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   I. DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS. -- 1. England was the first to compete with Spain for the honors and Sketchadvantages of western discovery. In May, 1497, John Cabot, a Venetian by birth, but then a resident in England, accompanied by his son Sebastian, sailed, under the patronage of Henry VII., on a voyage of discovery.1 On the 3rd of July he fell in with land, which he named Prima Vista,2 and which is believed to have been the coast of Labrador. SketchThus the continent of America was discovered by Cabot more than a year before it was seen by Columbus,3 and more than two years before Vespucci4 visited it. The next year Sebastian Cabot made a second voyage, during which he explored the continent from Labrador to near Albemarle Sound.
   2. In 1576 Martin Frobisher was sent out to find the north-west passage.5 He sailed to the coast of Labrador, and as far Sketchnorth as the inlet that bears his name. Sir Francis Drake was the first Englishman who navigated the Pacific Ocean. He sailed north, in 1579, as far as Cape Orford, Oregon, and naming the country New Albion, took possession of it for his queen. He then returned to England by the Cape of Good Hope, thus completing the second circumnavigation of the globe.
   Il. ATTEMPTS TO FORM SETTLEMENTS. -- 1. In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh,6 under a commission from Queen Elizabeth, despatched Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow to America, with two small vessels. They reached the coast Sketchof North Carolina, and spent several weeks in trafficking with the natives. On their return to England, they gave so brilliant a description of the country, that Elizabeth bestowed upon it the name of Virginia, as a memorial that the discovery had been made under the patronage of a virgin queen.

   1 The commission granted Cabot is the oldest state paper of England in reference to America. It is dated March 5, 1496.
   2 First seen.   3 See p. 10, ¶ 10.   4 see p. 10, ¶ 12.   5 See p. 13, ¶ 2, and note.   
   6 Before this, Raleigh's half brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, made two attempts to effect a settlement in the New World. Both were ineffectual. On his second voyage, in 1583, he visited Newfoundland, and then sailed south, along the coast of Maine, to near the month of the Kennebec. But the loss of a part of his fleet compelled him to return to England. On his homeward voyage his vessel was lost, with all on board.

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. What is said of England in connection with western discovery? Who first discovered the continent of America? When and where? How long before Columbus saw it? now long before the visit of Vespucci? What more is said of Sebastian Cabot? 2. What is said of Frobisher? What of Drake's voyage? 11. 1. Give an account of the expedition of Amidas and Barlow. By whom was Virginia named? Why so named?



Sketch   3. Encouraged by the reports of Amidas and Barlow, and by the favor of his queen, Raleigh the next year sent out a fleet, Sketchunder the command of Sir Richard Grenville, for the purpose of making a settlement. As the colonists approached the coast of North Carolina, they narrowly escaped shipwreck on a cape named from that circumstance Cape Fear. They landed at Roanoke Island, in Albemarle Sound, where they Year, remained nearly a rounded by Indians, whom ill treatment rendered hostile. At length, threatened with starvation, they returned to England.
   4. Two years afterwards, Raleigh Sketchdespatched a company of emigrants, with wives and families, under John White, to establish homes in the New World. They arrived at Roanoke, and on the site of the former settlement laid the foundations of the City of Raleigh. White soon embarked for England to obtain reënforcements and supplies. He left a colony of more than one hundred persons; among them his infant granddaughter, Virginia Dare, the first child born of English parents in the present United States. After three years, he returned to find the city of Raleigh a desert. Nothing is known of the fate of the colony.
   5. In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold visited the coast of New England. He discovered Cape Cod, and named it, from his Sketchcatching there a great number of codfish.
   He concluded to settle on one of the Elizabeth Islands, where he erected a fort and storehouse; but discontents arose, and it was thought expedient to abandon the settlement. In 1603 Martin Pring explored the coast of America, from the eastern part of Maine to Martha's Vineyard, and in 1605 George Weymouth from Cape Cod to the Penobscot.
   III. THE CHARTER OF VIRGINIA. -- 1. England was now ready to take possession of her claims in America. Accordingly, the king, James I., granted, under the name of Virginia, the territory lying between the thirty-fourth and forty-fifth parallels of latitude, to two companies, the London Company and the Plymouth Company. To the London Company, composed of

   QUESTIONS. -- 3. 3. Give an account of the expedition under Grenville. 4. Give an account of the expedition under John White. Who sent out these expeditions? 5. What can you tell of Gosnold's voyage? Of Pring's? Of Weymouth's? 1. For what was England now ready? What territory did the grant of Virginia include? To what companies was Virginia granted?



"noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants;" in and about London, was granted a territory, called South Virginia, extending from the thirty-fourth to the tbirty-eighth parallel, that is, from the latitude of Cape Fear to the latitude of the southern limit of Maryland. To the Plymouth Company, composed of "knights, gentlemen, and merchants," residing in Plymouth and in the West of England, was granted a territory, called North Virginia, extending from the forty-first to the forty-fifth parallel, that is, very nearly from the latitude of the city of New York to the latitude of the south-eastern part of Maine. The intermediate territory of three degrees was open to both companies, with the condition that neither should settle within one hundred miles of any settlement previously established by the other.
   2. The general direction of affairs in Virginia, North and South, was committed to a body of men appointed by the king, styled the Council of Virginia, and resident in England. The local affairs of each colony were to be managed by a local council resident in the colony, its members to be named by the king, or in accordance with his will. Each local council could choose its own president, who was to be the chief magistrate in the colony. The colonists had no civil privileges, and for a time the produce of labor was to be shared in common.1

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   I. PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY. -- 1. At the commencement of this Period, the existence of the American continent was unknown to Europe. When first discovered, it was supposed to be a part of Asia. Balboa,2 Magellan,3 Drake.4 and others proved it to be separated from Asia by a wide ocean; and the various discoveries and explorations that have been briefly described in the previous chapters, determined with a good degree of accuracy the extent and the general outline of the continent, except at its extreme north.

   1 See p. 32, ¶ 8.    2 See p. 11, ¶ 1.    3 See p. 12, ¶ 1.    4 See p. 16, ¶ 2.

   QUESTIONS. -- Of whom was each company composed? The name and extent of the grant to each? What of the Intermediate territory? 2. To whom was the general direction of affairs committed? How were the members of the local councils named? What authority had they? What Is said of the colonists? Of the produce of labor? 1. What of America at the beginning of this period? What was at first supposed in regard to America? What was afterwards proved?







   2. The American Fisheries did much to open to Europe the way to the shores of the New World. From an early date, the rich fishing grounds off Newfoundland attracted the attention of the maritime nations of Europe. They are supposed to have been noticed by the Cabots, and soon after their time began to be much frequented. Indeed, for many years they were the only attraction to the northern part of the American coast. In the latter half of the sixteenth century, it is estimated that "four hundred vessels came annually from the harbors of Portugal and Spain, of France and England, to the shores of Newfoundland."1
   II. CLAIMS.2 -- 1. "It was held in these times, among the Christian states of Europe, and is still a received principle of the law of nations, that newly-discovered countries belong to the discoverers. This title might be liable, indeed, to some exception in favor of the native inhabitants; but, in case those inhabitants were not Christians, they were looked upon as fair subjects for plunder and conquest, the exclusive privilege of which was attached to the discovery."3 But occupation was necessary to complete the title by discovery; and if the nation originally discovering a country neglected for a long time to take possession of it, other nations could appropriate it.
   2. In conformity to this doctrine, the immense region known as North America was, at the close of this period, claimed by Spain, England, and France. Spanish claims, under the name of Florida,4 on the east, and of New Mexico,5 in the interior and on the west, extended north indefinitely from the southern boundary of the United States. Within the present limits of the United States, Spain had confirmed her claims by Settlements at St. Augustine and at Santa Fé. French claims extended South, under the name of Acadia,6 to the latitude of Philadelphia, and under the name of New France,7 indefinitely. The French had established a colony at Port Royal. English claims, by priority of discovery, might have been much more extensive than the charter for Virginia' made them. James, in this charter, while he did not, avoid the regions claimed by France and Spain on the Atlantic coast, did avoid those actually occupied by them

   1 Bancroft.      2 See Map, p. 19.    3 Hildreth.       4 See p. 12, § III
   5 see p. 14, ¶ 5.  6 See p. 15, § III.    7 See p. 14, ¶ 1.  8 See p. 17, § III.

   QUESTIONS. -- 2. What is said of American fisheries? II. 1. What principle of the law of nations is mentioned? Effect of occupation on title by discovery? 2. What nations Claimed North America? Describe and name the Spanish claims within the present limits of the United States. French claims. English claims.



   III. ABORIGINES. -- 1. When our ancestors first landed upon the shores of the New World, they found it an almost unbroken wilderness, inhabited by numerous tribes or clans of Indians,1 each tribe under its own sachem, or chief. Of their number, when the English settled among them, we have no certain estimate. They probably did not exceed one hundred and fifty thousand within the limits of the thirteen original states.
   2. The different tribes within the boundaries of the United States were nearly the same in their physical characteristics. In person the Indians were tall, straight, and well-proportioned. Their skins were red, or of a copper brown; their eyes black; their hair long, black, and coarse. The same moral characteristics were common to the different tribes. They were quick of apprehension, and not wanting in genius. At times they were friendly, and even courteous. In council, they were distinguished for gravity and eloquence; in war, for bravery and address. They were taciturn and unsocial, except when roused by some strong excitement. When determined upon revenge, no danger would deter them, - neither absence nor time could cool them.
   3. Of their employments, war was the favorite. Their weapons were war-clubs, hatchets of stone called tomahawks, and bows and arrows. Their warlike expeditions usually consisted of small parties, and it was their glory to lie in wait for their enemy, or come upon him by surprise. They rushed to the attack with incredible fury, and at the same time uttered their appalling war-whoop. Their captives they often tortured with every variety of cruelty, and to their dying agonies added every species of insult. Next to war, hunting and fishing were esteemed honorable. In the former, the weapons of war became the implements of the chase; in the latter, they used nets made of thread twisted from bark or from the sinews of the moose and deer; for fish-hooks, they used crooked bones. Their arts and manufactures were, for the most part, confined to the construction of wigwams, bows and arrows, wampum, ornaments, stone hatchets, and mortars for pounding corn; to the dressing of skins, and the weaving of mats from the bark of trees, or from a coarse sort of hemp. Their agriculture extended not much beyond the cultivation of porn, beans, peas, potatoes, and melons. Their skill in medicine was confined to a few simple prescriptions and operations. When they knew no remedy, they resorted to their powwow, or priest, who undertook a cure by means of sorcery. The Indians, however, were liable to few diseases compared with the number that prevails in civilized society. Their women, or squaws, tilled their scanty fields, and performed the drudgery connected with their household affairs.

   1 The Indians living in the United states, east of the Mississippi, have been arranged in eight families. The following will give the reader the names of these families, and of the most

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. What was the condition of the New World at the time of its discovery? By whom inhabited? What was the probable number of the Indians? 2. What is said of their physical characteristics? Of their moral characteristics? 3. What was the favorite employment of the Indians? What is said of their warlike expeditions? Of the treatment of their captives? What other employments were honorable? What of their arts and manufactures? Their agriculture? Their skill in medicine? The women?

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