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PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
in attempting to revolutionize the territory west of the Alleghanies, and to establish an independent empire there, of which New Orleans was to be the capital, and himself the chief; 2d, of getting up an expedition against Mexico, then belonging to Spain, a nation with which the United States were at peace. The evidence against Burr was not sufficient to convict him, and he was set at liberty.
9. During Jefferson's second term, American commerce suffered severely from the British Orders in Council, and Bonaparte's Berlin and Milan Decrees.
France and England were at war, and to injure France and her allies, England issued, in May, 1806, orders in council, declaring the coast of Europe, from the Elbe, in Germany, to the Brest, in France, to be in a state of blockade. Bonaparte retaliated by a decree from Berlin, declaring the British Islands to be in a state of blockade. England, early the next year, by orders in council, prohibited coasting trade between the ports of her enemy, and, later, declared all vessels trading with France liable to be confiscated unless they had first paid tribute to England. In answer, Bonaparte issued from Milan a decree, confiscating every vessel found in his ports that had submitted to English search, or paid England tribute.
10. The aggressions committed by British cruisers, in executing the orders in council, in maintaining the right of search, and in the impressment of seamen from American vessels, led to a war with England during the next administration.
England claimed the right to search American vessels, and to take her native born subjects, wherever found, for her navy. Against this claim the American government remonstrated in vain. The ships of the United States were often robbed of their seamen by British men-of-war.
11. While France and England were engaged in their desperate commercial game, so ruinous to the rights of neutral powers, the feeling in America was still further exasperated against Great Britain by an unprovoked attack, June 22, 1807, of the English frigate Leopard upon the United States frigate Chesapeake.
Off the capes of Virginia, the captain of the British frigate Leopard demanded of Commodore James Barron, of the Chesapeake, permission to search his ship for seamen, claimed as deserters from the British service. This Commodore Barron refused, whereupon the Leopard opened fire. Unsuspicious of danger, and unprepared for action, the Chesapeake struck her colors, having received considerable damage, and lost several men. The commander of the Leopard then took from the Chesapeake four seamen, three of them being Americans by birth.
QUESTIONS. -- 9. From what did American commerce suffer during Jefferson's second term? -- Give a more particular account of the British orders in council and Bonaparte's Berlin and Milan decrees. 10. What led to a war with England during the next administration? -- What did England claim? 11. How was the feeling in America still further exasperated against Great Britain? -- Give an account of the affair of the Chesapeake and Leopard.
CHAPTER IV. MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION
12. The president immediately issued a proclamation, ordering all British armed vessels to leave the waters of the United States until England should make reparation for the outrage upon the American flag. Although the British government did not undertake to defend this outrage, yet reparation was withheld for more than four years.1
13. To such an extent did the course of England and France injure American commerce, that Congress decreed an embargo (December 22, 1807), which kept at home all vessels belonging to the United States that were then at home, called home all that were abroad, and prevented foreign vessels leaving ports of the United States with cargoes shipped after the passage of the act. At home the embargo produced great dissatisfaction and distress. It failed to bring about any change in the policy of England and France, and, near the close of Jefferson's administration it was repealed, and in its place was passed a non-intercourse act, forbidding all intercourse with these countries till their offensive measures should be rescinded. Such was the posture of affairs when Jefferson retired from office. James Madison, of Virginia, was chosen to succeed him as president, and George Clinton was reëlected vice-president.
MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION.2 1809-1817.
I. FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE ADMINISTRATION TO THE DECLARATION OF WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN. -- 1. In the early part of Madison's administration the North-western Indians became so hostile that at length General William Henry Harrison,3 governor of the Territory of Indiana,4 marched against them, and routed them in a severe battle on the Tippecanoe, November 7, 1811.
1 The British minister communicated to the secretary of state that the attack on the Chesapeake was unauthorized by his majesty's government; that the officer at that time in command on the American coast had been recalled; that the men taken from the Chesapeake should be restored; and that suitable pecuniary provision should be made for those who suffered in the attack, and for the families of the seamen who fell.
2 see Appendix, p. 20. 3 See p. 208. 4 See p. 189, 14.
QUESTIONS. -- 12. What proclamation did the president immediately issue? What did the British government do? 13. Why and when was an embargo decreed? Effect of the embargo? Why was it repealed? What was substituted in its place? Who became president, and who vice-president, on the retirement of Jefferson? Chap. IV. 1. What is said of the North-western Indians? By what general were they routed? In what battle, and when?
PERIOD V. 1789-1861. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
The tribes on the north-western frontier had been incited to acts of enmity by the famous chief Tecumseh and his brother "the Prophet," who attempted to unite them in a league to prevent the extension of white settlements in that quarter. It was believed that the hostile spirit of the Indians was also fomented by British agents.
2. Louisiana took her place as one of the United States in 1812. The state was formed from a part of the Louisiana. Purchase.1
Soon after the cession of Louisiana to the United States, that part of the territory forming the present State of Louisiana was organized as the Territory of Orleans. West Florida,2 as far as the Pearl River, was annexed to the state.
3. At the beginning of Madison's term of office, the relations of the United States with England and France were becoming more and more unsatisfactory. At length, however, Bonaparte so modified his offensive edicts3 that friendly intercourse was resumed with France. England refused to revoke her orders in council,3 and sent armed vessels to intercept American merchantmen on the coast of the United States.
4. In the midst of the excitement growing out of this state of affairs, May 16, 1811, Commodore Rodgers, in the United States frigate
President, hailed off the coast of Virginia a British sloop of war, and received a shot in reply.' An engagement followed, and the English sloop, which proved to be the Little Belt, was completely disabled, and thirty-two of her men were killed and wounded. The President was but slightly damaged, and had only one man wounded.
1 See p. 67, ¶ 3; p. 80, ¶ 1; p. 91, ¶ 13; and p. 166, ¶ 3.
2 See p. 162, ¶ 15, and note 5. While Florida was in possession of the English (see p. 94, ¶ 13), England extended its western boundary to Louisiana as ceded to Spain (see p. 94, ¶ 13, note 5), and divided the province into East and West Florida -- the latter lying west of the Apalachicola.
3 See p. 168, ¶ 9.
4 The officers of the Little Belt assert that the President fired the first shot. This is, however, disproved by Commodore Rodgers, his officers and men.
QUESTIONS. -- Who attempted to unite the Indians in a league against the whites? For what purpose? 2. When did Louisiana become a state? -- What can you tell of the early history of Louisiana? 3. What is said of the relations of the United States with England and France? Why was friendly intercourse resumed with France? What course did England take? 4 Give au account of the affair between the President and the Little Belt.
CHAPTER III. JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION.
II. FROM THE DECLARATION OF WAR TO THE BATTLE OF PLATTSBURG. -- WAR ON THE LAND CHIEFLY OFFENSIVE.1 -- Events of 1812. -- 1. There was now no hope of an accommodation with Great Britain, and in April, 1812, Congress established an embargo for ninety days, as preliminary to a declaration of war, which the president proclaimed June 19 of the same year. Major-General Henry Dearborn, of Massachusetts, was appointed commander-in-chief.
2. The people of the United States were not unanimously in favor of the declaration. Among the advocates of the war, Henry Clay,2 of Kentucky, and John C. Calhoun,2 of South Carolina, were conspicuous. The Federalists3 for the most part opposed it. The country was but poorly prepared for the contest. To oppose the overwhelming power of Great Britain, the United States had, at the time of the declaration, an army of but about ten thousand effective men, a navy of ten frigates, a few smaller vessels, and a hundred and seventy useless gunboats. Measures were taken to increase the regular army to thirty-five thousand men, and the president was authorized to accept fifty thousand volunteers, and to call out one hundred thousand militia for the defence of the frontiers and seacoast. The navy of Great Britain at that time included nearly a thousand vessels. Fortunately, however, the power of that country was chiefly absorbed in the European struggle.4
3. The want of officers properly trained was immediately felt, and led to the appointment (on a plan suggested by Washington fifteen years before) of permanent professors, at the West Point Military Academy to give instruction in the art of war. The Academy had been established, on a very limited scale, ten years previously.
4. The opening of the war was Signalized by an attempt to conquer Canada. General William Hull, the governor of Michigan Territory,5 crossed from Detroit into Canada, July 12, but withdrew in about a month, and took shelter within the fortifications of Detroit. August 16, to the great indignation of his men, without any attempt at defence, he surrendered the garrison and the whole territory to General Isaac Brock, the British commander, who had pursued him on his retreat.
1 See Maps, pp. 172, 173. 2 See p. 220, ¶¶ 2, 3. 3 See p. 160, ¶ 9.
4 See p. 168, ¶ 9, and p. 182, ¶ 26, note 4. 5 See p. 200, ¶ 15.
QUESTIONS. -- 1. For what purpose was an embargo established? When was war declared? Who was appointed commander-in-chief of the American forces? 2. How did the people of the United States regard the declaration of war? Who were conspicuous among the advocates of the war? Who for the most part opposed it? What is said of the preparation of the country for the war? Of the army? Of the navy? What measures for defence were taken? What is said of Great Britain? 3. What want was immediately felt? To what did this want lead? 4 How was the opening of the war signalized? Give an account of the invasion of Canada and the surrender of Detroit.
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