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   7. The allies of Philip now began to desert him, and late in the summer of 1676 he returned to the vicinity of Mount Hope, pursued by a party under Captain Church. His wife and son were taken prisoners. Crushed by this calamity, the savage chief exclaimed, "Now my heart breaks, and I am ready to die." A few days after, he was shot by an Indian friendly to the English. His captive son was sent to Bermuda to be sold into slavery.
   8. In this war the whites had lost six hundred men, besides women and children; six hundred of their houses had been burned, and twelve villages were entirely, and many others partially, destroyed. In addition to these losses, the colonists were burdened with a heavy debt. Of the Indians, thousands had fallen in battle, and thousands more joined tribes at the west and in Canada. After Philip's death a border warfare continued in Maine for nearly two years.
   9. New England Charters annulled. -- The New colonies had long been regarded by the king (Charles II.) with no great favor. In the struggle between his father and Parliament, they had sided with the latter.1 Massachusetts had not only refused to acknowledge the authority of the king's commissioners,2 but had resisted the Navigation Acts3 as unjust and illegal, and therefore became the especial object of the king's displeasure. Accordingly, in 1684, her charter was declared void, and soon afterwards the charters of the other New England colonies were also annulled.
   10. Charles died before he had time to adjust the affairs of the colonies; but his successor, James II., pursuing Sketchthe same arbitrary policy, in 1686 appointed the odious Sir Edmund Andros4 governor of New England. For more than two years the people endured his tyranny, but in 1689 the Revolution in England5 drove James II. from his throne, and from New England its oppressors.
   When news of the Revolution reached Boston, the people seized Andros and his associates, and sent them to England to answer for maladministration, and the New England colonies returned to their former mode of government. See p. 76, ¶ 3.

   1 After the Restoration they had sheltered from royal vengeance three of the regicide judges, William Goffe, Edward Whalley, and John Dixwell.
   2 See p. 42, ¶ 3.      3 See p. 34, ¶ 4.      4 See p. 55, ¶ 2.
   5 This Revolution is called the Revolution of 1688. It was consummated in February, which -- as the civil year then began March 25 -- was February, 1688, instead of, as by the present reckoning, February, 1689. See Contemporary Chronology, p. 99 (1752).

   QUESTIONS. -- 7. What more is said of Philip? 8. What were the losses of the whites? of the Indians? 9. Why did the king annul the New England charters? What special reasons in the case of Massachusetts? 10. Who was appointed governor of New England? when, and by whom? Character of Andros's administration? When and how was New England relieved from its oppressors? What was done with Andros and his associates?






   1. Two years after the landing of the Pilgrims,1 Sir Ferdinando Gorges2 and Captain John Mason obtained Sketchfrom the Council of Plymouth a grant of lands lying between the Merrimac and the Kennebec. The next year the proprietors sent out two small parties, one of which formed a settlement that has grown to be the present city of Portsmouth;3 the other established itself at Cocheco, now Dover. For several years these towns were mere fishing stations.
Sketch   In 1629 the partnership between Gorges and Mason was dissolved. The former took the part lying east of the Piscataqua;2 the latter that lying west, and named his province New Hampshire.4

   1 See p. 36, § II.    2 See p. 42, ¶ 2.    3 First called Strawberry Bank
   4 After the county of Hampshire, England, in which Mason lived.

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. What grant was made to Gorges and Mason, and when? What is said of the settlement of Portsmouth and Dover? What division was made of the grant to Gorges and Mason? What name did Mason give his province?



   Religious troubles in Massachusetts contributed to the settlement of New Hampshire. Some banished followers of Mrs. Hutchinson,1 led by her brother-in-law, the Rev. John Wheelwright, in 1638 founded Exeter.
   2. In 1641 the scattered settlements in New Hampshire were united to Massachusetts, of Sketchwhose history theirs forms a part for nearly forty years, when, by order of the 1679. crown, New Hampshire was made a royal province, governed by a President and Council Sketchappointed by the king, and a House of Representatives elected by the people. The province fell, with the rest of New England, into the power of Andros;2 but after the Revolution in England freed the colonies from his tyranny, the people placed themselves again under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.
Robert Mason, grandson and heir of John Mason, arrived in New Hampshire in 1681, and, as Lord Proprietor, demanded that leases should be taken out under him. His demands were resisted in the courts of low; and so determined was the hostility of the people that judgements obtained in his favor could not be enforced. See p. 75, ¶ 2.

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   I. COLONY OF CONNECTICUT. -- 1. The Earl of Warwick was the first proprietor of the Sketchson of Connecticut,4 under a grant from the Council of Plymouth. By him it was transferred, in 1631, to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brooke, and others. The territory so conveyed had for its eastern boundary the Narraganset River, and for its western, like most of the colonial grants, the Pacific Ocean.
Two years after this transfer, a few men, under Captain Holmes, from the Plymouth colony, sailed up the Connecticut to the place where Hartford now stands. Here the Dutch, the discoverers of the river, had erected a fort, and were ready to dispute possession with the English. Regardless of the threats of the Dutch commandant, Captain Holmes pressed forward and established a trading-house at Windsor.

   1 See p. 41, ¶ 6.      2 See p. 44, ¶ 10.      3 See Map, p. 466
   4 Connecticut takes its name from that of its principal river, which is an Indian word signifying Long River.

   QUESTIONS. -- What contributed to the settlement of New Hampshire? When and by whom was Exeter founded? 2. When was New Hampshire united to Massachusetts? What took place nearly forty years after? What after the Revolution in England? 3. What is said of Robert Mason and his claim? 1. Who was the first proprietor of Connecticut? To whom did he convey it? Boundaries? I 2. What to said of Captain Holmes, and the Dutch?



   3. In 1634 a company consisting of the churches of Watertown, Dorchester, andSketch Newtown (now Cambridge), made preparations for removal to the banks of the Connecticut, and the same year some of the Watertown peope (sic) began a settlement at Wethersfield. The next year a small party emigrated from Dorchester to Windsor, and in 1636 the final emigration of the company took place. Those from Sketch Newtown, with the Rev. Thomas Hooker, "the light of the western churches," settled at Hartford.
With no guide but a compass, they made their way, on foot, over mountains, swamps, and rivers. During their journey, which lasted a fortnight. they lived chiefly upon the milk of the cows they drove with them.
   4. Saybrook Colony. -- In 1635 John Winthrop, son of the Massachusetts governor, as agent Sketchfor Lord Say and Seal and Lord Brooke, built a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut, and made a settlement there, which he named, in honor of his employers, Saybrook. In 1644 this colony was united with the settlements farther up the river, already organized as a distinct commonwealth.

   5. The Pequot War. -- The year 1637 is distinguished, in the history of Connecticut, for a Sketchwar with the Pequots,1 which resulted in the entire destruction of that tribe.

   The previous year a number of whites had been murdered by Pequot, and Narraganset2 Indians. The latter made satisfaction to the colonies; the former, failing to do so, were only incited to further outrages by an inefficient attempt to punish them. In the spring it was resolved to crush the Pequots. Captain John Mason, at the head of about eighty men from the river towns, and more than four hundred friendly Indians under Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans,1 and Miantonomoh, of the Narragansets,3 surprised the enemy in their stronghold,4 in the present town of Groton, burned their fort, and killed six hundred men, women, and children. Of the English, two were killed and twenty wounded.

   1 See p. 22, note II., 3.)      2 See p. 22, note (II., 2.)
   3 The Mohegans were friendly to the English; the Narragansets would have been persuaded to make common cause with the Pequots, but for Roger Williams, who, at the risk of his life, visited the wigwam of their chief, and there confronting the deputies of the Pequots, he not only prevented the alliance, but induced the wavering Narragansets to aid the colonists.
   4 Mason approached the fort at daybreak. The barking of a dog roused the sleeping sentinel, who ran into the fort, crying out, "Owanux! Owanux!" Englishmen! Englishmen! The troops rushed to the attack, and immediately were within the palisades, fighting hand to hand with the half-awakened savages. The Pequots far outnumbered their assailants. and, recovering from their first surprise, made a brave resistance. victory seemed doubtful, when Mason, exclaiming, "We must burn them!" set fire to one of the wigwams in the enclosure. The flames rapidly enveloped the frail cabins, and drove many from their shelter to become an easy prey to the English musket.

   QUESTIONS. -- 3. What is said of the settlement of Wethersfield, Windsor, and Hartford? 4. Give an account of the Saybrook colony? 5. When did the Pequot war break out? The result? -- Cause of the war? Describe Mason's expedition against the Pequots.



   6. This terrible blow so disheartened the Pequots, that they made not much further resistance. Some were enslaved, others distributed among the Mohegans and Narragansets, and the tribe ceased to exist. Sassacus, their chief, escaped to the Mohawks,1 who put him to death. The New England Indians, awed by the fearful retribution meted out to the Pequots, did not molest the colonies for nearly forty years.2
   7. In 1639 the freemen of Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, finding tbemselves without Sketchthe limits of Massachusetts, assembled at Hartford, and organized a separate government for the Connecticut Colony. They adopted a constitution,3 which ordained that a governor, deputy governor, and magistrates should be elected annually by the freemen, and that these officers, with representatives chosen by the towns, should constitute the legislature of the colony.
In 1650 a treaty was concluded at Hartford, which established a dividing line between the English and Dutch colonies,4 near the present boundary between Connecticut and New York, on the main land. The latter were to retain their "Fort of Good Hope,"5 in Hartford, and the lands belonging to it. But four years later, when the English colonies apprehended further troubles with them in consequence of the war between England and Holland, the legislature at Hartford took possession of these; and the Dutch thenceforth prosecuted no further claims in New England.

    II. C
OLONY OF NEW HAVEN. -- 1. New Haven was founded in 1638, by a company of Sketchemigrants under the lead of John Davenport, a distinguished nonconformist minister of London, and Theophilus Eaton, an eminent London merchant. This and the neighboring towns, which were settled soon after were known as the New Haven colony.6
The next year they established a government, adopted the Scriptures as the law of the colony, and restricted, as had been done in Massachusetts, the right of voting and of holding office to church members. Mr. Eaton was annually chosen governor of the colony until his death, -- a period of nearly twenty years. New Haven shared with Connecticut her difficulties with the Dutch.

   1 See p. 22, note (I., 1.)      2 See p. 42, ¶ 4.
   3 The first example in history of a written constitution formed by the people. It was the basis of their government till the adoption of the present constitution in 1818.
   4 See p. 54, ¶ 7.      5 See p. 46, Chap. IV., ¶ 2.
   6 Davenport and his associates arrived at Boston during the Hutchinson controversy (see p. 41, 41 6). Wishing to avoid the religious dissensions then disturbing Massachusetts, they determined to settle elsewhere, and Quinnipiack, now New Haven, was fixed upon as their future home.

   QUESTIONS. -- 6. What further is said of the Pequots? Effect upon the New England Indians of this retribution? 7. When and by what settlements was a government organized for the towns on the Connecticut? What did the constitution ordain? 8. What treaty was concluded between the English and Dutch colonies, and when? When and why were the Dutch driven out of Hartford? 1. When and by whom was New Haven founded? 2. What is said of the government of the colony? What of Mr. Eaton? What of difficulties with the Dutch?



   III. CONNECTICUT AND NEW HAVEN UNITED. -- 1. In 1665, under a charter granted Sketchthree years before by Charles II., Connecticut and New Haven were united, and styled the Colony of Connecticut. The charter1 confirmed the privileges of the Connecticut constitution,2 and embraced the territory granted to Lord Say and Seal and Lord Brooke3
Connecticut and New York. -- While Connecticut, with the other colonies of New England, was involved in the terrible war with Philip,4 she was threatened with the loss of a large part of her territory from the claims of the Duke of York, into whose hands New Netherland, now New York, had been given by his brother, Charles II. With characteristic perfidy, Charles, disregarding the Connecticut charter, had granted to the duke a province Sketchwhich had the Connecticut as its eastern boundary.5 Accordingly, Edmund Andros,6 then governor of New York, -- the same who was afterwards soSketch conspicuous an instrument of tyranny in New England, proceeded to Saybrook with a small force, to assert his authority. But he met with so determined resistance that he relinquished the attempt. In 1683 the boundary between New York and Connecticut was established, much as at present.7
   3. In 1687, the year after Sir Edmund Andros landed in Boston as governor of New England, he went to Hartford, and, entering the legislative assembly, demanded the charter, and declared the colonial government dissolved. Reluctant to surrender the charter, the assembly protracted its debates till evening. Upon a preconcerted signal the lights were extinguished, and Captain Wadsworth seized the charter, which lay upon the table, and secreted it in the hollow of an oak. Sir Edmund,

   1 To the younger Winthrop, one of the most accomplished men of the age, was the province chiefly indebted for the liberality of her charter. He went to England as the agent of Connecticut, of which he was the governor, and so won the favor of the monarch, that he obtained a charter more liberal in its provisions than any that had yet issued from the throne.
   2 See p. 48: ¶ 7      3 See p. 46, Chap. IV., ¶ 1.      4 See p. 42, ¶ 4.
   5 See p. 54, ¶ 8.      6 See p. 44, ¶ 10.       7 The boundary was finally run in 1731.

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. When and under what name were Connecticut and New Haven united? What did the charter confirm? What did it embrace? 4. When and how was Connecticut threatened with a loss of territory? Who was then governor of New York? Describe his attempt to assert his authority over Connecticut. What is said of the boundary between New York and Connecticut? 3. Give an account of the course of Andros in Connecticut

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