the nearest place where grain or produce could be marketed. These long drives frequently took a week to make the round trip. The deer had left the country at the time of his coming, but Mr. Dedlow has seen herds of antelope on the prairies here as numerous as a flock of sheep. But those hard times are only a memory, though all concede every one was as happy and light-hearted then as now. In August, 1903 Mr. Dedlow retired from farming, and moved to town where he lives in comfort on the fruits of a wellspent life, enjoying the respect of all who know him. Industry and thrift have their reward.



   E. J. Hill, who was one of the early settlers of Howard county, Nebraska, was born in Kings county, Ireland, on March 10, 1838, and, when one year of age, emigrated to America with his parents. They settled at Patterson, New Jersey, remaining there for about three years, then went to Canada, and made that country their home up to 1881, at that time returning to Patterson.
   Mr. Hill came west about 1881, locating in Howard county, where he purchased two hundred and forty acres of choice land, situated on the table lands west of the then village of St. Paul, known as "Canada Hill," and started farming, but shortly after, sold one hundred and sixty acres.There, with his family, he passed through all the pioneer times in building up his home and farm, and he was one of those who contributed largely to the making of the great state of Nebraska. He was never afraid of work, has endured the toil of the early days, and thrift, industry and integrity spell his career.
   On July 14, 1863, Mr. Hill was united in marriage to Alice J. Horner, the ceremony taking place in Ontario, Canada. Mrs. Hill is a native of Algonac, Michigan, although her girlhood was spent in Canada, her mother dying when she was a small child, and being taken by her grandparents to raise, they living in the province of Ontario. Mr. and Mrs. Hill had four children: Alvin L., married, and living at Ord, Nebraska; Charlotte A., wife of W. J. Crow, they living in Howard county; Willam I., also married, and living near the homestead; and Ella May, wife of Peter A. Harvey.
   Mr. Hill was always active in local affairs, doing everything possible to further the best interests of his community. In 1908, he retired from active farm work, taking up his residence in St. Paul, and his death occurred there on May 5, 1909, his demise being keenly felt by the entire community, by whom he was highly esteemed and respected as a worthy and public-spirited citizen.



   William Porter Crandall, who for the past forty years and more has been closely identified with the development of the agricultural resources of the west, has been a resident of Valley county for about half that time. He is the owner of a large, well-improved farm, comprising the east half of section seven, and is regarded as one of the substantial citizens of that locality. Through his long residence here, he has gained the respect and esteem of the entire community in which he makes his home.
   Mr. Crandall was born in Cattaraugus county, New York, on August 3, 1843, to William and Ann (Babcock) Crandall. He was the fifth in a family of nine children. It is a sad fact that out of this large family, only four are left. One brother lives in Kansas, and two sisters in North Loup.
   When ten years of age, our subject, with his parents, went to Waushara county, Wisconsin, where he spent the years of his young manhood. In March, 1864, he enlisted in Company C, Fifty-second Wisconsin Infantry, receiving an honorable discharge in August of the following year, at Madison, Wisconsin. One brother was lost during the progress of the Civil war while in the army.
   After the war was over, Mr. Crandall returned to his Wisconsin home, and engaged in farming. In the following year, the family removed to Lynn county, Missouri, which remained the home of the father and mother until their death, which occurred in 1889 and 1877, respectively.
   On April 14, 1869, Mr. Crandall married Miss Rachel Harris, a native of Lynn county, Missouri, and daughter of Alfred Harris. They made their home in this state for ten years, then, in 1879, removed to Kansas, where they took up a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres in Rooks county.
   Their sojourn in Kansas lasted until 1891, when they wisely determined to come to Nebraska, and in the spring of that year, they located north of North Loup, Valley county. They lived here for three years, then for six years near Ord. In 1900, Mr. Crandall purchased a fine farm of three hundred and twenty acres in the east half of section seven, township seventeen, range thirteen. The farm was in good condition when purchased, but Mr. Crandall has since made extensive improvements, so that now it is one of the best in the county. In 1909, he further improved the place by building an elegant modern house, and here he is living at present, taking his ease after a life of strenuous toil. A large barn was erected in 1911, completing a most excellent set of farm buildings.
   Only two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Crandall. Alfred H. is now married, and lives in Valley county. He is also well known as a successful farmer, and is now moderator of



school district number three. The other child, Devillo Lee, is still at home.
   In every way Mr. Crandall and his family have been closely identified with the development of this section of the mighty west, and they are widely and favorably known.
   Drouth in 1894 destroyed all the crops on Mr. Crandall's place, and hail made complete ruin in 1893, 1896 and again in 1901. These were but a few of the discouragements of the early days. During the years in Kansas, Mr. Crandall lived in a sod house, but since coming to Nebraska has occupied a frame dwelling.



   John W. Risk, retired farmer and business man, is one of the well known and most highly esteemed citizens of Madison county, Nebraska, where he has been a resident for the past forty-one years or more.
   Mr. Risk was born in Portage county, Ohio, September 28, 1838, and was fifth of seven children in the family of George and Isabella Risk, who had five sons and two daughters. Mr. Risk grew up to his young manhood years on the farm, receiving such advantages as local district schools; etc.
   On October 1, 1861, Mr. Risk enlisted in Company A, Forty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, under James A. Garfield, who was then colonel of this regiment. Mr. Risk was in the company known as "Garfield's Pets," and was in numerous engagements and battles. He was at the capture of Arkansas Post on the Arkansas river in the winter of 1862, then down the Mississippi to Vicksburg in the spring of 1863, and was through the Siege of Vicksburg and many prior skirmishes. Mr. Risk has a war record to which he can point with much gratification and pride.
   Mr. Risk received his honorable discharge at Camp Chase, Ohio, in October, 1864, after which he returned to the old home place in Ohio, and in the fall of 1865, went to Lansing, Michigan, and engaged in the grocery business for about six months, selling out and going to Montana. After a short stay, he went down the Missouri river to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, and for one year was an attendant in the state insane asylum. He then went up the Missouri river until near Omaha, where he followed lumbering, and on April 10, 1869, came to Madison county, Nebraska, taking up a homestead on the southeast quarter of section one, township twenty-three, range three, the southeast part of the town of Battle Creek being located on part of this homestead.
   Mr. Risk was continuously in the farm and stock business until about 1905, when he retired from active farm work. He is a successful man, and has passed through the pioneer years of Madison county. For twenty years, Mr. Risk has been a director of the Battle Creek Valley Bank, and has landed interests in Battle Creek and vicinity. He has many friends, and has led an honorable and active life.
   On November 13, 1878, Mr. Risk was married to Miss Catherine Carabine at West Point, Cuming county, Nebraska. The Carabine family came to Madison county in the spring of 1869, settling near Norfolk, Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Risk have eight children: John E., who resides in Battle Creek; Bernard, who is married, and has one child, lives at Redlands, California; Clara, married to Mr. Miller, lives in Omaha, Nebraska; Frank, a resident of Douglas, Wyoming; Josie, formerly a teacher in the public schools in Madison county, now the wife of G. Jenkins, banker at Humbolt, Nebraska; and Lottie, Howard and Lucile, who live at home.
   The Risk family is prominent along social and educational lines, and enjoys an acquaintance of numerous friends.
   Mr. Risk was one of the adventurous young men, who, in 1859, became interested in the Pike's Peak excitement in Colorado, going overland through Kansas, but returning down the Platte river through Nebraska. He walked from Leavenworth, Kansas, to Denver.
   Mr. Risk is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, joining the lodge at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, in the year 1866. He is a Roman Catholic, and a republican.



   Mr. and Mrs. Frank Cozad are members of pioneer families that have long been well known in central Nebraska, and they own a pleasant home and well-equipped farm on section fifteen, township nineteen, range twenty-one, being of the few who have remained on their original homesteads. Mr. Cozad was born in Vinton county, Ohio, December 5, 1848, the youngest of the nine children born to Joseph and Mary (Davis) Cozad. One child died in infancy, after which there were five sons and three daughters. The father died before the birth of Frank Cozad, and his mother died when he was a small boy. He is not sure how many of his brothers and sisters now survive, but knows of the deaths of four, besides the one who died in infancy. Mr. Cozad lived near his birthplace until March, 1863, then enlisted at Bourneville, Ross county, in the Light Twenty-fourth Ohio Independent Battery, Artillery, in which he served until June, 1865, receiving his honorable discharge at Camp Denison, Ohio, at the close of the war. In July of the same year, he enlisted in the regular army for three years, and at the close of his period of enlistment, spent one year as a private citizen, and in August, 1870, re-enlisted for five years, being discharged at the end of this time. He spent nearly the entire eight years of army life on the frontier, one year in Kansas and the



remainder of the time in the Dakotas. His final discharge bears date of August 1, 1874, signed by Captain John Hartley, of Company B, Twenty-second Regiment of Infantry. He thus has the distinction of having three honorable discharges from the United States army, and naturally gathered a detailed knowledge of frontier life, and had many interesting experiences during his service. He was with the first expedition sent by the government to survey Yellowstone Park in 1873, and the engineers laying out the Northern Pacific railroad. He had many chances to see and study the Indians in their natural, wild life, participating in battles with them at the mouth of the Tongue river and along the Big Horn.
   After his discharge, in August, 1874, Mr. Cozad moved to Montgomery county, Iowa, and in December of the same year, came to Custer county, Nebraska, then known as territorial land.
   He was married in Montgomery county, December 28, 1874, to Miss Louise Wieland, daughter of Daniel and Christine Wieland, and the young people came to Cozad, Dawson county, Nebraska, after their marriage. In 1876, he made a permanent settlement in the region now organized as Custer county. They secured a homestead on the southeast quarter of section fifteen, township nineteen, range twenty-one, in July, 1879, which has since remained the home farm. He later purchased the southwest quarter of section fourteen. They spent a few years on the South Loup, near Callaway, when they first came to the region. Mr. and Mrs. Cozad have passed through the days of pioneer times and hardships to a time of prosperity and comparative case. They have four children: William H., who met an accidental death in his twenty-second year, April 28, 1899; Mary Caroline, wife of William Kiell, living six miles northeast of Merna, has two daughters; Nora Ellen, wife of Henry Williams, living six miles north of Merna, has three children; Bert E., married, and living on the southwest quarter of section fourteen, township nineteen, range twenty-one, has two children. The family is well known in various circles, and has a high standing in the community. Mr. Cozad was formerly a republican in politics, but of late years casts his ballot independently of party lines. In 1895, he united with the Christian church, and took an active interest in the Sunday school.
   Mr. Cozad will never forget an experience in one of the early blizzards while in the service in Dakota. He and a comrade were carrying the mail from one post to another, and spent the night in the deserted shack of a French trapper. Their provisions exhausted, they were compelled to remain here for over a day and a half without food, until the storm abated. Daring the night, Mr. Cozad dreamed of steaming viands, only to awake hungrier than ever, and find it was a taunting dream.



   Theodor Longe, whose home is most pleasantly located on section thirty-one, township twenty-six, range five, Wayne county, is a native of Germany. He was born in 1871, a son of Frank and Augusta Longe, who immigrated to America in 1875. They took passage on a sailing vessel from Hamburg to New York City, and went from the latter place to Iowa, where they spent two years. They spent the next year at West Point, Nebraska, and about 1878, came to Wayne county, and bought land in the eastern part of the county. The father immediately began to improve and develop his farm, and constructed a dugout, which he later replaced with a comfortable frame dwelling. They were successful from the start, and except for the hailstorms and the memorable drouth of 1894, met with no severe setbacks. The father first bought eighty acres of land for two hundred and forty dollars, and added to it until he had two hundred acres, and he still lives on the place, which is owned by his youngest son. Mrs. Frank Longe died in May, 1898.
   Theodor Longe received the usual education given to a pioneer's son, and made the most of his opportunities in this line. He was reared to farm work, and has always followed this occupation, being well fitted to meet conditions as they exist in his region.
   Theodor Longe started renting land when eighteen years old, and continued doing so until 1896. That year he bought eighty acres near the old townsite of Laporte, and made that place his home for three years, when he sold, and the same day bought his present farm of one hundred and sixty acres. A few improvements have been made on the place, but the buildings were in a rundown condition. Mr. Longe had added to the house, built a good barn and other buildings, and has the farm well fenced.
   He is a stock and grain farmer, and has worked bard to improve his farm, and bring it to a state of productiveness and prosperity. He has a comfortable home, and works for the improvement of the educational facilites in the community, as well as for all other measures calculated to advance the general welfare.
   Mr. Longe married Miss. Lizzie Brudigam in 1895, and they have been the parents of seven children, namely: Johanna, Clarence, August, Bertha, Dora and Arthur. Elsie died when eleven years old. Mrs. Longe is a native of Germany, and is a daughter of Max and Marie Brudigam, who were born in Germany, and immigrated to the United States. They first went to Iowa, and later moved to Wayne county, Nebraska, and here Mr. Brudigam died in January, 1902.



   Mr. and Mrs. Longe are highly esteemed by all, and are widely known in the county, where he is considered one of the most progressive and intelligent of farmers. They are members of the German Lutheran church, and Mr. Longe is a republican in national affairs. Locally he votes for the men he considers best qualified for office.



   Isaac Place, who holds an enviable place in the farming community in the vicinity of section twenty, township fifteen, range eight, in Merrick county, Nebraska, has done his full share in the development of eastern Nebraska since coming here, and has become widely known as a prosperous agriculturist and a gentleman of sterling character.
   Isaac Place, son of Sidney and Rhoda (Dufur) Place, was born in Jefferson county, Illinois, April 7, 1842, and was seventh in a family of nine children. He has one sister residing in Illinois, and a brother in Missouri, the others being deceased, as are also the parents, their deaths occurring in Illinois. Our subject received his education in the home schools, and later engaged in farming. On October 19, 1861, Mr. Place enlisted in Company K, Forty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and has a long war record to his credit, serving until 1865, when, in September of that year, he received his honorable discharge at Springfield, Illinois. Mr. Place first enlisted for three years, and before expiration of his first term of enlistment, he re-enlisted in the same company and regiment for three years more, or during the war. The principal battles engaged in were at Fort Donaldson, Pleasant Hill, Louisiana; Nashville, Tennessee, and many minor engagements and skirmishes. After the war, he returned to Illinois, again engaging in farming.
   On April 18, 1866, Mr. Place was married to Miss Jane Taylor, of Ohio, and later of Illinois, and to this union have been born four children: Franklin, deceased in infancy, in Illinois; John, has three sons, and resides in Palmer, Nebraska; Melissa E., residing at home; Janie, wife of J. R. Burke, has one child, and resides in Palmer.
   In the fall of 1873, Mr. Place came with his wife and two children to Merrick county, Nebraska, where he pre-empted and timber-claimed one hundred and sixty acres in section twenty, township fifteen, range eight, west, which is still the home place. In 1881, he homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres in Loup county, Nebraska, where he lived long enough to prove up. Mr. Place has enjoyed prosperity, and owns two hundred and forty acres of land, one hundred and fifteen acres of which is under cultivation, ten and a half acres in timber, and he also owns good city properties.
   Mr. and Mrs. Place are among the earliest settlers of the county, and have passed through all the discouragements and trying experiences of frontier life, among other hardships having been hailed out in the years 1883 and 1884 in Loup county. They also passed through the days of the "Grasshopper Raid."
   Mr. Place is a man of affairs, and is widely and favorably known.



   The gentleman whose name heads this personal sketch occupies it foremost place among the early settlers of northeastern Nebraska, and has been engaged in farming in this region during all of his maturity. He is widely known throughout the country, is recognized as a gentleman of active public spirit and worthy citizenship, and is highly esteemed by all with whom he has to do in a business or social way. Mr. Hajek resides in section eight, township thirty-one, range six, where he now operates his father's farm of two hundred and forty acres, which farm contains fifty acres of fine trees.
   Mr. Hajek is American born, his birth occurring in Chicago, Illinois, in 1866, and he is a son of John and Mary (Tomek) Hajek, both natives of Bohemia, the father following farming in his native land. In 1866, the family decided to come to America, the land of plenty and good opportunities, and embarked on a sailboat, sailing from Bremen, Germany, to Baltimore, Maryland. After landing in the United States, they went direct to Chicago, Illinois, where they remained for four years. In 1870, our subject's father and family came to Knox county, Nebraska, traveling by way of Sioux City, and coming up the Missouri river to Niobrara, but stopped first at Yankton and the old Indian mill. Here they took up a homestead in section eight, township thirty-one, range six which still remains the homestead farm of the Hajek family. On the homestead they first put up a dugout, as that was the popular mode of building a dwelling in those first days of western settlement. Later a sod house was erected, this house being later supplanted by a beautiful resdence, which now stands on the ground formerly occupied by the pioneer's dugout.
   When the Hajek family came to Knox county, Nebraska, the locality was but a vast area of unbroken prairie lands, whose soil had scarcely known the imprint of a white man's foot, the territory being peopled by numerous hands of Indians, who had roamed the open prairies fearless and unfettered. Therefore, the white man's advent to what they considered their God-giving domain was not hailed with any great joy on their part. The family experienced many frights and much anxiety through this source, and never knew what moment the Indiana were going to commit depredations. Another inconvenience the family had to endure was the long distance to market places, which journeys



had to be accomplished by ox team. For three consecutive years, the grasshopper pests were the destruction of every spear of vegetation, thus he heaping upon the family almost more trials than could be endured.
   Our subject grew to manhood on the old homestead farm, receiving the usual advantages to be had in those days. In 1891, he went to Boyd county, Nebraska, where he took up a homestead for himself, on this land building a sod house. He remained here only a few years, however, as he experienced many discouragements while there. The drouth of 1894 did its share of damage, the hot winds of that year burning every spear of green to be seen anywhere, and in the years of 1904 and 1905, Mr. Hajek lost all the crops through the severe hailstorms of that time. Becoming dissatisfied with conditions, he returned to Knox county, Nebraska, where he now operates his father's farm of two hundred and forty acres of land, as before stated.
   In 1892, Mr. Hajek was married to Miss Mary Kulhavy, and they are the parents of two fine children, namely: Emma and Clara. They are a fine family, and enjoy the respect and esteem of all who know them.



   Fritz W. Schultze, the proprietor of one of the most valuable estates in Stanton county, has been a resident of this locality for about forty-one years, and is known throughout the northeastern part of the state as one of the most prosperous and progressive farmers and stockmen. He came at such an early time that he knows by experience all the hardships and privations of a pioneer's life, as well as the pleasanter portions of it.
   Mr. Schultze is a native of Germany, having been born at Brandenburg, Kingsburg, in 1867, the son of Carl and Wilhelmina Schultze. When he was two years old, his parents took the great step of forsaking the old country for the new. They came to America via Hamburg and New York, coming at once to the golden west. They took up a homestead on section nineteen, township twenty-three, range three, where our subscriber now lives, and built a log house, their first home in America.
   During the first few years here, the family suffered many losses and discouragements. Their nearest market was at Fremont, which was many miles, making it very hard to get their produce to market, or to bring home supplies. Then the, grasshoppers took their crops for several years in succession. They persevered, however, despite the serious obstacles which confronted them, and now are reaping the benefits of their years of toil.
   In 1893, Mr. Schultze was united in marriage to Miss Ida Goetsch, also of Stanton county.
   They are the parents of three children: Walter, Oscar and Reinhart, all of whom are at home.
   Mr. Schultze is a gentleman of intelligence and enterprise, and has acquired the respect and esteem of his fellow citizens. For a period of twelve years, he has served as a director of the school district, and in other ways assisted in the affairs of his community.



   William H. Oelsligle, a prominent farmer and stock-raiser in section one, township twenty-three, range five, Antelope county, Nebraska, is well known throughout this section of the state, having been one of the very first settlers of the county in which he resides, coming here over forty years ago.
   Mr. Oelsligle's father was a native of Germany, in which country he was born in 1830. Here he grew to his young manhood, when in 1850, he left his native land, and started out for the new world. After landing in New York, his father crossed the country to Illinois, remaining there until 1870, then came to Antelope county, Nebraska. Our subject's mother is also a native of Germany, and before her marriage her name was Miss Ludovika Brazda.
   William H. Oelsligle was born in Chicago, Illinois, October 6, 1851. He came, in 1871, to Antelope county, Nebraska, to where his father had preceded him. In 1876, he took a homestead in Madison county, Nebraska, where he lived for seven years, and then came to Antelope county, and settled where he now lives.
   In those first days of settlement in Antelope county, our subject and his parents underwent more hardships and disappointments than falls to the lot of the average farmer. Over forty years of progression have passed over this section of the country since the Oelsligle family settled here, and the well-to-do young farmer of today has little realization of the early experiences of those brave sons of the western frontier times. In 1872, 1873 and 1874, the family suffered great losses through the grasshopper raids of those years. In 1890 and 1894, the crops were a total failure in this section of the country, and in 1903, the hailstorm of that year killed the crops. Antelope and deer were plentiful in thoes days, and were frequently seen around the farm.
   Mr. Oelsligle is a highly-respected and esteemed citizen of his community, and, with his brothers, owns about two thousand acres of good land.



   Elbert H. Gaines, conspicuously mentioned as the republican candidate for the office of county treasurer of Custer county, in the election of November 7, 1911, is a native of Cambridge,



Illinois, born January 10, 1852, the younger of the two children of Sylvester H. and Priscilla (Andrews) Gaines, whose only daughter died at the age of five years. Both parents died in Cambridge, the father April 1, 1870, and the mother July 18, 1865, both being natives of New York state. The father was a merchant in Cambridge, and an early settler in that part of the state.
   After receiving an education in the common schools of his native place, Elbert H. Gaines entered mercantile life, and when in his twentieth year, engaged in the lumber business on his own account. November 14, 1886, he left Illinois, and came to Custer county, arriving there during the three days' blizzard, so that he had an early experience of Nebraska's storms. He located in Ansley, and, in company wiih [sic] Dan Hagan, there engaged in mercantile business under the firm name of Gaines & Hagan. In 1900, he purchased the interest of his partner, and since then the firm has been E. H. Gaines. He deals in groceries, hardware and various kindred lines, being one of the leading merchants of the county. He had been engaged with Mr. Hagan in various business enterprises, and has always enjoyed the respect and esteem of his business associates, as well as the general public. He is one of the pioneer business men of his region, and is a patriotic supporter of the best interests of his county and state.
   Mr. Gaines was married at Menlo, Iowa, October 4, 1876, to Fannie B. Paige, and they have three children: Elbert P., born in Cambridge, Illinois, February 21, 1886, married Clara Varney at Ansley, Nebraska, June 18, 1907, and they have one child; Fred B. of Chicago, and S. Loine, at home. Mr. Gaines and family are prominent in social and educational circles, and he has belonged to the Masonic order the past twenty years. Although he has never been particularly active in political affairs, he has been much interested in the success of the republican party. He has refused various offices of honor at the hands of his party, but in earlier years served some time as a member of the town board and the board of education. He has always been progressive along all lines, and is considered a man of intelligence and excellent business ability, and is a man with many friends.



   Christopher Tatge, a retired agriculturist of prominence in Allen precinct, Pierce county, Nebraska, resides on the farm he has extensively improved in section nine, township twenty-seven, range one, and is one of those substantial citizens whose integrity and industry, thrift and economy have added so much to the material wealth and growth of Nebraska. Agriculture forms the basis of the wealth of the world. It is, therefore, of great importance that the class of people who in habit the great farming regions of the country should represent those elements of sterling worth so prominently displayed by the majority of early settlers and their descendants.
   Mr. Tatge was born, March 1, 1830, in Reppin, a village of the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, Germany. He was reared in his native land, and in 1849, becoming dissatisfied with the limited field that surrounded him, he started for the new world, sailing from Bremen in the "Wieland,"a sailship, commanded by Captain Henkle. He landed in New York, after a voyage of twenty-eight days. Coming west to Chicago, where he remained three weeks, he secured work on the farm of Mr. Menkler, a noted horticulturist, in Kendall county, where he was employed six years, learning thoroughly the science and art of horticulture. He removed to Benton county, Iowa, in 1855, practicing his profession until the spring of 1887, when, owing to the opportunities offered in central Nebraska, he came to Pierce county, and still lives on the original home of one hundred and sixty acres. To this he added until, before dividing with his children, he acquired one thousand two hundred and eighty acres of the best Nebraska land.
   Phillip Tatge, the father of our subject, was a native of Germany, and participated in the historical events that took place early in the nineteenth century. He was a descendant of one of the French Huganot families, driven from France by religious persecution, after the revocation of the edict of 1685. The family escaped from France under cover of darkness, and many were the hardships and privations they underwent during those trying times. With such ancestory and amid such surroundings, Phillip Tatge was born and reared, and it is but natural he should prove to be a brave soldier. He served under Napoleon, the greatest general the world has ever known, from 1804 to 1816, participating in the retreat from Moscow, swimming an icy river in making his escape. He was wounded in the elbow by a ball at Leipsig, and later was engaged in historic battle of Waterloo against Lord Wellington. The incidents connected with his career as a soldier would fill a volume. He was one of a band of twenty-seven tried and true selected by Napoleon as a special guard while in Russia. Of the twenty-seven, only seven returned, Phillip Tatge being one of these. Tremendous hardships were endured by this faithful band, and at one time they were so closely pressed that they were compelled to swim the river Bernesine. After his return home at the close of these years of terrible war, he was appointed highway overseer, which position he held for many years, proving himself to be efficient in peace, as well as in war. Phillip Tatge died when Christopher was but seven years old. His mother, Charlotte Tatge, died seven years later, leaving the boy make his way alone.



   Christopher Tatge was married in Oswego, Kendall county, Illinois, in 1853, to Sophia Coleman, and they are the parents of eight children, as follows: Charles; John, who married Miss Lydia Budy, who died May 4, 1911, leaving six children; Martha, now the wife of C. E. Manzer, a sketch of whom will be found elsewhere in this volume; Edward, married to Jessie Norton; Lizzie, married to William Peterson; William, who married Louise Totten, they having two children; Anna, now the wife of Fred Wendle, and the mother of four children; and George, who married Miss Teena Manzer, eight children have blessed this union. In all, there are thirty-nine grandchildren and eleven great grandchildren.
   Our subject has made a special study of agriculture and horticulture, and is one of the most experienced fruit men in Nebraska. He has forty acres of fruit and other trees on his farm, and it is known far and wide as the Pierce County Fruit Farm. In his orchard are apple trees, the seed of which Mr. Tatge imported from Arabia. He also has an especially fine variety, a winter snow-apple tree, possibly the only one in central Nebraska. In his researches, Mr. Tatge discovered the secret of preventing insects from destroying fruit trees, and also a process of preventing insects from destroying fruits two of the greatest obstacles fruit growers, in all climes, have to contend with. He has secured a patent on the process, which he intends to give to the government for the public good. Secretary Wilson, of the president's cabinet, a friend of Mr. Tatge, is to have the process investigated, and extend the knowledge to the rest of the country, that all may benefit by the discovery. Mr. Tatge originated the Randolph and the Tatge plum, the latter one of the greatest orchard trees on the Pacific coast. He has originated some fifty varieties of apples as well, all of them distinct, and of excellent quality.
   Mr. Tatge is a member of the Christian Union church, and is known and respected as one of the men who have done much to transform Nebraska from a pioneer country into one of the greatest States in the Union. A view of Mr. Tatge's old homestead residence, with its large barn and other buildings, besides a part of his extensive orchard, are to be seen on another page of this volume.

Residence of Christopher Tatge.



   Daniel Mather, who has for many years been identified with the advancement and prosperity of central Nebraska, now has a fine grain and stock farm of two hundred and forty acres of well-improved and valuable land in Valley county. Mr. Mather was born in Newton, Jasper county, Iowa, December 25, 1862, a son of Daniel and Mary (Bennett) Mather, who had three sons and two daghters[sic], Daniel being their fourth child.
   He is descended from Reverend Richard Mather through his son, Timothy, a brother of Cotton Mather, who is famous in colonial history, the family coming to the new world in 1635. Our subject was reared on a farm in his native state, educated in the public schools, including the high school at Monroe, Iowa, and lived there until he reached the age of twenty-four years. He has two half-brothers living in Nebraska, Harvey and Benjamin Mather, the former in Chase county and the latter in Omaha. The mother of Mr. Mather died in Jasper county, December 23, 1867, after which Daniel and his brothers were reared in the family of an uncle, Daniel Mather. The father re-married, and reared a second family of four children. He brought the second family to Saline county, Nebraska, in 1880, having secured a homestead there two years before, and remained on the original homestead there until the fall of 1906, when he removed to Colorado, where he died in Denver, December 13, 1908.
   On February 16, 1887, Daniel E. Mather married Augusta R. McGregor, their union taking place in Jasper county. She is a daughter of David and Jane (Fish) McGregor, the former of whom lives in Belleville, Kansas, and the latter died in Stillwater, Oklahoma, March 22, 1909. Ten of the McGregor children now survive, Mrs. Mather being the only one now a resident of Nebraska. Her brother, Everett, came to Nebraska, the same year as her husband, but moved away in the spring of 1891. Mr. and Mrs. Mather now have two sons, Clarence Ray, who enlisted for a four years term in the navy in February, 1911, and Alvesta Claude, who is still with his father on the farm. They have an adopted daughter, named May.
   March 6, 1887, Mr. Mather and wife came to Valley county, making the trip by rail to their new home. He had come the fall of the preceding year, and purchased a farm near Arcadia, which he occupied two years, then sold, and rented in Sherman and Valley counties until moving to his present home in 1902. When he moved to this land, not a sod had been turned. Mr. Mather has put every dollar's worth of improvement on the place - the house, the barn, granary, sheds and other buildings, completing his equipment with a double silo in the summer of 1911. There is running water in the house and barn, with good pressure for the cistern high up on the hill. Orchard, vineyard and garden add to the comforts of the home. We have the pleasure of presenting a view of this fine country home in our illustrated pages, Mr. Mather has brought his farm to a high state of cultivation, and is a progressive farmer, having advanced ideas, and taking an active interest in public affairs. He is prominent in social, educational and political circles. For the past ten or twelve years be has been a member of the town board, and the school board most of the time.

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