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   4. The amusements of the men were principally leaping, shooting at a mark, dancing, and gaming. Their dances were usually performed round a large fire. In their war dances they sung or recited the feats


which they or their ancestors had achieved, represented the manner in which they were performed, and wrought themselves up to an inexpressible degree of martial enthusiasm.

Important tribes included in each; also, their locations at a time but little subsequent to the close of this period: --
   I. The, IROQUOIS, or WYANDOTS, occupying the northern part of the state of New York, and extending from the Hudson to Lake Erie. 'This family included, 1. The MOHAWKS; 2. The ONEIDAS; 3. the ONONDAGAS; 4. The CAYUGAS; 5. The SENECAS. This confederacy was called the FIVE NATIONS. At a later period, in 1713, they were joined by a kindred tribe from North Carolina and Virginia, the TUSCARORAS, and were called the SIX NATIONS. This family also occupied territory in Canada, north of the St. Lawrence and Lakes Ontario and Erie.
   II. The ALGONQUINS.--Their territory extended entirely around that of the Iroquois. Their principal divisions in the United States were, 1. The ABENAKIS, occupying nearly all the present State of Maine and part of New Hampshire. and including the Penobscots, the Norridgewocks, and the Androscoggins, whose locations are marked very nearly by the rivers named for them. -- 2. The NEW ENGLAND INDIANS, extending from New Hampshire to Connecticut, and including the Pawtuckets, located near the mouth of the Merrimac; the Massachusetts, about the bay of the same name; the Wampanoags, or Pokanokets, occupying the South-eastern part of Massachusetts and the eastern part of Rhode Island; and the Narragansets, west if Narraganset Bay. -- 3. The MOHEGAN TRIBES, extending from the eastern part of Connecticut to New Jersey, and including the Pequods, east of the Connecticut; the Mohegans proper, west of the Connecticut, and the Manhattans, occupying the Island of Manhattan, on which the city of New York now stands, and portions of the surrounding country. -- 4. The LENNI LENAPE, best known by the name of one of their principal tribes, the Delawares, In the valley of the Delaware. -- 5. The POWHATANS, occupying the low lands between the James and the Potomac. -- 6. The SHAWNEES, a roving tribe, but first met with in Tennessee, between the Ohio and the Cumberland Rivers. -- 7. The ILLINOIS, in the southern part of the state that bears their name. -- 8. The KICKAPOOS, north of the last named. -- 9. The POTAWATOMIES, between the Kickapoos and Lake Michigan. -- 10. The CHIPPEWAS, south-west of Lake Superior. -- 11. The MENOMONIES, between Green Bay and Lake Superior. -- 12. The SACS and South of and between the last two. -- 13. The OTTAWAS, in the present State of Michigan, south of the Strait of Mackinaw. -- 14. The MIAMIS, between Lakes Michigan and Eric.
   III. The CATAWBAS, in the Carolinas.
   IV. The MOBILIAN TRIBES, occupying the most of what is now called the cotton region, east of the Mississippi. These included, 1. The YAMASSEES, on the lower Savannah; 2. The SEMINOLES In Florida; 3. The CREEKS or MUSCOGEES, in Southern and Central Georgia; 4. The CHOCTAWS, in the southern part of Mississippi; and, 5. The CHICKASAWS, in the northern part of Mississippi.

   QUESTION.--4. What is said of the amusements of the Indians?




   V. The CHEROKEES, occupying the high lands of Northern Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas, and Tennessee.
   VI. The UCHEES, between the Creeks and Cherokees.
   VII. The NATCHEZ, on the Mississippi, between the Choctaws and Chickasaws.
   VIII. The DAKOTAS, or SIOUX, dwelling for the most part west of the Mississippi; but one tribe, the WINNEBAGOES, established themselves west of Lake Michigan.
   The above Map will aid in marking the locations of these tribes.



   They had no books, or written literature, except rude hieroglyphics; and education was confined to the arts of war, hunting, fishing, and the few manufactures which existed among them. Their language was rude, but sonorous, metaphorical, and energetic, and well suited to the purposes of public speaking.
Sketch   5. Their houses were rude huts, called wigwams, generally grouped in villages. They were constructed by driving poles obliquely into the ground, and covering them with mats, skins, or the bark of trees. The Indians sat, ate, and lodged on the ground. Their dress in summer consisted of little besides a covering about the loins; but in winter they clothed themselves with the skins of wild beasts. They were exceedingly fond of ornaments, and of painting themselves with hideous devices. Their food was of the coarsest and simplest kind -- the flesh, and even the entrails, of all kinds of wild beasts and birds, the products of their limited agriculture, and such fruits as the country spontaneously produced. The money of the Indians, called wampum, consisted of small beads wrought from shells, and strung on belts, and in chains. A belt of wampum was given as a token of friendship, or as a seal or confirmation of a treaty.
   6. The government of the Indians, in general, was an absolute monarchy. The will of the sachem was law. In matters of moment, he consulted his councillors; but his decisions were final. When propositions for war or peace were made, or treaties proposed to them, they met the ambassadors in council, and, at the end of each paragraph or proposition, the principal sachem delivered a short stick to one of the assembly, intimating that it was his peculiar duty to remember that paragraph. This was repeated, till every proposal was finished; they then retired to deliberate among themselves. After their deliberations were ended, the sachem, or some councillors to whom he had delegated this office, replied to every paragraph, in its turn, with an exactness scarcely exceeded in the written correspondence of civilized powers. Each man actually remembered what was committed to him; and, with his assistance, the person who replied, remembered the whole. War and peace, among some tribes, seem to have been determined on in a council formed of old men, distinguished by their exploits. They spoke at pleasure, and always listened

QUESTIONS. -- What is said of their literature? Education? Language? 5. What can you tell of their houses? Dress? Food? Money? 6. What is said of their government? Describe their proceedings in council when propositions for war or peace were made. How were the councils formed, III some tribes?



to the speaker with profound and respectful silence. When peace was decided on, the chiefs of the hostile tribes ratified the treaty by smoking, in succession, the same pipe, called the calumet, or pipe of peace.
   7. The religious notions of the natives consisted of traditions, mingled with many superstitions. They believed in the existence of two gods: the one good, who was the superior, and whom they styled the Great or Good Spirit; the other evil. They worshipped both, and, besides these, fire, water, thunder, -- anything which they conceived to be superior to themselves, and capable of doing them injury. Marriage among them was generally a temporary contract. The men chose their wives agreeably to fancy, and put them away at pleasure. Polygamy was common. The Indians buried their dead in shallow graves, sometimes in a sitting posture, facing the east, sometimes in a reclining posture; or deposited them upon high scaffolds, or laid them upon the earth and covered them with bark. Sometimes mounds were raised over them. With the deceased were buried his arms and utensils, for the use of the departed spirit.
   8. The origin of the Indians is involved in much obscurity. It is generally supposed that they originated in Asia, and at some former period emigrated from that country to America, over which, in succeeding years, their descendants spread. This opinion is rendered probable by the fact that the figure, dress, manners, and customs of the Indians are strikingly similar to those of the people of North-eastern Asia; and the near approach of the two continents towards the north would render such emigration far from difficult. Traditions among some of the Indian tribes favor this opinion. They relate that their ancestors were driven from a distant land, through regions of intense cold, across a narrow sea filled with masses of ice.
   There are evidences, too, that the Indians found in portions of the United States were not the original inhabitants, but that they had displaced a race which had made considerable advance in civilization, driving them to settle about the Gulf of Mexico and in Peru. Similar evidence exists that a race of higher civilization gave place to one of a lower in Northeastern Asia. From these facts, it seems not improbable that barbarous tribes invaded and drove from their homes the former inhabitants of portions of Asia, compelling them to emigrate across Behring's Straits, and then, after the lapse of centuries, perhaps, followed them to America, again expelling them from their homes.

   QUESTIONS. -- HOW were treaties ratified? 7. What of their religious notions? How was marriage regarded among them? How did they bury their dead? 8. What is said of the origin of the Indians? What is the general opinion? What renders this probable? What traditions have the Indians in regard to their ancestors? Of what are there evidences? From these facts what is probable?




   (The figures at the end of the paragraphs in the Chronological Review refer to the pages upon which the events are mentioned.)

   1492. Columbus discovered America, 9.
   1497. John and Sebastian Cabot discovered the continent of America, probably Labrador, 16.
   1498. Columbus discovered the continent of America, 10.
   1499, Amerigo Vespucci, from whom America was named, visited the Western Continent, 10.
   1512. De Leon discovered Florida, 12.
   1513. Balboa discovered the Pacific, and called it the South Sea, 11.
   1520. Magellan discovered the Strait of Magellan, and entered and named the Pacific Ocean. One of his ships completed the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1522, 12.
   1521. Cortez completed the subjugation of Mexico, 12.
   1524. Verrazzani explored the coast of America from North Carolina to Nova Scotia, 14.
   1532. Pizarro completed the subjugation of Peru, 12.
   1534. Cartier explored the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 14.
   1541. Alarcon explored the Pacific coast to near San Francisco, 14. Coronado discovered the Gila and the Rio Grande, 14. De Soto discovered the Mississippi, 13.
   1562. The Huguenots attempted a settlement in South Carolina, 15.
   1565. St. Augustine, the oldest European town in the United States, was founded by Melendez, 13.
   1579. Drake visited the western coast of North America, named it New Albion, and claimed it for England, 16.
   1582. Santa Fé was founded; next to St. Augustine, the oldest town in the United States, 14.
   1584. Raleigh sent out, under Amidas and Barlow, an expedition which reached the coast of North Carolina. The country was named Virginia, 16.
   1585-7. Raleigh made unsuccessful attempts to colonize America, 16.
   1602. Gosnold discovered and named Cape Cod, 17.
   1605. Port Royal (Annapolis), Nova Scotia, was settled by the French, 15.
   1606. James 1. granted the charter of Virginia, 17.


   1492. The fall of Granada terminated the Moorish dominion in Spain.
   1508. The League of Cambray.
   1509. Henry Vill. king of England. Died 1547.
   1513. Leo X., Pope. Died 1521. -- The battle of Flodden Field.
   1515. Francis I. king of France. Died 1547.
   1517. The Reformation in Germany begun by Martin Luther.



   1519. Charles I. of Spain became Charles V., emperor of Germany. Abdicated as king 1555, 6, and not long after as emperor.
   1520. Solyman II., the Magnificent, Sultan of Turkey. Died 1566. Solyman was the last to reach sovereign power of the five contemporary rulers that fill so large a place in European history, - Henry VIII., Leo X., Francis I., Charles V., and Solyman II.
   1523. Gustavus Vasa freed Sweden from the Danish yoke, and was made Gustavus I. of Sweden. As sovereign, he was contemporary with all but Leo, of the five named above.
   1525. The battle of Pavia. Francis I. taken prisoner.
   1529. The Reformers protested against the decrees of the Diet of Spire, and were called Protestants. - Siege of Vienna by Solyman.
   1530. The creed of the German Protestants, styled the Augsburg Confession, drawn up by Melanchthon, and approved by Luther.
   1533. Parliament declared Henry VIII. the head of the English Church.
   1540. The Order of the Jesuits instituted by Loyola.
   1544. The Peace of Crespy.
   1558. The Mogul power in India finally established.
   1571. The battle of Lepanto. The Turkish fleet destroyed by the combined fleets of Spain and Italy, under Don John of Austria.
   1572. The St. Bartholomew massacre.
   1576. Wars began between Catholics and Protestants, in France, known as the Wars of the League.
   1579. The revolt of the seven provinces that formed the Dutch Republic in Holland, consummated in the Union of Utrecht.
   1582. New Style introduced into Catholic countries, by Pope Gregory XIII., -- October 5 being reckoned October 15.
   1588. The Spanish Armada destroyed.
   1590. Henry of Navarre, as Henry IV. of France, broke the power of the League in the battle of Ivry. 1598. Henry IV. of France issued the Edict of Nantes, tolerating Protestants. 1603. James VI. of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth on the English throne as James I., and thus united the English and the Scottish crowns. 1605. The Gunpowder Plot.

   Among the eminent men who closed their career during this period were,









Sir Thomas More,














Michael Angelo,








Sir Philip Sidney,






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