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CHAPTER I. SPANISH EXPEDITIONS.
and, on his return, gave a very glowing account of his discoveries. This falling into the hands of a German writer on geography, led him to give to the New World the name America.
II. THE SPANIARDS1 IN THE SOUTH. -- 1. The Spaniards did not neglect to follow up the discoveries of Columbus. It was not long before they had discovered and taken possession of the principal West India islands. They also sent expeditions to explore the coast of the main land, and in 1510 planted, near the Gulf of Darien, the first European colony on the continent. Three years later, Balboa, governor of the colony, crossed the Isthmus and discovered the Pacific Ocean. He first saw it from a high cliff, stretching far away to
1 Portugal, so prominent as a maritime power, attempted little in the explorations of North America. In 1500, Cabral, keeping far to the west in a voyage round Africa (see p. 8, ¶ 2, note 2), fell in with Brazil, and claimed it for Portugal. Gaspar Cortereal was commissioned by king to explore the western shores of the Atlantic. In 1501 he touched at several points on the American coast between New Jorsey and Labrador, and kidnapped fifty natives for slaves. Cortereal made a second voyage, from which he never returned. The Portuguese attempted no further discoveries in North America. Successful adventures in other directions engrossed their whole attention.
QUESTIONS. -- Why was the New World named America? 1. What is said of the Spaniards in the West Indies? On the coast of the main land? Of Balboa?
PERIOD I. -- 1492-1607. DISCOVERIES
the south, and hence named it the South Sea. This ocean received its present name from Magellan, a Portuguese, who, in the service of Spain, in 1520, sailed through the strait that bears his name, and entered the Ocean, which he called Pacific, because he found it so calm and free from storms. A few months afterwards Magellan was slain at the Philippine Islands, in a contest with the natives. One of his ships, however, realized the idea of Columbus, in reaching India by sailing west. This ship returned to Spain by the Cape of Good Hope, thus accomplishing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
2. Expeditions for discovery and trade were early sent from Cuba to the west shore of the Gulf of Mexico. The treasures they collected, and the rumors they gathered of the wealth and magnificence of Mexico, led to the fitting out of an armament under Fernando Cortez, in 1519, for the conquest of the country.1 In two years Cortez subjugated the empire of Mexico, and it became a province of Spain.2 The Spaniards had also established a settlement at Panama, a little to the east of the present city of that name. From this settlement Francisco Pizarro made three attempts to conquer Peru. He set out on his last and successful expedition in 1531, aided by Almagro. The next year Peru, with its riches and splendor, experienced the fate of Mexico. Although the conquerors of Mexico and Peru displayed great courage and ability, these qualities were offset by the meanest deception, the basest treachery, and the most unrelenting cruelty.
III. THE SPANIARDS IN THE UNITED STATES. -- 1. Ponce de Leon was the first who, under the patronage of Spain, explored any part of what is now the United States. On Easter Sunday, called by the Spaniards Pascua Florida, he came in sight of land, which, from the day, he named Florida. He landed near where St. Augustine now stands, and claimed the territory for Spain.
De Leon was an old man when, in 1512, he fitted out an expedition with the double design of finding gold and of discovering a fountain, then generally believed to exist, whose waters possessed the virtue of restoring and perpetuating youth. He found no gold; and so far was he from finding the fountain of youth, that some years afterwards he died of an arrow-wound received in a contest with the Florida Indians.
2. In 1520 Vasquez de Ayllon, a Spanish adventurer, fitted out two ships to search for slaves. He visited the coast of what is now South
1 It illustrates the condition of the art of war at that time to state that, out of more than six hundred men who accompanied Cortez, only thirteen were armed with muskets.
2 Just three centuries after this conquest (1821) Mexico threw off the Spanish yoke.
QUESTIONS.--What is said of Magellan? What of one of his ships? 2. What is said of the conquest of Mexico? Of the conquest of Peru? Of the conquerors of these countries? Ill. 1. Who discovered Florida? Under whose patronage? Why was Florida so named?With what design did DeLeon fit out his expedition? The fate of De Leon? 2. Give an account of De Ayllon's voyage?
CHAPTER I. SPANISH EXPEDITIONS.
Carolina, then called Chicora, and having enticed on board his vessels large numbers of the unsuspecting natives, immediately set sail for Hayti. But he did not profit by his crime. One of his ships foundered, and on board the other many of the captives died: some of them, it is said, resolutely refused food, and died of starvation. Stephen Gomez, who had accompanied Magellan on his search for a passage to India south of America, sailed in 1525 on a voyage in the hope of discovering a similar passage north. Such a passage was long sought for under the name of the North-West Passage.1 He touched at various points on the coast of what are now the Middle and Eastern States. Failing in the great object of the expedition, he filled his ships with Indians, to be sold as slaves. Three years later Pamphilo de Narvaez made an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Florida.
3. Fernando do Soto, who had gained a brilliant reputation and immense wealth by service in Peru with Pizarro, longed to add to both, by subduing the opulent cities that, he believed, lay hidden in the unexplored regions of North America. He obtained of Charles V. permission to conquer Florida, under which name was included all the eastern part of America north of Mexico. He landed on the western coast of the peninsula, and, in the spring of 1541, after two years of fruitless search for gold, be came upon the Mississippi River,2 near the southern limit of the present state of Tennessee. The next year he died on its banks, and was buried in its waters.
After his death his followers, with incredible toil and hardship, succeeded in building boats to take them down the river. In these, more than four years after their first landing in Florida, they arrived at a Spanish settlement on the Gulf of Mexico -- a wretched and care-worn remnant of the brilliant expedition that set out with De Soto.
4. Nearly a quarter of a century later, Philip II. of Spain commissioned Melendez de Avilez to conquer and colonize Florida, and to expel a colony of French Protestants3 established near the mouth of the St. John's. The result of this expedition was, that in 1565 St. Augustine, the oldest European 1565. town in the United States, was founded by the Spaniards, and the French colonists were, with the exception of a few Catholics, either driven from Florida,4 massacred, or enslaved.
1 Finally discovered by Captain McClure, in 1850-54, but useless to navigation.
2 The Mississippi was not visited again by any European for more than one hundred and thirty years. See p. 67, ¶ 3.
3 See P. 15, ¶¶ 2, 3. 4 See p. 94, ¶ 13
QUESTIONS. -- Give an account of the voyage of Gomez, What of Do Narvaez? 3. What did De Soto undertake? What river did he discover, and when? His fate?--What of his followers? 4. For what was Melendez de Avilez commissioned? The result of his expedition?
PERIOD I. -- 1492-1607. DISCOVERIES
5. Spain was earliest in the field of discovery and exploration in the interior of North America, and on the Pacific shores, In 1541 Alarcon sailed north along the Pacific coast almost to San Francisco. The next year De Cabrillo explored the coast to near the mouth of the Columbia. These voyages were undertaken the purpose of finding a passage into the Atlantic.1 The same year that Alarcon set out on his expedition, Coronado, sailing along the eastern shores of the Gulf of California, discovered the River Gila, which he followed nearly to its source; he then struck east across the mountains, and reached the upper waters of the Rio Grande. In 1580 Ruyz, a Franciscan friar, made a missionary tour through the regions north of Mexico, traversing the country visited forty years before by Coronado.
The next year De Espejo extended the explorations of Ruyz, and named the country New Mexico. In 1582 he founded Santa Fé, next to St. Augustine, the oldest town in the United States.
I. EARLY EXPEDITIONS IN THE NORTH. -- 1. The French attempted no discoveries in America until 1524, when John Verrazzani, a native of Florence, sailed in the service of Francis I. Making land near Wilmington, North Carolina, he explored the coast for a short distance south, then north as far as the northern part of Nova Scotia. On his way he entered the harbors of New York and Newport. He named the country New France. Ten years later, James Cartier made a voyage under a commission from the King of France. Passing Newfoundland, he entered a bay, which he named Bay of Chaleurs.2 The next year, on a second voyage., he entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence,3 and explored, as far as the Island of Montreal, the great river that flows into it.
Lord Roberval was afterwards appointed viceroy of these regions, and, with Cartier, undertook to colonize them; but the attempt was abandoned, and the viceroyalty relinquished.
1 See p. 13 ¶ 2, and note 1.
2 Bay of heats, -- so named from the intense summer heats which he experienced there.
3 Cartier entered the gulf on the day of St. Lawrence, and gave the name of that saint to It. The Island of Montreal, and the city built upon it, owe their name to a beautiful hill near the centre of the island, which he named Mont Real (Royal Mount).
QUESTIONS. -- 5. What is said of Spain in the Interior of North America and on the Pacific coast? What is said of Alarcon? Of De Cabrillo? Of Coronado? Of Ruyz? Of De Espejo?
1. When did France begin to make discoveries in America? Describe the voyage of Verzazzani. Describe the voyages of Cartier. -- What is said of Roberval?
CHAPTER II. FRENCH EXPEDITIONS.
II. THE HUGUENOTS.--1. The celebrated Coligny obtained from King Charles IX. permission to establish in America a settlement for French Protestants, -- Huguenots, as they were called. John Ribault led the expedition. In 1562 he reached Port Royal entrance, and built a fort, which, in honer of his king,1 he named Carolina, a name afterwards applied to the neighboring territory. Leaving a garrison of twenty-five men, he returned to France for supplies and reënforcements. But France was distracted by civil wars. Aid could not be obtained, and the colonists soon abandoned Carolina.
2. Two years later, a second colony of Huguenots came over, under Laudonniere, who had sailed with Ribault on the former voyage. This colony established itself on the banks of the St. John's, in Florida. A second Fort Carolina was built. The next year Ribault arrived, bringing emigrants with their families, and abundant supplies. Spain, however, would not consent that land claimed2 by her should harbor Protestants, and Melendez3 was commissioned to "root out the heretics." He took the settlement by surprise, and put most of the inhabitants to death with inhuman atrocity, "Not as Frenchmen, but as heretics," as he declared.
3. The French government made no attempt to avenge the destruction of the colony, but French Protestants were aroused to the highest pitch of indignation. Dominic de Gourgues sold his property, collected contributions from his friends, and fitted out an armament to retaliate upon the Spaniards. In 1568, he surprised the Spanish forts erected near the ruins of Fort Carolina, and hanged the garrisons, placing over them the inscription, "Not as Spaniards and mariners, but as traitors, robbers, and murderers." De Gourgues, haying accomplished his purpose of revenge, embarked for France. His king disowned the expedition, and Florida returned to the possession of Spain.
III. LATER EXPEDITIONS. -- 1. In 1603, Samuel Champlain was sent out by a company of Rouen merchants. He made a careful examination of the country about the St. Lawrence, and selected Quebec as the proper site for a fort.
Soon after, a patent was given to the Sieur de Monts, conferring on him a territory extending, under the name of Acadia, from forty to forty-six degrees north, or from near the latitude of Philadelphia to near that of Fredericton, New Brunswick. Under this patent, the first permanent French settlement in America was established, in 1605, on the western coast of Nova Scotia, and named Port Royal.4
1 Charles, in Latin Carolus. 2 See p. 12. § III. ¶ 1. 3 See p. 13, ¶ 4. 4 See p. 84, ¶ 2
QUESTIONS -- 1. Give an account of Ribault's expedition. 2. What can you tell of a second colony of Huguenots? Fate of the colony? 3. How was the destruction of this colony avenged? III. 1. Give an account of Champlain's expedition. What is said of De Monts? What was the extent of Acadia? What is said of Port Royal?
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