mestic Science Hall have been constructed, the former offering a fine place for all indoor athletics, the latter a unique home for those specializing in domestic economy. Hanson Field, the athletic ground for all outdoor sports, adjoins the gymnasium. All buildings except the last named, are heated from a central plant completed in 1912.
   Following President Ringland's resignation in 1895, Prof. W. N. Filson acted as president for one year. He was succeeded by S. G. Pattison, who served four years, and was succeeded by Prof. Filson, who continued in office until 1902. In June of that year, Rev. E. Van Dyke Wight, D.D., became president, and upon his resignation in 1907, President A. E. Turner, LL.D., assumed the executive chair. His resignation in February, 1912, left the office of president vacant till the board of trustees met in June following, when R. B. Crone, LL.D., was elected to the position. He took charge in July following.
   Hastings College is under the control of the Synod of Nebraska of the Presbyterian church, which elects annually nine trustees for a term of three years.
   The citizens of Hastings have contributed for buildings and grounds, $100,000; for endowment, $125,000; for deficits, $45,000. The First Presbyterian Church of Hastings contributes $1,000 annually for support of the institution. The assets are: Thirty acres of ground, four brick and stone buildings, one frame building and one frame stucco building, valued at $160,000. Permanent endowment, $260,000. Faculty of twenty-three members representing nineteen colleges and post graduate work in thirteen universities, operating a college of liberal arts, academy, normal school and conservatory of music.
   Hastings College had been growing rapidly in recent years, its enrollment being 313 when our country entered the war. One hundred eighty-five of her sons offered themselves at their country's call, a large proportion being commissioned as officers. At the time of the preparation of this article five had already made the supreme sacrifice and a number of others lay wounded in hospitals in France.
    To meet the growing needs of the college a campaign for $500,000 for additional buildings and endowment was begun just before our country entered the World War. About a third of this amount was pledged within three months. The war came and the campaign for funds ceased. Now that peace has been declared the Synod of Nebraska pledged itself



to raise $200,000 at once among the churches of Nebraska. The campaign will be continued till the entire half million fund is secured.


   In 1902 a commodious and convenient building was erected for the seminary in Kountze Place. It has dormitory accommodations for about fifty students, together with necessary class rooms, a chapel, a large room for a library, a gymnasium and a refectory. During the following year Dr. Stephen Phelps retired from the faculty as professor of homietics (sic) and pastoral theology and was succeeded by Dr. Matthew B. Lowrie, who in turn was succeeded as professor of New Testament literature and exegesis, a chair which he had



filled for ten years, by Dr. Chas. A. Mitchell. During the next year the chair of ecclesiastical history and missions was made vacant by the death of Dr. Alexander G. Wilson and soon afterwards Dr. Charles Herron was called to succeed him.
   In 1910 Dr. Lowrie, who had served the institution from its opening in 1891, ten of these years as president as well as professor, was succeeded in the presidency by Dr. Albert B. Marshall. Dr. Lowrie completed his twenty years of service by remaining with the seminary two years longer as professor of homiletics and pastoral theology and then moved to Denver where he died May 15, 1915. In a real sense Omaha Seminary is his monument. During his years with the instiution (sic) the annual attendance grew from nine to twenty-six and diplomas were conferred upon 125 graduates. Since then the attendance has increased more than fifty per cent and altogether more than 250 students have pursued their theological studies in whole or in part in this seminary and at least one-tenth of these were represented on the service flag of the institution at the close of the World War.
   During the administration by Dr. A. B. Marshal as president but one change has taken place in the faculty; Dr. Joseph J. Lampe, at the age of eighty, retired from the chair of Hebrew and Old Testament literature and Dr. Frank H. Ridgled became his successor. Dr.



Lampe gave twenty years of valuable service. to the seminary.
   The institution is growing in strength and influence every year and the outlook for the future is very encouraging.



   The United Brethren church began operations in Nebraska in the year 1858, a conference having been organized that year by Bishop Edwards. Rev. J. M. Dosh was the leading spirit in the pioneer enterprise. Slow progress was made because of lack of men and money. In 1861 the membership numbered 135. Shortly after this the organization was discontinued and the work was placed under the care of the West Des Moines Conference of Iowa.
   During the next few years a number of United Brethren families found homes in the eastern part of the state. In 1860 several families settled near Plattsmouth. In 1864 Wm H. Shepherd and R. Logan located there and preaching was provided for. In the same year Wm. P. Caldwell and E. J. Lamb from Iowa settled on Swan creek in Saline county. Soon afterwards they both began the work as regularly licensed ministers. In 1866 E. W. Johnson located in Seward county and at once began preaching. In 1870 Simeon Austin of



Illinois Conference, found a home in York county and also took up the work.
   Perhaps the best known of these early pioneers was Wm. P. Caldwell, who began preaching in Saline county in 1865, and remained in the active work as long as he lived. He was an earnest, consecrated worker, eminently fitted for the most difficult task of a pioneer preacher. One circuit he traveled was 350 miles around, which trip he made on horseback every four weeks, preaching thirty-seven times. His services were usually held in the homes of the people -- most of them living in sod houses or dug-outs. Yet they were eager to hear him, often going as far as twenty-five and thirty miles. He received little financial support, yet he toiled on without a word of complaint. He traveled one whole year for $37. One year his salary reached $175, including $25 missionary money. He was preëminently a soul winner, having taken over three thousand into the church during his period of labor. As a fitting expression of the appreciation of his work, a beautiful church has been dedicated to his memory in the city of Lincoln, known as the Caldwell Memorial Church.
   Another early pioneer was Simeon Austin, who labored in York county, beginning in 1867. He was an earnest, tireless worker, willingly enduring the greatest hardships for the sake of the cause to which he had devoted his life. In order to reach his appointments he was known to face the most severe storms and to swim swollen streams. He was one of the first presiding elders of Nebraska Conference and held that position for a number of years.
   Still another worthy pioneer was Elijah W. Johnson, who began preaching in Seward county in 1866. He was the first secretary of Nebraska Conference, holding that position for twenty years. He was also presiding elder for a number of terms.
   The work in Nebraska was permanently organized at Pleasant Hill, Saline county, October 30. 1873, by Bishop J. J. Glossbrenner. At that time there were about twenty-five ministers, with seventy-four appointments and 840 members. The following persons were assigned work the first year: W. S. Spooner, I. N. Martin, D. Edgerton, J. McDougal, P. M. Wells, Simeon Austin, Ives Marks, C. C. Kellogg, Wm. Pringle, C. Bowers, W. P. Caldwell, I. Belknap, E. W. Johnson, H. L. Spafford, W. H. Shepherd, John Johr, D. D. Weimer, J. Bremser, J. W. Ward, A. G. Cline, H. Lohr, and Wm. Venner. The following year the following additional men took work: C. W. Rose, S. P. Ross, Wm. Haten, J. C. Kenason, M. Waltermire, J. Faith, and O. Knepper, the latter having been assigned all of the territory north of the Platte river and west of the east boundary line of Buffalo county.
   After five years the membership had grown to 2394 and the number of ministers to about fifty. The work had extended so far westward that it was deemed advisable to divide the conference, and the East and West Nebraska conferences were formed in 1878. Among those who were active in the pioneer work of the West Conference were: I. Belknap, Chas. G. Bowers, J. Bremser, J. J. Haskins, C. C. Kellogg, E. L. Kenoyer, Obadiah Knepper, John McDougal, I. N. Martin, Thomas Parvin, Wm. S. Spooner, J. W. Ward, S. C. Abbott, B. M. Allen, David Edgerton, J. H. Fee, J. D. Fye, J. S. Squires, and George Embers.
   By the action of the General Conference in 1881, the northern part of the territory belonging to the East Nebraska Conference, was transferred to West Nebraska Conference. In 1882 West Nebraska Conference rejected the added territory and a separate conference was organized at Blair, Nebraska, April 1882, by Bishop Weaver, known as Elkhorn Conference. The name was afterwards changed to North Nebraska Conference. W. S. Spooner was the first presiding elder and the following men were assigned work: M. E. Noble, O. Knepper, T. Vail, E. R. Richmond, J. A. Lynn, T. P. Brown, J. Hatch, A. A. Webster.
   These three conferences operated until the year 1913, when they united, forming the present Nebraska Conference. At the time of the union there were sixty-five fields and about the same number of ministers, with 110 or-



ganized churches and a membership of 7,156. During the first year the conference was divided into two districts, J. R. Mouer being presiding elder of the East district and S. M. Snider of the West. Since 1914 the conference has had but one superintendent. For two years the office was held by S. M. Snider. He was succeeded by W. O. Jones who is the present incumbent. Among the men who were active at the time of the union and subsequently were: L. L. Epley, A. R. Caldwell, H. H. Spracklen, M. O. McLaughlin, Wm. I,. Schell, F. W. Brink, E. F. Wagner, H. H. Heberly, S. Harvey, J. F. Mouer, Jas. Mason, T. K. Surface, J. M. Eads, W. Beasley, J. P. Blakely, S. S. Lemonds, and A. B. Small.
   The church has developed until at the present time it has eighty-three church houses, valued at $280,000, and a membership of 7,245. It maintains eighty-seven Sunday schools with an enrollment of 9,337.
   Auxiliary organizations are the Woman's Missionary Association and the Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor. The W. M. A. has twenty-nine societies with a membership of 679; the Christian Endeavor has fifty-seven societies with a membership of 1587.


   Any history of the United Brethren church in Nebraska would be very incomplete without mention of the work done along educational lines. The work was begun at Gibbon, in 1886, when a school was established, known as the Gibbon Collegiate Institute. It was successful for a few years but the size of the town and the lack of adequate support made it necessary to seek a change of location.
   In the summer of 1890 several cities made propositions to the trustees for the re-location of the school. The best bid was made by York, which offered eighty acres of land and $20,000. This was accepted and the school was moved to York and has since been known as York College. It began operations in the Wirt Block with Rev. J. George as president in September, 1890. About fifty students were enrolled the first year, In 1891 the Administration Building was begun and was ready for use by the beginning of the next year.
   The college consisted of the following departments: College, academy, normal, commercial, art, and music. There were two courses offered in the college department, the classical and scientific. Later a philosophical and literary course were added.
   It has always been the purpose of the management to make the school helpful in a social and moral way. In December, 1890, a Y.M.C.A. was organized and has been maintained ever isnce (sic). The Amphictyon and Philomathean literary societies were organized in September, 1891, and have proven a very helpful factor in the social life of the school.
   After four years of service, President George was succeeded by Rev. W. S. Reese of Otterbein University. During his term of office the school was maintained with the greatest difficulty because of crop conditions. After three years he resigned and Rev. Wm. Schell was chosen in his stead.
   President Schell had been connected with the school in various ways, as teacher, lecturer, and college pastor and he entered upon the work with great zeal and determination. The sixteen years of service which he gave the school were marked by great progress. The Hulitt conservatory of music and the gymnasium were built and $60,000 was raised on endowment. State recognition was secured for the school. President Schell resigned in 1913 to accept the position of general secretary of education of the United Brethren church. Rev. M. O. McLaughlin of Omaha was chosen to fill the vacancy.
   President McLaughlin was eminently qualified for the responsible position. Under his leadership the school took on new life, the endowment was raised to over $200,000, and York Business College became affiliated with York College. Also, both the academy and the college were brought tip to the standard required by the North Central Association of Colleges. In the fall of 1918 President McLaughlin was elected to Congress, representing the Fourth Congressional District of Nebraska.
   During the last ten years the average at-



tendance of the school has been about 400, with over sixty in the college department. Its graduates are numbered by the hundreds and are to be found in many countries occupying positions of trust and honor. Ten are missionaries, fifty are ministers, and over a thousand are teachers.



   The history of the Reformed church in Nebraska begins soon after the organization of this territory into a state. Among the Swiss and German colonies that settled in this new state were many of the Reformed faith. In the early seventies we find ministers who migrated with or followed these people and ministered to their spiritual needs. It was largely due to their unaided initiative that the work in the interest of the Reformed church was begun. These ministers in their spiritual adventures shared with the settler the hardships and privations of frontier life, often earning their own livelihood by teaching school or engaging in some useful employment. These frontier settlers were not able to give much financial support, but they longed for the ministrations of the church of their fathers. Answering this desire for religious worship these pioneer ministers labored among them, conducting services in homes and in schoolhouses until a house of worship could be erected. The devoted people shared with them the fruits of the virgin soil. All these things worked together for sturdiness of stock and self-reliance in labors-qualities that wrought for the strength of the growing state.
   This branch of Protestantism takes it rise in the European Reformation of the sixteenth century. Ulrich Swingli, the protesting preacher of Zurich in Switzerland, was the founder, and John Calvin, the theologian of Geneva, was the organizer of the Reformed church. This church has been likened to the majestic Rhine river. Rising amid the snowclad heights of Switzerland it flows down through Alpine grandeur, on between the vineclad hills and through the fertile valleys of Germany, draws tributaries from flowery France, on across the lowlands of Holland into the broad sea which waters the lands of the globe. In colonial days the Reformed church was planted in the New World and has become one of the religious factors in our national life. Following the tide of migration this church slowly moved westward. At first through the initiative of individual ministers and later through mission boards the work was extended in the formative Western states. Lacking careful supervision in those early days the church has not conserved all the results of frontier efforts, but these have been carried oft through other channels toward building the Kingdom into the life of the West.


   An epochal event that gave more permanency to the work of the Reformed church in this new state was the organization of the several congregations into the body, known as Nebraska Classis. This became a constituent part of the Synod of the Northwest. This historical event took place in St. Peter's Reformed Church at Headland (now Yutan) on the twenty-second day of October, 1874. The active participants in effecting this permanent organization were Rev. Frederick Dieckman of Omaha, Rev. Frederick Hullhorst of Headland, and Rev. Abraham Schmeck of Columbus, who may be considered as the pioneers of this denomination in the state of Nebraska. Associated with them were Elders Christian Sauter, Samuel Imhof, and Frederick Scheele, laymen of the various congregations. This classical body has had a gradual growth until today it consists of fifteen ministers, three of whom have retired from active service, and thirteen congregations with a membership numbering 1,620. To this number is added the 350 or more members of the Reformed churches of Lincoln, Omaha, and Dawson, which are connected with Lincoln (English) Classis, making a membership of 1,970, with a thousand or two adherents. There are also two congregations belonging to the Reformed church in America, located at Holland and



Adams, Nebraska, with a combined membership of about five hundred.


   About the year 1870 Rev. Frederic Dieckman came to the city of Omaha from Eastern states. He conducted preaching services and organized what was known as Salem Reformed Church. In 1878 there was reported a membership of fifty-three in the church and a Sunday school enrollment of fifty-eight. Little information is obtainable concerning this congregation, which, lacking mission supervision and support, was discontinued some time later. The work was organized in other parts of the state and not until 1905 were further efforts put forth in the city of Omaha. At that time under the direction of the Board of Home Missions, of which the Rev. Dewalt S. Foust was the general superintendent, Rev. F. S. Zaugg of Dayton, Ohio, was challenged to undertake work in this city. He entered upon this work in September, 1905, and after making a survey of the situation it was determined to locate the church at the corner of Deer Park boulevard and South Twenty-third street, where a substantial brick church building was erected at a cost of $8,000. Meanwhile services were held, and on February 28, 1906, a congregation was organized in the home of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Hinkhouse, 3519 South Twenty-fourth street with twenty-four charter members. The work grew in numbers and influence under the aggressive leadership of Rev. Mr. Zaugg, who in 1911, because of failing health, resigned. Rev. C. M. Rohrbaugh served as pastor until the spring of 1913, and after the supply pastorate of Rev. C. E. Holyoke of one year or more, Rev. J. F. Hawk became the regular pastor in January, 1915, and continues the spiritual leadership of this congregation. The church has effectively ministered to the moral and spiritual upbuilding of the community and has sent forth a number of leaders in church work. Her sons served in some department of the army or navy and a number of them have received commission.


   While ministering to the congregation in Omaha Rev. Frederick Dieckman, in the early seventies, journeyed overland some thirty miles to a Swiss and German settlement in Saunders county, and in the vicinity of what was then known as Headland held preaching services in homes and in the schoolhouse. Encouraged by these occasional visits a group of people under his supervision effected the organization of a Reformed church. In the year 1874 Rev. Frederick Hullhorst, who was a practicing physician of the homeopathic school as well as pastor of the Reforrmed (sic) church at Columbus, Nebraska, accepted a call to the pastorate of the church at Headland.
   With the opening of the Union Pacific railroad this community center, known as Headland, shifted two or three miles to the north and was named Clear Creek, and later the name was changed to Yutan, the present town by that name. In 1880 a number of members of German Lutheran training withdrew from the Reformed church and organized a congregation of that denomination, and the Reformed people reorganized under the name St. Peter's Reformed Church. Having worshiped (sic) up to this time in the public school building they undertook the erection of a church building, which was completed and dedicated in 1882 by these earnest and devout people. While serving this congregation Rev. Mr. Hullhorst succeeded in organizing a congregation at Malmo, and for some years served them in connection with the congregation at Yutan. Malmo was later under the pastoral care of Rev. J. B. Braun, but now lost to this denomination. In 1907 Rev. F. Hullhorst, because of advancing years and failing health, retired from active service, and two years later passed on to the reward of his labors.
   Rev. Conrad Iffert succeeded to this pastorate and continued for eight years as their spiritual leader. In the spring of 1913 the church building was badly damaged by the cyclone that ravaged that region. With undaunted courage and the helping hand of neighboring congregations, the building was enlarged and modernly equipped for more aggressive service in the community. Since



1916 Rev. Theodore Mueller has been their Leader in spiritual things.


   In the year 1878 there emigrated to this country colonists from the vicinity of Odessa, Russia, and settled in the neighborhood of Sutton, Nebraska. Through the missionary endeavors of Rev. Frederick Dieckman of Omaha, a congregation was organized on December 9, 1873. They were without regular pastoral ministrations for several years. Among the active laymen of the congregation were John Grosshans, and the Griess Brothers. On November 8, 1876, Rev. W. J. Bonekemper arrived from Germany. The members of this congregation, having had his father and brother as their pastors in Russia, invited him to become their spiritual leader. He was ordained to the Gospel ministry in the Congregational church of Sutton on February 11, 1887, by Revs. Frederick and Charles Hullhorst, and on February 20 of the same year reorganized the congregation under the name of Immanuel Reformed Church. He continued the pastor of this church for thirty-two years. In 1895 its membership, confirmed and unconfirmed, was over 1000. In 1896 some members withdrew and organized an independent Reformed congregation, being served by an unordained minister. A second and similar congregation was organized in 1909, but this is now being served by a Reformed minister. Rev. L. Kunst became pastor in 1909, and was followed in 1913 by Rev. L. P. Kohler and in 1916 by Rev. R. Birk, who is at present the aggressive pastor.


   In 1881 Rev. Edmund Erb came to the state of Nebraska. He was a native of Maryland. Reared on a farm by Christian parents he was led to enter the Gospel ministry. Graduating from Franklin and Marshall College at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church at Mercersburg of the same state, he was ordained to the ministry in July of 1863 in the Reformed church of Danville, New York, to the pastorate of which congregation he had been called. After serving this congregation for some years he became the pastor of the Reformed churches of Navarre and Apple Creek, Ohio, successively until his removal to Nebraska.
   While living at Aurora, Nebraska, he ministered as missionary to the English speaking groups of Reformed people in Saunders and adjoining counties. Some meager support was given by the mission board of the eastern church. In 1883 he took up his residence in Lincoln in order that he might more effectively follow the work of his calling. After preaching for some years at various points in and about the city he felt providentially led through the sorrowful death of his daughter to undertake the organization of a Reformed church in the city of his residence. Accordingly on the second Sunday of January, 1889, Faith Reformed Church was organized in the home of Rev. Mr. Erb, with ten charter members. Without missionary aid he continued the work, even providing the place of worship in a building of his own. On alternate Sundays he preached in Saunders county.
   In 1890, under the support of the Board of Home Missions, and at the invitation of Rev. Mr. Erb, Rev. Thomas F. Stauffer came from Abilene, Kansas, where he had been pastor of the Reformed church for some years, and took up the leadership of the Lincoln congregation. A lot was secured at Twenty-fourth and Vine streets and a temporary building was erected thereon. In the spring of 1898 a church building, erected on Q street near Fifteenth a few years before by the Lutheran denomination, was purchased and became the permanent home of this congregation, whose name was changed to St. Mark's Reformed Church.
   After the congregation was established in this new church home, Rev. Franklin H. Fisher became the pastor and some years after was succeeded by Rev. Peter M. Orr, under whose pastorate, extending over twelve years, it became a strong and substantial congregation.
   Through the missionary labors of Rev.

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