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   Penn was a man of liberal views, of great benevolence, integrity, ability, and energy. He belonged to the society of Friends, or Quakers -- a sect much persecuted in England, where it had recently arisen. He was desirous of founding a colony where civil and religious liberty might be enjoyed.
   2. Immediately after receiving his patent, he despatched an agent to negotiate with the Swedes and Dutch,1 already settled in his province. He also sent out a company of emigrants. In 1682 he prepared a Frame of Government, vesting all authority in the proprietor, or a governor appointed by him, and a council and legislative assembly chosen by the people. The same year Penn himself came over, with a large number of colonists, chiefly Quakers.
   3. A legislature having been convened at Chester, a code was enacted, called the Great Law, by Sketchwhich, among other provisions, it was ordained that no one believing in one "Almighty God" should be molested in his religious opinions, and making "faith in Jesus Christ" a necessary qualification for voting and for holding office.3
An Act of Union was also passed, which annexed to Pennsylvania the territories1 already conveyed to Penn by the Duke of York. Here, as well as in the province itself, long before Penn's grant, settlements had been made by the Swedes and the Dutch. These were confirmed in their rights of property, and allowed the same privileges as the English.
   4. Soon after Penn's arrival, he met a delegation of the neighboring tribes of Indians, and established with them a

   1 See p. 58, Chap. VIII.
   2 After the only authentic original portrait of Penn in existence, painted in 1666, when he was twenty-two years of age.
   3 It will be seen that the form of religious toleration was like that of Maryland (see p. 60, ¶ 6). rather than like that of Rhode Island (see p. 51, § III.).

   QUESTIONS. -- What is said of Penn? Of the Friends? What was Penn desirous of founding? 2. What did he do after receiving his patent? now did Penn's Frame of Government vest authority? When did Penn come over? 3. When and where was a legislature convened? What did the Great Law ordain? -- What else was done by this legislature? What of the Swedes and Dutch? 4. What is said of Penn's treaty with the Indians?



treaty of pence and friendship, which remained uninterrupted for more than seventy years, -- till Pennsylvania passed from the control of the Quakers.1


   5. Early in the year 1683 the proprietor laid out a capital for his province, and named it Philadelphia -- Sketcha name which signifies brotherly love.
This city was erected on lands previously occupied by the Swedes, and purchased of them by Penn. Within a year nearly a hundred houses were built in the new city, and at the expiration of the second year it contained more than two thousand inhabitants. Indeed the whole province had a more rapid and prosperous settlement than any of the other colonies.

   1 This meeting took place under a great elm, by the side of the Delaware, in what is now a part of Philadelphia, called Kensington. Penn, attended by a few friends, arrived at the spot where the simple children of the forest gathered around him, and he thus addressed them:
   We meet on the broad pathway of good faith and good will: no advantage shall be taken on either side, but all shall be openness and love. I will not call you children, -- for parents sometimes chide their children too severely; nor brothers only, -- for brothers differ. The friendship between me and you I will not compare to a chain; for that the rains might rust, or the falling tree might break. We are the same as if one man's body were to he divided into two parts,we are all one flesh and blood." Touched by this warm-hearted and generous address, the Indians declared, "We will live in love with William Penn and his children, as long as the moon and the sun shall endure; "and "not a drop of Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian."

   QUESTIONS. -- 5. When was Philadelphia founded? -- What is said of the growth of the city? What of the province?



   6. In March a second legislature was convened to meet at the capital, while it was yet scarcely more than a wilderness; and at the request of the freemen, Penn, always ready to accede to their wishes, granted a charter of liberties, extending the liberal provisions of the former government.
   7. Penn returned to England in 1684, leaving the administration of the government in the care of five commissioners, with Thomas Lloyd as president; and under their control the affairs of the colony remained till after the accession of William and Mary to the English throne. See p. 78, ¶ 10.

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   I. THE CAROLINAS. -- 1. The Carolinas have their early history in common. In 1663 Lord SketchClarendon and seven associates1 obtained from Charles II. of England a patent for a vast territory south of Virginia. Two years later this company induced the king to enlarge the boundaries of their province so as to embrace a country extending, in latitude, from the present northern limit of North Carolina to a parallel south of St. Augustine, and, in longitude, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This province was named Carolina2
   2. When the proprietors came into possession of their province, they found that settlements Sketchhad already been made, by planters from Virginia, on the northern shore of Albemarle Sound. In 1663 a government, securing to the people liberty of conscience and a voice in legislation, was instituted under William Drummond, one of the settlers, ad governor, and the plantation was named the Albemarle colony.3
   3. About the year 1660 a number of adventurers from New England formed a settlement at the mouth of Cape Fear River;

   1 Clarendon's associates were the Duke of Albemarle (the distinguished General Monk), Lord Craven, Lord Ashley Cooper (afterwards the Earl of Shaftesbury), Sir John Colleton, Sir William Berkeley (the governor of Virginia; see p. 34), his brother Lord John Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret, the last two afterwards proprietors of New Jersey (see p. 57, ¶ 1.).
   2 The name was at once commemorative of the English king who granted it, and the king of France under whose authority an attempt had been made to plant a colony within its limits a century before. See p. 15, § II.
   3 In honor of the Duke of Albemarle, one of the proprietors.

   QUESTIONS. -- 6. When and where did the second legislature meet? What did Penn grant? 7. What is said of Penn in 1684? In whose care did he leave the government? 1. What of the early history of the Carolinas? What grant was made in 1663, and to whom? Two years later? 2. Give an account of the settlement of the Albemarle colony. Of its government. 8. Give an account of the settlement of the Clarendon colony.



but it did not prosper, and most of the adventurers abandoned it. Five years later, however, a company from Barbadoes established near the same place a settlement that was called the Clarendon colony. This colony absorbed such of the New Englanders as remained at Cape Fear. Sir John Yeamans administered the government under a constitution similar to that of the Albemarle colony.
   4. In 1670 a third colony, called the Carteret colony,1 was founded by emigrants from England. The colonists, Sketchaccompanied by William Sayle as governor, first entered the harbor of Port Royal, near Beaufort; but not long afterwards they sailed into the Ashley River, and founded Old Charleston. This, like the more northern colonies, early adopted a representative form of government.
   5. In 1680 the people of Old Charleston, attracted by the more pleasant location of a point of land between the SketchRivers Ashley and Cooper,2 removed thither, and there laid the foundation of the present city of Charleston.
   Scarcely had they removed when their safety was endangered by the hostility of the Indians. Retaliatory measures became necessary; many of the natives were shot; others were captured, and sent into slavery in the West Indies. Peace was made with them the following year.
   6. The distinguished statesman Lord Shaftesbury, one of the proprietors, and the eminent philosopher John Locke, drew up for the Carolina colonies a form of government, magnificent in design and labored in detail, known as the Grand Model. This scheme of government was never carried out. Though nominally in force for nearly a quarter of a century, it was found to be wholly impracticable, and the people, in spite of attempts to enforce it, continued under their own forms of government.
   7. Though Carolina remained one province till 1729, yet so remote were the colonies from each other that their affairs were administered by two governments, one for the northern, or Albemarle, and another for the southern or Carteret colony; and to the latter the governor of the middle or Clarendon colony, with most of its inhabitants, soon removed.

   1 After Sir George Carteret, one of the proprietors.
2 Named in honor of Sir Ashley Cooper (Earl of Shaftesbury), one of the proprietors.

   QUESTIONS. -- Who was the governor, and what of his government? 4. When and by whom was the Carteret colony founded? Under whom as governor? What harbor did they first enter? What town did they found soon after? 5. Give an account of the founding of the present city of Charleston. -- What is said of difficulties with the Indians? 6. What can you tell of the Grand Model? 7. What governments were established for Carolina? To which government was the Clarendon colony joined?



   II. NORTH CAROLINA. -- 1. Accessions were made to the Albemarle or North Carolina colony from New England, from the Bermudas, and elsewhere, but its progress was long retarded by domestic dissensions. An insurrection arose from an attempt to enforce the Grand Model; taxes were enormous, and commercial restrictions embarrassing. In 1677 an attempt was made to enforce the oppressive Navigation Acts1 against a vessel from New England, when the people rose, imprisoned the governor of the colony and several members of the council, and then proceeded to organize a government for themselves.
Still the proprietors were anxious to establish their authority; and for that purpose they sent over, in 1683, as governor, Seth Sothel, then one of their number. He only increased existing disorders. For five years the inhabitants endured his injustice and oppression, and then seized him, and banished him from the colony. It is said of Sothel, that "the dark shades of his character were not relieved by a single ray of virtue." See p. 78,¶ 15.


   III. SOUTH CAROLINA. -- 1. The progress of the southern colony was, from the beginning, more rapid than that of the northern. Many Dutch families from New York, being dissatisfied with their transfer

   1 See p. 34, ¶ 4.

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. Whence were accessions made to the Albemarle colony? How was its progress retarded? What sources of domestic trouble are mentioned? What of an attempt to enforce the Navigation Acts? 2. Give an account of Sothel and his administration. III. 1. What is said of the progress of the southern colony? Of Dutch settlers?



to the English in 1664,1 were ready to find a home here; and, in 1671, ship-loads of them were transported by the proprietors to Carolina free of expense, and liberal grants of land were made them. Their number was increased from time to time by emigrants from Holland. Soon after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes,2 a large number of Huguenots, or French Protestants, came over, and settled in the colony. The profanity and licentiousness of the court of Charles II. also drove not a few Puritans across the Atlantic, a number of whom settled in South Carolina.
   2. In 1686 James Colleton, a brother of one of the proprietors, was appointed governor, in the Sketchhope that he would be able to reconcile the colonists to the proprietary authority, to which they had for a long time been averse. But his arbitrary conduct drove the people to open resistance. The public records were seized, the colonial secretary was imprisoned, the governor defied, and in 1690 he was banished from the colony. See p. 78,1115.

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   1. WHILE the English were taking possession of a narrow strip along the coast from Maine to South Carolina, the French3 were exploring the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, the Mississippi, and their tributaries.
   2. Champlain,4
"the father of New France," laid the foundation of Quebec in 1608, and the next year discoveredSketch the lake that bears his name. He entered what is now New York5 accompanied by a party of Hurons and Algonquins, and defeated in battle their enemies, the Five Nations,6 thus gaining for the French the enmity, and for the English the friendship, of that confederacy.
   3. French Jesuits,7 with their usual energy and zeal, were the most active pioneers of discovery. One of the most devoted of their number, James Marquette, determined to

   1 See p. 54, ¶ 8.           2 See Contemporary Chronology, p. 73 (169).
   3 See p. 14, Chap. 11.      4 See p. 15, § 111.
   5 It is worth while to remark that the representatives of three different nations were penetrating the interior of what is now the Middle States, from different points, at nearly the same lime, -- Champlain, Hudson (see p. 52, ¶ 1), and Smith, -- Smith having made an exploration of the Chesapeake in 1608.          6 See p. 22, note (I.)
   7 Even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Jesuit priests had home the message of a Saviour to the Indians living on the upper waters of the Kennebec, and east of that river. They carried the symbols of their nation and religion through the wilderness, till they planted the lilies of France and preached the doctrines of the cross on the shores of Lake Superior.

   QUESTIONS. -- What is said of the Huguenots? Of Puritans? 2. Give an account of Colleton and his administration. Chap. XII. 1. now were the French employed while the English were taking possession of the coast from Maine to Carolina? 2. When and by whom was Lake Champlain discovered? What city did Champlain found the previous year? What Indians did he defeat in battle? Result to the French and the English? 3. What is said of French Jesuits? Give an account of Marquette's exploration of the Mississippi.

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