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prosperous agriculturist and worthy citizen. Mr. Layton was born in Crawford county, Illinois, where he was raised. His father, William Layton, was a pioneer in that state, and came from near Newark, Licking county, Ohio. He married Miss Mary McConn, who was a daughter of Joseph McConn, an early settler in Virginia, living near Wheeling, and who was a pioneer in Crawford county, Illinois, later, where his family was reared. Mr. Layton came to Nebraska in 1884, and rented and later purchased land in this county, beginning at once to build up a home and farm. He has been successful in both his farming and stock raising operations. running at the present time about one hundred high grade cattle and from one hundred to one hundred and fifty head of hogs. He is progressive in his methods, and is an intelligent and active man, possessed of many sterling qualities, for which he is greatly admired by all with whom he comes in contact. He likes Nebraska as a farming state and considers it far ahead of Illinois.

     Mr. Layton was married in 1882, at Marshall, Illinois, to Miss Fidelia Canaday, sister of Honorable J. F. Canaday, of Minden, Nebraska, whose sketch appears in this volume on another page. To Mr. and Mrs. Layton have been born nine children, who are named as follows: Laura, Etta. Arthur C., Maime, Perry, Orville, Edward, Edyth and Hazel. The sons are all at home, several assisting their father in the farm work. Laura, now Mrs. David Jones, was for several years a teacher in Kearney county. Mrs. Layton's father, John Canaday, was born and reared in Vigo county, Indiana, and was an early settler in Illinois. He was a farmer all through his life, and died in Kearney, Nebraska, in 1898. Mrs. Layton's mother's maiden name was Jane Hauger.

     Our subject was an active member of the Farmers' Alliance in former years. For two years he held the office of justice of the peace, and has held other local offices. In political sentiment he is a Populist-Democrat.


     William S. Nicholson, known throughout Sioux county as a prosperous ranchman and leading citizen, resides in section 3, township 27, range 54, where he has a pleasant and well-ordered home, surrounded by a valuable estate, all of which is due to his perseverance, industry and integrity. He has lived here for many years past, and enjoys the esteem and liking of a host of people.

     Mr. Nicholson was born in Muscatine county, Iowa, in 1861, on a farm. His father, Valentine F., was a native of Indiana, a farmer by occupation, and one of the pioneers in Iowa. He married Mary Ann Daniels, born and raised in North Carolina, of old American blood. Our subject grew up in the state of his birth and through his boyhood assisted his parents in the work of carrying on the home farm, remaining there up to 1890, at which time he, together with his two brothers, M. J. and A. W., came to Nebraska, locating in the vicinity of Whistle creek, Sioux county. William filed on a homestead, proved up on the land and had just gotten nicely started when the hard times, due to the drouths, struck the region. He worked faithfully, putting in crops, but was unable to raise anything, and went through hard times there, and as he was unable to farm his land successfully, started in the stock business and was able to get along very well. He took two quarter sections, homestead and timber claim, and proved up on both, then bought his brother's place, and he is now sole owner of thirteen quarter sections. One brother also owns six hundred and forty acres in the neighborhood, and a sister has a farm of one hundred and sixty acres in the vicinity. Mr. Nicholson is engaged exclusively in the cattle business, running about one thousand head each year of the best Hereford breeds, and has done exceedingly well in the stock raising business. He has his ranch all fenced and improved. The place is beautifully situated, Whistle creek running through the tract, and he has it well irrigated, or can irrigate it if necessary, operating six wells and windmills, which furnish a splendid supply of water for all purposes. A large portion of the ranch is fine hay land, from which he cuts five hundred tons annually. At the present time (1908) he is feeding eight hundred head of cattle for the market this fall. He is classed among the successful self-made men of the region, and when he came here first, he had a very small start. Harrison and Crawford had just been started, and during those days he did a great deal of wolf hunting through the country. W. is as fine a cook as you would find anywhere and still owns a fine pack of hounds. Our subject and his brother, A. W., live together, but each own their stock and land separately, having different brands for their stock. It is a pleasure to visit the Nicholson brothers, as they are whole-souled, congenial and intelligent gentlemen to converse with. Mr. A. W. Nicholson has put up one of the finest sod houses, costing over $1,500, that has ever been seen in the west, on his Kincaid homestead. The house is very large, and is one and a half stories high, with

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dormer windows, the inside being all finished with wainscoating and steel ceiling, and the young people from far and near gather there often where they enjoy themselves with dancing and fine music. He keeps a fine piano, phonograph, etc., to add to their pleasure. Mr. A. in a long day's ride.

     William S. Nicholson has served as assessor for two terms, and occupies a foremost place among the leading old-timers of this region. In political views he is a Republican, and stands firmly for his convictions.


     James E. Baker has for many years been a resident of North Platte, Nebraska, and is well known all over the surrounding country as an honest, industrious and energetic man and a citizen of true worth - one appreciated by all who have the honor of his acquaintance.

     Mr. Baker was born in Wayne county. New York, and came to Wisconsin in 1850 with his father, locating in Jefferson county on a farm, and the family remained there for many years. In 1877 our subject first came to this locality, settling in North Platte, and followed the work of a builder, putting up houses and other buildings all over this part of the country, and also erected windmills for the farmers in Lincoln and the adjoining counties. He was very successful and made a good income from his labors. In 1884 he began working for the Union Pacific Railway, being employed in the woodwork department of that company for the period of twenty years. He owns a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres, situated east of North Platte, and one hundred and sixty acres in Redwillow county. He was one of the pioneer builders in the western part of the town, and through hard labor and thrift has accumulated a nice property and built up a pleasant home.

     Mr. Baker was married in 1867 to Miss Robena Thomson, who is a sister of R. D. Thomson, postmaster at North Platte, a pioneer builder and contractor in this locality. A son of Mr. Baker's, John N. Baker, a carpenter and builder, was, for a time, foreman of the ice plant for the Union Pacific Railway, which is one of the largest concerns of its kind in the United States. A daughter. Jessie Baker, is the wife of Thomas Hughes, who is a conductor on the Union Pacific Short Line.

      Mr. Baker is a member of the Presbyterian church of North Platte, and has been an elder in this church for many years, and is an earnest worker among the congregation. He is a member of the Woodmen, and enjoys an enviable reputation as a good citizen and neighbor.


     John Moravek, a prominent ranch owner of Box Butte county, whose residence is located in section 9, township 26, range 52, and whose success as a stockman is worthy of especial note, was born in Bohemia, June 15, 1849, during the reign of Emperor Francis Joseph. His parents were farmers, and passed their lives in Bohemia.

     The boyhood days of Mr. Moravek were spent in his native land, where he received his education and assisted his father in tilling the soil. Realizing the opportunities of the new world he decided to seek his fortunes in America, and in 1869 landed in New York city and came west to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where he employed his time at railroad construction work. He spent seventeen years of his life following the railroad business in Iowa, and for many years worked as a section foreman.

     Mr. Moravek and Miss Katherine Socol were united in marriage August 29, 1870. Her parents were natives of Bohemia, in which country she was born. Eight children blessed this happy union: James, Annie Marie, Mayme, Charles, Mary, Agnes, Willie and Ella. All the children were born in this country.

     In 1886, Mr. Moravek came to Box Butte county. Nebraska, driving with three teams and a covered wagon and a herd of cattle. They spent seven weeks on the road. He spent two months at Hay Springs while looking for a suitable location, finally locating in township 26, range 52, hauling all his supplies from Hay Springs. While most of his time was spent in making for himself a comfortable home in this new country he devoted some time to freighting from Hay Springs to Alliance. The first years here were good ones, but during the period of drouth he experienced the loss of many crops, and made his living mostly from his cattle. Leaving his family on their farm in Nebraska, he went into South Dakota, where he became associated with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company. He spent six years at Ardmore. He then returned to Nebraska, devoting his time very closely to his farm, where he raised many good crops. He engaged extensively in stock raising, and with the assistance of his sons, raises three hundred head of cattle. He has secured possession of other tracts of land besides his original entry, and now has a ranch of seven quarter sections of good land, one hundred acres of which are under cultiva-

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tion. He has erected a substantial house, and has good wells, windmills and a fine orchard. Nearby are good schools, a church, postoffice and general store. His children own several tracts of land in this county.

     Mr. Moravek is a Republican. The interest he has taken in all matters pertaining to local affairs is worthy of note, and he is especially interested in educational matters. He was instrumental in the organization of the school district in which he lived eighteen years ago, and for eight years held the office of director. He has taken a prominent part in the development and improvement of Box Butte county, and as an old settler has done his share toward this end. He has made many warm friends in the surrounding community who wish him well, and who look on his career as a marked success.


     David Anderson has impressed himself upon the history of early days in western Nebraska as one of the first settlers of Sioux county, a man ready to endure any privation or face any peril, that he might build for himself and his family a home out of the wilderness. Into all his life work he has put all honesty and integrity, and his sterling worth and kindly spirit has gained for him a host of friends who will be glad to bear tribute to his many manly and excellent traits. Mr. Anderson is at present residing in Sioux county, Nebraska, near Ardmore, South Dakota, where he is engaged in the mercantile business, besides personally operating his extensive ranching interests in Sioux county, and living on his Kincaid homestead.

     Mr. Anderson was born in Bellefontaine, Ohio, May 19, 1860. He is of Scotch-Irish stock, his father, Matt Anderson, having been born in Ireland, and his mother of old Yankee stock, born in Pennsylvania. When David was a small boy the family moved to Dane county, Wisconsin where he was reared, attending the common schools, and later was a student at the Lodi high school, from which institution he graduated. In 1886 he came to Nebraska, taking up a pre-emption and tree claim in Sioux county, teaming into the region from Chadron, locating on Hat creek on what is known as the Circle Bar ranch. He started in on a small scale, "batching it" during the first four years, working on the range, part of the time sleeping out in the open prairie while herding cattle, and in those times rode all over the western past of Nebraska, also Wyoming and South Dakota. He went through all the hard times usual to the pioneers of the west, witnessed the Indian scares, and met with many thrilling adventures in following ranch work. He gradually increased his herd of stock and succeeded in building up his ranch and adding to it until he is now proprietor of two thousand acres lying along Hat creek, also partly on Indian creek, improved with good buildings, etc. At present he has about two hundred cattle on the range. Mr. Anderson runs his cattle under a brand called and registered the Circle Bar.

     Our subject has also been engaged in the real estate business more or less for some years, and has been the means of encouraging many settlers to come to Nebraska, always doing his best for the good of his adopted state, and aiding in every way possible to promote its growth and development. During the early years he did considerable work in building, putting up houses and other buildings, and erected one of the finest churches in Ardmore. South Dakota, and also has built several school houses.

     In 1895 Mr. Anderson opened a general store at Ardmore, beginning in a modest way, and this has grown to large proportions under his careful management. He has built up a wide patronage, and now occupies a building twenty-five by fifty feet, having two floors and carrying a fine line of goods. He has three warehouses, and owns considerable city property, consisting of eight lots and dwelling houses in the town of Ardmore, South Dakota.

     Mr. Anderson married, December 2, 1890, Miss Dora Moore, daughter of Charles B. Moore, an old settler of Harlan county, Nebraska. Mrs. Anderson is a lady of charming personality, and a highly educated and accomplished woman. Prior to her marriage she followed the profession of a teacher, and had taught in Harlan, Franklin, Furnas, Phelps and Sioux counties, also in Fall River county, South Dakota. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are the parents of three children, as follows: Viola, now attending college at Belleview, Nebraska; Matt and David, at home. Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Anderson will be found on another page.

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     Mr. Anderson has always taken a leading part in public affairs, wherever he has been located, serving his comniunity in different capacities. For several years he was postmaster at Ardmore, South Dakota. In political sentiment he a Democrat.

     Among the leading agriculturists of Kirkwood precinct, Rock county, Nebraska, is to be numbered the name of Abner M. Spragg, who has been in this part of the state for many years,

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and has played an active part in its development. He was born in Norton, Kings county. New Brunswick, March 17, 1847. The father, William Spragg, whose birthday was also March 17th, moved to Iowa at an early day and was actively associated with the experiences of pioneer life on what was then the "far-flung" western frontier. Jane (Burnett) Spragg, the mother of Abner M. was of German descent, and to her and William Spragg was born a numerous family, consisting of twelve children, of whom the subject of this writing was the ninth. Abner M. Spragg had a hard and laborious youth, and as his father died when he was only eight years old, he had to help care ofr (sic) his widowed mother and the other children from the moment he was able to earn money; and, as his brothers enlisted in the army when Abner was fifteen, the responsibilities of a livelihood for the widowed mother fell upon him.

     Mr. Spragg was married near Middleton, Buchanan county, Iowa, April 8, 1870, to Miss Florence Bassett, whose parents had been old settlers in Iowa. She was a young lady of more than the usual gifts, and in her earlier womanhood had taught school very successfully. To this union were born the following children: Willard; Ivis, now a widow; Jessie, wife of Cassius Brubaker, of Fort Collins, Colorado; Agnes, who married J. C. Herron, of Spokane, Washington; Bertha, wife of Clarence Dillon, of Council Bluffs, Iowa; Minnie, now Mrs. Columbus Baker, of Douglas county, Washington, and Flora, wife of Daniel Shunn, of Gregory, South Dakota.

      After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Spragg came to what is now Rock county, arriving at Stuart before its organization, and making their first stop at Stuart. Presently they effected a homestead location on section 4, township 31. range 17, where they built a shanty and buckled down to the improvement of the wild prairie. The Spraggs had their full share of the trials and tribulations that belong to frontier life, but never wholly lost a crop in the worst drouth that marked those early days. Today the Spragg homestead comprises a quarter of a section, and about eighty acres are under the plow. He has given much time and labor to its improvement, and may take a commendable pride in its neat appearance, an especial attraction being a fine grove of forest and fruit trees, which he set out with his own hands. His timothy and alfalfa fields attest his patient industry, and make a brave showing on those wide prairies.

     Mr. Spragg generally has voted and worked with the Republican party, and from time to time has filled various local offices of honor and responsibility. He is highly respected by all who know him, and as the shadows begin to lengthen adown (sic) life's pathway, memories of useful years cheer and encourage. He is a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen lodge of Newport.


     James I. Bales, residing in township 22, range 16, Garfield county, deserves prominent mention as one of the earliest pioneers of western Nebraska. He came to this state during its earliest stages of development, and has watched its growth from a barren country to its present state of productiveness and prosperity. He has always taken part in every movement which has been organized for the advancement of conditions here, and has done his full share in this progress.

     Mr. Bales was born in the state of Wisconsin in 1851. He is the son of Alexander and Mary (Hartman) Bales. Our subject left Iowa, where he had spent a number of years, and came to Nebraska in 1883, locating in Boone county, where he lived for two years. There he purchased railroad land and began farming, but did not like the locality well enough to make it his permanent home, so sold out and moved to Holt county. homesteading one hundred and sixty acres, also bought the same amount of land adjoining his claim. He worked hard and succeeded in getting together considerable property. In 1895 Mr. Bales disposed of his Holt county property and removed to Valley county, purchasing there one hundred and sixty acres of land, but soon afterwards sold that at a profit, and then came into Garfield county. Here he bought one hundred and eighty-eight acres and established a dairy farm. He has this improved in good shape, keeping a fine herd of cattle for dairy purposes, also raising quite a large number of cattle each year for the market. He has made money through his farming and stock raising operations and is considered one of the well-to-do men of his locality, accumulating all his property through his energetic labors and good management. He is well satisfied with the success he has attained since coming here, preferring this state to any country he has ever seen, as a land rich in opportunities for the man who is willing to devote his efforts to building up a competence.

     In 1876 Mr. Bales was united in marriage to Miss Emma Bailey, born and raised in Minnesota. She is a daughter of Edward and Sarah (Davis) Bailey, a leading hardware merchant in Oakland, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Bales reared a family of six children, named as follows: Henry A., Josephine S., James R., Mary A., Anna H. and Sadie S. Josephine and Sadie are both

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married, the former the wife of James Lowry, a well known farmer of Garfield county, and the latter now Mrs. George Hise, her husband also a farmer of this county. The family are highly esteemed in their community.

     Mr. Bales has served as township assessor for several terms, also has held the office of road overseer. He is a member of the school board, acting as director and treasurer of that body for several years.


     Isaac M. Rice, the editor and proprietor of the Valentine Democrat, is also a real estate dealer and an insurance agent in that stirring Nebraska city. He is a live, energetic business man, a typical western hustler, and on all occasions is able to maintain his place in the procession. The local press has done much to advertise the opportunities of northwestern Nebraska, and Mr. Rice has long been known as one of the most capable newspaper men of the state. He takes a strong interest in political affairs, and his paper is a force to be counted on when the factors that make up party action in Cherry county are considered, but he is enthusiastically first and last and all the time for Cherry county and Nebraska against all the world.

     Isaac M. Rice was born in Marshall county, Kansas, January 28, 1866, and was reared on a farm, which his father, Henry H. Rice, operated in connection with school teaching. The Rice family is of Welsh origin, but it has been long established in this country, and has made important contributions to the civil and industrial life of America. Henry H. Rice, a native of east Tennessee, married Sarah A. Dealy, born in Jackson county, Missouri. Her ancestors came from Ireland. Out of a family of eight children born to them. Isaac M., the subject of this sketch, was the fifth in order of birth. He was reared on the parental homestead in Riley county, and secured his education very largely from country schools. His business career began with his taking a position as clerk in a country store when quite young. However, he displayed business qualities of marked excellence, and, when twenty-one, was appointed assistant postmaster. Presently he secured a good position in a dry goods house in Kansas City, where he remained for two and a half years. At the expiration of this time he engaged as foreman of a gang of lumbermen in Utah valley, who were engaged in getting out ties for an extension of the Union Pacific Railroad to California. When this work was done he returned from Utah to Kansas City, and took a course at the National Business College, after which he taught school for six terms in Riley county, Kansas. He came to Valentine January 5, 1898, and served as deputy treasurer for considerable period, with satisfaction to the people in general.

     It was not until April 20. 1900, however, that Mr. Rice may be said to have reached a field worthy of his powers, for at that time he became editor and proprietor of the Valentine Democrat, a paper first established by Robert O. Fink as the Democratic Blade, its opening issue bearing date of September 18, 1885. In 1890 it became the Cherry County Independent, and was published as a Populist organ. April 9, 1896, it appeared as the Valentine Democrat, and, as already noted, it has been for some years under the management of Mr. Rice. This paper has had the editorial labors of some very good men, who have preceded Mr. Rice. They are, in the order of their connection with this typical western journal: R. O. Fink, J. P. Wood. J. P. Walters, J. R. Farris and Robert Good. They were all men of marked ability, but Mr. Rice has held control longer than any who has occupied the chair before him. His real estate and insurance business was established before he took charge of the paper, and he still maintains it at a high state of efficiency.

     Mr. Rice was first married to Miss Tillie Swanson, to whom was born a son, named Lawrence. On May 12. 1904, Mr. Rice was married to Miss Dora M. Davis, whose father, William H. Davis, was for twenty-two years an agent of the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad in eastern Nebraska, and since the autumn of 1900 has held the position of special agent of the Northwestern Life Insurance Company for southern Nebraska.


     Elmer H. Sager, a prominent business man of Elsie, Nebraska, dealing in drugs and groceries, is one of the early settlers of Perkins county. He is a man of wide experience, and has met with success in his different business ventures, now being the possessor of considerable property in the locality.

     Mr. Sager was born in Macon county, Missouri, in 1869. He is of American stock, his father born in New York state. When he was an infant one year of age. the family moved to Sioux county, Iowa, and lived for a time at that place, later moving on a farm in the vicinity. He received a common school education, spending most of his time on his father's farm, and during the seventies witnessed grasshopper

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raids, etc., going through all the experiences of pioneer existence. He spent some time in Missouri and Pennsylvania while a boy, and his parents finally settled in Perkins county, Nebraska, in the fall of 1888, locating ten miles south of the town of Elsie. Here he started out for himself, buying land, also took a homestead and proved up on his claim, following farming there for ten years, going through sod shanty times, etc., and succeeded in developing a very good farm.

     In 1892 Mr. Sager moved to Elsie, engaging in the restaurant business and continued at it for four years. building up a good patronage, then added other lines, putting in a stock of drugs, groceries, etc., and conducts a prosperous business.

     Our subject was married in 1900, at Blanch, to Miss Cora Dorman, of Elsie, Nebraska. Mr. Sager is active in local affairs and lends his influence for good government, both national and local. He has served as justice of the peace for three terms, and is highly esteemed as a public-spirited citizen.


     William H. Kiester. residing on section 10, township 27, range 48, in Box Butte county. Nebraska, has made his way in the world by virtue of hard knocks and constant labor, and richly deserves the reward of that substantial success that has come through his industry and perseverance.

     Mr. Kiester was born in Henry county. Iowa, on a farm, April 9, 1857. His father, Adam. was a carpenter by trade, also a veterinary surgeon in that vicinity for a number of years. Our subject was reared and educated there, and at the age of seventeen years made a trip to Missouri and Nebraska. His time was spent during his young manhood working at farming in Sumner county in his native state, and also for eleven winters he worked as a coal miner.

      In 1888 Mr. Kiester first came to this region, traveling south from Hay Springs by team, landing in Box Butte county on March 17th and made settlement on a homestead, and also worked out by the month. He started to build up his claim in the following year, and put in lots of hard work on the place but was unable to accomplish very much during the first ten years on account of the hard times caused by the drouths, etc. However, he worked faithfully and managed to lay by a little money and steadily got ahead, and in 1900 was able to purchase his present farm, now owning a nice property consisting of four hundred and eighty acres of land. He farms about seventy-five acres of this, and keeps seventy head of cattle and eighteen horses. he has been through many hard experiences since locating here, and recites one instance which occurred during the second year he located in this county, when he rented land for fifty cents an acre, put in some crops, and after working hard to make a little money out of his venture a severe hail storm came along and utterly destroyed everything he had. This was only one of many such discouragements, and he doubly appreciates the position he is in now, after the hardships and privations endured during so many years.

     Mr. Kiester was united in marriage in the fall of 1888, to Annie E. Graham, born and raised in Ireland. To them have been born the following children: Mary E., William R., Stella P. and Margaret.

     Mr. Kiester is counted among the early settlers of this locality, and has been closely identified with its growth and development. Politically he is a strong Democrat.

     On another page is presented an interesting picture of Mr. Kiester's ranch and also of the family.

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     William M. Sanstead, residing on section 11, Scandinavian township, is one of the most successful agriculturists and stockmen of Harlan county. He has lived on his present farm since 1902, and was in partnership with his father, Morris Sanstead, up to the time of his death, which occurred in September. 1906. The father was a dealer in and breeder of pure-bred Duroc hogs for some years, and our subject assisted him in this work, being the only son at home. One brother, Charles F., resides at Holbrook, Nebraska, where he was principal of the schools.

     Mr. Sanstead is a native of Nebraska, born on his father's homestead in Scandinavian township in 1882. He has been interested in the stock business nearly all his life, and although a young man has shown great nerve, pluck and intelligence in the work, which will soon place him at the head of stockmen in his section, for a young man who would plank down one thousand five hundred and fifteen dollars for a quarter interest in "Can't Be Beat," the highest priced, because the best, Duroc Jersey hog in the world, has the qualities to make a leader in any line of business. Besides this he owns Red Prince, also a third interest in Sears Belle, a ten hundred and twenty-five dollar sow. He and others who are developing the

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highest and best points in the red hog are on the sure road to success, and he is a worthy successor to his father who was a great believer in that breed of animal. He also has a fine herd of Shorthorn cattle, and has a full-blooded Scotch bull, "Royal Victor." This animal is a good one and comes from the best strains in the country. He keeps seventy-five old hogs and the same number of young ones. "Mungers Ideal," which Mr. Sanstead has sold, is also as fine an animal as one could find, and has won four first and one second prize at the state and interstate shows. Mr. Sanstead kept his hog on his own farm, and stock dealers came from far and near to see these pure-bred hogs and purchase everything which he has for sale. Another splendid animal which he owns is Red Prince, out of Red Chief Iam, who has attracted much attention from well-known dealers in this breed of hogs. Mr. Sanstead started his herd in 1902, and has had wonderful success since the beginning of his enterprise. He has held two boar sales and one brood sow sale, receiving an average of $51 for the former. He has sold his hogs all over this state, and many outside, and his ambition is to build up the best herd of Duroc Jerseys to he found anywhere. Besides the above prize-winners he owns a third interest in Sears Belle, a red sow, for which he gave one thousand and twenty-five dollars, and she has nine pigs now two months old which give promise of being as good as the old ones. Sears Belle is kept at Clay Centre. He also owns an interest in Sears 4th, mother of Sears Belle, who is a high-priced and valuable animal. Mr. Sanstead thinks that red hogs are more thrifty than the black ones, and better for all purposes, and in his career has had the best of success in their breeding.

     Mr. Sanstead also deals in mules, and is half-owner of Spider's Jack, a thoroughbred, and one of the best in the state. He considers that the breeders and stockmen who are developing the Durocs, Shorthorn cattle and thoroughbred jacks are adding materially to the wealth of Nebraska, and that those who go at it right, are as well off as though they had a gold mine.

     Our subject engages in mixed farming, raising alfalfa, corn and wheat, and has good crops each year. His farm consists of three hundred and twenty acres, and he has as good a home and farm as can he found in Harlan county. He is of an idustrious (sic) and energetic disposition, always aiming for the best in everything, and not content with anything less, and he richly deserves the success which he has attained. He is highly esteemed and respected, and is one of the prominent younger members of the agricultural region in western Nebraska.


     James C. Bennett, who is profitably engaged in farming in Dawes county, is one of the public-spirited men of his locality, and he is well known as a worthy citizen. His home is in section 36, township 29, range 51, and he has accumulated valuable property there through industry and good business judgment.

     Mr. Bennett is a native of Green county, Pennsylvania, born in 1849, on his parents' farm. His father, Wiley Bennett, was born in Tennessee, and his mother, who was Matilda Lantz, was born in Pennsylvania. The family came to Missouri in 1855. settling in Sullivan county, taking a farm in the northern part of that county and there our subject grew up, and they went through the experiences so familiar to the pioneers of that section. He was able to obtain but a limited schooling, attending the country schools when he could be spared from the farm work, and his early life was one of hardship and struggles, assisting his parents in building up a home in the new country. He left home in 1876, but remained in Missouri for about six years, engaged in school teaching. Finally he settled in Butler county, Nebraska, about 1882, following farming there for five years, and next moved to Schuyler, Colfax county, and there was in the railway business up to 1889, being employed as telegraph operator on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy road. In August, 1889, he came to Marsland and opened Marsland Station for the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy railway, starting his office August 28th, and continued there as agent and operator for nine years. He purchased his present farm in 1897, and although he still remained working as an agent and telegraph operator, stuck to his farm all the time. He worked as an operator at Hemingford for one year, and also at Pringle, South Dakota, for two years, and in 1902 quit railroad work for good and moved on to his farm. The farm is located in section 36, township 29, range 51, and lying along the Niobrara river. He has put on good improvements, fencing the whole place, and devotes most of his time and attention to the raising of cattle and high grade horses. He carries on a dairy business, and has made a success of this line of the work. His place consists of four hundred and eighty acres, and he has a good home and well improved farm.

     Mr. Bennett was married in 1874 to Miss Sarah Enyeart, of German and Welsh stock, a native of Indiana, born and raised on a farm, and living most of the time in Missouri, for she left her native state when about ten years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Bennett have a family of five children, named as follows: John O., married and living in a home of his own at Key-

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stone, South Dakota; and Arthur E., Goldie, Floyd and Paul, at home.

     Mrs. Bennett's mother is still living near Lincoln, Nebraska, aged eighty-six. Her father died in 1899, aged seventy-eight. She has an uncle living in Indiana who celebrated his diamond wedding August 4, 1908, at the age of eighty-two years.

     Samuel E. Anderson, a representative agriculturist of Centre township, owns and operates a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres located in section 9, Phelps county. He is one of the leading citizens of this locality, and is highly respected and esteemed by his fellowmen:

     Mr. Anderson was born in 1875 at Princeton, Illinois, and came to Westmark township, Phelps county, Nebraska, in 1880, with his father, who took up a homestead there, which he still holds. Our subject is now the owner of one hundred and sixty acres of good farming land, and has erected a fine house, built since 1903. He has been engaged in farming since 1898, and has been very successful in all his undertakings. When only sixteen years of age he went with a threshing outfit, and for the past six years has owned a good machine and follows this work. Just to show what a wide-awake young man can accomplish here in Nebraska, it may be stated that in just one year he made four thousand dollars at threshing and farming combined. He has had excellent crops. raising wheat which ran forty-nine bushels to the acre, and has threshed where it yielded fifty-two bushels per acre. His corn crop has reached sixty-five bushels per acre. Mr. Anderson's father owns two hundred and forty acres of land, which is operated by his son Oscar. the former being largely engaged in the cattle and hog raising business, and the subject of this sketch has also started in to raise pure-bred Poland-China hogs, and has a fine drove now. He also has a good bunch of cattle and a number of horses used in working his farm of three hundred and twenty acres, one hundred and sixty of which is rented land His success is due entirely to his enterprise and industry, and he bids fair to become one of the most prominent and prosperous citizens of his locality.

      In 1904 he was married to Miss Hannah Anderson, a native of Sweden, and they have a family of two children, Alice and Marian.

     Mr. Anderson is an Independent voter, and takes a commendable interest in all public affairs of his community.


     William M. Burkitt, one of the pioneer business men of Whitney, Dawes county, Nebraska, has been one of the leading citizens of that locality in helping to build up the commercial and social interests of his community. Mr. Burkitt was born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1841. His father, also named William, was a miller by trade in the old country, and came to America with his family when our subject was a lad about seven years of age. They located in Wisconsin, where William, Jr., grew up, and about the year 1863 the family moved to Whiteside county, Illinois. There he followed farming for five years, at the end of that time starting in the grocery business at Lyndon, Illinois, and remained in the trade for about five years. He next went to Mapleton, Iowa, and opened a farm which he operated for two years, then started a hardware store and run that for two years. His next move was to Pierce county, Nebraska, in about 1882, and there he engaged in the furniture and undertaking business, carrying that on for two years. About 1886 he came to Dawes county, taking up a tract of government land located near Whitney, and here he put up good buildings and improvements and engaged in farming.

     Mr. Burkitt came to Whitney and engaged in business in 1887, building a store in which he put a stock of general merchandise, and during the first years had a hard time, and went through many severe experiences, selling lots of goods for which he was never able to collect anything. He stuck to the business, however, and finally bot (sic) along better and has made a success of the business, although he still owns his farm.

     Mr. Burkitt was married in Lyndon, Illinois, in January, 1866, to Miss Delia Deming. To Mr. and Mrs. Burkitt have been born the following children: Eleanor, Delia, Deming, John and Joseph. Mrs. Burkitt died in September, 1881, and in December, 1882, our subject was married again, to Miss Hannah Deming, a sister of his first wife.

     In November, 1897, Mr. Burkitt was appointed postmaster at Whitney, and has held office ever since, being the present incumbent.


     Solomon Borky, to whom is accorded a foremost place among the leading old timers of western Nebraska; has acquired a valuable estate in section 22, township 35, range 54. He has successfully followed farming and ranching here

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