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PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
of Slavery. This last petition was signed by Dr. Franklin,1 as president of the society, within a few weeks of the close of his long and eventful life. in the debate much bitter Sectional feeling was manifested, chiefly by members from South Carolina and Georgia. The representatives from other states, north and south, generally leaned towards anti-slavery views. This was the first of the angry discussions on slavery which have occurred in Congress from time to time until the present day.
13. For some time the relations subsisting between the United States and Great Britain had been far from amicable, and a war between the two countries was imminent.
The principal causes of complaint were, on the part of the United States, the non-delivery of the western posts held by England, and the carrying off of slaves at the close of the Revolutionary War; on the part of Great Britain, the interposition, by the states, of legal impediments to the recovery of debts contracted before the war. Added to these sources of trouble, Great Britain was accused of exciting the hostility of the Indians on the northern frontier, of impressing American seamen, and capturing American trading vessels.
14. To avert the disastrous issue of war, Chief Justice Jay2 was appointed envoy extraordinary to England, where he negotiated a treaty, which was ratified in August, 1795.
The treaty provided indemnity for unlawful captures, but afforded no redress for the negroes carried away. The United States agreed to pay the debts contracted before the war, and the posts on the frontiers were to be evacuated by the British before June, 1796. The treaty met with great opposition3 The country was divided in regard to it; the cabinet were not united in its support; and the president was not entirely satisfied with it, but gave it his signature on its approval by the Senate.4 Contrary to the fears of its strong opposers, the treaty settled the difficulties between the two countries, and proved of advantage to the United States.
15. The same year the United States concluded a treaty with Spain, establishing the northern boundary of Florida,5 and securing to both nations the free navigation of the Mississippi.
1 See p. 88, ¶ 7: p. 97, 6; p. 110, note 3; p. 131, ¶ 31, and p. 146, note 2.
2 See p. 146, note 2; p. 150, ¶ 4; and p. 158, ¶ 3.
3 Meetings were held in Boston and other cities, and condemnatory resolutions were passed. In several places mobs threatened personal violence to the supporters of the treaty. Jay was burned in effigy, the British minister was insulted, and Hamilton, an advocate of the treaty, was stoned at a public meeting.
4 See Appendix, p. 13, ¶ 2, Sec. II., Art.II., Const. U. S.
5 The boundary of Florida by this treaty was the same as that agreed upon in the treaty with Great Britain in 1783 (see p. 147, ¶ 38), namely, parallel 31o, from the Mississippi to the Chattahoochee; that river to the mouth of the Flint; thence to the head of the St. Mary's; and that river to the ocean. See p. 170,¶ 2, and p. 192, ¶ 6.
QUESTIONS. -- What was manifested in debate? What further is said of this discussion? 13. What of the relations between the United States and Great Britain? -- What were the principal causes of complaint on the part of the United States? On the part of Great Britain? What other sources of trouble? 14. What was done to avert war? When was a treaty ratified? -- What were the terms of the treaty? How was the treaty regarded in the United States? What further is said of the treaty? 15. What other treaty was concluded this year? What of Florida in connection with this treaty? What of the Mississippi?
CHAPTER II. ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION.
16. The admission of Tennessee,1 in 1796, made the number of the United States sixteen.
Tennessee was ceded to the United States in 1789, by North Carolina,2 emigrants from which state made the first permanent settlement on the Watauga, in 1768.3 In 1790 the territory was organized as the Territory of the United States south of the Ohio.
17. The second presidential term was now drawing to a close, and Washington signified his intention to retire from public life.4 The two great parties5 into which the people had become divided, selected for their leaders John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Adams, the Federalist candidate, was chosen president, and Jefferson, the Republican candidate, became vice-president.6
ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION.7 1797-1801.
1. THE condition of the country, on the accession of Mr. Adams, was one of great prosperity.
At home a sound credit had been established, an immense floating debt had been funded, and an ample revenue secured. Funds for the gradual payment of the debt had been provided, and a considerable part of it had been already discharged. The agricultural and commercial interests were flourishing. The western Indians were pacified. War with England had been averted. In one quarter only was the horizon darkened our relations with France were still disturbed.
2. The misunderstanding which had arisen between France and the United States during the administration of Washington,8 assumed a warlike aspect soon after the accession of Adams.
1 Tennessee is an Indian word signifying the river of the big bend. The state is named from the River Tennessee. 2 See P. 150, ¶ 1.
3 Fort Loudon was built by the English in 1756, on the Little Tennessee River, at its junction with the Tellico about thirty miles from the present site of Knoxville. The fort was captured by the Indians, and the garrison massacred.
4 As Washington was about to retire forever from public life, he felt it proper to express his views on some subjects connected with the vital interests and the future glory of his country. These he embodied in a Farewell Address, which for purity of language, beauty of conception, and soundness of political sentiments, has never been surpassed. It can never be read but to be admired. We cite only a single sentence. "The unity of government, which constitutes you one people, is dear to you. It is justly so; for it is the mainspring in the edifice of your real independence; the support of your tranquillity at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty you so highly prize."
5 See p. 160, ¶ 9. 6 See p. 150, ¶ 5, note 2. 7 See Appendix, p. 19. 8 See p. 161, ¶ 10.
QUESTIONS. -- 16. When was Tennessee admitted to the Union? What can you tell of the early history of Tennessee? 17. Who succeeded Washington as president? Who became vice-president? Chap. II. 1. What was the condition of the country on the accession of Mr. Adams? -- What can you tell more particularly of the condition of the country? 2. What is said of the misunderstanding with France?
PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
The army was increased, a naval armament prepared, and a Department of the Navy established. But in 1799 Bonaparte took control of affairs in France, and a treaty was negotiated with him the next year.
3. The conduct of the French ministers1 to the United States was offensive to the administration. They endeavored to incite the people to take part with France against England. French cruisers were also capturing American merchant vessels, and selling them in French ports. Attempts were made by the United States to settle the difficulties; but the French Directory2 refused to receive ambassadors sent for that purpose. It was intimated, however, to them, that a hearing could be obtained by bribing the Directory. This infamous proposition raised a storm of indignation in America against France. "Millions for defence, but not a cent for tribute," was the universal cry throughout the country. The government began to prepare for war. Washington was appointed commander-in-chief. Hostilities were, in fact, begun. The French frigate Insurgente captured the American schooner Retaliation; and the American frigate Constellation, under Commodore Truxtun, afterwards captured the Insurgente. Overtures for renewing the negotiations were presently received from the French Directory, and were immediately responded to by the president, by the appointment of envoys for concluding a peace. On their arrival at Paris they found the Directory overthrown, and the government in the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul.
4. The party that elected Mr. Adams was fast losing its hold on the people, and probably no acts of his administration did so much to break it down as the passage of the Alien and Sedition Laws,3 in 1798.
5. The alien law authorized the president to order any alien, whom he should judge dangerous to the United States, to leave the country.
1 See p. 161, ¶ 10, note 1. 2 The executive power of France at this time.
3 These laws were advocated on account of efforts that foreign emissaries were then making to embroil the United States in European difficulties. They were opposed on the ground that they abridged personal liberty, and freedom of speech, and consequently were unconstitutional.
QUESTIONS. -- What was done in preparation for war? How was war averted? 3. What is said of the conduct of French ministers? What of French cruisers? Of the French Directory? In anticipation of war, who was appointed commander-in-chief? What hostilities actually took place? What negotiations for peace? 4. What is said of the party that elected Mr. Adams? What of the alien and sedition laws? 5. What did the alien law authorize the president to do?
CHAPTER III. JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION.
Under the sedition law, any person could be punished, by fine and imprisonment, for speaking, writing, or publishing anything false or malicious against the government, the president, or Congress. The legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia, in opposition to these laws, asserted that a state had a right to judge for itself how far the national authority should he considered binding. This was the first official expression of that dangerous doctrine that, one third of a century later, caused so much alarm, under the name of nullification,1 and after the expiration of another third of a century, under the name of secession, forced the country into a civil war,2 for the magnitude of which history affords no parallel.
6. Near the close of the century, the country was plunged into grief at the death of Washington. He died at Mount Vernon, the 14th of December, 1799. The whole nation mourned the loss of the man "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."3
7. At the next presidential election, the Federalists put in nomination President Adams and Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina; the Republicans, Mr. Jefferson, of Virginia, and Aaron Burr, of New York. The Republican candidates received a majority of the votes, but as each had the same number, the election went to the House of Representatives, where Jefferson was elected president and Burr vice-president.4
JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION.5 1801-1809.
1. THE commencement of Mr. Jefferson's administration was marked by the transfer of many offices of the government to the Republican party. Internal taxes were abolished, and several unpopular laws repealed.
2. Ohio6 was admitted into the Union in 1802.
1 See p.198, ¶ 9. 2 See p. 227, ¶ 10. 3 See Appendix, p. ¶ 3, Sec. I., Art. II., Const. U. S.
4 As this was the first time that the election devolved upon Congress, a deep interest was taken in the subject. On the first balloting Jefferson had eight states, Burr six, and two divided, which result continued for thirty-five ballotings. The thirty-sixth resulted in the election of Jefferson. Burr was declared elected vice-president. The Republicans in the House generally supported Jefferson, the Federalists, Burr. 5 See Appendix, p. 19.
6 Ohio, the Indian name of the river which washes the southern border of the state, signifies the beautiful river.
QUESTIONS. -- For what could a person be punished under the sedition law? What did Kentucky and Virginia assert in opposition to these laws? Under what name does the doctrine expressed by these states appear a third of a century later? After another third of a century? When and where did Washington die? How was the whole country affected by his death? At the next presidential election why did the election go to the House of Representatives? Who was elected president? Who vice-president? Chap. III. 1. What marked the commencement of Jefferson's administration? 2. When was Ohio admitted to the Union?
PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
Ohio was a part of the North-west Territory,1 another part of which had previously been organized as the Indiana Territory. To this last was now annexed the rest of the North-west Territory.2 The first English settlement in Ohio was begun at Marietta, in 1788, under General Rufus Putnam, from New England. For some years the settlement of the territory was retarded by wars with the Indians; but a general peace with the different tribes having been effected in 1795,3 the population began to increase rapidly by emigration from New England and front Europe.
3. In 1803 the United States, for fifteen millions of dollars, purchased Louisiana4 of France, to which country it had been previously ceded by Spain.
Besides acquiring a vast extent of territory, the United States thus obtained control of the Mississippi from its source to its mouth. The, boundaries between Louisiana and the Spanish province of Mexico were not settled till 1821.5 On the east, the United States, after a few years, claimed Florida as far as the Perdido River, that being the eastern limit of the old French province of Louisiana.
4. In the autumn of 1804 Jefferson was reëlected president, and George Clinton, of New York, was chosen vice-president.
5. In June, 1805, a war, which had continued for several years, between the United States and Tripoli, was concluded, and a treaty of peace negotiated, by which American commerce gained some respite from the depredations of the Mediterranean pirates.6
6. A treaty of peace with the piratical Barbary States had been bought, during Washington's administration, by the payment, of a heavy
1 See P. 151, ¶ 2. 2 See p. 189, ¶ 4. 3 See p. 159, ¶ 7. 4 See p. 170, ¶ 2.
5 Then it was agreed that the dividing line should follow the Sabine, from its mouth to the thirty-second parallel, thence a meridian to the Red River, that river to the one hundredth meridian west from Greenwich, that meridian to the Arkansas, that river to its source, thence north to the forty-second parallel, and that parallel to the Pacific. The territory of the United States south of this line has since been acquired from Mexico (see p. 218, ¶ 7, and p. 222, ¶ 1, and Map, p. 209). For the northern boundary of the Louisiana purchase, see p. 192, ¶ 6, and p. 207, ¶ 1.
6 See p. 189, ¶ 1.
QUESTIONS. -- What can you tell of the early history of Ohio? 3. When was Louisiana purchased? Of what nation, and for how much money? -- What is said of the boundaries of Louisiana? 4. Who were chosen president and vice-president in 1804? 5. With what state had the United States been engaged in war? When was a treaty concluded, and the result to American commerce? 6. Give a men particular account of the war with Tripoli.
CHAPTER III. JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION.
tribute. But in 1801, the Bashaw of Tripoli, for the purpose of obtaining a larger sum, declared war. The United States had already despatched Commodore Dale with a squadron to repel hostilities. More ships were sent out, and the Americans, under Dale, Preble, Rodgers, and Samuel Barron, were victorious in several gallant naval actions.1 A successful land attack was also made, under the lead of William Eaton, an adventurous American. The reigning Bashaw of Tripoli had usurped the throne, and driven his elder brother, Hamet, the rightful heir, into exile. Eaton, the American consul at Tunis, concerted a plan with Hamet to expel the usurper. At the head of a few hundred men, recruited in Egypt, only nine of whom were Americans, Eaton marched from Alexandria across the desert to the Tripolitan city Derne. By a joint attack of this motley troop and an American squadron, the city was taken. This success, and the bombardment of Tripoli, brought the Bashaw to terms. and a treaty of peace was made. Prisoners were exchanged, and a ransom was given the Bashaw for the excess of Americans held by him.
7. On March 2, 1807, an act was passed, though not without strong opposition, forbidding the introduction of slaves into the United States after January 1, 1808. The year 1807 also witnessed the successful application of steam to purposes of navigation.
After several years of experiment, Robert Fulton,2 an American engineer, launched a steamboat, in which he made a voyage from New York to Albany, in August of this year.
8. Aaron Burr,3 who had fastened a quarrel upon Hamilton,4 and killed him in a duel, July, 1804, became an object of general distrust, and failed to be reëlected vice-president. Having formed vast projects for power and empire in the west, in 1807 he was brought to trial at Richmond, on two charges: 1st, of treason against the United States,
1 One of the boldest exploits was achieved by Lieutenant Decatur. Captain Bainbridge, in the Philadelphia, while chasing a cruiser into the harbor of Tripoli, grounded his vessel, and, with his crew, was taken prisoner. Decatur, with the consent of Preble, selected twenty men, concealed them in the bottom of a small vessel, and proceeded, on the approach of night, towards the frigate. On reaching it, Decatur, with his companions, leaped on board, swept every pirate from the deck, and set the frigate on fire. The Americans did not lose a man. For this gallant achievement Decatur received a captain's commission. See p. 188, ¶ 9.
2 John Fitch constructed a boat, which was propelled by steam on the Delaware, in 1786. But Fulton first made steam-navigation practicable and profitable.
3 See p. 165, ¶ 7. 4 See p. 150, ¶ 4, and p. 158, ¶ 5.
QUESTIONS .-- How was the bashaw brought to terms? Terms of the treaty? 7. What act was passed March 2, 1807? For what else is the year 1907 remarkable? -- What is said of Robert Fulton? 8. What projects had Burr formed? On what charges was he brought to trial?
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