erected suitable buildings and his home is pleasantly situated on section eight, township twenty-nine, range one, west. Mr. Schultz carries on general farming and owns one hundred and sixty acres of land.
     Mr. Schultz was married in 1884 to Miss Auggusta [sic] Gilbert, a native of Norway, daughter of Gilbert and Helen Dorothea Olsen. They are the parents of seven children, namely: Earl A., Charles J., Henry O., Mary H., Emma R., Melinda V., and Ella M. A view of Mr. Schultz's residence will he found on another page of this volume.

Residence of S. G. Schultz.


     Gustav Muller, one of the prosperous farmers of Pierce county, Nebraska, is an old settler of that section, and has a wide circle of acquaintances in the. community in which he lives. He has built up a home by his industry and honest dealings, and enjoys a comfortable income from the fruits of his labors.
     Mr. Muller was born in the village of Burkhardtsgruen, Kingdom of Saxony, October 16, 1859, where in later years he worked as a brewer, moulder and waiter in a hotel - in fact, any labor that he could find, always busy at what his hands found to do. He is the son of Frederick and Frederika (Enderlein) Muller, both natives of Germany, where the mother was still living when last heard from, at the ripe old age of seventy years, or more.
     On coming to America in 1886, Mr. Muller, sailed from Hamburg on the steamer "Hammonia," and after a voyage of twelve days, landed in New York and came directly to St. Louis. Being troubled with rheumatism, he went south to find work in the cotton fields, but disliking the work, got a position revetting the banks of the Mississippi river. Returning to St. Louis, he was employed at various kinds of labor until coming west. In 1890 he came to Norfolk, Nebraska, residing there ten years, and then, on the 17th of March, 1900, came to Pierce county. He had been farming land near Norfolk for two years and rented for a year in Pierce county. In 1901 he bought one hundred and sixty acres in section three, township twenty-five, range four, which is his present home, and later he bought an eighty acre tract in section four, all good farming land, on which Mr. Muller is prospering, as most western farmers do.
     September 2, 1888, Mr. Muller was married to Miss Annie Sophie Jensen, whose parents were old settlers of Nebraska, coming from Denmark, where Mrs. Muller was born. They emigrated to America in 1886, reaching Norfolk, June 21. To Mr. and Mrs. Muller, twelve children were born, eight of whom are living: Carl, Freda, Fritz, Elsa, Martha, George, Dora and Paul.
     Mr. Muller, as did others of the sturdy sons of Nebraskan soil, experienced losses and hardships in the first days of his coming to this section, and as late as 1909 lost his crops during the hailstorm of that year.
     In politics, Mr. Muller is independent, always casting his vote for the best man, and in religious faith affiliates with the Lutheran church, as does his family.




     The gentleman above mentioned, now deceased, was for many years a well known and highly respected citizen of Howard county. He was born in Denmark on January 28, 1843, and grew up there, learning the carpenter's trade when a mere boy, and following the work up to the time he left his native land, which was in 1872.
     Mr. Envoldsen was married in Denmark when he became twenty-one years of age, to Mariane Christensen, and they made their native village their home for the following eleven years, when the family, consisting of husband, wife and four children, took passage on an emigrant ship for America. They landed in New York without mishap excepting for a long and tedious journey, coming directly west to Nebraska and locating in Howard county, where the father homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land on section twelve, township thirteen, range twelve. Here they started in a very modest way, trying hard to improve the farm and build up a good home, and succeeded splendidly. The family saw many hard times - familiar to all those who went through pioneer years in the region, but stuck to their homestead through all the discouragements that fell to their lot, eventually accumulating a comfortable property. All together they made the original claim their home up to the time of the father's death, which occurred on October 31, 1907. Since then management of the place has devolved upon his widow and children.
     Mrs. Envoldsen has been kept very busy in carrying on the farm. She is now seventy-two years of age and has given up active work, allowing her four children to take the burden of management of the estate from her shoulders, although she still is the actual head. She is a remarkably sprightly and well preserved woman.
     Her children are all married, have comfortable homes, near the old place, and are greatly esteemed by their associates.
     In the death of Mr. Envoldsen, Howard county lost one of its foremost pioneers, who by his energy, thrift and good example, was an important



factor in the development and growth since its early organization.



     In compiling a list of the prominent settlers of Valley county, who have been intimately identified with the development and progress of that locality, a foremost place must be given to the name of Henry Thorngate, who has for more than thirty years been a resident therein. He is a man of sterling character and has gained the confidence and respect of the people among whom he has resided for so many years.
     Mr. Thorngate was born in Cattaraugus county, New York, on the 27th of September, 1829, and was the fourth in a family of six children born to George and Matilda (Blanchard) Thorngate.
     When he was sixteen years of age, Mr. Thorngate went with his parents to Wisconsin, where he later engaged in farming. On the 14th of June, 1858, he married Miss Lorenda O. Crandall, who was also a native of Cattaraugus county, New York.
     Three years later, Mr. Thorngate enlisted in Company I, Seventh Wisconsin Infantry, known afterwards in history as a part of the Iron Brigade. He took part in some of the important engagements of the war, including that of Gainesville, Virginia, August 28, 1862, and two days later was in the disastrous second battle of Bull Run. About a fortnight later, September 14, he was in a battle at South Mountain, Maryland, during the progress of which he was wounded. He recovered after a time, but was unfitted for further service and received his discharge on the first of April, 1863, at Madison, Wisconsin.
     Mr. Thorngate then returned to his Wisconsin home where for a few years he engaged in various pursuits. In 1866, he and his family moved to Linn county, Missouri, where he engaged in farming. He met with a fair degree of success but was not quite satisfied with his location. In 1879, with his wife and four children, Mr. Thorngate came to Valley county, where he purchased eighty acres of the Burlington & Missouri Railroad land, about a mile south of North Loup, living for three years, however, on rented land, during which time they occupied a log house. While building on his own land they lived in a rented dugout and then moved into their own neat cottage. He has never repented of the choice he made when coming here, for after living on this homestead for ten years, he retired from active labor and moved to the city of North Loup. Here he purchased a comfortable home, and is now taking his ease, after a life of strenuous toil.
     Mr. Thorngate has been a prominent figure in the community for many years, having held the office of justice of the peace for seventeen years. He has also served the people in various other capacities, having been official United State census enumerator several times for his district. He has also been clerk of the school board in his local school district.
     Mr. Thorngate met with a severe loss in 1910, when the loving companion of his life passed away on the 30th of June. Their four children are still living: Herbert H., lives in Valley county; Gaylord W., resides in Boulder, Colorado; Royal R., is a resident of Verona, New York, where he is the pastor of the Seventh Day Baptist church at that place; and Belle, the youngest, is a teacher.
     The entire family have become prominent, no matter in what locality they have settled. Mr. Thorngate himself has been a deacon in the Seventh Day Baptist church in Missouri and Nebraska for over forty years.



     In mentioning those worthy old settlers of Nebraska, who braved the dangers and hardships of the frontier to secure for themselves a home and competence for their later years, J. D. Kaufman deserves a prominent place as a successful agriculturalist and active, public-spirited citizen of Madison county. He is the owner of a valuable estate in Emmerick township, and to his aid and influence is due much of the prosperity enjoyed by the residents of that community.
     Mr. Kaufman was born in Williams county, Ohio, November 9, 1856, and reared in Steuben county, Indiana. He is a son of Joseph and Anna Kaufman, both natives of Pennsylvania, born of German parentage. Mr. Kaufman's father died in 1891, and his mother in 1859.
     In the month of March, 1880, Mr. Kaufman came into Madison county. He purchased a tract of school land, on which he erected a sod house and which remained his home for about ten years. He later bought the homestead of William Anderson, situated on section thirty-six, township twenty-two, range four, and engaged extensively in the raising of grain and stock. For a time he was fairly successful, then had the misfortune to lose his crops by the hot winds during the summer of 1894, and it took him some time to recover from the loss occasioned thereby. He had several years of good luck, and succeeded in improving his property in splendid shape, adding good buildings, fences, and got together a nice bunch of live stock; then, in 1902, along came the severe hail storm, which will be well remembered by all the old-timers in the region-sweeping, away many weeks of hard labor in the shape of fields of grain, vegetables, and all the destructible property on his farm. This was a heavy loss to him, but he was in better shape to meet it than he had been in the earlier years, so recovered quickly and soon made it up by hard work and other ventures.

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