acquainted with their neighbors. Five years were spent there engaged in farming, and Mr. Peed also did freighting to the Black Hills a part of the time. He ran a livery barn for some time, and made a little money at these various occupations.
In 1884 our subject removed with his family to Pierce county, purchasing the relinquishment on the southwest quarter of section thirty-four, which remained his home to the time of his death, November 12, 1909. Mrs. Peed died in March, 1901. They were the parents of seven children, six of whom attained their majority. They are named as follows: Benjamin (deceased), Amanda (deceased), Enna E., wife of Bell M. Jones; Ella J., first wife of Ben M. Jones, who died in 1907; Zoe, now Mrs. John A. Aird, of Center, Knox county; Earl, of Jonesville, South Dakota; and Fern, who lives with a sister, Mrs. Aird, at Center, Nebraska.
Mr. Peed was a republican, and a good citizen and neighbor. He was the platter of Peed's addition to the town of Plainview, and helped in many ways to improve the community. He passed through all the early Nebraska times, and the family is widely known among the pioneers of that part of the state in which they have made their home for so many years, and in his demise Mr. Peed was deeply regretted by the citizens of his town and county.
NIELS C. PETERSEN.
Niels C. Petersen was born in Denmark on October 16, 1867. His parents were Carl F. and Mary Petersen, and their family consisted of six children, our subject being the second in order of birth. When the latter was a babe, the family emigrated to America, landing in New York City in June of 1869, and coming directly across the states to Grand Island, Nebraska. There the father secured employment in the railroad shops and they remained for two years, then settled on a farm in Hall county and lived there for one year. In the spring of 1872, he came to Howard county, took up a pre-emption claim and lived on the land for a year and a half, returning to Hall county at that time and there followed farming for about seventeen years. He next went back to Howard county, locating in the town of Dannebrog and made that his home until the time of his death, which occurred in December, 1894. His widow occupied the family residence for a number of years, then went to live with her son Niels C., junior, on the farm, where she died, on March 2, 1909.
Niels C. Petersen, who is the only living son of our subject, started for himself in his sixteenth year, following different occupations in the vicinity of his home for several years. He learned the carpenters' trade and worked at it for about seven years, and in the spring of 1890 begun working as a clerk in a general merchandise store at Dannebrog, continuing in that line of employment for four years, when he left Nebraska and went to Green River, Wyoming, where he engaged in business for himself, operating a general store for five years. From there he returned to Howard county and again went on a farm, taking up the old pre-emption claim of his father's, situated on section eight, township thirteen, range eleven, and later purchased one hundred and sixty acres in section nine, which now forms his home farm. Here he has been very successful, building up the place in fine shape, now having a well improved farm and comfortable home. Since coming to his present home, he sold the pre-emption claim formerly owned by his father. Besides this tract of land, he owns one hundred and sixty acres in section thirty-six, Cleveland precinct, and twenty acres in the same precinct, section nine, all being choice lands, acquired by Mr. Petersen through hard labor and good management.
Mr. Petersen was married on January 9, 1896, to Miss Katrina Christensen, who is a descendant of an old Howard county family, the event occurring at Dannebrog. Mrs. Petersen's parents were Peter and Annie (Petersen) Christensen. Mrs. Petersen died February 18, 1902, on the homestead farm, leaving a family of three sons, namely: Charles, Peter and Alfred.
In 1905 our subject was married again, to Sophia Olesen, in Dannebrog, and of this union three children have been born: Alma, Delia and Earl. The family are among the prominent members in their community, and enjoy a large circle of friends. Mr. Petersen has been active in local affairs, serving as precinct assessor during 1892 and 1893, and has also held minor precinct offices.
Ned Powers is one of the younger generation of farmers to attain success in Nebraska and takes an active part in the measures in his community that are calculated to advance the best interests of the county and state. Mr. Powers was born in Polk county, Iowa, September 26, 1874, the fourth of the five children born to Francis M. and Louisa (Phillips) Powers. The father, whose immediate ancestors were from Pennsylvania, was of Dutch descent, and was himself a native of Indiana. He died in Valley county in 1906. The mother, a native of Ohio, is now living in Benton county, Arkansas, with two of her sons.
In 1886, having received his primary education in the schools of his native state, Mr. Powers accompanied his parents to Garfield county, Nebraska, and two years later to Valley county, where he reached maturity and later engaged in farming on his own account. He was married February 23, 1910, to Mrs. Ellen Berridge, a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, whose father S. P. Conner, settled in Valley county in 1884. An extended notice of Mr. Conner appears else
where in this work. Mrs. Powers was first married to Samuel Berridge, by whom three children were born: Elsie, Winnie and Samuel, junior, called Uel. Mr. and Mrs. Powers reside on a farm eight miles northeast of Arcadia. He raises stock and pays considerable attention to grain cultivation. He has spent his entire active life in agricultural operations and carries on his work in an intelligent, progressive manner that insures his financial success. He is well known and has many warm friends in his vicinity.
All he raised in 1894, "the dry year," was eight or ten bushels of potatoes; they wintered their cattle in Cherry county where hay was more plentiful. Mr. Powers and an uncle weathered the blizzard of January 12, 1888, in an old sod house twelve miles northeast of where Burwell now is, in which three other men had sought shelter. Mr. Powers is a democrat in politics and a member of the Modern Woodmen of America.
CHARLES L. DANIEL.
Charles L. Daniel, residing on section ten, township twenty-three, range three, in Madison county, Nebraska, is one of the leading old-timers in this section who has always done his full share in the betterment of conditions throughout the community in which he lives. Mr. Daniel came to Madison some twenty-nine years ago, and in the time intervening, through hard labor and hardships, has accumulated a good competence, now owning four hundred and eighty acres of fine land, on which he has five acres of trees. Mr. Daniel is a citizen of which Madison county may be justly proud.
Mr. Daniel was born in old Virginia, November 22, 1859, and is a son of Pinkney and Ruth (Cox) Daniel; the father being a native of North Carolina; and the mother a Virginian by birth. Our subject grew to his manhood days in his native state, receiving the usual school advantages.
In 1882 Mr. Daniel came to Madison county, Nebraska, taking up a homestead in section ten, township twenty-three, range three, which remains the homestead farm to this day. On this land he built a frame house and began at once to make improvements on the place, and has gradually added to his property.
Mr. Daniel was united in marriage March 8, 1887, at Madison, to Miss Bell Sesler, a native of Virginia, and a daughter of Mark and Elizabeth (Bennington) Sesler, who were natives of Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. Daniel have been blessed with four children, whose names are as follows: Walter L., Roy C., Florence, Willie J. and David R., deceased.
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel and family enjoy the respect and esteem of all who know them, and their friends are many. Mr. Daniel is a successful and progressive citizen of his community, and is a credit to the locality in which he resides. He is a member of the United Brethren church, and the Modern Woodmen lodge, and is an independent democrat.
Thomas McGrath belongs to a family that has long been prominent in Custer county. He was born in Ireland, February 8, 1849, a son of Phillip and Catherine (Hogan) McGrath, also natives of that country. In July, 1848, the family came to America, Thomas then being an infant, and at that time their only child. They had four other children after coming to America, whose names are mentioned in connection with the sketch of the father, Phillip McGrath, which appears in this work. Thomas McGrath began his education in the city of Chicago, and there began life on his own account in the early seventies, having then reached his majority.
In November, 1877, Mr. McGrath was married in Hyde Park, Illinois, now a part of the city of Chicago, to Jennie Cummings, born in Lake Forest, Illinois, and a daughter of Michael and Maria (Curran) Cummings. They made their first home near Lacon, Illinois, and in 1887 sold their farm there and moved to Colorado. In 1899 Mr. McGrath accepted a position as salesman for the Arkansas Valley Sugarbeet & Irrigation Land company, in whose interest he traveled six years with excellent results. Although successful in the business field, he left it in February, 1907, to come to Merna, in order that he might minister to the needs and comforts of his father, who was then nearing the age of ninety years, and he still makes his home with him. Thomas McGrath and family have become well known in Merna, where they have many friends.
Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. McGrath, namely: Ella in Towner, Colorado; Walter, in Colorado; Frank, of Robinson, Kansas; Robert, of Towner, Colorado; Margaret, a teacher in Colorado, and Mary, of Towner.
JAMES A. WITTEN.
James A. Witten, who is today a worthy representative of the best agricultural interests of Pierce county, and who has done much to rescue and redeem Nebraska from a howling wilderness and valueless plain, is respected alike for his straightforward character, thrift and good spirit. He rents farm land in Pierce precinct, living in the county seat, where he enjoys all the comforts of a pleasant home and good surroundings.
Mr. Witten was born on March 23, 1851, in Tazewell county, Virginia. His father, Ezra Witten, was a prominent farmer of that section who died there at the age of fifty-four years. The mother was Rosanna Buchannan in maidenhood.
James Witten lived in his native state until the age of thirty-one, farming. He was married there on October 26, 1881, to Miss Susan C. Sexton. a native of Tazewell county, whose parents, Joseph and Maria (McDonald) Sexton, were also well known in that country. They lived in the home state some eight years after marriage, they came west, arriving at West Point, Nebraska, on March 23, 1889. After a few months at that place, they moved to Pilger, later in the year coming to Pierce. Here they rented land near the town, which has been the home place ever since. Mr. Witten has worked at his trade of horseshoeing during a part of the time since coming here, and when work is rushing, his services are very much in demand.
Mr. and Mrs. Witten are the parents of ten children, having had the good fortune to have lost none by death. Their children are named as follows: Hallie, married Hugh Martin, of Stanton; Placid, married Merle Holbun of Norcaster, Kansas; Everett, follows painting in Pierce; Joseph, edits a paper at Wall, South Dakota; Rosalia, stenographer to the county judge; Frances Buren, Ansel, Dayton, Harlan and Alice. The entire family is popular in the community, and their home is a cheerful and congenial spot enjoyed by a host of warm friends and acquaintances.
Mr. Witten has always been a staunch democrat, like most good old Virginians. He joined the Masonic Lodge at Jeffersonville, Virginia, afterwards transferring his membership to Pierce, and is still an active member of the order there. Both himself and wife are members of the Order of Ben Hur.
AUGUSTUS F. SCHRAWGER.
The venerable gentleman whose name heads this personal history is one of the old settlers of Nebraska, a gentleman of sterling character, who has made his mark in the affairs of his locality, and incidentally built up for himself a competence by dint of good management and thrift.
Augustus F. Schrawger was born in Pennsylvania, November 21, 1838, and was third of four children, he being the only surviving child. The father died August 7, 1870, and the mother on May 12, 1871, both in the state of Ohio. Our subject received his education in the schools of his home state, and later engaged in the milling business about eight miles north of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and at this place learned the trade of miller. In 1861, he removed to Franklin county, Ohio.
In 1863, Mr. Schrawger enlisted in National Guards of Ohio for ninety days service and he participated in battles at New Creek, Virginia, in Early's campaign. After his discharge, which he received after four months service, he returned to Ohio, and on May 2, 1864, enlisted in the United States service in Company C, One Hundred and Eighty-fifth Infantry Ohio Volunteers, serving until September 1, 1864, when he received his discharge at Lexington, Kentucky. After the war Mr. Schrawger returned to Ohio farming four years, then going to Bureau county, Illinois, in the spring of 1866, where he again engaged in farming.
In the fall of 1871, Mr. Schrawger came to Merrick county, Nebraska, filing on one hundred and sixty acres of homestead land in section eighteen, township fifteen, range five, and moved his family on to same a few months later. Here he resided until 1903, when he retired front the farm and moved to Clarks, Nebraska, and purchased a good home where he and his family now live.
On January 16, 1867, Mr. Schrawger was married to Isabella Ramsey, who was born in Ohio, and moved to Bureau county, Illinois, when eleven years old. They have had eight children born to them: Nellie, wife of D. Chesley, has nine children and lives on the father's original homestead; William, who is married, has one child and resides in Montana; Arnold, married, lives in Tekamah, Nebraska; Martha, wife of M. Decker, lives in Omaha; Tasey, wife of George Carman, has one child and resides in Merrick county; Frederick, is married, has one child, and lives in Tekamah, Nebraska; Lucious S., who resides at home; and Celia, wife of Frank Noble, living in Clarks, Nebraska.
Mr. Schrawger has been prosperous and successful, and owns two hundred eighty acres of fine farm land, as well as good city property. He has served as treasurer of his school district number fifteen.
Mr. and Mrs. Schrawger are among the early pioneers of this part or Nebraska, and have passed through all the hardships and discouragements incidental to frontier life, during which time the grasshoppers destroyed all their crops in the raids made upon that section of the west.
Mr. and Mrs. Schrawger are widely and favorably known, and enjoy the respect and esteem of all who know them.
W. H. NEEDHAM.
W. H. Needham, the veteran editor of "The Monitor" at Bloomfield, has been familiar with the political, commercial, and intellectual conditions of Nebraska since 1867, when his father moved with his family to a tract of land a mile and a half east of the state house.
Mr. Needham was born in Independence, Ohio, November 7, 1853, a son of H. E. and Lucina (Bagley) Needham, natives of Monkton, Vermont and Cleveland, Ohio, respectively. The father died in Missouri, in December, 1894, while the mother, nearing her eightieth year, makes her home with her daughter, Mrs. Charles Hughes, of Paston, Nebraska.
In 1859, the elder Needham moved with his family to Fremont county, Iowa, settling near Tabor; here he resided for twelve years, and on March 1, 1869, crossed the Missouri river at Wabanse Mills, on his way to Lancaster county, Nebraska. They drove through in wagons, bringing with them one cow, and settled near Lancaster Center, now within the city limits of Lincoln. The father moved to Daviess county, Missouri, near Kidder, in 1876, and made this his home during the remainder of his life.
Mr. Needham, after attending the state university from the first year of its establishment, remained in Lincoln attending that school when the family moved to Missouri. His mother becoming seriously ill in the fall of 1875, he joined the family in Daviess county and remained with them for about two years. On leaving home, he sought work in northern Iowa and southern Minnesota until the spring of 1884, when he returned to Nebraska, settling on a farm near Colridge and enjoying country life for three years.
On the fourth of February, 1887, he took charge of the "Colridge Sentinel," in which his brother, Will A., joined him. In the fall of 1890, they established the "Bloomfield Monitor" under the firm name of Needham Brothers, of which W. A. took sole charge until the following spring, when the "Sentinel" was sold and the brothers joined forces on the "Monitor."
In the fall of 1895, W. H. sold his interest in the "Monitor" went to Niobrara and published the "Tribune" four years, when he returned to assume full control of the "Monitor," soon after his brother's appointment is postmaster of Bloomfield in December, 1897.
Mr. Needham is editing one of the most progressive and prosperous country weeklies in northern Nebraska. His equipment for job work is of the best, and work turned out from this office is not excelled by any.
Mr. Needham was married at Luverne, Minnesota, August 3, 1883, to Miss Orpha Beach, a native of Wisconsin, and daughter of Henry L. and Elinora (Hakes) Beach. Two children were born to them, Elnora, wife of J. B. McCoy, editor of the "Crofton Journal;" and Lyndia L., who is an accomplished musician, having in 1910 and 1911 taken an advanced course at Sioux City. Iowa.
Mr. Needham, through his vote and his papers has always been a staunch supporter of republican principles. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having attained all the degrees of the blue lodge, chapter, council, and commandry. He also fraternizes with the Independent Order of Odd Follows and the Woodmen of the World. He is secretary of the Knox county Publishers, Association, of which he was one of the organizers.
Mr. Needham has recollections of' Nebraska in its primitive slate; he has seen deer and antelope grazing where the state capitol now stands. He was in the state during the years of devastation by the grasshopper pests and witnessed much of the havoc they wrought. He was fortunate in living above his office in Colridge at the time of the destructive blizzard of January 12, 1888. and escaped its sharpness, but was cognizant of much suffering and death because of the storm. Like most of the pioneers, he has lived in a sod house, that being the construction of his father's dwelling when he first located on his homestead, in Lancaster county. Corn at times was their fuel, though little of it was used in this way, as the father bought a small piece of timber on Salt Creek. The changes wrought in the development of the west in the forty-four years intervening between the advent of the Needham family to the state and the present time would be almost incredible, were not the witnesses of its progress here to recount the truth of it all.
CAPTAIN WILLIAM J. FARRIS.
William J. Farris, for the past twenty-five years known throughout Boone county as one of the leading pioneer agriculturists, now resides in Albion, having retired permanently from active farm work, several years since purchasing a handsome home in that thriving city. He is a gentleman of superior business ability, and has always taken it leading part in the political affairs of his locality. Mr. Farris is a prominent member of the Grand Army of Republic -- Kit Carson Post number forty-two, of Albion, Nebraska, of which he has been commander, and filled nearly all the chairs.
Captain Farris was born in Tennessee on August 15, 1837, being the eldest of four children in the family of Moses and Nancy Farris. Both parents have been dead many years. He received his education in his home state, and when about twenty years of age went to Missouri, there following the trade of a mason. He was married there in 1864, to Nancy J. Bradford, and three years later came with his wife and little son to Otoe county, Nebraska, remaining there for fifteen years. In 1882 Mr. Farris arrived in Boone county and purchased eighty acres on section nineteen, township nineteen, range five, which was the home place up to 1900. There he succeeded in building up a good farm and acquired considerable additional land, becoming widely known as one of the leading old-timers and did considerable in the way of promoting the welfare of his locality.
Captain and Mrs. Farris have had nine children, all of whom are now living, and all married and having fine families and good homes in different parts of Nebraska and other states. They are named is follows: John T., Irena, Joycia, Walter C., Retta, Lulu, Izetta, Oney, and William Bruce. Mrs. Farris has a sister living in Iowa, the remaining members of her immediate family being dead.
Captain Farris is a prominent old soldier.
He enlisted in July, 1861, in Company D, Sixth Missouri Volunteer Infantry, and was at once made orderly sergeant of his company and later received a commission as second lieutenant. He was promoted to the captaincy of his company, and remained in command until the close of the war. He was engaged in the following famous battles and held a splendid record as a brave and faithful soldier: Pittsburg Landing, Iuka, Champion Hill, Siege of Vicksburg, Jackson, Chattanooga, Atlanta, Sherman's March to the Sea, Savanah, Bentonville, and many minor engagements receiving his honorable discharge on August 17, 1865, having re-enlisted January 4, 1864, at Bellefonte, Alabama, and serving in all over four years and one month. He participated in the Grand Review of Sherman's Army in Washington at the close of the war, and was proud of the distinction of never having missed a day's service after the battle of Pittsburg Landing, was never wounded and never absent from any battle -- large or small -- in which his regiment was engaged.
Captain Farris was well known in former years as an active man of affairs in Boone County, serving as sheriff during 1892 and 1893, being elected on the republican ticket. He has aided considerably in building up the schools in his locality and acted as director of district number five for more than fifteen years. Captain and Mrs. Farris are members of the Methodist Episcopal church.
CARL F. H. PAUL.
Carl F. H. Paul, agent for the David Cole Creamery Company at Creighton, has spent almost his entire life in Creighton, Nebraska. He was born, as was his father, in the village of Baerwalder, Brandenburg, Germany, August 10, 1875, and was in his sixth year, when with his mother he embarked in the "Polaria" for America in May of 1881, to join the father, who had, late in the previous autumn come to Nebraska and secured employment at Fremont. Here the boy grew to manhood, and having a roving spirit for the time being, and desiring to see the world, joined a drovers' outfit trailing sheep through Montana, Oregon, Wyoming, Idaho, Nebraska and Arizona to the coast. This was a wild life in the open, fraught with dangers, but was free and easy, developing incidentally rugged health in the young man. There was at that time an enmity between the cattle and sheep men, which at times grew to be lawless. The sheep outfit returned from the range one evening to find their wagons and provisions all burned and their horses stolen -- the troupe of cowboys had paid their camp a visit when all but the cook were away, and left them a pile of ashes as a reminder that sheep men in a cattle country were not desirable citizens. The stolen horses were recovered and a new "chuck outfit" obtained, but for a time rations were somewhat limited. Around their camp fires strange characters dropped in, and among the noted characters that shared the evening meal were the noted desperadoes and rustlers, "Broncho Bob," and "Diamondfield Jack," the former of whom later met a violent death, the latter is now marshal of Bull Frog, Nevada.
Mr. Paul has a desire to again retrace the trail through the passes across the mountains, and being an expert plainsman with a good memory for locality could no doubt find from day to day every camp where their evening fires were lit in each of the three trips through to the coast. He still owns the horse he rode throughout the west, and though eighteen years old, it is still in action, and is a useful animal.
Returning to Antelope county in 1899, Mr. Paul began farming on his father's farm, and in 1904 secured the agency for the David Cole Creamery company and has made a financial success. He is at the same time engaged in the flour and feed business, which has proved to be a profitable venture. His residence is still in Antelope county, from which he drives daily to his business place in Creighton.
Mr. Paul was married in Creighton, July 15, 1901, to Miss Maude Slater, who was born in Mills county, Iowa. Her parents, Henry and Mary Elizabeth (Case) Slater, are natives of Ohio and Iowa, respectively. They moved to Nebraska in 1889, and in 1904 migrated to Oklahoma. Mr. and Mrs. Paul have one son living, named Frederick.
Mr. Paul is not to be held in line by any party lash or traces, reserving the right to cast lot for the most reliable candidate, is he views it, regardless of which party banner he carries.
MATTHEW H. GLASSEY.
Matthew H. Glassey, owner and operator of a fine grain and stock farm in Custer county, is an early resident of Nebraska and has passed through the various trials and vicissitudes of pioneer existence. He has always been actively interested in the welfare and development of county and state and is held in high regard its a public-spirited, substantial citizen. Mr. Glassey was born in Brooklyn, New York, August 8, 1853, second of the four children of Matthew and Ann (Roome) Glassey. He has a brother, Frederick Glassey, in Iowa, and the other children are deceased. The father was born in Scotland and died in New Orleans, and the mother was born in England and died in Iowa.
In early manhood Mr. Glassey removed to Illinois, where he worked at farming for several years, and he was married in that state October 21, 1873, to Martha Brinley, a native of Indiana, daughter of Abraham and Anna (Wilson) Brinley. Mr. Brinley, born in Pittsburg, Pennsyl-
vania, of German descent, died in Oklahoma, January 26, 1893, and Mrs. Brinley, who was of Irish extraction, was born in Pennsylvania and died in Iowa, January 28, 1885. One son, Eldridge Brinley, lives in St. Paul, Nebraska, James Brinley lives in Lincoln; a daughter, Mrs. George Shepperd, lives in Valley county, Nebraska, and another daughter lives at West Point, Illinois.
After marriage, Mr. Glassey and wife lived on an Illinois farm until the spring of 1881, when they came with their two children to Johnson county, Nebraska. There Mr. Glassey purchased land and engaged in farming, later lived in Valley county about one year, and in 1885 pre-empted one hundred and sixty acres of land on section twenty-three, township nineteen, range seventeen, which is still the home place. He afterwards took a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres of land in Westerville township. In 1892 he removed to Lincoln to live for a time, in order to give his children better educational advantages, later returning to the farm. He has a well improved farm, adapted to raising stock and grain, and specializes in Clydesdale horses. His farm lies along the beautiful valley known as Woods Park, which was named for the first settler there, and who raised the first corn in the valley. Mr. Glassey is one of the best known men of the region, and stands well with his fellow-citizens. The family have a large circle of friends and acquaintances and are interested in every measure affecting the general progress and prosperity. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Glassey, George F., married and living in Custer county, has four children, and Ethel Grace, a teacher in Nebraska public schools.
JOHN FERDINAND KOLTERMAN.
Among the leading old settlers and public-spirited citizens of Pierce county, Nebraska, the gentleman above mentioned deserves a foremost place. Mr.Kolterman has aided in no slight degree in the developing of the agricultural resources of this region and has done his full share in building up the schools; doing all in his power for the betterment of conditions, socially and politically, in his community.
John F. Kolterman is a native of Wisconsin, born seventeen miles north of Milwaukee, June 3, 1855. His father, Frederick Kolterman, was born in the village of Greifenberg, Prussia, in 1815. After growing to manhood he followed the carpenters' trade, and served the usual period in the German army. The mother was born in 1828, and is living at a good old age. In 1853 the father decided to come to America, the land of the free, embarking at Hamburg, Germany, on a sailboat; encountering a severe storm two hours after leaving port, the ship nearly foundered, and the passengers had to man the pumps. Landing in New York City after a voyage of eleven weeks and three days, Mr. Kolterman, with his family started for the west, locating in Wisconsin on a rented farm, seventeen miles north of Milwaukee. Times were hard and work scarce. The father labored on farms at twenty-five cents a day; on railroad work he was paid but fifty cents a day, which he would have lost but for his ready wit, taking his pay in trade.
Seeing little hope of a competency here, they decided to go where there would be better opportunity for at young man with a family. They packed their goods in a wagon and started, not knowing just where until reaching Watertown. A part of the family wanted to go to the prairies of the west, and the others to the timbered region of northern Wisconsin. The decision was finally made in favor of the west, and here they came by ox team camping for seven weeks along the highway on the journey to the west.
They rented a thirty acre farm near Norfolk the first year, and then settled in Pierce county, Nebraska, in the spring of 1870, on section fourteen, township twenty-six, range two, where they built on a son-in-law's claim a rough house thirteen by sixteen feet, of willows and box elder poles, covered with slough grass, in which the two families lived for a time, then added a room eight by thirteen feet for a bedroom. Later the elder Kolterman built on his own land a cabin of hewn logs thirteen by sixteen feet, and later added a lean-to room eight by thirteen feet, and this was their residence four years. In this house they went through many hard experiences, losing crops by drouth, hail and grasshoppers -- everything seemed to be leagued against them for a time. They stuck to the farm however, perfected their title, and from time to time added to their original holdings until now it is one of the most beautiful farms in that part of the country.
During the blizzard of January 12, 1888, Mr. Kolterman and a former officer of the German army had gone for a load of straw. The officer had scouted the idea of a storm in which he could not find his way. On the return, the storm suddenly struck them, blotting out everything beyond an arm's length. After the horses had found their way to the barn, the young officer was willing to concede the western blizzard to be the worst of storms. Storm-bound neighbors held at Mr. Kolterman's place filled the barn, sod house and chicken house with their horses, and crowded into the house, remaining until the storm abated the next day.
Deer, antelope, and elk were plentiful in the early days of settlement, and ducks and geese were easily secured. Mr. Kolterman killed fourteen at one shot on one occasion, in the stream near his home.
John F. Kolterman was married April 20, 1879, to Miss Wilhelmina Buetow, and four children were born to them: Laurence, married to Miss Mary Natzke, and has two children, Leonard and Norman; Emil, who is married to Miss Lena
Manske, and has one child, Irene; and Louis and Johan Friederich, who died in infancy.
Our subject was again married December 26, 1893, to Miss Anna Smith, a native of Tama county, Iowa, daughter of George Smith; her mother was a Miss Becker. They were natives of the village of Carolinensiel, East Fresia, Germany and came to America in 1866. Mr. and Mrs. Kolterman have two children, Esther and Erwin.
Mr. Kolterman is a member of the German Lutheran church. He has served his community as county commissioner for six years, and is highly respected and esteemed by all who know him.
We are pleased to call attention to a view of Mr. Kolterman's fine country home and surroundings to be found on another page.
"Riverside Sotck Farm," Residence of J. F. Kolterman.
CLAUS HERMAN KOPPELMANN.
Among the prosperous citizens of Pierce county, Nebraska, who have spent many years in this locality, is the subject of this review, Claus H. Koppelmann, owner of a valuable estate in Allen precinct.
Mr. Koppelmann was born in the village of Kuden, Holstein, then a province of Denmark, March 20, 1851, where he was reared on his father's farm assisting his parents in the work until he left home and began a career for himself. He was married in his native land, his wife being a native of the same village and province.
On March 6, 1881, Mr. Koppelmann embarked for America with his family, sailing from Hamburg, to Havre, France, and thence to New York, on the steamer "Lessing." After a short visit with Mrs. Koppelmann's relatives at Elizabeth, New Jersey, the family became residents of Benton county, Iowa, where Mr. Koppelmann worked on the railroad for two years at Belle Plaine. From 1883 to 1885 he was employed as foreman on a large stock farm in Benton county.
In 1885 Mr. Koppelmann traveled farther west, locating in Pierce county, Nebraska, where, after renting five years, he settled on his present farm, which is situated in the southwest quarter of section seven, township twenty-seven, range one. They occupied a dugout for five years and then built a good frame house, their present dwelling. Mr. Koppelmann now owns three hundred and twenty acres of good land, having purchased the northwest quarter of section seven in 1906. Here he engages in stock raising, growing enough grain to fatten four carloads of cattle per year and four carloads of hogs. He has about two acres of trees growing on his home place, and an orchard of equal area, which he planted on the open prairie. At that time there was not a tree in sight. Land that at that time could have been bought for six or seven dollars, has since sold for one hundred dollars an acre.
Mr. Koppelmann has experienced all the hardships and privations which so many of the earlier settlers had to face upon coming to the new country. He lost all his crops in the hailstorms of 1887 and 1890, 1893 and 1896. In the blizzard of January 12, 1888, the children, most of them quite small, were all at school, remaining there through the night. Mr. Koppelmann took lunch to them about three o'clock in the morning; the scholars were huddled together very hungry and cold, having burned the last lump of coal. He lost some cattle in this blizzard. During the early days while a renter, he burned hay for three years, and later used corn for fuel when it was selling for eight cents. During the year of drouth, 1894, Mr. Koppelmann had a fairly good crop or corn, wheat and oats. When he first came to the country, prairie chickens were plentiful, furnishing fresh meat to the hungry settlers.
Mr. Koppelmann was married February 28, 1875, to Miss Margaret Umlandte, a native of the village of Kuden, where they were married, and a daughter of Diedrich and Margaretta (Soeth) Umlandte. Fifteen children have been born to them, three of whom died in Germany. Those living are: John; Maggie, wife of Henry Huwald, has three children, Emma, Wilhelm and Walda; Henry; Anna, wife of Frank Stadry, has three children, Esther, Fremont and Nora; Gustav, married Anna Blackwell; Louis; Emma, married John Schroeder, a farmer of Allen township; and Hulda.
Mr. Koppelmann is a worthy citizen, esteemed and respected by all. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Modern Woodmen of America, and is a communicant of the German Lutheran church. He is a republican.
Mr. Koppelmann's farm is well equipped with machinery, including a gas engine, which operates the grindstone, separator, churn and washing machine. There is running water in the house and in all the barns and sheds. We call attention to a view of Mr. Koppelmann's residence and farm buildings on another page.
Residence of Claus H. Koppelmann.
W. A. TAWNEY.
W. A. Tawney, long and prominently known in the eastern part of the state of Nebraska, was born in the state of Pennsylvania, in the year 1868, coming of old American stock, his father, J. E. Tawney, and his mother, Anna (McCulough) Tawney, being born in the state of Pennsylvania. Our subject's father enlisted in the army in the civil war on the Union side, and was discharged three months later.
W. A. Tawney, when but a lad of ten years or so, came with his parents to Saunders county, Nebraska, in 1878, and after his marriage came to Pierce county in 1894, where he purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land in section thirty-four, township twenty-eight, range three, four acres of which is given to trees, and where our
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