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tific stock raising, which with his wide experience as a stock man, makes him one of the best judges of stock in the west.

     Mr. Fox was married on October 8, 1893, to Alma I. Moore, at Big Springs, Nebraska. It will be remembered that 1893 was the year of the greatest of all world's fairs known in history - the World's Fair at Chicago - and Mr. Fox went to the fair on his wedding trip. Mrs. Fox is a native of Wisconsin, coming to Big Springs with her grandparents in 1885. Her father and mother died when she was a little girl. Mr. and Mrs. Fox have three children, as follows: Ruben, Clayton and Hope, all living at home.

     Mr. Fox takes an active part in all public affairs of the county and state and is probably one of the best known stockmen in the west.

     Henry R. Fox, father of B. M. Fox, was born in 1836, his parents being pioneers in Ohio, where Mr. Fox was born. He was married in Omaha, Nebraska, about the close of the Civil war. In 1876 he went to the Black Hills, his family following three years later. The Black Hills country was at that time booming, and Mr. Fox was one of the first to settle there. He helped pull the first saw mill into Deadwood, and also took an active part in Deadwood affairs at that time.

     In 1885 he returned to Nebraska, settling in Deuel county, where he homesteaded a claim on the North Platte river. The homestead is now a part of the ranch owned by the Western Land and Cattle Company. The life of Mr. Fox was a varied one and he could relate many interesting stories of his early life. When a young man he went to New York city from Ohio, going by boat and stage. Then he went to San Francisco via the Isthmus of Panama, returning by stage. After returning from California, he entered the government service, freighting across the plains. He followed this for several years before going to the Black Hills. Mr. Fox was a very interesting man, having traveled a great deal, and was a representative citizen of Deuel county up to the time of his death, which occurred in Deuel county in December, 1895. His wife is still living and is now a resident of Omaha.


     Among the representative men who now make Deuel one of the leading counties in western Nebraska, none are better or more favorably known than Morse P. Clary, who resides on the northwest quarter of section 14, township 15, range 42, in Ash Hollow district.

     Mr. Clary was born in Quincy, Adams county, Iowa, October 20, 1858. He lived in Warren county a greater part of the time until March 18, 1886, when he joined his father, who had preceded him to Cheyenne, now Deuel county. His father settled in Deuel county, then known as Cheyenne, in 1885. Our subject homesteaded and proved up on the southeast quarter of section 28, township 15, range 42, and still owns the farm. He now owns about eight hundred acres, also a school section of six hundred and forty acres. Of this he cultivates about one hundred acres. He is engaged extensively in stock raising, running at this time about two hundred head of cattle, besides a splendid drove of horses. His ranch is one of the best equipped in western Nebraska, and is provided with all modern improvements.

     In political faith Mr. Clary is a Republican. He takes a very active part in all public affairs, and has served as county commissioner two terms, 1892 to 1898. He has also served as treasurer of the school district in which he lives, and was assessor in 1891. He has been especially active along educational lines in his county, having assisted in organizing several school districts, and has done as much if not more, than any other man in Deuel county to promote more and better schools.

     Mr. Clary was married to Lou C. McNaught, at Indianola, Iowa, January 21, 1881. She is a native of Illinois and has two sisters living in western Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Clary are the parents of eight children, named as follows: March D., who married Nona West, auditor for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway; May, a teacher in the Kimball schools; Frank, bookkeeper for a loan and trust company at Omaha; Nona, a teacher in the public schools; Josie, also a teacher; Ray, Oren and Cora Maud.

     Ash Hollow, as the district in which Mr. Clary and family live is locally known, is famous in western Nebraska history, many stirring scenes having occurred there in pioneer days.

     D. B. Clary, father of Morse P. Clary, the subject of the above sketch, was born in Frederick county, Maryland, September 1, 1821. At the age of thirty years, he emigrated to Indiana, where he remained about eight years, preaching the gospel, having been ordained a Methodist minister and licensed to preach prior to his removal to Indiana. From Indiana he removed to Iowa and later, or in 1885, to Nebraska, where he served as a minister for two years. He was a preacher of

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the gospel for a total of thirty-six years. Mr. Clary was married September 16, 1851, to Rachel Ann Hooper. Six children blessed this union Olive, Elmira, Ella, Victoria, Morse P. and Frank.

     Mr. D. B. Clary now makes his home with his son, Morse P., and is rounding out a life spent in making this world more pleasant for his fellow men. He is a preacher of the old school and in the thirty-six years of active service he has had a varied and interesting experience, having had an opportunity to study human life in all its various phases. During his ministry he has received over eight hundred converts into the church. Aside from his duties as a minister, he always took an active part in the educational and moral development of the community in which he lived, and when his work is ended on this earth, it can truly be said of him, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."


     Frank J. Bellows, now a resident of the thriving town of Kimball, Nebraska, is also one of the early settlers and prominent pioneers of Kimball county, locating there when that county was still a part of "old" Cheyenne county. He is the owner of a fine estate, and one of the wealthy residents of his section, at present occupying the position of bookkeeper for Mr. Gus Linn. He has acted in that capacity for the past eight years, during the same time personally superintending the management of his extensive ranching interests.

     Mr. Bellows was born in Cass county, Michigan, on the 4th of January, 1854, and grew to manhood in his native state. His parents lived there many years, both now being dead, and he has two brothers still living, one residing in Michigan and one in Indiana, while a sister is married and lives in Kimball county. In 1883 our subject went to Indiana, following farming there up to 1886, then came to Kimball county, arriving here in October, and filed on a homestead on section 10, township 14. range 55. He began to farm, experiencing many discouragements during the first few years. meeting with losses due to drouths and other causes, but gradually improving his claim, and proving up on his place, constantly acquiring additional land as he became able, and built up a good ranch. He is now owner of six hundred and forty acres of deeded land, also controls one section of school Iand besides other leased land in the vicinity of his home ranch. He deals extensively in stock, running a large herd of high-grade horses, and quite a bunch of cattle. He has about sixty acres of land under cultivation, good fences all over the ranch, and altogether has one of the best improved properties in the county. He is well and favorably known all over this part of Nebraska, and highly esteemed as a citizen and successful business man.

     On the 23d of December, 1880, Mr. Bellows was married to Miss Katie A. Renninger, in Cass county, Michigan. They have no children. Mr. Bellows is a stanch Republican and has attended many county conventions and taken an active part in local and county affairs, serving as county clerk during 1894-1895. In 1899 he was appointed, and later elected county surveyor, and held that office up to 1908.


     Henry Sudman, well known as a leading farmer and ranchman and public-spirited citizen of Keith county, has been closely identified with the development and upbuilding of that region for many years. lie is highly esteemed by all as a prominent old-timer in western Nebraska, and has accumulated a valuable property in Paxton precinct by dint of honest industry and faithful effort

     Mr. Sudman was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1863, and was reared on a farm, receiving the rigid training that usually fell to the lot of the German lad in the middle classes. When he was seventeen years of age he started out for himself, coming to the United States, and after landing in New York city, struck out directly for the west, locating in Brule, Nebraska, where he began work as a section hand on the railroad. Later he was at Ogallala, also in Colorado, following railroading continually up to the spring of 1883. He then began working on the ranch, and for five years was employed by one ranchman, at the end of that time purchasing his present farm, and began a ranch of his own. He had but a small start, and his first building was a sod house, in which he "batched it" for two years, occupying the same shanty for about eight years after his marriage. He witnessed all the hard times on his farm, and during the years 1890-1894 lost every crop. Since then he has been very successful in raising good crops, and has three hundred and sixty acres of land irrigated under the Keith and Lincoln Counties Irrigation District Ditch. His ranch con-

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tains twenty-five hundred acres, and he is engaged principally in the cattle, horse and hay business. Mr. Sudman has erected a handsome residence on his ranch, two stories high, twenty-six by twenty-eight feet, with a one-story addition of sixteen by twenty-six feet, also had good barns and other buildings, wind mills, wells, fences, etc. In 1904 Mr. Sudman had the misfortune to lose his barn by fire, also considerable farm machinery, which was a serious loss to him, but he has replaced this property, and is prospering remarkably in every way. An excellent picture of Mr. Sudman's residence will be found on another page of this volume.

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     Mr. Sudman was married in the fall of 1890, to Miss Mary Ambrassat, of German descent. Nine children have been born to them, named as follows: Henry, Charles, Sophia, Minnie, Eddie and Emil (twins), Arthur, Albert and William. They are a happy and congenial family, and all are well liked in their community.

     Joshua B. Leader, residing in section 20, township 30, range 26. Cherry county, Nebraska, was born at Mount Joy, Lancaster county. Pennsylvania. April 21, 1856, and was reared on a farm. His father; Joshua Leader, was of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, and was a leading druggist of Mount Joy, while the mother, Agnes Gault, was born in Baltimore. Our subject was the only son in a family of four children and was obliged to make his way in life at the early age of eight years, his father having been killed in an accident while trying to catch a team of runaway mules. When old enough to choose an occupation he learned the carpenter's trade, and followed that trade for several years near his home until coming west in 1879. Early in May of that year he sojourned at Abilene, Kansas. but work being scarce for carpenters he came to Sterling. Nebraska. He secured employment in the bridge and building department of the Atchison & Nebraska, now the Burlington railroad, and was soon advanced to the foremanship of the water supply service, erecting tanks, wind mills and water equipment along the line, retaining this position until 1882. Mrs. Leader having been appointed teacher in the Plattsmouth schools, Mr. Leader resigned his position with the Burlington railroad water service and obtained employment in the shops of that company in Plattsmouth, staying there six months. After working as brakeman for that road for about a month he resigned and secured employment with the Union Pacific, where, through the help of one of his friends, who was a conductor on that road, he was promoted to a like position in five months. Owing to a wreck March 1, 1885, he was let out, but a month later secured a position on the Elkhorn and Missouri Valley railroad and on April 5th was made conductor on a construction train west of Chadron. When this work was completed he secured a position in the operating department and after braking for six weeks was made freight conductor and in 1889 was promoted to passenger conductor, where he was employed until October, 1902, at which time he resigned to take personal management of his ranch property, which he had purchased in March, 1897, and had kept in charge of a foreman until he could give it his personal attention.

      Here he has engaged in the stock business, keeping about four hundred head of cattle and twenty-five horses, using eight hundred to a thousand tons of hay per annum, all grown upon the wide meadows of his sixteen hundred-acre ranch. He has the best improved ranch in the sand hills, fitted up with every convenience, having an elevated tank with which to water his lawn and supply the bathroom and kitchen of his fine ten-room house. Besides five ordinary wells there is one artesian flowing well which is not surpassed in quality in all that region. An ice house and cold storage chamber are supplied with ice cut from an extensive lake near the residence, which during the hunting season supplies the larder with an abundance of waterfowl. He has fine barns and a shed three hundred and fifty-eight feet in extent to accommodate his stock. He has spent about five thousand dollars in buildings on his ranch and can shelter every head of stock he owns. The ranch consists of sixteen hundred and forty acres of land besides a five-year lease on a section of school laud adjoining. This is all fenced and altogether is one of the most valuable estates in the county.

     Mr. Leader was married April 5, 1880, to Miss Olive Moorman, born in Columbus, Ohio, being the daughter of Thomas J. and Mary (Gates) Moorman, the latter a distant relative of the governor of Illinois. The father was in early life a planter in Virginia and later was a land owner in Columbus, Ohio. Coming west he conducted for from twelve to fourteen years a chain of stores in Lexington, South English and New Sharon, Iowa, in which he was very successful.

     Although Mr. Leader has always voted the Republican ticket he has never sought public

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preferment and does not care for public life, preferring to devote his time to the building up of his ranch and home place, an estate in which he may take just pride. For four years he was chief of Division No. 173, Order of Railroad Conductors, at Chadron. In the Masonic order he has made marked advancement, holding membership in the Blue Lodge, No. 551, founded by his father at Mount Joy, Pennsylvania. He has been a prominent member of the Chapter and Commandery at Chadron and of the Shrine in Omaha. Like most railroad men Mr. Leader is a jovial, genial companion, and a most hospitable host to anyone who may be so fortunate as to be a visitor at his ranch.

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     August Bergman, a leading farmer and stockman of Phelps county, Nebraska, resides on his fine estate located in Westmark township, and is well known as a successful agriculturist. and worthy citizen.

     Mr. Bergman was born in Sweden in 1861, and came to America when a youth, his parents settling in Moline county, Illinois, in 1878, where he grew up and lived until the year 1882, when he came west and landed in Nebraska, and with his father, John Bergman, settled in Phelps county, Nebraska, on a homestead and remained there until the latter's death, which occurred in 1905. He had reached the age of seventy years, and had spent an honorable and upright life, esteemed by all who knew him for his honesty and strict integrity. Father and son worked together in building tip the farm, and now have a valuable property, having put up a fine residence. and six large farm buildings for sheltering their cattle, horses, hogs and grain. They have always acted on the theory that one hundred and sixty acres well tilled and improved, devoted to mixed farming and stock raising, is sufficient for one family to attend properly, and have been successful in all their undertakings. They have always kept enough stock to consume all the hay and grain raised on the land except the wheat, which has been for family use, and marketed what they did not need. In the hard years their stock furnished them with a good living, and during the prosperous times made them far more by feeding than had they sold their corn crop. Without feeding this year, a wagonload of hogs brings about one hundred dollars, and it would require a good many trips to town with corn to amount to this sum. Mr. Bergman also had the good judgment and foresight to secure about three hundred and twenty acres of pasture land in Union township, a few miles from the home farm, which furnishes all the hay needed for his stock. At this writing he has seventy-five cattle, Shorthorns and graded stock, and feeds about a carload each winter, which nets him a neat sum. His hogs consist of purebred and mixed Poland Chinas, and these he disposes of whenever they are ready for market. He is well satisfied with the success he has attained, and, like thousands of others of his countrymen, he has found America a veritable "land of promise," and Phelps county the "land of plenty." He and his father made a competence here, starting virtually on nothing. His mother makes her home with him at present, and the family are all members of the Swedish Free Mission church, located at Phelps Centre.

      In 1887 Mr. Bergman married Miss Salma Bergquist, daughter of Andrew Bergquist. Mr. and Mrs. Bergman have five children, as follows: Elmer, who assists his father in the farm work; Paul and Joel, Marie and Ruth.


     John Lister, one of the sturdy and vigorous farmers of township 24, range 48, Box Butte county, is a worthy member of the ranks of old settlers of this part of Nebraska, and as he looks about on the broad acres and the beautiful little cities and towns that have sprung up in the wake of the early settler; as he recalls the past and thinks of the transformation that has made a fertile garden out of a smiling prairie wilderness, he may well say, "All of which I see, and a part of which I was," and he and his compeers are no small part of this great change. It is with peculiar pleasure that the pen of the historian undertakes to trace such a career.

     Mr. Lister was born in Norfolk, England, August, 1862. His father, John Lister, was a fish peddler by occupation. He married Charlotte Holmes, who was also born and raised in the vicinity of our subject's birthplace. The latter grew up there and followed farming as a young man, starting to work out and earning his own living when he was but seven years of age. When he was thirteen years old he lost his mother by death, and his father only survived her five years, so he was left alone in the world at seventeen years of age. At that time he left his native land and came to the United States, landing in New York

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city in 1884, and from there went direct to Cleveland, Ohio, where he spent two years and worked at West Cleveland as farmer. In 1886 he came to Nebraska, at first locating in Holt county, remaining for about one year, then moved to his present location in Box Butte county, taking up a homestead in section 20, township 24, range 48. His first building was a sod shanty which he built himself, and he started to develop his farm, breaking land for crops and working out at freighting, and anything he could find to do in the locality. He had nothing to start with, only a few personal possessions, and had a hard time in getting started. His first team was a pair of mules which did all the work on his own place and he also used them to haul timber, break up land for his neighbors, etc. All his wood for fuel was hauled from the Platte river, and during the long trips which consumed several days, he was obliged to lie on the ground under his wagon at night, often in very severe weather, and suffered the usual experiences so familiar to the pioneers of those times. After many hardships and much hard labor Mr. Lister became more successful and he has accumulated a nice property. As the years grew better, the country becoming more thickly settled and towns being built up in this vicinity, he enlarged his farm, kept improving it and is now one of the well-to-do men of his community. He owns a fine ranch of eleven hundred and fifty acres, situated six miles southwest of Alliance. He has one hundred acres in hay land, and farms quite a large portion, all of it being well fenced and supplied with substantial buildings. He has erected a handsome residence, has many fine trees for shade and also fruit trees which he planted himself, including an apple and plum orchard, also small fruits.

      In 1893 Mr. Lister was married to Mary Coley, daughter of John Coley, of Irish stock. Mr. and Mrs. Lister have two children living. Mary, aged twelve years, and James, aged fourteen years. Two others, George and William, died during infancy. The mother died in November, 1903, leaving a sorrowing family to mourn her loss. She was a lady of most estimable character, beloved by all who knew her, and was sincerely mourned by her devoted family and many friends.

     During Mr. Lister's early residence in this locality he had all the experiences common to the life on the frontier, helping in the building up of its resources, aiding the settlers, and has been a part and parcel of its growth and development. Politically he is an Independent.


     George M. Elliott, a prominent farmer and stock raiser of Brown county, Nebraska, was born in the town of Bovina, Delaware county, New York. September 3, 1847. His father, Robert Elliott, was a farmer by occupation, of Scotch birth, as was also his mother, Jane (Dalton) Elliott. There were seven children in his parents' family, of whom he was the fifth, being reared and educated in his native state. In 1866 the family came west, settling in Grant county, Wisconsin, where they lived on a farm for two years, then moved to Poweshiek county, Iowa. Our subject lived there with his parents up to 1879, then moved to Osceola county, taking a homestead and proving up on it. He farmed there for some years, and during the grasshopper raids suffered the destruction of' all his crops, also losing much through the wet seasons, so becoming discouraged with conditions he gave up the struggle and sought other regions. In 1888 he first came to Brown county. and for the first year was employed by Hall & Davidson, bankers, working on a salary. He then rented land and began on his own account with his entire capital comprised in a yoke of oxen; he had a hard time at first, however remaining on this place for five years. He then traded his stock for a farm on Buffalo Flats, which property he still owns. For six years he lived on the Winters farm, east of Long Pine. In 1903 he purchased his present farm, located in section 5, township 30, range 20. through which Long Pine creek runs, giving an abundant supply of water. Here he has improved the place, putting up good buildings, fences, etc, and has a valuable estate. There are twelve hundred acres in the farm and ranch, of which one hundred acres are cultivated. He is engaged principally in stock raising, of which he has made a pronounced success with horses, cattle and hogs.

     Mr. Elliott was married March 25, 1872, to Miss Mary Jane Cummings, a native of Jefferson township. Poweshiek county. Iowa, born of old American stock. Her father, Alexander Cummings. was an old settler in Indiana, from which state he served through the Civil war, dying eventually from disease contracted during the service. Mr. and Mrs. Elliott have a family of seven children. named as follows: Robert, David, William, Philena, Erastus, Flossy and Roy, all born in Iowa excepting the last named, who was born in Brown county. In politics he is independent and fraternally a member of the lodge of Royal Highlanders at Long Pine.

     Mr. Elliott occupies a foremost place in

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the ranks of the successful and prosperous citizens of Brown county, and is held in the highest esteem by his fellowmen.


     Conrad T. Stikker, an old and highly respected citizen of Cheyenne county, Nebraska, is owner of a fine ranch of eleven hundred and twenty acres in section 34, township 17, range 48. He is a gentleman of exemplary character, and has spent the past eighteen years in this vicinity, and is one of the leading pioneers of the county, having watched the growth and taken an active part in its development since locating here.

     Mr. Stikker is a native of the village of Arnt, Aurich, Hanover, Germany, and was born September 29, 1846, and grew to manhood in his native country. He served through the Franco-Prussian war, participating in the battles of Le Mies, Coulie and Orleans. He came to the United States in 1887, having sailed from Bremen Haven March 27, and after a nine days' voyage landed in Baltimore. His first location was in Dawson county, Nebraska, where he spent two years, then came on to Cheyenne county, and was among the early settlers here. He arrived here in the spring of the year, and immediately filed on a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, which is the beginning of his present vast estate. He went through the usual experiences of the old-timers in the vicinity, meeting with discouragement and failure at different times, but through it all never lost hope and stuck to his original intention of building up a good home in the wilderness, and how well he has succeeded is evidenced by his present prosperity. He has one hundred and seventy-five acres under cultivation and raises fine crops of small grains and corn, also has large tracts of hay land and good pasture for his herd of one hundred and thirty cattle, besides other stock, including thirty horses. His ranch is improved with good buildings of all descriptions, fenced in good shape, and is one of the best equipped in the locality,

      Mr. Stikker was married to Miss Johanna Middens, in Germany, on June 23, 1880, and together they came to the new world to seek a fortune and build up a home for themselves. Five children have been born to them, named as follows: Tonjes, Henry, Bernhard (born in Germany), Grace and John (natives of Nebraska), all living at home. The parents of both our subject and his wife are now deceased.

     Mr. Stikker is active in local affairs pertaining to good government, and is a leading citizen in school matters, now serving as moderator of district No. 20. In political views he is a strong Republican, and is a member of the Lutheran church.


     Benjamin J. Jones, an old settler and prominent resident of Garfield county, Nebraska, occupies a nice home on section 21, township 22, range 14, owns an extensive ranch and is recognized as one of the influential and well-to-do citizens of his community.

     Mr. Jones was born in county of Cork, Ireland, in 1843, grew up there and when he was twenty years old left his native land and came to the United States. He first settled in Boston, where he engaged in the livery business and carried it on for about seventeen years. He then struck out for the west and landed in Nebraska the 7th of March, 1880. Here he filed on a homestead and timber claim and proved up on all of it. His son Ed. also took up land under the Kincaid law adjoining his father's land. Our subject later purchased more land in the vicinity until he is now proprietor of twelve hundred and sixty deeded acres. He has about one hundred and fifty acres of this under cultivation, and the balance is used for pasture and hay land. He raises considerable corn, oats and other small grain, keeps a large herd of cattle, and enjoys the distinction of owning some of the very best stock cattle in the county. He deals almost exclusively in Shorthorns, preferring this breed to any other for this region. He usually markets two or three carloads each year and makes a good profit from his feeding. Mr. Jones's ranch is well supplied with good buildings. including house, barns, granaries, large cattle sheds, fine groves, trees and orchard. He has an unlimited water supply, obtained from two flowing wells on his ranch, one of which reaches a depth of one hundred and seventy-five feet, and the other one hundred and eighty feet, and the water flows from these with considerable force and runs the whole year around. There are about a dozen or more of these wells in this part of the county, and they furnish the purest and clearest water for all uses. In 1905 Mr. Jones decided to try raising clover on his farm, which was a

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radical departure from the former practices, as it was generally believed that the soil was not well enough adapted to its growth, and he was ridiculed on all sides for this, but he stuck to his purpose and seeded down a patch of land. He was most successful, and now has a fine clover meadow. In 1907 he harvested his second crop of the grass, had a splendid yield, and has proved that it is as easy to grow clover here as it is all other grasses and grains. Mr. Jones has made quite a success of English blue grass, and says it can be grown very successfully here.

     In 1867 Mr. Jones was united in marriage to Mary Noonan, a native of the county in which our subject was born, in Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. Jones are the parents of four children, three of whom are living, namely: Edward B., B. J. and Mary. One son, John, is deceased. The family are members of the Roman Catholic church, and are very well known and highly esteemed in their community. In political sentiment Mr. Jones is an Independent, and is an admirer of Bryan.


     This gentleman is among the oldest settlers in western Nebraska, coming to Franklin county in 1887 and locating in Macon, where he lived for eleven years engaged in farming and stock raising. He bought land in section 17, Farmers township, and farmed a section of land, and owned one hundred and sixty acres that lies northwest of the town of Franklin. Mr. Sindt is proprietor of eleven hundred and twenty acres in all, and raises and feeds from one hundred and sixty to two hundred head of cattle each year, and from two to three hundred hogs, which he ships to market. He is one of the progressive and up-to-date agriculturists of his section, and has been very successful in his farming and stock raising enterprises since coming here. Mr. Sindt is a native of Holstein, born near Kiel, Germany, in 1867. His parents were both born in that place, and spent their lives there. Our subject grew up in Germany, and came to the United States in 1885, locating in Scott county, Iowa, where he spent several years. He much prefers Nebraska to Iowa as a farming and stock raising country, and since he settled here land which he could have bought for ten dollars per acre then is now worth sixty.

      Mr. Sindt has an elegant farm and has made his home one of the attractive places in the county by ornamentation, a splendid avenue of trees leading from the highway to his residence in the midst of a fine grove, the whole making a fine approach. So many farmers seem too negligent of these inexpensive but splendid additions to the value and beauty of their farms, which really cost so little except the time and labor spent.

     Mr. Sindt was united in marriage in 1889 to Miss Emily Kruse, also a native of Kiel, Germany, who came to America in 1889. They are the parents of eight children, named as follows: Annie, Carl, Henry, John, Benjamin, Martha, William and Lena.

     Mr. Sindt is a splendid type of the robust, manly German settler, whose individual success has added so largely to the success of this whole United States, and his wife and children are also of this stamp of German-Americans, industrious, intelligent and progressive, making substantial and worthy citizens of any community. The family belong to the Lutheran church at St. Paul, Nebraska.


     John A. Walford is one of the well-known residents and early settlers of Cheyenne county, Nebraska. He has given liberally of his time and influence in the development of the resources of the locality where he has passed many years, and takes considerable pride in the fact that he has watched the growth of the county from the early days of its settlement. Mr. Walford has a pleasant home and valuable estate in section 24. township 17, range 48. a view of which we present on another page.
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     Mr. Walford was born in Peoria county, Illinois. on February 25, 1863. and grew to the age of ten years in that vicinity. At that time his parents moved to Iowa, settling in Adams county, where they took a farm, and his boyhood days were spent in that state, assisting his father in operating the home farm. In the spring of 1887 he came to Cheyenne county and filed on the homestead which he still occupies, originally proving up on one hundred and sixty acres, and has since added to this, now owning a whole section. He farms one hundred and twenty acres, and uses the balance as a ranch, running quite a bunch of cattle and sufficient horses for all farming and ranching purposes. Mr. Walford's father is still living Adams county, Iowa, at the advanced age eighty-one years. but his wife is dead. John A. was the second member in a family of three children, all of whom are living.

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     Mr. Walford is one of the leading public-spirited men of his community, always lending his best aid for the good of the Iocality. He is at present serving as school moderator of district No. 19. In political sentiment he is a Republican.


     The prosperity enjoyed within the borders of Cheyenne county is due in a large measure to the enterprise and thrift of the agriculturists of that region. Their well improved and finely tilled farms evidence good management and painstaking care, and in no locality is this more apparent than in Sidney precinct. Among the residents of that locality is the gentleman whose name heads this sketch. He is a well-to-do and worthy citizen, and has gained a valuable estate by his persistent industry and honest dealings, enjoying the esteem and universal respect of his fellowmen.

     Mr. Hand was born in Branch county, Michigan, on October 4, 1863. His father, Cyrus A. Hand, was a native of Seneca county, New York. His mother, who was Emma Fetterley, was born in Madison county in the same state. The former was a typical representative of the New England Yankee, of mixed nationality, the mother being of Pennsylvania-German descent.

     Our subject grew up in Michigan to the age of twenty-one. In April, 1885, he came to Nebraska and located at Sidney, where he followed the occupation of contractor and builder for a number of years. He acquired a tract of land in Cheyenne county, bought a pre-emption right, and took up a timber claim, also homestead of one hundred and sixty acres lying in section 32, township 13, range 49, and during this time still worked as a builder in the county, doing most of his work in Sidney, a distance of six miles from his farm, over which he traveled every morning and evening while proving up on his land. His chores and other farm work was done after the long drive every night. His first house was a rough shanty, and in this hut his first child was born, the infant being one of the first white children born in that locality. Mr. Hand was able to gradually improve his place more rapidly as the section became more thickly settled, and he put up substantial stone barns and other buildings. In 1908 he remodelled the dwelling, making it one of the largest and handsomest ranch houses in the country. Gradually adding more land to his original possessions, he is now the owner of sixteen hundred and ten acres, all situated in sections 30, 31 and 32, township 13, range 49, all lying in one body. He farms two hundred acres and is extensively engaged in ranching, running as high as two hundred and fifty head of cattle some years. We invite attention to the view of his handsome residence appearing on another page of our work.

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     Mr. Hand was married at Sidney May 30, 1892, to Miss Alma Palmer, a daughter of James E. and Maria J. (Secor) Palmer, now living in Colorado. To them have been born the following children, all of whom are living at home and form a most interesting family group: Emma J., Hazel A., Clara A., Vera A., Nora A., Lester A. and Esther Alice. Mrs. Hand was born in Wayne county, New York, coming to Nebraska with her parents in 1887, where he (sic) became acquainted with Mr. Hand. He and his charming family take a leading part in local affairs, both social and politically, and they have a large circle of warm friends and good neighbors. Mr. Hand is a stanch Republican, active in party politics. He affiliates with the Frank Welch Lodge, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, at Sidney.

     John Johnson, for the past twenty years and more a resident of Cheyenne county and proprietor of a fine farm in Trognitz precinct, is a man of wide agricultural pursuits and has a thorough knowledge of his calling. In his early youth he chose farming as his vocation, and has perfected himself in this line, and through systematic labors and good judgment has acquired a valuable property and a home with all the comforts of life.

     Mr. Johnson was born in Sweden, April 16. 1863, and was reared there, following the life of the middle class of that country, remaining with his parents until he was about eighteen years of age. He was the youngest of the four living children of his parents, an equal number having passed to the great beyond. On June 3, 1881, he came to America, sailing from Liverpool in the Glasgow, landing after sixteen days in Quebec. He came directly west to Illinois, locating in Warren county, where he followed farm work for six years. He then came to Nebraska, taking as a homestead the southwest quarter of section 6. township 16, range 52, and has since filed on the northwest quarter under the Kincaid law. He started to develop the farm and accumulate a competence, and while he had

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