subject resided until his death, April 13, 1911.
   Mr. Tawney was married to Miss Jennie Lewis, on March 8, 1893, and three children were born to them, who are named as follows: Edward, William, and Morris, all under the parental roof.
   Mr. Tawney was a member of the Presbyterian church, and affiliated with the Ancient Order of United Workmen lodge, also the Modern Woodmen of America. Politically he was independent, voting for the best mail.



   Christopher Crow, deceased, was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, July 18, 1840, and was a son of Charley and Mary (Welsh) Crow.
   In March, 1861, Mr. Crow was married to Miss Susanna McCracken and ten children were the result of this marriage: W. J., who lives in Howard county; Eliza Jane, now Mrs. Armstrong, lives in New York state; Charles Wesley, now deceased; Mary Ann, who is now Mrs. M. A. Loury, lives in Ohio; George F., resides in St. Paul, Nebraska; Joseph H., lives in Howard county; Lavina, now Mrs. Frank Murr, who resides in Chicago, Illinois; Hannah, died when two years old, and two died in infancy. Mrs. Crow died May 15, 1880.
   Mr. Crow was again married, this time to Margaret Crow. Eight children were born of the second marriage, as follows: Mabel, Christopher, Arthur, David, and Floyd, two died in infancy.
   Mr. Crow is widely known, and always was a man of energy and push, being interested in numerous business enterprises in Howard county, where he put in the first saw mill and grist mill erected in the county, and also ran the first threshing machine used there. He came into Howard county early in the spring of 1872, where he founded a colony of Canadians on what was known as "Canada Hill."
   Mr. Crow was interested in many business enterprises in Nebraska and other states, and at the time of his death, June 12, 1903, resided on his farm, west of St. Paul, Nebraska.
   He was a christian man, and a prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was a charter member of St. Paul lodge number thirty-one, Ancient Order of United Workmen. He was always up and doing for the interests of his home county and state.
   Thus ends the history of a well spent, useful and upright life, the end being full of peace and honors.



   Among the prominent pioneers of Madison county, Nebraska, we mention Bennie Johnson. This gentleman is justly entitled to a foremost place among the sturdy old settlers who helped to make the region what it is today, as he has ever been on the side of progress and justice, taking an active part in public affairs and lending his aid and influence for the betterment of conditions in his community.
   Mr. Johnson is a native of the state of Illinois. He was born July 1, 1871, and is a son of John and Nellie Johnson, both of whom were born and raised in Sweden, coining to this country shortly after their marriage and settling in Sterling, Illinois, where Mr. Johnson worked in a factory, and where the first eleven years of our subject's life were spent. The family then came to Madison county, where the father bought some railroad land and built a sod house for temporary use, but which remained their dwelling for a number of years. This was made very comfortable, having a good shingle roof to shed the water, and withstood severe storms winter and summer. They worked hard to improve their farm, and succeeded as well as the majority of the early settlers, meeting with the usual setbacks occasioned by drouths, etc., finally adding to the original tract until there was altogether one hundred and sixty acres of well tilled land, and a good set of buildings.
   Our subject started for himself in 1895, purchasing a farm, which he has now in first class condition, and is classed among the prosperous and well known citizens of his locality.
   He was married February 15, 1895, to Miss Christine Newman, and they have three children: Carl O., Nellie M. and Alice E. Mrs. Johnson's parents were natives of Sweden, coining from that country to America at a very early date, and settling in Vermont, where Mr. Newman worked in a stone quarry for a number of years. From there they went to New York state, the father working in the mines, and it was during their residence there that Christine was born. In 1878 the family emigrated west, settling in Platte county, on railroad land. In June, 1884, their house was burned to the ground with all contents, and left them practically destitute.
   Mr. Johnson's father retired from active work in 1907 and moved to Newman Grove, where he resided two years before his death in 1909, and was one of the leading merchants of that thriving town.



   Phillip McGrath, one of Custer county's most highly respected citizens, and a resident of Merna since 1900, is one of the oldest men in his part of the state, but retains his active interest in all that transpires about him and is ready to advance the welfare and progress of his county and state. He was born in county Tipperary, Ireland, June, 29, 1818, next to the youngest of thirteen children born to Thomas and Nellie (Hanley) McGrath, and is the only one of the family now surviving. He was reared and educated in his native place



and was married on February 1, 1848, in Nenaugh, Ireland, to Miss Catherine Hogan, also of Irish birth. In July, 1848, they came to America and located first at Pleasantville, New York, where they spent six years, he being engaged in railroad work. In 1854 he went to Chicago, where he served three years on the police force, and they made their home in that city several years. In 1861 they moved to Lily Lake, Illinois, and there Mr. McGrath carried on his first farming operations in America. In 1865 they went to Lacon, Illinois, their home for many years.
   June 7, 1884, Mr. McGrath came to Custer county to visit his daughter, Mrs. Terry Johnson, who with her husband had come to Nebraska in 1881 and secured a homestead in Custer county. Mr. McGrath secured a homestead of a quarter section of land on section nineteen, township eighteen, range twenty-one, which he still owns, and his wife and family joined him in 1885, living on the farm many years. Mrs. McGrath died in Merna, February 11, 1907, being survived by her husband and five children: Thomas, married and living in Merna, has six children; Mrs. Al Thomas, of Holly, Colorado, has three children; John, a physician, died in 1887; Mrs. Mike McCarty, living four miles west of Merna, has four children; Frank, of Holly, Colorado; Mrs. Terry Johnson, of Sargent, has eight children.
   Mr. McGrath passed through many discouragements in his early days in Nebraska and had the usual experiences of pioneer life. He served eleven years as treasurer of his school district, number one hundred and sixty two. In February 1900, Mr. McGrath moved to Merna and purchased four acres of land which had been homesteaded by his daughter, Mrs. Johnson. He is surrounded by a large circle of friends and has a good standing in the community. He has been successful in his farming and stock raising and owns a grain farm of one hundred and eighty acres near Merna and good property in town. He has six great grandchildren and is held in great reverence and esteem by his many descendants. A sketch of his son Thomas appears in this work.



   The gentleman named above is considered to he one of the most progressive agriculturalists of Wayne county. Although not, strictly speaking, one of the pioneer settlers, he has for years taken a prominent place in the upbuilding of the most important interests of the community. He is the owner of a fine farm located in section one, township twenty-six, range one, with a comfortable home upon it.
   Mr. Hughes was born in 1860, in Wales, and is the son of James and Sydna Hughes. The years of his childhood and young manhood were spent in his native country with his parents, and it was also in this place that he secured his education.
   Having thought the matter out in all its relations carefully, Mr. Hughes came to the conclusion that the place for a young man to get a start was in America, where the country was new and where he could get land cheaper. Accordingly in 1888, he set sail from Liverpool in a little vessel bound for New York City. After his arrival in that city, he went direct to Pennsylvania, but remained in that state only one year. The call of the west was still abroad in the land, however, and he followed its leading to Red Oak, Iowa. He remained there for two years, and then in 1891, came to Wayne county, Nebraska. He at once bought his present home of one hundred and sixty acres and this has been the family homestead ever since.
   Since this farm has come into his possession, Mr. Hughes has improved it in many ways so that its value has been greatly enhanced. He has erected roomy and substantial buildings, set out trees, and dug wells, until now it is reckoned as among the most valuable in that section.
   The year after coming to Nebraska, Mr. Hughes was united in marriage to Miss Anna Hammer. Four children have been born to them, named as follows: Sydna, Thomas, Evan, and Ismael.



   Adolph Nitzel, one of the prominent residents of section three, township fourteen, range seven, Merrick county, Nebraska, has spent many years in this part of the country, and is well known as a man of energetic habits and sterling qualities.
   Mr. Nitzel is a native of Dekalb county, Illinois, born in Sandwich, in the above named county and state, November 16, 1864, and was the eighth child in the family of Henry and Christina (Immel) Nitzel, who had four sons and five daughters. Our subject lived in Illinois until thirteen years of age.
   In March, 1878, the Nitzel family of mother two sons, William and Adolph, and daughter Minnie, moved from Illinois to Merrick county, Nebraska. Henry Nitzel, the father, had died in Illinois in the fall of 1868. The family had purchased eighty acres on section three, township fourteen, range seven, of the Union Pacific railroad in 1871, and upon moving to Nebraska built on this eighty which became the home farm; and they have since added to this land at different times until the Nitzel family own about six hundred and eighty acres.
   Adolph Nitzel from his thirteenth year grew up on the farm and received such advantages as local schooling, etc. In his twenty-first year he went to Rock county, Nebraska, and took up a homestead.
   On March 18, 1891, Mr. Nitzel was married to Miss Sophia Van Pelt, a native of Ohio, but whose family came from Ohio to Merrick county, Nebraska, in 1879. Mr. and Mrs. Nitzel made the



Rock county homestead their home until the fall of 1892, when Mr. Nitzel purchased two hundred acres of the Nitzel home farm in Merrick county of his mother, and moved from Rock county back to the old original home farm where he now resides.
   Mr. Nitzel is a self-made man, successful, and now owns two hundred and eighty acres, and is a prosperous farmer and stockman, making a specialty of short-horn cattle. He also holds the position of shipper for the Archer Shipping Association. He is a quiet man along political lines, but has always taken an active interest in the upbuilding of his home and the affairs of his county and state.
   Mr. and Mrs. Nitzel have three children. Lloyd, Jefferson, and Paul, and they are an interesting family. Mr. Nitzel's mother and brother William live on an adjoining farm to the east.



   Louis F. Skokan, a well known farmer and stockman of Knox county, Nebraska, is one of the leading old settlers of that section of the state, where he has spent all but about six months of his entire life. He has contributed in no small degree to the welfare of his community and has assisted in the development of the farming resources in the locality in which he resides. His home is located in section two, township thirty-one, range six, where he and his wife and family reside, surrounded by a large circle of kind friends and neighbors.
   Mr. Skokan is a native of Bohemia, his birth occurring in the year of 1878, and he is the son of Frank and Anna (Safarik) Skokan, both natives of Bohemia, and who came to America in 1878, when our subject was but six months old. After landing on the shores of the new world, our subject, with his parents, came to Knox county, Nebraska, where the father took up at homestead claim on section five, township thirty-one, range six, where he put up a log house and steadily improved the farm. Here our subject and his parents experienced the many hardships and dangers which beset the early settler of the western frontier. Mr. Skokan grew to manhood on the old homestead farm, receiving what educational advantages were obtainable in the first days of settlement there, and which gradually became better, and helping on the farm as he became old enough to be a help to his parents. After, reaching manhood's estate, Mr. Skokan started in life for himself and bought the farm known as the John Wilson homestead, where he now lives, and which is well improved.
   In 1901 Mr. Skokan was united in marriage to Miss Bessie Tichy, whose parents were early settlers in Nebraska, coming to the state in 1863, just forty-eight years ago, when this part of the, western country was but a wilderness peopled by Indians, and where deer, antelope and other wild game grazed on the unbroken prairies. Mr. and Mrs. Skokan are the parents of three children, whose names are as follows: Addie, Emil, and Louise. They are a fine family and enjoy the respect and high regard of all who know them.



   This honorable name is that of a man who passed on to the better world, leaving behind him the record of good and useful years, and should not be omitted from any comprehensive roll of the makers of Platte county, Nebraska. He was born in county Kerry, Ireland, about 1829, and came to this country in 1849, and after living in the eastern and southern states until 1857, he came to Platte county and was one of the original homesteaders of this county. Mr. Gleason was married to Miss Mary Foley in St. Joseph, Missouri, about 1856, going from Omaha, Nebraska, to be married; and he and his wife then came to Nebraska to make their home.
   Mr. and Mrs. Gleason were among the first pioneer settlers of Platte county, and to them and those who came in the early days, Platte county owes much of its growth and prosperity. Mr. Gleason was of sturdy and energetic stock, and was a successful farmer and stock raiser and the old home farm was his residence until the time of his death, December 13, 1897. Mrs. Gleason died May 13, 1898.
   Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Gleason: Mary, deceased; Thomas, married and living at Platte Center; Margaret, Patrick and Nellie. Patrick and Misses Margaret and Nellie left the farm in March, 1909, having lived on the old homestead since birth. The Gleason family are among the very first families, and the children were among the first children to be born in Platte county.
   Patrick Gleason and sisters Margaret and Nellie now reside in their new modern home place just southwest of Platte Center, where they built one of the finest houses in Platte county. The old farm of four hundred and forty acres on Shell Creek, still remains in the Gleason family. Patrick Gleason now gives his attention to raising thoroughbred hogs.
   But few families still remain of the old settlers stock, and families like the Gleasons are widely known and have the respect and esteem of many friends. Mrs. Mary, the mother, was a woman of many noble qualities, and was always doing her part toward building up the best moral and church influences, and will ever remain endeared in the memory of many of the old residents.



   Among the prosperous citizens of Antelope county who have spent many years in this locality, is the subject of this review, John Thies-



sen, owner of a valuable estate in section thirty-six, township twenty-five, range eight. For many years past he has been engaged in agricultural pursuits, and has done his full share its one of the old settlers towards the development of the better interests of his community; and enjoys the respect, and esteem of all who know him.
   Mr. Thiessen is a native of Germany, born in Bucholtz village, Holstein province, June 13, 1865, and is the son of Clouse and Abel Kruzie; the father's birth occurred in the year 1831, he following the occupation of farming after growing to manhood; and also fought in the Danish army during 1848.
   John Thiessen grew to young manhood in his native land and in 1888, sailed for America where he could get cheap land and have an opportunity to get a good start in life. They sailed from Hamburg and after a voyage of fourteen days, landed in New York, then came westward, settling in Antelope county where he bought school land and now owns four hundred acres of land, and has built a fine home. His farm is well improved, and Mr. Thiessen is a highly respected member of the community in which he dwells.
   The first year of his residence here, Mr. Thiessen could barely make a living; in 1894 he lost his crops through the hot winds that prevailed during that year. He experienced the usual hardships and discouragements incident to those early days, but those times have passed into history, and glad to forget those experiences. Mr. Thiessen is now happy in the fact that he has passed safely through those times, mid is now in a better and more prosperous position in life.
   In 1900 Mr. Thiessen was married to Miss Emma Geise, and they are the parents of four children, namely: Clouse, Adelia, John and Lula.
   Mr. Thiessen's parents came to America in 1893, but one brother and two sisters remained in the fatherland, where they still reside.



   The late Walter S. Wescott was one of the most prominent citizens of Custer county, and one for whom the entire community mourned. He was well known in business circle, and also as a friend to all measures of progress, and was highly respected for his many good qualities of mind and heart, being always interested in the lives of those about him. Mr. Wescott was born in Wethersfield, New York, April 18, 1828, youngest of the five children of John and Eunice (Reed) Wescott, all of whom are now deceased. The father, of Scotch descent, was born in New York and died in Wisconsin in 1877, and the mother, also a native of New York, was of English extraction and died in Monroe, Green county, Wisconsin, in December, 1863.
   When Mr. Wescott was sixteen years of age he removed with his parents to Wisconsin, where they located on a farm and he was married, at the home of her parents in Green county, that State, January 28, 1855, to Thankful B. Cleveland, who was born in Embden, Somerset county, Maine, and for some time was a teacher in Wisconsin schools. Her parents, James Y. and Edith (Cragin) Cleveland, were also natives of Embden, and both died in Wisconsin, the father in 1868. Mrs. Wescott has one brother in California. Two of her brothers, H. G. and Roger S., served in the civil war.
   For thirty years after marriage Mr. and Mrs. Wescott remained on a Wisconsin farm. In 1880 Mr. Wescott came to Custer county and purchased about two thousand acres of land in the vicinity of Wescott, starting a cattle ranch. He shipped one thousand head of cattle from Wisconsin, including a number of thoroughbred Durham and short horn stock, and during the following winter lost all save sixty head, in the severe storms that were characteristic of the winter of 1880-81. However, he was undaunted by his great loss and made a new start. In 1885 he brought his family from their Wisconsin home to Custer county and located on the ranch. The following year he established the town of Wescott on his land, and in connection with his other interests engaged in general mercantile business there carrying a large stock. He established the first bank in the village, known as the Bank of Wescott, of which he was the president. He always took an active interest in the progress and development of the community, lending his aid in various ways to help the general advancement. He was well known for his high character and was kindly and charitable in manner and disposition.
   Mr. Wescott, while in Wisconsin was prominent in the affairs of that state, and served as legislator in the general assembly two terms in the lower house and two terms in the Senate. One incident occurred in the Senate which illustrates well the fearless courage of the man. The Wisconsin soldiers were in distress; they needed clothing and their food was reported insufficient. A bill to appropriate money from the school fund for the relief of the soldiers in the field was before the Senate. "It will never do," argued the opponents of the bill. "It is not constitutional," argued the lawyers. Wescott's turn came to vote and here is his explanation: "Our soldiers are fighting for the very existence of the nation. I allow no man to surpass me in solicitude for the education of our children or obedience to the constitution and the law. But more important than all these is the comfort of our soldiers and the final triumph of our cause. A dire necessity exists, and necessity such as this knows no law, no constitution. I therefore vote 'Aye!'"
   Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs Wescott: Ida May, married Ed. C. Gibbons and



died in March, 1904, survived by her husband and three children; Eva Marie, wife of Charles D. Bragg, of Comstock; John J., of Monroe, Wisconsin, is married and has one child; four children died in infancy. Mr. Wescott's death occurred March 31, 1908, at the age of eighty years, being survived by his widow and two children. Mr. Wescott was well known as the originator of the Wescott irrigation canal, which was constructed on Middle Loup river between Sargent and Wescott. Mrs. Wescott still occupies the Wescott home, where site is surrounded by a large circle of friends, and she has been active in continuing many of her husband's former business interests. Site enjoyed excellent educational advantages in early life, and is a woman of business intelligence and ability.



   E. E. Driskell, one of the older settlers of Wayne county, Nebraska, is honored as a veteran of the civil war, and is one of the most public-spirited citizens of his locality. He has a pleasant home on section twenty-two, township twenty-six, range five, where he carries on general farming and stock raising with gratifying success, and he is the owner of nine hundred and sixty acres of fine, fertile land in Wayne county. He also owns four hundred acres in Fremont county, Iowa, and one hundred and sixty acres in Perkins county, Nebraska.
   Mr. Driskell is a native of Iowa, and was born near the city of Burlington, Des Moines county, November 7, 1838, a son of Anglo and Sarah Driskell, who were born in Ohio and England, respectively. He was reared and educated in Iowa, and in November, 1861, enlisted in Company K, Fourteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, serving three years, and in March, 1865, re-enlisted in Company H, Fourth United States Veteran Infantry, from which he was discharged in March, 1866. He participated in many of the important battles of the war during his long and faithful service, and won an enviable record for devotion to duty. He was wounded in the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, after which he spent two months in a hospital. At Shiloh, the entire regiment and brigade were captured by the enemy, but Mr. Driskell, at the time, was driving a team, and so escaped. The principal engagements in which he fought were Fort Henry, Fort Donaldson, where fourteen thousand prisoners were captured and Mr. Driskell's brigade was the first to go over the breastworks; Pittsburg Landing, Shiloh, Corinth, Tupelo, and Yellow Bayou. After Lincoln was assassinated, the regiment was sent to Washington, and for four of five months they guarded the conspirators who planned the killing of Lincoln and his cabinet. At the time they were executed, Mr. Driskell stood on the prison wall only a few feet from the place of execution. Afterward, the regiment did provost and guard duty at Columbus, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky, being finally discharged at Columbus, Ohio.
   At the close of the war, Mr. Driskell engaged in farming in Louisa county, Iowa, and later in Fremont county, where he remained until 1882, when he came to Wayne county and bought four hundred acres of land. He has added to his original purchase, and has shown great energy in improving and cultivating his land, so that he now has a large and valuable estate, all the fruit of his own efforts. He has a grove and orchard of about ten acres in extent, and has in many ways beautified his place. He is one of the most successful farmers of the region where he lives, and is a man of influence and stability, interested in every public movement, and ready to advance the cause of progress in every form. In 1888 he lost considerable stock in the well remembered blizzard, and has, at other times, suffered loss from various causes, but he has steadily progressed in his way to prosperity.
   Mr. Driskell was united in marriage with Miss Mary Hartman in 1877, and they are the parents of four children, namely: Mrs. Fanny Hugelman; Mrs. Ada McCorkendale; J. O., on the farm in Iowa; and W. R., farming in Dixon county, Nebraska. Mrs. Hugelman and Mrs. McCorkendale are on a part of their father's old farm. Mrs. Driskell was born in West Virginia, and came to Iowa with her brothers, following the death of her parents.
   Mr. Driskell's home, which he erected in 1893, is one of the largest and best built houses in Wayne county. It is equipped with a bath, hot and cold water, and acetylene gas lights, being thoroughly modern in every respect. Since 1906, Mr. Driskell has erected three substantial homes for his children, who reside in Nebraska, two on the old home place, and one near Wakefield, Dixon county. A picture of the family residence and also the family group will be found on another page.


E. E. Driskell and Family


Residence of E. E. Driskell



   To the men of perseverance and stalwart determination who went to Nebraska when it was yet undeveloped as an agricultural and commercial region the present prosperity enjoyed there is due.
   Among the early settlers of Antelope county, Nebraska, who has been intimately identified with its development, and has gained an enviable reputation as a citizen, may be mentioned A. P. Seabury, a prosperous and successful farmer of Crawford township, where he has one hundred and sixty acres of land in section eleven, township twenty-seven, range five-five acres being in good trees with all orchard. Mr. Seabury is a native of Albany county, New York, but came here from Crawford county, Iowa, where he lived from 1867 to 1878. His father, Cornelius Seabury, was born in 1807, in the state of Rhode Island, and is a



descendant of the pilgrims who came over on the boat succeeding the Mayflower. He was a cousin of the Brusters. His grandfather, Philip Seabury, was born in 1767, in Massachusetts and died in 1845. He was a captain on a whaler.
   Our subject was born in 1848, and was the youngest of five children, and is the son of Cornelius Seabury and Adeline (Crary) Seabury.
   Mr. Seabury came to Antelope county, Nebraska, in 1878, to where he moved by wagon from Crawford county, Iowa, making in all four trips, and then took up a homestead and timber claim in the north half of section ten, township twenty-seven, range five, where he built a good frame house, fourteen by twenty-two. While going after hay, Mr. Seabury was caught in the blizzard of 1888, but did not get lost as some people did, although it is an experience he does not care to encounter again. He lost his crops by the hailstorm of 1892, which makes him one of the many old settlers who suffered the hardships of those early days.
   Mr. Seabury was married in 1871 to Miss Elizabeth Gould, and they are the parents of a family of four children, whose names are here given: Charles, who married Edith Tyndall, they have one child Georgia; May, who married H. C. Holbert, they having three children, Winifred, Charles, and Mildred; George, who married Gertrude Fisher, they having one child, Dwight; and the fourth being Elva.
   Mrs. Seabury was born in Lewis county, New York.
   In concluding this personal history, we wish to state that the Seaburys are highly respected by all who know them in their community.



   Thomas Blanchard, of Cotesfield, Nebraska, is one of the prominent citizens of Howard county. During his residence in the state he has held many positions of trust, always taking an active part in local affairs, and his name is familiar to all who have spent any time in this section. During the early days he served as justice of the peace. In the eighties he was appointed postmaster of Cotesfield and served in that capacity for a, period of fifteen years. In 1883 he was elected county commissioner, holding that office for three years, and for about thirty years was a member of the school board and treasurer of district number fourteen.
   Thomas Blanchard was born in England on May 17, 1837, grew up there, receiving a common school education, and during his young manhood followed railroading as an occupation. He remained in England up to the spring of 1871, then came to America, locating at first in Burlington, Iowa, spending about six months there, and came on to Howard county. Here he pre-empted a quarter section in section nineteen, township sixteen, range eleven, also filed on a timber claim of forty acres in section eighteen, and later homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres in section twelve, township sixteen, range twelve, proving up on all three tracts. From time to time as he became able he bought more land, and at the present time is owner of a fine estate comprising one thousand and twenty acres in this state, besides having one quarter section of land in South Dakota. He has followed farming all of the time since coming here until the fall of 1900, when he retired from active work and moved to Scotia, making that his home for five years, then came to Cotesfield. Here he has established a comfortable home and become one of the substantial and highly esteemed citizens of the thriving little city.
   Mr. Blanchard was married in 1874, to Miss Laura Rawalt, of Fulton county, Illinois. Miss Rawalt was for a number of years prior to her marriage a teacher in the public schools of Illinois. To them have been born two children, both of whom are married and have comfortable homes of their own. Maud, wife of J. H. West, is a resident of Cotesfield; they have two children. Their son, Horace, married Miss Buda Paist, and with their four children, occupy the original homestead of our subject.
   Mr. Blanchard and his family are widely and favorably known as being among the old-timers of this locality. They have passed through all the various phases of Nebraska's history and have seen its growth from the very earliest days of settlement.
   Politically Mr. Blanchard is a democrat and a firm supporter of party principles, proving himself a loyal friend to all that has stood for the good of his community and the welfare of its people.



   James Cruikshank, deceased, was one of the early settlers of Valley county, Nebraska, and always during his residence there closely identified himself with the best interests of the county. For many years before his death he was an earnest and active christian, and is well remembered for his kindly and charitable deeds. He was a native of Strathspay, Scotland, born July 16, 1833, and at the age of six years came with his parents to Ontario, Canada, where he reached maturity. On February 2, 1860, he married Mary McLachlen, a native of the township of East Williams, Canada. their union taking place in Middlesex county, and the first few years of their married life were spent in Canada. They then removed to Dallas county, Iowa, lived there until 1885, and in that year came to Valley county, which continued to be their home during the remainder of their lives. They secured a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres of land, comprising the southwest quarter of section six,



township seventeen, range fifteen, the home place for many years.
   Mrs. Cruikshank died March 14, 1892, on the home farm, deeply mourned by her husband and seven children, namely: Kate, widow of J. H. Rhinehart, who died in 1908, of Martinsburg, Missouri, has two children; Jennie, wife of W. H. Clark, of Des Moines, Iowa, has six children; Mary, wife of N. H. Slaughter, of Minburn, Iowa, has five children; Maggie, died December 7, 1904, survived by her husband, J. W. Hayes, has six children; Nettie, wife of John T. Haworth, living near Selah, Washington, has two children; Nahum, of Arcadia, married Lodema Hogue and they have three children; James Grant, of Valley county, a sketch of whom appears in the work, is married and has one daughter. In September, 1892, Mr. Cruikshank married Mrs. Martha Myers.
   In 1900 Mr. Cruikshank retired from active life and moved to Arcadia, where he remained until his death June 24, 1906. He was well known in the community and had many warm friends there, who sincerely deplored his loss. He was a man of high character, who had a high standard of life and endeavored to live up to it. He was reared in the Presbyterian church in Scotland, and while living in Iowa identified himself with the Baptist denomination. He was a republican in politics and a member of the Masonic fraternity.



   The gentleman above mentioned is counted among the oldest settlers in Madison county, Nebraska, and since locating here in 1868 has taken a foremost part in the development of his region.
   Mr. Brummund is a native of Germany, and was born in the province of Pommerania, May 11, 1834. Here he lived, growing to manhood and receiving his schooling, and later married. In 1867 Mr. Brummund, with his family, left his native land for America, where he could get land cheap, and where a young man had a better opportunity to get a start in life. They embarked at Bremen, Germany, on a sailboat bound for Quebec, and were ten weeks on the sea. After landing in the new world, Mr. Brummund went to Wisconsin, where he remained two years.
   In 1869 Mr. Brummund, with his family, came by railroad to Omaha, there purchasing an ox team, and drove to Madison county, Nebraska, where he took tip a homestead in section twenty-five, township twenty-four, range one, which is still the home place. Mr. Brummund put up a log house on this land, and immediately began improvements on the place, building the necessary sheds for the stock, and various other improvements until now he has a fine farm and home. In the first years of residence here, he worked hard, broke sod and planted his first crop, reaping a bountiful harvest. During the succeeding years he saw hard times and had a struggle to make a living for his family, as the grasshoppers destroyed every spear of his crops for seven successive years, which was very discouraging to the family and caused them much privation and hardship. In the early days Fremont was the nearest market place, which was an eight-day journey by ox team.
   Mr. Brummund was married May 30, 1849, to Miss Uricka Ruhlo, a native of Germany, and Mr. and Mrs. Brummund are the parents of seven children, whose names are as follows: William, August, Emil, Paul, Minnie, Martha and Mary.
   Mr. and Mrs. Brummund and family are highly respected in their community, and in their comfortable home are surrounded by a host of friends and neighbors. They are members of the Lutheran church, and Mr. Brummund is a democrat.



   William Walsh, one of Custer county's very early settlers, in early days passed through the trials and discouragements of pioneer existence and has reached a period of prosperity and success He is a self-made man and has always been closely identified with the development of Custer county, being a patriotic citizen of his state and county. He was born in Ireland in June, 1835, next to the oldest of five children, of whom he and a brother in Ireland are the only survivors at this writing. He reached maturity and acquired his education in his native country, meanwhile working on his father's farm after he was old enough. He engaged in farming on his own account as a young man and in April, 1868, came to America, where he again engaged in farming. In December, 1874, he made a visit to his native place and while there was married, February 8, 1875, to Ann Nolan, also of Irish birth.
   The month after his marriage Mr. Walsh brought his wife to America and they lived on a farm in Iowa, where he had previously spent a few years, and lived there until 1880. He then brought his wife and their four children to Custer county, being one of the earliest settlers in the region of his homestead, which was located on section twenty-six, township eighteen, range twenty-two, where he had secured a timber claim adjoining same. This has been the home during the many years since then, and they are of the few who have retained possession of their original homestead place for so many years. They have been much interested in the cause of education and other movements of progress and in 1880 Mr. Walsh helped organize school district number thirty-one, of which he served as a member of the board for some time. He served two years as county supervisor and for the past two years has been township assessor. He also served as assessor of his township in 1882. He is at successful man of affairs and owns three hundred and

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