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however, assumed the government, which was administered in his name until the dethronement of James II., in 1689.1 On this event, the people took the charter from its hiding-place, "discolored, but not effaced," convened the assembly, and resumed their former government. See p. 77, ¶ 6.

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   I. PROVIDENCE PLANTATION. -- 1. Roger Williams,3 banished from Massachusetts, obtained from SketchCanonicus and Miantonomoh, chief sachems of the Narragansets, a tract of land at the head of Narraganset Bay, and there, with a few associates, began a settlement in 1636, which he named Providence.4
The government first established for the new colony was a pure democracy, its legislative, judicial, and executive functions being exercised by the assembled citizens. The will of the majority was the law, yet "only in civil things." Williams acted upon the principle which he had advocated in Massachusetts, and which had been the chief ground of complaint against him in that colony, viz., that the civil power has no control over the religious opinions of men. Providence quickly became the refuge of the persecuted in other colonies; with them Williams shared the lands he had obtained, reserving to himself "not one foot of land, not one tittle of political power, more than he granted to servants and strangers."

   II. R
HODE ISLAND PLANTATION -- 1. In 1638 William Coddington and eighteen others, being Sketchpersecuted in Massachusetts for their religious tenets, followed Roger Williams to Providence. By his advice they purchased of the Narragansets, Aquidneck,5 now Rhode Island,6 and began the Settlement of Portsmouth. The next year another settlement was commenced, and named Newport. Both towns belonged to the same colony, which afterwards received the name of the Rhode Island Plantation.

   1 See p. 44 ¶ 10.      2 See Map p. 45.
   3 See p. 41, ¶ 6. Though the founder of Rhode Island, Williams was not the first European who dwelt within its limits. William Blackstone, the first white inhabitant of Boston, had removed to the banks of the river that now bears his name, a little above Providence, before that city was founded. He had no intention, however, of establishing a separate colony and acknowledged the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. He removed because he found the authority of the "lords brethren" in Boston as oppressive as that of the "lords bishops" in England.
   4 In grateful remembrance of God's merciful providence to him in his distress."
   5 Also called Aquiday, Aquetnet, &c. -- Indian names signifying Peaceful Island.
   6 An island of a reddish appearance was observed lying within [Narraganset Bay]. This was soon known to the Dutch as Roode or Red Island. From this is derived the name of the Island and State of Rhode Island." -- Brodhead.

   QUESTIONS. -- What happened upon the dethronement of James II.? 1. When and by whom was Providence founded? 2. What is said of the government? Upon what principle did Williams act? What did Providence quickly become? 11. 1. What were the first settlements of the Rhode Island Plantation? When and by whom made?



   2. In principle the government of Rhode Island was the same, both in civil and religious matters, as at Providence. In form, however, it was at first, different. In imitation of the Jewish government under the judges, their chief ruler was styled Judge.

    III. T
HE UNITED PLANTATIONS. -- 1. The Providence and Rhode Island colonies remained distinct for several years, but their proposal to join the New England Union1 being refused, ostensibly on the ground Sketchthat they had no charter, Williams went to England, and, in 1644, obtained from Parliament a charter of incorporation, by which the Plantations were united under one government, with the full Sketchcontrol of their civil and religious affairs. A democratic form of government was organized, "by which, in 1647, freedom of faith and worship was assured to all -- the first formal and legal establishment of religious liberty ever promulgated, whether in Europe or America." In 1663, under the name Sketchof the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, they obtained from Charles II. a royal charter similar in its provisions to that granted to Connecticut.
The charter made the Pawcatuck the western boundary of the Plantations, thus including territory already granted to Connecticut.2 Rhode Island, as the united Plantations came at length to be called, found it difficult to maintain the integrity of her soil against her neighbors. Connecticut on one side, and Plymouth and Massachusetts on the other, endeavored to appropriate her territory; and it was not till near the middle of the next century that her boundaries were definitely settled.
One of the earliest laws passed by the legislature, under the royal charter, restricted the right of suffrage to the holders of a certain amount of real estate, and to their eldest sons. While Rhode Island remained an agricultural community, this occasioned no complaint; but about one hundred and eighty years later it threatened to cause a civil war.3
Soon after Andros assumed the government of New England,4 he repaired to Rhode Island, abolished the charter, and appointed a council to assist him in governing the colony. But when news of the dethronement of James arrived, Rhode Island resumed her charter. The officers whom Andros had displaced were reinstated, except the governor, who hesitating to incur the responsibilities of the office, Henry Bull, "a fearless Quaker," consented to accept the position. See p. 77, ¶ 6.

   1 See p. 41, § IV.    2 See p. 49, ¶ 1.   3 See P. 204, ¶ 4.     4 See p. 44, ¶ 10.

   QUESTIONS. -- 2. What is said of the government of Rhode the Providence and Rhode Island Plantations united? What was assured to all? When was a royal charter obtained, and what were its provisions? III. 2. What is said of the boundaries? 3. What is said of the right of suffrage? What can you tell of Andros in Rhode Island? What happened when news of the dethronement of James arrived?






   I. NEW YORK UNDER THE DUTCH. -- 1. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch East India Company, sailed to America to find a north-west passage to India.2 Failing in this, he explored the eastern coast of North America, from Chesapeake Bay to Long Island,3 entered New York harbor, and ascended the Hudson beyond the present site of Albany. This voyage laid the foundation of the Dutch claim to territory in America. 4
Dutch merchants soon began to send out trading vessels to the newly discovered river, and huts for the shelter of traders were erected at

   1 See Map, p. 56.    2 See p. 13. ¶ 2.
   3 This region was first visited by Cabot in 1198 (see p. 16, ¶ 1), afterwards by Verrazzani in 1524 (see p. 14, ¶ 1), and by Gomez it in 1525 (see p. 13, ¶ 2).
   4 Hudson then sailed for England. James I., hoping to prevent the Dutch from laying claim to the country explored by Hudson, forbade his return to Holland; but the discoverer sent to his employers "a brilliant account" of his voyage. On a subsequent voyage under the patronage of the English, in search of a path to the Pacific, Hudson discovered the bay that bears his name. After this his crew, becoming mutinous, seized him, his son, and seven others, threw them into a shallop, and set them adrift. Nothing more was ever heard of them.

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. In whose service and with what design did Hudson sail to America? What harbor and river did he enter? What claim was founded upon this voyage? -- What Dutch merchants soon do?



its mouth, on Manhattan Island.1 A fort was constructed on the southern part of the island, probably in 1614, and about the same time a fortified trading-house was built near the present site of Albany.
   2. In 1621 the States General2 granted to the Dutch West India Company extensive privileges for trade and colonization, which resulted in their claiming North America from Cape Henlopen to the Connecticut, and Sketchnaming this region New Netherland. Under the patronage of this company, colonization began in earnest in 1623. Permanent settlements were made at New York and Albany, -- the former called New Amsterdam, and the latter Fort Orange.
   3. The first governor of New Netherland was Peter Minuit, who arrived at New Amsterdam in 1626.
In order to give an impulse to colonization in their territory, the Dutch West India Company allowed persons who would plant colonies of fifty settlers, to select vast tracts of land, which they were to purchase of the SketchIndians, and which should descend to their posterity forever. Of this privilege several availed themselves. Such were called patroons -- that is, patrons -- or lords of the manor. This was the foundation for the manors of New York, some of which remain to this day. Out of the land monopolies thus established grew, more than two centuries afterwards, serious disturbances, known as the anti-rent difficulties.3
During the administration of Walter Van Twiller, who superseded Minuit, in 1633, the. English gained a foothold on territory claimed by the Dutch in Connecticut.4 In 1638 Sir William Kieft became governor. He was a man of enterprise and ability, but haughty and unscrupulous. The history of his administration is little more than a chronicle of struggles and contentions with the English on the Connecticut, the Swedes on the Delaware,5 and the Indians in his neighborhood.
A war with the Indians was by far the most serious of the troubles of Kieft's administration. Under his predecessors the Indians near Manhattan had been friendly; but now they became totally estranged. Dishonest traders imposed upon Sketchthem. Kieft himself undertook to exact tribute. In revenge for real and fancied wrongs, some murders were committed by the Indians. Kieft, in retaliation, attacked a party of them while sleeping, unsuspicious of danger. Warrior, squaw, and child were indiscriminately massacred. This united against the Dutch

   1 This island, the present site of New York, was so called after the Indian tribe of Manhattans. It was purchased of the Indians for sixty guilders, or about twenty-four dollars.
   2 This was the title of the government of the Dutch Republic.
   3 See p. 204, ¶ 5.      4 See p. 46, Chap. IV., ¶ 2.      5 See p. 59, ¶ 2.

   QUESTIONS. -- Where were a fort and trading-house soon erected? 2. What did the States General grant in 1621, and to what company? What claim did the company make under this grant? What permanent settlements were made, and when? 3. Who was the first governor of New Netherland? -- What plan did the Dutch West India Company adopt to colonize their territory? Who were the patroons? 4. What took place during Van Twiller's administration? What is said of Kieft? of his administration? 5. Give an account of the war with the Indians.



all the neighboring Indians. Villages were laid waste; the farmer was murdered in his field, and his children carried into captivity.1 But at length a short-lived reconciliation was brought about.
Confidence, however, was not restored. The Indians thirsted for further revenge, and the war was renewed. The Dutch engaged Captain John Underhill, who had distinguished himself in the Indian wars of New England, to act as a leader. He defeated the savages on Long Island and at Strickland's Plain in Greenwich. Finally both parties became weary of the contest, and peace was established in 1645. The conduct of Kieft was reprobated both in Holland and in New Netherland. Deprived of his office, he embarked for Europe, in a ship richly laden with furs; but his vessel was wrecked, and the guilty Kieft perished.
   7. The fourth and last, as well as the ablest and most noted governor of New Netherland, was Peter SketchStuyvesant.
He arranged a boundary with the English in Connecticut,2 conquered the Swedes on the Delaware,3 and annexed their territory to New Netherland. His policy towards the Indians was so conciliatory that they were generally peaceably disposed during his term of office. But while he was absent upon his expedition against the Swedes, the savages ravaged the country about New Amsterdam, and destroyed the settlements on Staten Island. On his return the governor purchased, rater than conquered, a peace. In 1663 the Indians laid waste the Dutch village of Esopus (now Kingston). Stuyvesant promptly sent a force to chastise them, and they were compelled to sue for peace.
   8. Conquest of New Netherland. -- The English claimed New Netherland on the ground of the discoveries Sketchof the Cabots;4 and in 1664 Charles II. granted to his brother, Duke of York and Albany,5 the territory extending from the Connecticut to the Delaware.6 The duke immediately took forcible possession of his province, which, as well as its principal city, was named New York. Fort Orange was called Albany. Long Island was united to New York. The grant to the duke also included the country in the present State of Maine,7 lying between the Kennebec and the St. Croix.
When the English squadron entered the harbor of New Amsterdam,

   1 It was at this time that the celebrated Ann Hutchinson, who had been banished from Massachusetts, was murdered. See p. 41, ¶ 6, and note 3.
   2 See p. 48, ¶ 8.    3 See p. 501, ¶ 2.    4 See p. 16, ¶ 1.    5 Afterwards James II.
   6 The grant of Charles was a flagrant act of injustice, both to Holland, with which country England was then at peace, and to the people of Connecticut, whose chartered rights it violated.
   7 The duke's grant in Maine was claimed by the French as a part of Acadia. See p. 15, § III.

   QUESTIONS. -- 6. Give an account of the war renewed. Of the establishment of peace. What is said of Kieft? His fate? 7. What is said of Stuyvesant? -- Of his transactions with the English and the Swedes? With the Indians? 8. Why did the English claim New Netherland? What territory was granted by Charles II. in 1664, and to whom? What did the duke immediately do? What change was made in the name of the province and its two principal settlements? What else was included in the duke's grant?



Stuyvesant resolved to defend the city. But many of the inhabitants were natives of England, and many of the Dutch, not being allowed any voice in the affairs of the colony, were willing to submit to the authority of England, in the hope of obtaining political privileges, such as were enjoyed by the English colonies in New England. Thus the governor was not supported by the people, and was obliged to capitulate.


   II. NEW YORK UNDER THE ENGLISH. -- 1. The first governor under the Duke of York was Colonel Nichols. The people were sadly disappointed in their hope of obtaining greater liberty. Contrary to all right, the governor declared the Dutch titles to land invalid, and enriched himself by the fees demanded for their renewal. Still more odious was the administration of Francis Lovelace, the successor of Nichols. A remonstrance against taxation without representation was ordered to be burned by the common hangman. While Lovelace1 was governor, the Duke of York extended his authority over the settlements on the west bank of the Delaware, by light of conquest from the Dutch.2
In 1672 war was declared between England and Holland; and when, the next year, a small Dutch Sketchsquadron appeared off New York, the people, still oppressed by Lovelace, saw without regret the possessions of the Duke of York return to the Dutch. At the close of the war, however, all conquests were restored, and New Netherland became a second time New York. Edmund Andros,3 afterwards the tyrant of New England, was appointed first governor of the restored province in 1674, and ruled with arbitrary sway.

   1 During the administration of Lovelace, a mail was started between New York and Boston, by way of Hartford. According to announcement, the messenger was to leave New York, January 1, 1672, and complete the journey to Boston and back within the month.
   2 See p. 54, ¶ 7      3 See p. 44, ¶ 10.

   QUESTIONS. -- Why did the inhabitants refuse to aid Stuyvesant in defending the city? 1. What is said of Nichols and his administration? Of Lovelace? Under his administration where did the duke extend his authority? 2. When was New York recaptured by the Dutch? When restored? What is said of Andros?

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