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for many years, and now enjoys the comforts of rural life and the respect and esteem of all who know him.

     Mr. Borky is a native of Berks county, Pennsylvania, born November 6, 1845, on a farm, and comes of good old American stock, his grandparents being born and raised in this country. His father, Joseph Borky, was a well known farmer and stockman in the east, and he married Lena Hoffman, of Berks county, Pennsylvania. During his boyhood our subject had plenty of hard farm work to do, helping his father carry on the farm work, and he also worked considerable in the timber business, beginning lumbering when he was a boy of but nine years. At the age of twenty-two he started farming on his own account, at which time he was married to Miss Cecelia Willebrand, who was born in the east, in Cambria county, Pennsylvania, November 22, 1845, her father being a native of Westphalia, Germany. Her mother, who was Magdalene Meyer, was born in France, both parents coming to America when quite young, and met and were married in Pennsylvania.

     After his marriage Mr. Borky farmed in the Allegheny mountains for about ten years, then came, west to Illinois, settling in Livingston county, where he remained for one year, then came farther west, going all over Nebraska, and visiting Loup City when it only had one house. At that time he also saw Grand Island, it being simply a small village. He picked out a location in Cedar county, near St. Helena, which was then quite a settled country and farmed on rented land for ten years. In June, 1886, he came to Sioux county, locating on a homestead in the northern part of the county, which was entirely unimproved land, hauling all supplies from Crawford. He started to improve his property, putting up a good house and other buildings. His dwelling was twenty by thirty feet, of two stories, and he has since added an addition twelve by twenty feet, making of it a fine large residence, and he also has erected a substantial barn twenty by forty feet. His ranch is all fenced, and the land lies along Long Branch creek, the stream running through a portion of it and furnishing a splendid water supply for all purposes. Altogether he is owner of four hundred and eighty acres, and his children also have additional land in the vicinity, his son John owning a three hundred and twenty acre tract adjoining his father's place.

      Mr. Borky's family consists of ten children, as follows: Mary, Andrew, Rose, Martha, Clotilda. Agnes, John, Peter, Joseph and Cecelia.

     John Borky, son of Solomon Borky, is a young man of exceptionally good business ability and push. He is prominent in public affairs in the county, being elected superintendent of schools of Sioux county in 1903 and re-elected in 1905. He has received a superior education and followed teaching in Sioux county for about six years, becoming well-known and highly esteemed for his manly worth and energy, the people showing their appreciation of his ability by nominating him in 1903 without any solicitation from himself, and he has proven a most efficient man for the office.

     Mr. Solomon Borky has gone through all the experiences of the earliest settlers in the great west, but he has remained to reap the reward of those brave spirits who literally took their lives in their hands in coming to a wild country and endeavoring to carve out for themselves a name and fortune; many failing and returning to the more modern east, others succeeding beyond their wildest hopes in accumulating a comfortable competence for their declining years, and of the latter class our subject takes high rank.

     On another page will be found portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Borky.


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     A large share of the wealth of Brown county, Nebraska, comes from the thriving agricultural district lying adjacent to the town of Ainsworth. Among those who own well improved estates there, a prominent place is accorded the gentleman whose name appears at the head of this article. For the past twenty-four years he has been engaged in agricultural pursuits in this locality, is well versed in this line of work and has met with pronounced success.

     Mr. Edwards was born near Red Oak, Montgomery county, Iowa, November 17, 1875. He is a son of Evan H. Edwards, a farmer by occupation, and an old settler in Gage county, coming there in 1880, and four years later settling in Brown county; his residence at the present time is Wayne county, Nebraska. Both father and mother, who was Miss Ellen Thomas, were natives of Wales, the former coming to America in 1845, the latter in 1852; her death occurred November 30, 1890. There was a family of five children, of whom our subject is the second member; he was reared in Nebraska, inured to all kinds of hard farm work during his boyhood 'years. The family settled on the Calamus river, Brown county, in 1884, and at first lived in a tent, and later a board shanty, the lumber of which it was built having been hauled a distance of forty miles with only one horse, whose mate had died soon after reaching the country.

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     Here they remained for four years, then moved near Ainsworth, where they resided until 1892, when the father moved to Wayne county. Mr. Edwards worked out on farms around the town of Ainsworth for several years, then, in 1898, obtained employment in L. F. Corbett's hardware store and spent three years with the concern before filing on his present homestead in section 31, township 32, range 22, where he began ranching and farming. He has put up good buildings on the banks of Plum creek, and engages in stock raising, and devotes all his time to the work of improving his farm. He has one thousand and forty acres, of which much is good farming land, and is making a success of the enterprise; he is near a good shipping point, and his farm is well suited for the purpose it is used. Mr. Edwards was married at Fairfax, South Dakota, September 24, 1906, to Mabel Herriman, a daughter of Charles Busic, of Brownlee, Nebraska; they have two children, Everett and Ruth.

     In the early days of the family's residence in Nebraska, their nearest neighbor was seven miles distant, and our subject well remembers the fine times he had hunting, when the country abounded in all kinds of wild game. In politics Mr. Edwards is Republican; he, with his wife, is a member of the Methodist church, and affiliates with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Modern Woodmen of America and the American Order of Protection of Ainsworth.


     Harm Poppen, one of the most extensive ranchmen and agriculturists of Cheyenne county, Nebraska, is one of the old settlers in that region. He is a man of wide experience, and by judicious management and industry, supplemented by honest dealings, has acquired a valuable property and has become recognized as one of the substantial and worthy citizens of his county. His home is in Union Valley precinct, where he has a comfortable residence and pleasant surroundings, and enjoys the friendship and esteem of a large circle of acquaintances.

      Mr. Poppen was born in the village of Sandhorst, adjoining the city of Aurich, Hanover, Germany, June 25, 1857. He was reared in that country, receiving the usual common-sense training of the children of the sturdy German race, and early taught to do all kinds of hard work. His parents spent their entire lives in their native land, but at the age of twenty-nine Harm left home and started out to make his own way in the world, taking passage for America at Antwerp in March, on an emigrant ship. After a voyage of nine days, he landed in New York city, and came, with a colony of friends, who had emigrated in a body, to Franklin county, Nebraska, where he remained for about three years, still having one sister living in that county. He settled in Cheyenne county in the spring of 1889, filing on a homestead on section 28, township 16, range 48, and has made that his home ever since. He had the usual experiences of the pioneers of that region, passing through the good, bad and indifferent times that struck the locality, often meeting with losses from crop failures, but escaped losses by prairie fires that have devastated so many homesteads; but he stuck to his farm and home through every discouragement and finally was able to get ahead and make needed improvements on his property. He lived for many years in a log cabin, or rough shanty so familiar to all the old timers here, but later constructed a substantial stone dwelling, barn and other outbuildings, constantly adding land to his original tract, as his circumstances permitted, and is now proprietor of a fine ranch containing nine hundred and sixty acres, with plenty of good pasture and hay land for his stock, of which he has sixty head of cattle and fifteen horses. The place is well supplied with good water, and most of it is fenced.

     Mr. Poppen was married, while still living in Germany, to Johanna Van Ollen, also a native of that country, and together they came to the United States to establish a home and accumulate a competence for their declining years. Two children resulted from their union, John, now residing in Missouri, and Frances, living at home.

     Mr. Poppen was reared in the Lutheran church; in politics he is not bound to either party but votes independently for whom he considers the best man.


     The above gentleman is a leading old settler of western Nebraska who has aided in a large measure the growth and development of that region. Although he is a comparatively young man, he has seen much of life on the frontier and taken an active part in the history of the early years here, incidentally building up for himself a good home and valuable estate in section 6, township 23, range 31, Hooker county, where he is well and favorably known.

     Mr. Rodgers was born in Henderson county, Illinois, in 1871. He is a son of Albert Rodgers, also a native of that state and a well-known farmer there for many years. His mother was

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Jemima Stevenson, of Henderson county, Illinois. Our subject was reared in Nebraska. the family coming here in 1873, locating in Gosper county, where they went through pioneer experiences in establishing a home and farm. When he was eighteen they moved to Lincoln county, and he was married there in 1890 to Ida May Roberts, whose father, William Roberts, was a pioneer in Iowa. She was born in Indiana but reared in Iowa. Mr. Rodgers came with his family to Hooker county in 1895, settling thirteen miles south of Mullen, and there took up a homestead, put up a house, barns and other buildings and opened a ranch. The place was all valley land, and he broke up ground for crops, and remained on it for two years, then moved to Mullen and opened a blacksmith shop. In 1900, he purchased a well drilling outfit, and built wells for people all over the surrounding country, operating the machine up to 1905, and made quite a little money in the work. In 1901 Mr. Rodgers settled on his present ranch, which, at that time, was entirely unimproved land, and he at once began to develop a ranch, adding improvements right along, and now has it in the finest kind of shape. The ranch contains six hundred and forty acres, and he farms about two hundred acres, using the balance as a cattle ranch.

     Mr. Rodgers' family consists of himself, wife and five children, who are named as follows: Eutoka Jane, Mark Melvin, Albert Nathan, Minnie May and William Charles. They are a most interesting group and have a pleasant and happy home.

     Mrs. Rodgers deserves special mention with her husband, as much of their success is due to her faithful labors, and she has been a help-meet to him in the true sense of the word. She has helped build up their home, starting with very little, and when they put up their first house, she helped erect it with her own hands, also assisted him in putting down wells, and bore without complaining all the hardships and privations of the settler in the early years here.


     William C. Scott, one of the pioneer settlers of Sheridan couny (sic), Nebraska, and a gentleman whose experiences during the early part of his residence here were many times hard to endure, is now a prosperous farmer of this locality. He is a man of strict integrity and occupies a high standing as a citizen.

     Mr. Scott was born in Knox county, Indiana, in 1845, and was raised and educated there. His father, Thomas Scott, is also a native of Indiana, of American stock, and died in Illinois in 1883. Our subject is the elder of two children, and at the age of seventeen years struck out for himself, enlisting in Company G, One Hundred and Twentieth Indiana Regiment, serving until the close of the war. He took part in many skirmishes, and saw a great deal of hard service, receiving an honorable discharge, after which he again located in Indiana and began farming, at which he continued until 1884, when he came west with a colony of settlers to the new country. He settled on section 26, township 33, range 43, building a log house in which he lived for thirteen years. In the spring of 1885 he sent for his family to join him, and then started in to improve his farm. He succeeded in his work until the dry years came, and he lost all his crops for several years, and, to make things still worse, he was burned out, losing all his household goods. He did not have money enough to rebuild, so was obliged to sell out and move where he could get material cheaper, and during this time after losing his home was compelled to live in his neighbor's house until he settled on his present homestead in section 35, township 34, range 43, in Sheridan county. He was offered ten dollars per quarter section for his land but refused this offer, and later was fortunate enough to secure five hundred and ninety dollars for his half section. His hardest times were during the years 1892 to 1900, and since then he has been very successful. He is engaged principally in the stock business, keeping about one hundred and seventy-five head of cattle and twenty-five horses all of the time. His ranch comprises six hundred and forty acres of good land, and. besides operating this he leases other lands. He has improved his farm, has it all fenced and now has a beautiful place, having lately remodelled his house at a cost of about one thousand two hundred dollars. He is a thrifty, painstaking farmer, and has met with deserved success in his venture.

     Mr. Scott was married in 1868 to Miss Anna McClure, born and raised in Indiana, of American stock. Mr. and Mrs. Scott had three children, named as follows: Louis E., Nellie and Maude. On March 9, 1874, Mrs. Scott died, leaving two children, the third and youngest, Maude, having died at the age of three months. In the latter part of 1874. Mr. Scott was married to Miss Burnette Burge, born in Indiana in 1854. Her father, Robertson Runge, served in the Ninety-seventh Indiana Regiment during part of the Civil war from the second day of August, 1862. to 1865. Of this second marriage three children resulted, namely: Claude, Carrie and Grace, now attending school in Lin-

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coln, Nebraska.. Mr. Scott is a Republican, takes an active interest in all party affairs, but does not seek any office.


     Henry Lichte, an enterprising and prosperous farmer of Dawes county, owns one of the fine and valuable estates in the county. He is one of the pioneers of this region. classed among the leading old settlers of his locality who has watched the growth and progress of this part of the state of Nebraska from its early settlement. Mr. Lichte resides on section 26, township 29. range 48, and has a comfortable home and pleasant surroundings. A picture of the family residence will be found on another page.
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     Mr. Lichte was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1841. His father. Christ Lichte, was a farmer by occupation and owned a good farm in Hanover province, and both he and his good wife spent their whole life in that country. Our subject was reared on the farm and assisted in carrying it on, attending the country schools as a boy, and later an agricultural college at Hanover, Germany, where he learned the art and science of farming. He served in the German army for two years, as all loyal subjects are required by law to do, and in 1869 left home and came to this country and settled in Illinois, where he remained for several years and in 1878, met and married Miss Lizzie Rothermund, a native of Switzerland, who came to America with her parents in 1868. After his marriage our subject and his wife went to Iowa and located near LeMars, where he bought one hundred and sixty acres of land, on which they lived for two years. In 1884 he left Iowa and came to Dawes county, Nebraska, and this region was then practically a wilderness and he had the choice of location, selecting a tract of land near Rushville on which he filed, and the following year was joined by his family. He only lived on this place for about a year, then settled on the Niobrara river. putting up a dugout, in which they lived for two years. Here he raised good crops, the first year putting in a crop of sod potatoes and corn. During the dry years he met with many discouragements due to loss of crops, etc., and for seven years was unable to raise an average crop of any kind, and was obliged to work on the railroad to make a living for his family. He took a contract for carrying the mail between Hemingford and Dunlap in 1894 and has continued this work for the past fourteen years. Part of the time during the hard years he worked in the saw mills at Pine Ridge, where he followed a frontiersman's existence, camping out at night and suffering many hardships from exposure, etc. He now owns a ranch of seven quarter sections, sixty acres of this being under cultivation, and one hundred of it is irrigated. The place is well improved with good farm buildings, all fenced and supplied with every kind of machinery necessary for conducting a model farm.

     Mr. and Mrs. Lichte's family consists of six children, namely: William, Frederick, Joubert, Rose, Dora and Martha. The entire family are well liked by their neighbors and occupy a high position in the community as worthy citizens.

     Mr. Lichte is an Independent voter. He was one of the founders of the first schools organized in his locality and has served on the school board for a number of years past.


     W. R. Heldman, a representative farmer of Grant township, Franklin county, is a thorough agriculturist and stockman, owner of "The Cyclone Ranch," consisting of one thousand acres of river bottom and uplands, and one of the fine estates of this section of the state. Mr. Heldman purchased this property in 1900, and has built up his place in good shape in that short space of time, employing the most up-to-date and progressive methods in his operations, and has been most successful in his different enterprises. The Cyclone Ranch is located in section 31, township 2, range 13, midway between Franklin and Riverton.

     Mr. Heldman was born in 1863 in Indiana. Mr. Heldman came to Nebraska from Harrison county, Missouri, where he had been a breeder of Shorthorn cattle for twenty years. He immediately went to work to build up his farm and engaged in the stock business on a large scale. He started a herd, with the thoroughbred bull "Bates." He bought later from Shellenberger, of Alma, "Saladin," sired by "Bar None II", of pure Scotch strain, and is one among the few in Nebraska as yet. When he first located here there were no herds started in this county, and he introduced the first pure-bred animals in the locality. Mr. Heldman is a director of the county fair society, and his was the first purebred herd to be exhibited, and since then they have captured all the prizes right along. He sells his stock in this and the adjoining counties, and every animal is eligible to record. He brought his "Bates" bull with him from Missouri. He is justly proud of his fine herd of Bates thoroughbreds, especially of the fine Scotch Shorthorn bull recently added to his herd, also of the fact that he was the first

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man to introduce these into Franklin county. At that time the county fair was an event which had become a very tame affair and the people took almost no interest in the annual exhibition, but the interest of Mr. Heldman in stock, and his enthusiastic support soon gave them an incentive and it has gradually become one of the chief attractions in this region, with a large number of exhibitors, all of whom take a lively interest in making it a success. Mr. Heldman himself, as a director, works hard for the success of the Franklin county fair, and exhibits some of the finest cattle, hogs, horses and mules to be found anywhere. Our subject also has a drove of one hundred pure bred Poland China hogs, and the pigs he raises each year are eagerly sought after by all the people of Franklin and the adjoining counties. Mr. Heldman also deals extensively in horses and Missouri jacks and jennets. He has bred Percherons and coach horses for the market. He owns an imported Percheron stallion "Engeur." Mr. Heldman considers this a better feeding and stock country than Missouri, where he had a long experience. He raises a large crop of corn and small grain, all of which he feeds out on his farm, besides being obliged to purchase more to keep his stock.


     Humphrey P. Kendrick, one of the most energetic and successful farmers of Dawes county, Nebraska, resides on his fine estate in section 30, township 29, range 30, and is well known as one of the leading ranchmen and farmers of his locality. He is a man of good judgment and integrity, and has won an enviable reputation in his community as a progressive agriculturist and worthy citizen.

     Mr. Kendrick is a native of Fayette county, Illinois, born in 1871. His father, John Wm. Kendrick, was a native of Maine, and settled in Illinois during the pioneer days of that region, his death occurring there in 1878. He married Miss Fidelia Palmer, born in Michigan. Our subject was but eight years of age when he was left fatherless, and the mother and her family moved to Belle Plains, Iowa, where they lived for seven years, Humphrey attending the city schools, and receiving a fair education, besides assisting his mother in caring for the family and keeping up their home. They had some relatives living in Dawes county, and, in 1887, he came here and worked out in the country on ranches and farms for several years, taking a homestead for himself in 1893, and improving the land. He remained on the place steadily until he had proven up, and made many improvements. This land was located in section 29, township 29, range 50, and he still has the place, but has added to it, buying in the adjoining section until he now owns a ranch of twenty quarter sections in Dawes and Box Butte counties, lying along the Niobrara river. He has put up two sets of good substantial farm buildings on his ranch, and has a fine irrigation ditch in operation, being able to irrigate a five hundred acre tract of his land. He has plenty of hay land, and engages to quite an extent in stock raising, dealing principally in horses. Mr. Kendrick has associated with him a brother, E. C. Kendrick, who shares equally in the business.

      Mr. Kendrick was married in 1900 to Miss Eva Cheny, daughter of Arthur Cheny, who was one of the early settlers in Crawford City, Dawes county. Mr. and Mrs. Kendrick are the parents of one child, a daughter named Ellen, who was born in Crawford, and is now a child of five years.

     Mr. Kendrick is an active man in local affairs, and has done much toward improving conditions in his locality along agricultural and commercial lines.


     Among the foremost agriculturists and stockmen of this section of the country may be mentioned Wm. T. Judy and sons. Father and his five sons have built up a valuable estate in Cottonwood township, Phelps county, Nebraska, and are highly respected and esteemed by all who know them.

     Mr. Judy came to this county in 1899, and purchased three hundred and seven acres of land all located on the Platte river bottom, in sections 17 and 20, eleven miles from Kearney, eleven from Elm Creek and about twenty miles from Holdrege. Mr. Judy is known as one of the best breeders of Percheron and Clyde horses, owning at this time some of the best thoroughbred stallions and brood mares in the state of Nebraska. He has about two hundred pure-bred Duroc Jersey and Poland-China hogs, and holds public sales at both Holdrege and Kearney two or three times a year. In 1901 he started a herd of pure bred Polled Durham cattle, and to this herd he has added some thoroughbred Shorthorns, and has on hand almost all the time from fifty to one hundred head which he sells at private and public sales. In all lines he only handles high grade animals, and his reputation for raising only the very best horses, cattle and hogs has extended all over Nebraska and neighboring states. His Judy Clydesdale Champion stallion is pronounced as nearly perfect a horse

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as can be found anywhere in the world. Before this horse was four years old he weighed one thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds, and now will weigh two thousand pounds, and is a beautiful animal.

     For some years previous to settling in Nebraska, Mr. Judy was engaged in farming and stock raising in Lee county, Iowa, and considers his present location greatly superior to the state of Iowa. For one thing, farmers in Nebraska are willing to pay the price in order to secure the best stock, and this liberality and enterprise has in the past few years caused this state to produce more and better grade horses, cattle and hogs than any other state in the Union for its size. He has been successful in mixed farming also, and in 1906 raised over six thousand bushels of oats and two hundred acres of corn, also one hundred acres of alfalfa, all of which is fed out on his farm. His crop of oats and corn show a yield of about fifty bushels each to the acre. Our subject's sons are Clarence C., Willis W., Benjamin, George and Earl.


     Among those who have accomplished much in the way of helping to build up the locality where he chose his home during the pioneer years in western Nebraska, is the gentleman whose name is mentioned above. He is called one of the substantial citizens of his community, and his name stands near the first of the settlers in that region, he having been an important factor in producing the present prosperity enjoyed in his locality. He resides in section 8, township 34, range 56, in Sioux county.

      Solomon R. Story was born in Norfolk, St. Lawrence county, New York. May 25, 1837. His father, also Solomon Story, was a stock-grower and went through pioneer experiences with his family in Wisconsin, where he died in 1855. He married Mary Gipson, who was born in New Hampshire, and they raised their family in Wisconsin, living on a farm where our subject received his schooling. Some years were spent in the lumber woods in that state, and in 1862, he enlisted in Company E, Thirty-second Wisconsin Volunteers, and was with that regiment in the western army. He was with Sherman through Georgia, then went back to Washington and participated in the grand review. In all, he saw about three years' service, being mustered out the 12th of May, 1865.

     After the war closed Mr. Story returned home and remained there until 1877. He was married there June 26, 1862, to Marion M. Field, who died in Sioux county, Nebraska, December 13, 1906. She was a daughter of Philip A. Field, who was a lumberman in that state. Her mother's maiden name was Charlotte A. Hoyt. Mr. Story and his bride came to Nebraska, settling in Butler county in 1877, where they farmed for about nine years, then moved to Sioux county, arriving here in the spring of 1886, locating on section 9, township 34, range 56, being the first white family to settle on Antelope Creek. During the first few years he engaged exclusively in farming, but finally got into the stock raising business, and gradually built up a good ranch, now owning two thousand two hundred and forty acres which is devoted to ranching purposes, and he also leases one section, all of which is fenced and in first-class condition. He has made a success of his work, starting with a small capital, having four horses, and those he lost the first year he came here. The first postoffice was located on his place and he acted as the first postmaster, retaining the office for sixteen years. He was precinct assessor for thirteen years and county assessor for four years, always taking an active part in local and county affairs.

     Mr. Story has one child, Oscar W., aged forty-one years, born in 1866. The family have a pleasant home and are among the first residents of their community. Oscar W., the only son, still lives with his father and they have lived together ever since coming to this county. Oscar married Annie Reed, daughter of J. W. Reed, an old settler of Sioux county. Four children have been born to this union: George, Loyd, Thirsa and Blanche.


     Jack Donason, who for the past score of years has been one of the foremost residents of Keya Paha county, Nebraska, owns a valuable estate in section 31, township 35, range 18. He is one of the leading old settlers in this locality, and has always given his best aid in looking to the interests of the county, and still does his full share in developing its resources and making it a success.

     Mr. Donason was born in Knox county, Illinois, in 1857, and when he was but nine years of age began heavy farm work at the handles of a plow, and still well remembers the team he drove. His father, Alex. Donason, was of Scotch-Irish descent, while the mother, Ann Barbow, was of German-American blood, both being reared in this country; our subject, the second child in a family of seven, started for himself at the age of twenty-two years, follow-

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ing farm work on the home place. In 1882 he came to Hamilton county, Nebraska, where he spent a winter, then to Keya Paha county, taking a pre-emption south of the river April 2d. He proved up on it, then during the hard times of the dry years, mortgaged the place and lost it. After a time he again purchased the place, paying six hundred and fifty dollars, having first bought it for nine hundred and fifty dollars, three hundred dollars more than the sale price thirteen years later, to such an extent had land values depreciated during the drouth period. He endured hard times here during the dry years, but managed to get along without assistance from any one, and gradually improved his place. When a strip of the reservation north of the Keya Paha river was opened for settlement Mr. Donason took a homestead on section 31, township 35, range 18, and this is the site of his present home. He was thrifty, bought more land, now owning over one thousand four hundred acres, all lying along the Keya Paha river, with four hundred acres under cultivation; about one hundred and twenty-five acres are seeded to alfalfa which is growing thriftily. He runs two hundred and sixty cattle, and keeps about seventy-five horses and mules; he also deals in hogs, raising about two hundred annually. He has a fine orchard of fruit trees in bearing, and everything about his farm presents the best possible appearance, showing taste and good management in its operation. He has good buildings of all kinds, and the place is all fenced. A view of the fine large dwelling and surrounding buildings, with their rugged background of lofty hills, is to be seen elsewhere in this work.

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      Mr. Donason was married July 15, 1885, to Miss Minnie Sylvester, whose people were early settlers in Hamilton and Keya Paha counties. To Mr. and Mrs. Donason have been born the following children: Kate, now Mrs. Roy Buckles, of Washington; Alex, Roy, Glen, Frank and Clare, all living at home except the first mentioned.

     Mr. Donason has been a Democrat most of his life, having only occasionally wavered in his allegiance to the old party.


     Claus Niehus early in life left his native land and emigrated to the new world, where he became identified with American progress and civilization, and has been a loyal citizen to the land of his adoption. Mr. Niehus resides on section 21, township 35, range 22, in Keya Paha county, Nebraska, where he has built up a good home and farm through his honesty and thrift, and is esteemed and respected by all who know him.

     Mr. Niehus was born on his parents' farm in Holstein, Germany, August 13, 1861, where he was reared and as a boy worked hard in assisting his father in the farm work, early learned to look out for himself in the land where all are taught in their childhood to fit themselves for a useful life. In 1884 he sailed from Hamburg for America on the Moravia and after spending a short time in New York city after landing, came west to California, where he remained for five years engaged in farm work near Livermore, Alameda county, California. He then came to Nebraska, settling on a homestead in Keya Paha county, at the head of Cottonwood creek; this he relinquished and bought a tree claim, which now forms part of his estate, and here he put up good buildings-house, barns and granary, and substantially improved his place. He now owns eight hundred acres on Cottonwood creek, engaging in mixed farming and stock raising; the ranch is admirably adapted to the latter purpose, having plenty of good water for his stock. He runs one hundred and fifty head of cattle, twenty-five horses and fifty to sixty hogs, and finds this a most profitable source of income. Mrs. Niehus owns in her own right one thousand two hundred and eighty acres additional.

     Mr. Niehus was married October 19, 1894, to Mrs. Mary Rademacher, a native of Hanover, Germany, who came to this country in 1882.

     Mr. Niehus is a Republican, and lends his influence for good government, both local and national.


     Mr. White was born in Holton, Maine, May 2, 1840. He lived in Maine until the age of fourteen, going then to Wisconsin with his parents, in which state he lived until 1861.

     On September 2, 1861, Mr. White enlisted in the Third Wisconsin Battery Light Artillery, and was mustered out October 10, 1864. He was wounded in the battle of Stone River and was laid up in the hospital for two months. He also took part in the battles of Stone River, Chickamauga, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, siege of Atlanta, and others.

     At the close of the war Mr. White returned to Wisconsin and at once moved to Minnesota, where he lived until 1886. He came to old Cheyenne county (now Deuel county), April 7, 1886. He has been engaged in stock raising and followed the life of a ranchman for some years, and now resides in Lewellen, Deuel county, where he is notary public, but has retired from active business.

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     He had four brothers in the United States service during the war of the Rebellion.

     Mr. White's grandfather served through the entire war of the Revolution, and died at the advanced age of one hundred and ten years.

     Mr. White was married to Mary A. Langton, June 8, 1868, at Faribault, Minnesota. To this union were born six children, of which four are living: Arthur H., who is married; Grace M., wife of John Mevich; Emory C., also married; and Maud B., wife of Wm. P. Clarke, all of whom live in Deuel county. Arthur H. lives five miles west of Lewellen, and Emory C. lives seven miles northeast of Lewellen.

     Mr. White homesteaded in 1889, taking a claim in township 18, range 41. On this claim he built a sod house and passed through the hardships incident to pioneer life on the frontier. His rights as a soldier were used to advantage in proving up on his claim and in 1890 he moved to the vicinity of Lewellen.

     The father of Mrs. White, William Langton, was born in England. He was married in his native land and Mrs. White was born there. Mr. Langton was one of the prominent old settlers of southeast Minnesota.


     Ralph N. Swiggart, who is in the front ranks of the younger members of the farming and ranching community of Grant county, is a prosperous and up-to-date agriculturist of section 21, township 26, range 36, where he owns a comfortable home surrounded by well-tilled fields, and is considered one of the worthy, public spirited citizens of his locality.

     Mr. Swiggart is a native Nebraskan, born in Lancaster county in 1873. He is a son of George W. Swiggart, of whom a sketch appears in this book, who was one of the pioneers in the western part of the state. He settled in Red Willow county after his marriage to. Miss Susie Doyle, of Lancaster county, Nebraska. The family moved to Redwillow county in 1873. then to Frontier county in 1875. where a part of Ralph's boyhood was spent, and in 1887 they located in Grant county, where he grew to manhood, and they have made that region their home ever since. He has been engaged in the ranching business since a boy, has learned thoroughly every detail connected with the work, and seen his share of western frontier life during his comparatively short career. In 1895 he started out for himself, filing on his present ranch as a homestead, and for the first year "batched it," and had a hard time to get his farm started, doing all the work of breaking up land for crops, caring for his stock, etc. In 1900 he was burned out, losing his barn, tools, grain, etc., and almost everything except his house, the loss amounting to many hundreds of dollars. He saw years of hard labor thrown away in the destruction of his buildings, crops, fuel and some live stock, and the disaster was a serious setback to him. He immediately went to work anew, building up the place even better than before the fire, and it is now in the finest shape, supplied with every improvement for the proper operation of a model ranch. Mr. Swiggart owns in all six hundred and forty acres, and his location is the very best for ranching and farming purposes.

      Our subject was united in marriage in 1896 to Miss Jeanette Crossley, whose family was among the early settlers in western Nebraska. They have one child, Helen, aged eleven years. Mrs. Swiggart's parents are both dead.

     Since living in this region Mr. Swiggart has taken an active interest in local affairs, helping: to build up his locality and working for its best interests at all times, and holds a high station as a leading citizen. For so young a man he has done exceedingly well in accumulating the nice property he possesses, and the family occupy, a pleasant home and are well liked by their, neighbors and associates.


     M. H. Higgins, familiarly known as "Doc" Higgins, deserves a foremost place among the very old timers of western Nebraska. He has a fine ranch in Cherry county, his life has been one of many experiences, and he is honored as a public-spirited citizen and prosperous ranchman of the locality, and a representative Nebraskan, as his entire career has been spent in the state.

     Mr. Higgins was born in Jefferson county, Nebraska, in 1869. His father, Michael Higgins, was a railroad contractor and a prominent old-timer in the west. Our subject was reared in eastern Nebraska, on a farm, and was taught to do all sorts of hard work as a boy. One brother, George, was a pioneer in western Nebraska. locating in Cherry county during its early history as a county, and both he and "Doc" helped in the construction of the Burlington railroad when it was being built from Grand Island west, their father having the contract for the job at different points along the line. George Higgins made his home in Cherry county up to 1899, during that time building up and developing the Box T Ranch, which he established in 1886, his brother, M. H., being associated with him. He

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