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   3. PSketcholitical freedom seemed to be in store for New York when Colonel Thomas Dongan arrived as Sketchgovernor, in 1683. He came over with instructions from the duke to call an assembly of representatives of the people. The assembly met, and established a Charter of Liberties, which became the foundation of a representative government in the colony.
Dongan, in connection with the governor of Virginia, entered into a treaty with the Iroquois, or Five Nations.1 The war-paths of this powerful confederacy extended from the St. Lawrence to the Tennessee, and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. None of the neighboring tribes had been able to withstand them. This treaty was long kept inviolate, and afforded great protection to the English settlements against the encroachments of the French from Canada2, as well as against the ravages of Indian warfare.
   4. When the Duke of York became king of England, in 1685, under the title of James II., he refused to confirm the privileges which, as duke, he had granted.
He forbade legislative assemblies, and prohibited printing presses; and

   1 See p 22. note (I.), and p. 67, Chap. XII, ¶ 2.      2 See p. 82, ¶ 1.

QUESTIONS. -- 3. When did Dongan arrive as governor, and with what Instructions? What is said of a Charter of Liberties? -- With what Indians was a treaty established? What is said of this powerful confederacy? What advantages resulted from this treaty? 4. What course did the Duke of York take when be became king? -- What restrictions did he impose?



in 1688 New York was annexed to the jurisdiction of Andros, then governor of New England. In him and his lieutenant, Francis Nicholson, James found fit instruments of oppression. When, however, news of the flight of James, of the accession of William and Mary, and of the seizure of Andros in Boston, reached New York, the officers of the crown withdrew from the city. Jacob Leisler, a captain of the militia, and an influential citizen, with the approbation of the people took possession of the fort, and held it for William and Mary. See p. 77, ¶ 7.

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   1. THE territory from the Hudson to the Delaware1 was included in the grant made by Charles SketchII. to the Duke of York, and came into the possession of the English with the rest of New Netherland.2 The same year the duke conveyed this territory to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret,3 and the province was named New Jersey.4 The colonization of New Jersey is usually dated from a settlement made in 1664, by English Puritans from Long Island, at a place afterwards named Elizabethtown.5
Before this there had been located, in New Jersey, trading establishments by the Dutch; among others one, and probably the earliest, at Bergen, about the year 1618, and another at Fort Nassau,6 in 1623. Several settlements had also been made by the Swedes and Finns,7 and by the English; but in 1655, Stuyvesant, the governor of New Netherland, took exclusive possession of the territory for the Dutch.8
   3. To encourage immigration, a liberal constitution, called "the concessions," was granted by the Sketchproprietors. This vested the government of the province in a governor and council appointed by the proprietors, and a legislative assembly elected by the people; and in 1665 Philip Carteret, brother of Sir George, was sent over as the first governor.

   1 The Hudson was called North River, the Delaware South River.         2 See p. 54, ¶ 3.
   3 Berkeley and Carteret were already proprietors of Carolina. See p. 64, note 1.
   4 In honor of Carteret, who had been governor of the Island of Jersey.
   5 So named in honor of Lady Elizabeth, wife of Sir George Carteret.      7 See p. 58, ¶ 1.
   6 On the east bank of the Delaware, a little below Philadelphia.           8 See p. 54, ¶ 7.

   QUESTIONS. -- To whose jurisdiction was New York annexed? What took place on the seizure of Andros? 1. In what grant was the territory between the Hudson find the Delaware included? To whom did the Duke of York convey this territory, and what was it named? From what is the colonization of New Jersey usually dated? 2. What settlements had been previously made, and by whom? 3. What is said of the concessions? In whom did they vest the government? Who was the first governor?



   The liberal provisions of this constitution, together with the fertility of the soil and salubrity of the climate, soon induced emigrants, chiefly from New England and New York, to form settlements within the territory. Newark was settled, in 1666, by people from Connecticut.
In 1673 New Jersey, with the rest of what had been New Netherland, fell again into the power of the Dutch, but was restored to the English by the peace of the next year.1 Thereupon the duke, in utter disregard of the rights of Berkeley and Carteret, to whom he had conveyed the province ten years before, claimed it as a dependency of New York. But at length he was prevailed upon to relinquish his claim.
   5. Berkeley sold his interest in New Jersey to certain Quakers, who made a settlement at Salem, and in 1676, by agreement with Carteret, the province was divided into East and West Jersey. East SketchJersey fell to Carteret, and in 1682, after his death, it was sold to William Penn2 and others. Governors were appointed for the two provinces by their respective proprietors.
In 1688 both Jerseys, with New York, were placed under that minion of James Andros; and when he was driven from the country,3 the Jerseys were left for a time without a regular government. See p. 77, ¶ 9.

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   1. THE permanent colonization of the present State of Delaware5 was begun in 1638 by a Sketchcompany of Swedes and Finns, under Peter Minuit,6 formerly a governor of New Netherland. Having purchased of the natives a tract of land on the Delaware, they settled near the present site of Wilmington, and laid claim to the territory from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of the river, near Trenton. The settlement they named Christina, and the country New Sweden.7

   1 See p. 55, ¶ 2. 2.    2 See p. 61. Chap. X.    3 See p. 44, ¶ 10.    4 See Map, p. 56.
   5 Delaware, as well as the buy and river that wash its eastern shore, takes Its name from Lord Delaware, one of the governors of Virginia. See p. 31, 18.
   6 See p. 53,¶ 3.
   7 This colony was established in accordance with a design formed by the celebrated Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, and the settlement was named from his daughter and successor, the youthful Queen Christina.

   QUESTIONS. -- What Induced emigrants to settle in New Jersey? When and by whom was Newark settled? 4. When was New Jersey recaptured by the Dutch? When restored? What unjust claim was made by the duke? 5. To whom did Berkeley sell his interest In New Jersey? When and how was the province divided? To whom did East Jersey fall, and to whom was it afterwards sold? -- What happened to the Jerseys in 1688? What after Andros was driven from the country? 1. When and by whom was Delaware colonized? Where did the Swedes and Finns settle, and to what territory did they lay claim? Name of the settlement and country?



   The subsequent settlements of the Swedes were chiefly within the limits of the present State of Pennsylvania, and the capital of the province was located upon the Island of Tinicum, a few miles below Philadelphia.
   2. The Dutch1 at Manhattan, claiming New Sweden as a part of New Netherland, looked upon Sketchthe colonists as intruders, and in 1655 Governor Stuyvesant2 reduced the Swedish forts, took possession of the country, and sent away such of the inhabitants as refused allegiance to Holland.
   3. When the Duke of York took possession of New Netherland, the territory west of the SketchDelaware, though not included in his patent, became part of New York.3 In 1682, the duke having transferred it to William Penn, it became part of Pennsylvania,4 and was known as "the territories, or three lower counties, on the Delaware." See p. 78, IV 12.

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   1. Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic nobleman, obtained from Charles I., king of England, a grant of land lying on both sides of Chesapeake Bay, and extending from the Potomac east to the ocean, Delaware Bay and River, and north to the fortieth parallel of latitude.6 This grant was named Maryland.7
Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, in order to provide a refuge in America for Roman Catholics, who were persecuted in England, applied for a patent of the country north of the Potomac. This was readily promised by the king, but Lord Baltimore dying before the patent was issued, it was made out in favor of his son Cecil, who inherited his father's title.
   3. In 1631 about two hundred planters, mostly Roman Catholics, under Leonard Calvert, Lord Baltimore's  Sketch

   1 As early as 1631 the Dutch had planted a colony near the present town of Lewes, but the immigrants were cut off by the Indians.
   2 See p. 54, ¶ 7.    3 See P. 55, ¶ 1.    4 See p. 62, ¶¶ 2, 3.    5 See Map, p. 56.
   6 This grant was included in the grant to the London Company by their second charter (see p. 31, ¶ 6); but after the dissolution of the company (see p. 33, ¶ 1), the king assumed the right to reconvey any of the territory not actually occupied. The grant also included Delaware; but Baltimore's claim to this province was resisted on the ground that it had been already settled when Maryland was conveyed to him (see note 1, above, and p. 20, ¶ 1). The present boundaries between Maryland and Delaware were fixed upon as a compromise between the heirs of Baltimore and Penn (see p. 61, note 4) many years later.
   7 Named in the charter Terra Mariae, Mary's Land, in honor of the queen, Henrietta Maria.

   QUESTIONS. -- Where were the subsequent settlements of the Swedes chiefly made? Where was the capital located? 2. When and by whom was New Sweden conquered? 3. When did the territory west of the Delaware become apart of New York? When apart of Pennsylvania?
Chap.IX. 1. To whom was Maryland granted? Extent of the grant? Name? 2. Who first applied for this grant, and for what purpose? 3. When and by whom was a settlement made?



Sketchbrother, as governor, arrived from England, and near the mouth of the Potomac, on the site of an Indian village purchased of the natives, began the settlement of St. Mary's.
   4. The charter1 secured to the colonists a share in the legislation of the province, and immunity from taxation by England.
The first legislature consisted of a general convention of the freemen; but in 1639 a representative legislature was established, which, in a few years, was divided into an upper and lower house, the members of the former being appointed by the proprietor, and those of the latter chosen by the people.
   5. Clayborne's Rebellion. --
Few of the colonies escaped intestine (sic) troubles; nor did Maryland Sketchform an exception. In 1635 a rebellion broke out, chiefly caused by William Clayborne, who, some years before, under a royal license to trade with the Indians, had formed establishments on the Chesapeake, and who now by force of arms attempted to withstand the authority of Lord Baltimore. His followers, however, were taken prisoners, and he himself fled. A few years later Clayborne returned to Maryland, and, heading a party of insurgents, overthrew the government. Calvert, the governor, was compelled to take refuge in Virginia; but the revolt was soon suppressed, and he resumed his office.
   6. The Toleration Act. -- In 1649 the assembly gave the sanction of law to what had already been Sketchthe practice in the colony--that no one professing faith in Jesus Christ should be molested on account of his religious belief2
The liberality of the charter of Maryland, and of its legislation, had attracted to the province a great number of Protestants, and soon after the overthrow of monarchy in England they outnumbered the Catholics in the legislative assembly, and made a most ungrateful use of their power. They disputed the rights of the proprietor, disfranchised Catholics, and

   1 This was the first colonial charter which secured to the people legislative power.
   2 This act of toleration differs from that passed in Rhode Island two years before (see p. 51, § Ill.). In Rhode Island all forms of religious faith and worship were protected by law; in Maryland, all forms of Christianity.

   QUESTIONS. -- Where was the settlement made? Name? 4. What did the charter secure to the colonists?What is said of the legislatures? 5. Give an account of Clayborne's Rebellion. 6 When was the Toleration Act passed? Its purport? 7. What is said of the Protestants?



declared them not entitled to the protection of the laws of Maryland. Civil war followed, and the SketchProtestants were victorious. But on the Restoration, in 1660, Lord Baltimore recovered his rights, and his brother, Philip Calvert, was recognized as governor.
Several circumstances contributed to the rapid growth and prosperity of Maryland. Her soil was fertile, and her seasons were mild. Her charter granted more ample privileges than had been conferred on any other colony in America, and the free enjoyment of religious opinions within her borders made her an asylum for the persecuted Puritan from Virginia and the persecuted Churchman from New England. Maryland was less disturbed by Indian hostilities than most of the other colonies. The justice of the settlers in their dealings generally secured the friendship of the natives. Yet the region between the Potomac and the Chesapeake became involved in the second Indian war in Virginia,1 and again in 1675-7 the two colonies were united in repelling the Maryland Indians.2
   9. On the accession of William and Mary to the throne of England, the tranquillity of Maryland was interrupted. The delay on the part of the governor to proclaim the new sovereigns, and an absurd rumor that the Catholics were plotting the destruction of the Protestants, roused the latter to Sketchseize the government, which remained in their hands until the king, in 1691, unjustly wrested from Lord Baltimore his political rights as proprietor, and Maryland became a royal province. See p. 78, ¶ 3.

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   1. A TERRITORY West of the Delaware was, in 1681, granted to William Penn4 by Charles II. Sketchof England, and named by the king Pennsylvania.5 This territory corresponded nearly with the present state of the same name.

   1 See p. 34, ¶ 2.      2 See p. 35, ¶ 6.      3 See Map, p. 56.
   4 Penn's father, a distinguished admiral in the English service, dying, had bequeathed to him a large claim against the government. To cancel this, Charles readily granted a province in America. The grant was covered in part by the grants to Connecticut (see p.46) and Maryland (see p. 59); "and though the limits on the north and west were adjusted without difficulty, the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland was long a subject of contest, and it was finally settled by the survey of Mason and Dixon, eminent English engineers sent over to establish this boundary, begun in 1763 and completed in 1767." Subsequently the continuation of this line known as the Mason and Dixon's line, was fixed upon as a boundary between Pennsylvania on the south and Virginia.
   5 Penn'sWoodland.

   QUESTIONS. -- What ungrateful use did they make of their power? What followed? 8. What contributed to the prospertiy of Maryland? What is said of Indian hostilities? In what Indian wars was the province involved? 9. What happened on the accession of William and Mary? What roused the Protestants to seize the government? What happened in 1691? 1. To whom Was Pennsylvania granted, and when?

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